ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • ASTROPHYSICS  (16,581)
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA/GRO grant NAG 5-2081, at the University of Chicago, has provided support for a broad program of theoretical research in nuclear astrophysics and related areas, with regard to gamma-ray and hard X-ray emission from classical nova explosions. This research emphasized the possible detection of 22Na gamma-ray line emission from nearby novae involving ONeMg white dwarfs, the detailed examination of 26Al production in novae, and the possible detection of the predicted early gamma ray emission from novae that arises from the decay of the short lived, positron emitting isotopes of CNO elements. Studies of nova related problems have consumed an increasing fraction of the Principal Investigator's research efforts over the past decade. Current research addresses problems associated with the standard model for the outbursts of the classical novae: the occurrence of thermonuclear runaways (TNR) in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes on white dwarfs in close binary systems (see, e.g., the reviews by Truran 1982; and Shara 1989). Research in progress and planned for the next three years has three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of the early evolution of the light curves of, particularly, the fastest novae; (2) to gain an improved understanding of the relative importance of the various possible mechanisms of envelope hydrogen depletion (e.g. winds, common envelope driven mass loss, and nuclear burning) to the long term evolution of novae in outburst; and (3) to seek to provide a somewhat more definitive statement of the role of classical novae in nucleosynthesis. Our proposed 2-D studies of convection during the early phases of the TNR and our systematic attempt to incorporate an improved treatment of radiation hydrodynamics into the hydrodynamic code utilized in our calculations, are particularly relevant to the first of these objectives. Further 2-D studies of the effects of common envelope evolution are intended to provide more realistic constraints on the mass depletion mechanisms. Finally, detailed calculations of the thermonuclear history of the matter ejected in novae will be carried out for representative nova configurations involving both carbon-oxygen (CO) and oxygen-neon-magnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:200193 , NASA-CR-200193 , NIPS-96-08389
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The funds from this grant were used to support observations and analysis with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite telescope. The main area of scientific research concerned the variability analyses of ultraviolet spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei, primarily quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and BL Lacertae objects. The Colorado group included, at various times, the P.I. (J.M. Shull), Research Associate Dr. Rick Edelson, and graduate students Jon Saken, Elise Sachs, and Steve Penton. A portion of the work was also performed by CU undergraduate student Cheong-ming Fu. A major product of the effort was a database of all IUE spectra of active galactic nuclei. This database is being analyzed to obtain spectral indices, line fluxes, and continuum fluxes for over 500 AGN. As a by-product of this project, we implemented a new, improved technique of spectral extraction of IUE spectra, which has been used in several AGN-WATCH campaigns (on the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 and on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:200196 , NIPS-96-08385 , NASA-CR-200196
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The progress made during 1995 on the Monte-Carlo gamma-ray spectrum simulation program BSIMUL is discussed. Several features have been added, including the ability to model shields that are tapered cylinders. Several simulations were made on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous detector.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200089 , NAS 1.26:200089 , NIPS-96-07659
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Astrometry with the Hubble space telescope and Hipparcos satellite advanced the optical astrometric accuracies to the milliarcsec level. The global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics (GAIA) satellite and other proposed optical interferometry space missions would advance the optical astrometric accuracy to better than 10 microarcsec. A catalog figure of merit is defined which allows a quantitative comparison to be carried out for astrometric catalogs. Using two specific astrophysical problems, the level of the expected scientific contribution from a GAIA-type mission is assessed. The two problems are: the age of the globular clusters in relation to the age of the Universe, and the initial mass function compared with fluctuations in the star formation rate with time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Future Possibilities for Astrometry in Space; p 149-151
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 2; p. 831-847
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We consider the galactic evolutionary history of He-3 in models which deplete deuterium by as much as a factor of 2 to approximately 15 from its primordial value to its present-day observed value in the interstellar medium (ISM). We show that when He-3 production in low-mass stars (1-3 solar mass) is included over the history of the galaxy, He-3 is greatly overproduced and exceeds the inferred solar values and the abundances determined in galactic H II regions. Furthermore, the ISM abundances show a disturbing dispersion which is difficult to understand from the point of view of standard chemical evolution models. In principle, resolution of the problem may lie in either (1) the calculated He-3 production in low-mass stars; (2) the observations of the He-3 abundance; or (3) an observational bias twoard regions of depleted He-3. Since He-3 observations in planetary nebula support the calculated He-3 production in low-mass stars, option (1) is unlikely. We will argue for option (3) since the He-3 interstellar observations are indeed made in regions dominated by massive stars in which He-3 is destroyed. In conclusion, we note that the problem with He-3 seems to be galactic and not cosmological.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 2; p. 680-685
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Many features of Herbig-Haro objects can be reproduced using a kinematical bow shock model. We use the model to generate position-velocity (PV) diagrams of flux in H-alpha (O I) lambda lambda 6300+63, (S II) lambda lambda 6716+31, (O III) lambda lambda 4959+5007, and (C I) lambda lambda 9823+50, line ratios of (O I)/H-alpha, (O I)/(S II), (S II)/H-alpha, H-alpha(S II), and (O III)/H-alpha, electron density N(sub e), and electron temperature T(sub e). We show how position-velocity diagrams of N(sub e) and flux vary with shock velocity. By matching the diagrams from single lines, the line ratios, and N(sub e) with observations, we determined a narrow range of shock parameters for HH 1F, 2(A' + H), and 43 (B + C). We model the N(sub e) features of HH 2(A' + H) as a superposition of two bowshocks. We also show that the effects of slight misalignments of the two diagrams to be divided can produce artifacts in the line ratios and N(sub e) which obliterate the physical features. We show that N(sub e) in HH 1 can only be explained using the kinematical model by taking these misalignments into account.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 2; p. 752-761
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We calculated bolometric temperature (T(sub bol)) and luminosity (L(sub bol)) for 128 young stellar objects (YSOs) in Taurus, 74 in the Ophiuchus 'core', and 33 in the Ophiuchus 'off-core' region. We have constructed the bolometric luminosity-temperature (BLT) diagram, the log-log plot of L(sub bol) versus T(sub bol), for the three samples. T(sub bol) is defined as the temperature of a blackbody having the same frequency as the observed continuum spectrum. It measures the redness (or coldness) of an astronomical source. The BLT diagram is analogous to the H-R diagram and allows for a direct and quantitative comparison of YSOs at a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from the most deeply embedded stars to T Tauri stars nearly on the main sequence. We found (1) T(sub bol) increases monotonically from embedded sources (approximately 60-500 K) to classical T Tauri stars (approximately 1000-3000 K) to weak-line T Tauri stars (approximately 2000-5000 K); (2) T(sub bol) correlates reasonably well with the age inferred from the evolutionary models of pre-main-sequence stars and protostars for embedded 'protostars' and weak-line T Tauri stars. There is no significant correlation for the classical T Tauri stars. These results can be understood in terms of dissipation of circumstellar dust envelope and disk during the early stages of stellar evolution. Sources in the three regions have different distributions in the BLT diagram. The Ophiuchus core has the highest fraction of cold sources among the three regions. These cold sources are also more luminous than the YSOs in the other regions. The Ophiuchus off-core sample is dominated by the more evolved pre-main-sequence stars. The Taurus sources have distributions intermediate in L(sub bol), T(sub bol), and age between the Ophiuchus core and off-core distributions. These may suggest differences in the star formation history, and possibly in the stellar masses and mass accretion rates in these star-forming regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 377-392
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are known to be sites of dust formation and undergo significant mass loss. The outflow is believed to be driven by radiation pressure on grains and momentum coupling between the grains and gas. While the physics of shell dynamics and grain formation are closely coupled, most previous models of circumstellar shells have treated the problem separately. Studies of shell dynamics typically assume the existence of grains needed to drive the outflow, while most grain formation models assume a constant veolcity wind in which grains form. Furthermore, models of grain formation have relied primarily on classical nucleation theory instead of using a more realistic approach based on chemical kinetics. To model grain formation in carbon-rich AGB stars, we have coupled the kinetic equations governing small cluster growth to moment equations which determine the growth of large particles. Phenomenological models assuming stationary outflow are presented to demonstrate the differences between the classical nucleation approach and the kinetic equation method. It is found that classical nucleation theory predicts nucleation at a lower supersaturation ratio than is predicted by the kinetic equations, resulting in significant differences in grain properties. Coagulation of clusters larger than monomers is unimportant for grain formation in high mass-loss models but becomes more important to grain growth in low mass-loss situations. The properties of the dust grains are altered considerably if differential drift velocities are ignored in modeling grain formation. The effect of stellar temperature, stellar luminosity, and different outflow velocities are investigated. The models indicate that changing the stellar temperature while keeping the stellar luminosity constant has little effect on the physical parameters of the dust shell formed. Increasing the stellar luminosity while keeping the stellar temperature constant results in large differences in grain properties. For small outflow velocities, grains form at lower supersaturation ratios and close to the stellar photosphere, resulting in larger but fewer grains. The reverse is true when grains form under high outflow velocities, i.e., they form at higher supersaturation ratios, farther from the star, and are much smaller but at larger quantities.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. 251-269
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The globular clusters that we observe in galaxies may be only a fraction of the initial population. Among the evolutionary influences on the population is the destruction of globular clusters by tidal forces as the cluster moves through the field of influence of a disk, a bulge, and/or a putative nuclear component (black hole). We have conducted a series of N-body simulations of globular clusters on bound and marginally bound orbits through poetentials that include black hole and speroidal components. The degree of concentration of the spheroidal component can have a considerable impact on the extent to which a globular cluster is disrupted. If half the mass of a 10(exp 10) solar mass spheroid is concentrated within 800 pc, then only black holes with masses greater than 10(exp 9) solar mass can have a significant tidal influence over that already exerted by the bulge. However, if the matter in the spheroidal component is not so strongly concentrated toward the center of the galaxy, a more modest central black hole (down to 10(exp 8) solar mass) could have a dominant influence on the globular cluster distribution, particularly if many of the clusters were initially on highly radial orbits. Our simulations show that the stars that are stripped from a globular cluster follow orbits with roughly the same eccentricity as the initial cluster orbit, spreading out along the orbit like a 'string of pearls.' Since only clusters on close to radial orbits will suffer substantial disruption, the population of stripped stars will be on orbits of high eccentricity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. 193-199
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We investigate observable effects of anisotropic turbulence on the velocity profiles and eclipse behavior of emission lines from accretion disks. Turbulence expands the local line broadening profile, enhancing the surface brightness of saturated emission lines. Anisotropic turbulence produces anisotropic emission in such lines. The effects become observable when the turbulence exceeds the thermal velocity. Each term in the velocity-velocity correlation matrix produces a distinctive azimuthal pattern of enhanced emission-line surface brightness on the face of the accretion disk. These patterns express themselves as changes in the observable shapes of the disk's emission lines. The best place to look for turbulence effects is in saturated emission lines of heavy elements such as Ca, Mg, and Fe, which have a smaller thermal velocity at a given sound speed and at moderate inclination (60-70 degrees), since the Keplerian shear broadening dominates at higher inclinations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 297; 1; p. 273-284
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7891-7897
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A recent ultraviolet snaphsot imaging survey of the nuclei of nearby galaxies detected a compact nuclear ultraviolet source in only five of the 26 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) included in the observed sample. Motivated by this observational result, we examine the possibility that all LINERs are powered by photoionization from a nuclear source, which is, however, active only for 20% of the time. We show that decay times of low-ionization species can be of the order of one to a few centuries, and we demonstrate through time-dependent photoionization calculations that if the nuclear ionizing source is active for only a fraction of the time, this would not be readily noticeable in the emission-line spectrum. We suggest that the activity cycle is related to episodic accretion events which are associated with the tidal disruption of stars by a central black hole. The time interval between tidal disruptions is of the same order as the emission-line decay time, with the accretion episode following each disruption lasting a few decades. These estimates appear to support the duty cycle hypothesis. Some observational consequences of the proposed scenario are also discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. L1-L5
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report on observations of the Earth's bow shock at unprecedentedly large downtail distances, some as remote as 360 R(sub E). Suprisingly, we find that even at these large distances, the bow shock signature remains clear. The cases we report are among the weakest shocks ever clearly identified. These shocks reveal patterns of field changes remarkably similar to those observed for stronger shocks. Indeed, several of the shocks could serve as textbook examples because they occur in unusually quiet and steady solar wind conditions. The quasi- perpendicular shocks are, in some cases preceded by whistler wave trains. Several of the shocks which have normal vectors in the transitional region between quasiperpendicular and quasiparallel are associated with large amplitude wave disturbances in the downstream plasma. Although low Mach number, these shocks are the source of large amplitude turbulence. We show a range of fits to the locations of the shock crossings, and argue that, for steady solar wind conditions, there is no sign of tail flapping. The displacement of the shock from the tail axis appears to be governed by the interplanetary magnetic field orientation as previously reported for Venus.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)197-(4)204
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The region upstream of a planetary bow shock, known as the foreshock, contains a variety of phenomena. Electrons and ions are reflected and energized at the shock. As these stream back upstream, they generate both VLF and ULF waves. Studies of the terrestrial foreshock have provided most of our understanding of these phenomena. However, comparisons with other planetary foreshocks are beneficial, even though the instrumentation used to provide the data may be less sophisticated than that flown on Earth orbiting spacecraft. In particular, maps of the VLF emissions upstream of the Venus bow shock, using data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are particularly illuminating. These maps show that the tangent field line is clearly marked by the presence of plasma oscillations. Of additional interest is evidence that the emissions only extend some 15 Venus radii away from the shock, indicating that the emissions are controlled by the shock scale size. Lower frequency ion acoustic waves are observed deep in the ion foreshock. Only close to the shock do both the ion acoustic waves and ULF waves occur simultaneously. The ULF waves mark the ion foreshock boundary where ion beams should be present. The ion acoustic waves tend to be observed further downstream, where diffuse ion distributions are expected to occur. A similar mapping of the terrestrial foreshock, using data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft shows similar results for the electron foreshock. An extensions of this study to include ULF and ion acoustic waves would be helpful.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)125-(4)136
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The magnetometer onboard the Giotto spacecraft observed a diamagnetic cavity surrounding the nucleus of comet Halley. A narrow transition layer with enhanced plasma density is formed at this shock-like boundary as a flux of cometary ions flowing into it from within the cavity is removed by electron-ion recombination. We examine the structure of this layer using both a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical model and a one- dimensional hybrid code.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)19-(4)24
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We compare the burst distribution of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE)-2B catalog to a cosmological distribution. The observed distribution agrees well with a cosmological one, however, it is insensitive to cosmological parameters such as omega and lambda. The bursts are not necessarily standard candles, and their luminosity can vary by up to a factor of 10. The maximal redshift, z(sub max), of bursts longer than 2 s is 2.1(sup +1)(sub -0.7) (assuming no evolution). The present data is insufficient to determine maximal redshift, z(sub max), of bursts shorter than 2 s.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. L25-L28
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Femtolensoing is a gravitational lensing effect in which the magnification is a function not only of the position and sizes of the source and lens, but also of the wavelength of light. Femtolensing is the only known effect of 10(exp -13) - 10(exp -16) solar mass) dark-matter objects and may possibly be detectable in cosmological gamma-ray burst spectra. We present a new and efficient algorithm for femtolensing calculation in general potentials. The physical optics results presented here differ at low frequencies from the semiclassical approximation, in which the flux is attributed to a finite number of mutually coherent images. At higher frequencies, our results agree well with the semicalssical predictions. Applying our method to a point-mass lens with external shear, we find complex events that have structure at both large and small spectral resolution. In this way, we show that femtolensing may be observable for lenses up to 10(exp -11) solar mass, much larger than previously believed. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of a search femtolensing of white dwarfs in the Large Magellanic Cloud at optical wavelengths.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 442; 1; p. 67-75
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It has been suggested by Verigin et al. (1993) that the response of the Martian magnetotail to changes in the solar wind ram pressure indicates the presence of an intrinsic dipole magnetic field. 3-D hybrid particle simulations of Mars were performed including the magnetotail regions. The simulations are in agreement with published Phobos 2 data from the 3 elliptical orbits and reproduce the magnetopause diameter dependence on the solar wind ram pressure reported by Verigin et al. (1993). However, the simulations were performed with no intrinsic field present, indicating that the dependence of the magnetotail width on ram pressure, is not a discriminator for the presence of the intrinsic field.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1181-1184
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: New model atmosphere calculations for very cool white dwarfs with mixed H/He and pure He compositions are presented. The hydrogen-rich models incorporate improved cross section calculations of the collision-induced absorption by molecular hydrogen due to collisions with H2, H, and He. The effects associated with variations in the effective temperature (T(sub eff) greater than or equal to 4000 and less than or equal to 10,000 K), the surface gravity (log g greater than or equal to 7.5 and less than or equal to 9.5), and the chemical composition (N(He)/N(H) greater than or equal to O and less than or equal to 100) are investigated. Results from earlier calculations are confirmed qualitatively, but a more detailed comparison reveals large quantitative deviations. Cool white dwarfs with mixed H/He chemical compositions are shown to be easily recognizable from their predicted strong infrared flux deficiency. Pure helium model calculations are described as well. These include a modified version of the recently developed equation of state of D. Saumon and G. Chabrier. Nonideal effects brought about by various equations of state are explored in detail. For the purpose of this analysis, a model of pressure ionization based on an accurate description of the interactions in a mostly atomic helium fluid is developed. The effects of pressure ionization are shown to be the most important issue in the model calculations. A critical discussion of previous generations of pure helium model calculations is presented. Finally, broadband color indices are provided for the complete model grid.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 764-779
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Laboratory studies of infrared emission from gas-phase naphthalene in the 3.3 micrometer region following ultraviolet laser excitation are used to interpret the unidentified infrared bands observed in many astronomical objects. A time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission technique acquires the time and spectrally resolved data. Two excitation wavelengths are employed: 193 nm and 248 nm. The infrared emission features are strongly dependent on the initial excitation energy. Wavelength-resolved spectra recorded 6.8 microseconds after the laser pulse show a 45/cm redshift from the gas-phase absorption spectra for 193 nm excitation and 25/cm for 248 nm excitation. We hypothesize that a series of sequence bands originating from the highly vibrationally excited ensemble of molecules is responsible for the observed shift. As collisional and radiative deactivation removes energy from the highly vibrationally excited molecules, the maximum in the emission profile gradually approaches the customary absorption maximum. This indicates that the amount of redshift is strongly dependent on the amount of internal vibrational energy in the molecule at the time of the vibrational transition.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 675-681
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present spectroscopic observations of the nucleus of the Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxy NGC 1097 spanning the period 1991-1994. The goal was to monitor anticipated variations of the broad, double-peaked Balmer lines which appeared abruptly in 1991. We find that the broad Balmer lines have varied significantly over the monitoring period, both in their integrated fluxes and in their profile shapes. The integrated H-alpha flux has decreased by a factor of 2, the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio has increased, and the originally asymmetric H-alpha profile has become symmetric. The decline of the H-alpha flux and the change in the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio can be interpreted as consequences of either increased obscuration along the line of sight, or a decline in the ionizing continuum, but neither of these scenarios can account for the change in profile shapes. A model attributing the line emission to a precessing elliptical ring around a 10(exp 6) solar mass nuclear black hole can reproduce the observed profile variations. In this scenario, the line-emitting ring is the result of the tidal disruption of a star by the black hole. Alternative scenarios associating the broad-line emission with a collimated bipolar outflow also remain viable, but binary black holes and inhomogeneous accretion disks are disfavored by the observed pattern of variability.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 617-624
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We analyze previous results on the stability of uniformly and differentialy rotating, self-gravitating, gaseous and stellar, axisymmetric systems to derive a new stability criterion for the appearance of torodial, m = 2 intermediate or I-modes and bar modes. In the process, we demonstrate that the bar modes in stellar systems and the m = 2 I-modes in gaseous systems have many common physical characteristics and only one substantial difference: because of the anisotropy of the stress tensor, dynamical instability sets in at lower rotation in stellar systems. This difference is reflected also in the new stability criterion. The new stability parameter alpha equals (T(sub J))/(absolute value of W) is formulated first for uniformly rotating systems and is based on the angular momentum content rather than on the energy content of a system. (T(sub J) is defined as ((L)(Omega(sub J)))/2; L is the total angular momentum; Omega(sub J) is the Jeans frequency introduced by self-gravity; and W is the total gravitational potential energy.) For stability of stellar systems alpha less than or equal to 0.254-0.258 while alpha less than or equal to 0.341-0.354 for stability of gaseous systems. For uniform rotation, one can write alpha = ((ft)/2)(exp 1/2), where t is defined as T/(absolute value of W), T is the total kinetic energy due to rotation, and f is a function characteristic of the topology/connectedness and the geometric shape of a system. Equivalently, alpha equals t/(chi), where chi is defined as Omega/Omega(sub J) and Omega is the rotation frequency. Using these forms, alpha can be extended to and calculated for a variety of differentially rotating, gaseous and stellar, axisymmetric disk and spheroidal models whose equilibrium structures and stability characteristics are known. In this paper, we also estimate alpha for gaseous torodial models and for stellar disk systems embedded in an inert or responsive 'halo.' We find that the new stability criterion holds equally well for all these previously published axisymmetric models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 551-562
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Ulysses spacecraft has gathered data from within flows from the Sun's southern polar coronal hole, the first in situ measurement of this region. We present a brief analysis of the heliospheric magnetic field data from this region, using a fractal method. As is the case near the ecliptic, estimated spectral exponents are near 5/3 on spacecraft scales of seconds to minutes. On longer time scales, however, there appears to be a significantly different population in polar flows, which is similar to that found by the Helios spacecraft in fast solar wind flows at 0.3 AU.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 1; p. 105-107
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present the first two-dimensional X-ray temperature map of the rich cluster of galaxies Abell 754. We also present an X-ray surface brightness map with improved spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with previous maps. Both the temperature map and the surface brightness map show that A754 is in the throes of a violent merger; it is probably far from hydrostatic equilibrium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 1; p. L9-L12
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have investigated the properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores in the Orion giant molecular cloud using high spatial spectral resolution observations of several transitions of the (13)CO, C(18)O, C(S-32) and C(S-34) molecules taken with the SEST telescope. The OMC-2 core consists of one clump (22 solar mass) with a radius of 0.11 pc surrounded by a cluster of 11 discrete infrared sources. The H2 column density and volume density in the center of this clump are 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and 9 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm respectively. From a comparison between physical parameters derived from C(18)O and C(S-32) observations we conclude that the molecular envelope around the core has been completely removed by these sources and that only the very dense gas is left. OMC-3 shows a more complex elongated structure in C(18)O and CS than OMC-2. The C(S-32) and C(S-34) maps show that the denser region can be separated into at least sub-cores of roughly equal sizes (radius approximately equals 0.13 pc), with n(H2) = 6 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm, and a mass of 10 solar mass (from C(S-32)). The very different masses obtained for the central core from C(18)O and C(S-32) (55 and 12 solar mass respectively) indicate that a massive envelope is still present around the very dense sub-cores. We report the first detection of several molecular outflows in OMC-3. The presence of an IRAS source and the first detection of these outflows confirm that star formation is going on in OMC-3. Based on the different physical properties of these regions compared with OMC-1, OMC-2 appears to be in an intermediate evolutionary stage between OMC-1 and OMC-3.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 294; 3; p. 835-854
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: New optical and near-infrared (NIR) K-band images of the inner 3 kpc region of the nearby Virgo spiral M100 (NGC 4321) display remarkable morphological changes with wavelength. While in the optical the light is dominated by circumnuclear zone of enhanced star formation, the morphological features in the 2.2 micrometer image correspond to a newly discovered kiloparsec-size stellar bar and a pair of leading arms situated inside an ovally shaped region. Analysis of the K image confirms its symmetry: only a very small percentage of the flux, some 5%, is emitted in antisymmetric structures. This indicates that the overall morphology observed in the NIR is dominated by a global density wave. Making a first-order correction for the presence of localized dust extinction in the K light using the I-K image, we find that the observed leading arm morphology is not caused or enhanced but in fact slightly hidden by dust. Possible mechanisms responsible for the optical and NIR morphology are discussed, and tests are proposed to discriminate between them. Our dynamical conclusions are supported with an evolutionary stellar population model reproducing the observed optical and NIR colors in a number of star-forming zones. We argue that the observed morphology is compatible with the presence of a pair of inner Lindblad resonances in the region and show this explicitly in an accompanying paper by detailed numerical modeling. The phenomena observed in NGC 4321 may provide insight into physical process leading to central activity in galaxies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. L73-L76
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The rudimentary measurements of the instruments on Pioneer Venus over a 14-year span have provided a strong framework for the interpretation of the observations with a more sophisticated instrument package during the Galileo Venus flyby in February 1990. In some cases the Galileo results provided independent confirmation of earlier inferences. In other cases completely new data were obtained. Nevertheless, because of limitations of the instruments and the trajectory and thermal restraints some outstanding questions were not addressed. Much has been learned but there is still much more to do.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)5-(4)16
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Stellar models with masses ranging from 05.5 to 1.3 solar mass were constructed for comparison with young cluster observations of Li and of rotation velocities. The amount of Li depletion in cool stars is sensitive to the amount of overshoot at the base of the surface convection zone, and the exact metallicity of the models. Even when this is taken into account, the Li observations are a severe constraint for the models and rule out standard models and pure diffusion models. Stellar models which include diffusion and rotational mixing in the radiative regions of stars are able to simultaneously match the Li abundances observed in the Pleiades, the UMa Group, The Hyades, Praesepe, NGC 752, and M67. They also match the observed rotation periods in the Hyades. However, these models are unable to simultaneously explain the presence of the rapidly rotating late G and K stars in the Pleiades and the absence of rapidly rotating late F and early G stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 2; p. 876-885
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We model the evolution of the He I lines, especially He I 1.083 micrometers and He I 2.058 micrometers, from the envelope of SN 1987A during the first 3 yr after the explosion. The He I metastable 2(sup 3)S and 2(sup 1)S states are populated by fast electrons resulting from energy deposition by gamma rays and depopulated by electron collisions and two-photon decay. The 2.058 micrometer line is excited mainly by nonthermal electrons at all times. The 1.083 micrometer line is excited mainly by thermal electron impact for t less than or approximately = 450 days and by recombination afterward. We can fit the observed evolution of He I 2.058 micrometers with a model in which approximately 3 solar mass of nearly pure helium and approximately 11 solar mass of hydrogen mixed with primordial helium occupy the volume emitting most of the light (v less than or approximately = 2500 km/s). For t less than or approximately = 450 days, trace carbon in the inner part of the helium suppresses the He I 2.058 micrometer line by photoabsorbing He I lambda 584 and depopulating the 2(sup 1) P(sup 0) state. The observed 1.08 micrometer line is a blend of He I 1.083 micrometers and (S I) 1.082 micrometers. We estimate that He I 1.083 micrometers contributes 40% of the observed flux for t less than or approximately = 550 days and approximately 60% thereafter.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 2; p. 821-829
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Arp (1994) has presented redshift data for the Local Group of galaxies and for the next major group, whose largest galaxies are M31 and M81, respectively. He observed that the relative redshifts of all 22 of their companions were positive and claimed that the likelihood that this would occur is 1 in 4 x 10(exp 6). We show using the classical combinatoric paradigm of ordered samples (without replacement) that the correct probability for the dominant member of each cluster to possess the lowest observed redshift is approximately 8%.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 2; p. 505-506
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We carefully examine the techniques used to infer temperatures of stellar coronal plasmas from the count rates of several broadband instruments in the X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet spectral ranges. In particular, we determine to what extent temperatures can be constrained and the corresponding uncertainties in the luminosities and emission measures lowered by fitting simultaneously count rates from the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC), the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), the ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) (both filters), and the EXOSAT Low Energy Telescope (LET) with the 3-Lex filter. We use published plasma emissivities with solar photospheric abundances. Since it has been found that single-temperature plasmas do not fit IPC data well, we assume a two-temperature plasma model. We find that, even with count rates from all of the above filters and overly optimistic error estimates, it is still not possible to determine a unique two-temperature solution. However, since the use of count rates from many filters can reduce substantially the number of possible solutions, temperature solutions determined by other means can be tested. We carry out such an analysis on a set of 18 nearby late-type stars to determine possible two-temperature solutions using multifilter photometry, and we compare these results with the temperature solutions derived by Schmitt et al. (1990) using IPC spectral data. In general, the two-temperature fits derived from the IPC spectral data are inconsistent with our results, with our data implying that, for many stars, the two temperatures derived by the IPC may be too low by about a factor of 2. The EXOSAT transmission grating Spectrometer (TGS) spectra of capella and sigma(exp 2) CrB support this conclusion. For Procyon and 70 Oph, though, the presence of a temperature component cooler than a million degress (not detected by the IPC) is deduced. While our analysis suggests the existence of more than one temperature in the coronae of late-type stars, in many instances our WFC data appear to be inconsistent with the presence of significant emission measure over a broad temperature distribution. This, together with the success of two-temperature plasmas in fitting IPC and TGS data, implies that for many stars, the coronal emission measure distribution may in fact be dominated by two distinct temperature regimes.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 438; 1; p. 350-363
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report the discovery of a new K dwarf rapid rotator with a potential white dwarf companion. The white dwarf accounts for over 90% of the observed extreme ultraviolet flux detected from this system. Analysis of ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) and IUE data both suggest a white dwarf temperature of approximately 28,700 K. Optical photometry and the IUE long wavelength prime (LWP) spectrum (with the white dwarf contribution removed) imply that the late-type star has a spectral type of K1-3 V, and a distance of 55 +/- 5 pc. Using this distance, the observed IUE SWP flux, and the best-fit temperature results in a white dwarf radius of 0.0088 solar radius. The estimated white dwarf mass is then approximately 0.91 solar mass; somewhat over-massive compared to field white dwarfs. Optical photometry of the K star reveals a 'spot' modulation period of approximately 10 hr (now observed over 3 yr). However, radial velocity observations have revealed no significant variations. Spectroscopic observations place a low limit on the lithium abundance, but do show rapid rotation with a v sin i of 90 +/- 10 km/s. The K star was detected as a radio source at 3.6 cm (on two occasions) and 6 cm by the Very Large Array (VLA). The most likely evolutionary scenario is that the K star and hot white dwarf from either a wide binary or common proper motion pair with an age of 0.1-0.1 Gyr-consistent with the evolutionary timescale of the white dwarf and the rapid rotation of the K star. However, from the proper motion of the K star, this system does not seem to be associated with any of the known young stellar groups.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 438; 1; p. 364-375
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Four spectral emission features of the N(sub KK) = 4(sub 04) -3(sub 13) rotational transition of methylene (CH2) have been detected at signal levels 5-7 sigma above noise toward the hot core of the Orion-KL nebula and the molecular cloud in proximity to the continuum source W51 M. Specifically, in both sources we have resolved the F = 6-5, 5-4, and 4-3 hyperfine transitions of the J = 5-4 fine-structure levels and detected the blended hyperfine structure of the J = 4-3 fine structure levels. At the J = 3-2 fine-structure levels, we have observed new transitions of NS, a known interstellar molecule, which severely contaminates the search for CH2 hyperfine transitions. These new sensitive observations finally confirm the existence of interstellar CH2 which was tentatively reported by us some years ago.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 438; 1; p. 259-264
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We reexamine the model proposed by Gnedin & Ostriker (1992) in which Jeans mass black holes (M(sub BH) approximately = 10(exp 6) solar mass) form shortly after decoupling. There is no nonbaryonic dark matter in this model, but we examine the possibility that Omega(sub b) is considerably larger than given by normal nucleosynthesis. Here we allow for the fact that much of the high baryon-to-photon ratio material will collapse leaving the universe of remaining material with light-element abundances more in accord with the residual baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -2)) than with Omega(sub 0) and the initial baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -1)). We find that no reasonable model can be made with random-phase density fluctuations, if the power on scales smaller than 10(exp 6) solar mass is as large as expected. However, phase-correlated models of the type that might occur in connection with topological singularities can be made with Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.013 +/- 0.001, 0.15 approximately less than Omega(sub 0) approximately less than 0.4, which are either flat (Omega(sub lambda) = 1 - Omega(sub 0)) or open (Omega(sub lambda) = 0) and which satisfy all the observational constraints which we apply, including the large baryon-to-total mass ratio found in the X-ray clusters. The remnant baryon density is thus close to that obtained in the standard picture (Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.0125 +/- 0.0025; Walker et al. 1991). The spectral index implied for fluctuations in the baryonic isocurvature scenario, -1 less than m less than 0, is in the range expected by other arguments based on large-scale structure and microwave fluctuation constraints. The dark matter in this picture is in the form of massive black holes. Accretion onto them at early epochs releases high-energy photons which significantly heat and reionize the universe. But photodissociation does not materially change light-element abundances. A typical model gives bar-y approximately = 1 x 10(exp -5), n(sub e)/n(sub H)(z = 30) approximately = 0.1, and a diffuse gamma-ray background at 100 keV near the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) limit of the order of 10% of that observed which originates from high-redshift quasars. Reionization in this model occurs at redshift 600 and reaches (H II/H(sub tot) approximately = 0.1-0.2.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 438; 1; p. 40-48
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) synthetic spectra for the Type Ia supernovae SN 1992A and SN 1981B, near maximum light. At this epoch both supernovae were observed from the UV through the optical. This wide spectral coverage is essential for determining the density structure of a SN Ia. Our fits are in good agreement with observation and provide some insight as to the differences between these supernovae. We also discuss the application of the expanding photosphere method to SNe Ia which gives a distance that is independent of those based on the decay of Ni-56 and Cepheid variable stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 1; p. L33-L36
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) detection of microwave anisotropies provides the best way of fixing the amplitude of cosmological fluctuations on the largest scales. This normalization is usually given for an n = 1 spectrum, including only the anisotropy caused by the Sachs-Wolfe effect. This is certainly not a good approximation for a model containing any reasonable amount of baryonic matter. In fact, even tilted Sachs-Wolfe spectra are not a good fit to models like cold dark matter (CDM). Here, we normalize standard CDM (sCDM) to the two-year COBE data and quote the best amplitude in terms of the conventionally used measures of power. We also give normalizations for some specific variants of this standard model, and we indicate how the normalization depends on the assumed values on n, Omega(sub B) and H(sub 0). For sCDM we find the mean value of Q = 19.9 +/- 1.5 micro-K, corresponding to sigma(sub 8) = 1.34 +/- 0.10, with the normalization at large scales being B = (8.16 +/- 1.04) x 10(exp 5)(Mpc/h)(exp 4), and other numbers given in the table. The measured rms temperature fluctuation smoothed on 10 deg is a little low relative to this normalization. This is mainly due to the low quadrupole in the data: when the quadrupole is removed, the measured value of sigma(10 deg) is quite consistent with the best-fitting the mean value of Q. The use of the mean value of Q should be preferred over sigma(10 deg), when its value can be determined for a particular theory, since it makes full use of the data.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 1; p. L9-L12
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have simulated full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy expected from cold dark matter (CDM) models at 0.5 deg and 1.0 deg angular resolution. Statistical properties of the maps are presented as a function of sky coverage, angular resolution, and instrument noise, and the implications of these results for observability of the Doppler peak are discussed. The rms fluctuations in a map are not a particularly robust probe of the existence of a Doppler peak; however, a full correlation analysis can provide reasonable sensitivity. We find that sensitivity to the Doppler peak depends primarily on the fraction of sky covered, and only secondarily on the angular resolution and noise level. Color plates of the simulated maps are presented to illustrate the anisotropies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 1; p. L1-L4
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 1; p. L25-L28
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: High-contrast peaks in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy can appear as unresolved sources to observers. We fit simluated CMB maps generated with a cold dark matter model to a set of unresolved features at instrumental resolution 0.5 deg-1.5 deg to derive the integral number density per steradian n (greater than absolute value of T) of features brighter than threshold temperature absolute value of T and compare the results to recent experiments. A typical medium-scale experiment observing 0.001 sr at 0.5 deg resolution would expect to observe one feature brighter than 85 micro-K after convolution with the beam profile, with less than 5% probability to observe a source brighter than 150 micro-K. Increasing the power-law index of primordial density perturbations n from 1 to 1.5 raises these temperature limits absolute value of T by a factor of 2. The MSAM features are in agreement with standard cold dark matter models and are not necessarily evidence for processes beyond the standard model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 1; p. L5-L7
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Two primary loss mechanisms of interstellar neutral hydrogen in interplanetary space are resonance charge exchange ionization with solar wind protons and photoionization by solar EUV radiation. The later process has often been neglected since the average photoionization rate has been estimated to be as much as 5 to 10 times smaller than the charge exchange rate. These factors are based on ionization rates from early measurements of solar EUV and solar wind fluxes. Using revised solar EUV and solar wind fluxes measured near the ecliptic plane we have reinvestigated the ionization rates of interplanetary hydrogen. The result of our analysis indicates that indeed the photoionization rate during solar minimum can be smaller than charge exchange by a factor of 5; however, during solar maximum conditions when solar EUV fluxes are high, and solar wind fluxes are low, photoionization can be over 60% of the charge exchange rate at Earth orbit. To obtain an accurate estimate of the importance of photoionization relative to charge exchange, we have included photoionization from both the ground and metastable states of hydrogen. We find, however, that the photoionization from the metastable state does not contribute significantly to the overall photoionization rate.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3455-3462
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The results of a recent study of coplanarity tendencies between stellar-equatorial and binary-orbital planes are applied to the low-metal F9 V star HD 114762, for which a possible substellar companion was reported by Latham et al. (1989). High-resolution spectroscopy is performed on HD 114762 in order to extract its projected rotational velocity (v sin i). This is then combined with an expected rotational velocity determined via age-scaling, providing an estimate of the star's equatorial inclination, which then combined with the results of the coplanarity study provides an approximate indication of the companion's orbital inclination. Although the formal uncertainties in this process preclude an accurate estimate of the companion's inclination, the results suggest that the inclination is low, possibly low enough to force the companion's mass above the limit for hydrogen fusion. It is thus possible the companion may be nothing more exotic than a low-mass M star, as opposed to a brown dwarf. These results add support to a similar conclusion recently obtained by Cochran et al. (1991).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280); 107; 707; p. 22-26
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Lauer and Postman (LP) observed that all Abell clusters with redshifts less than 15,000 km/s appear to be participating in a bulk flow of 689 km/s with respect to the cosmic microwave background. We find this result difficult to reconcile with all popular models for large-scale structure formation that assume Gaussian initial conditions. This conclusion is based on Monte Carlo realizations of the LP data, drawn from large particle-mesh N-body simulations for six different models of the initial power spectrum (standard, tilted, and Omega(sub 0) = 0.3 cold dark matter, and two variants of the primordial baryon isocurvature model). We have taken special care to treat properly the longest-wavelength components of the power spectra. The simulations are sampled, 'observed,' and analyzed as identically as possible to the LP cluster sample. Large-scale bulk flows as measured from clusters in the simulations are in excellent agreement with those measured from the grid: the clusters do not exhibit any strong velocity bias on large scales. Bulk flows with amplitude as large as that reported by LP are not uncommon in the Monte Carlo data stes; the distribution of measured bulk flows before error bias subtraction is rougly Maxwellian, with a peak around 400 km/s. However the chi squared of the observed bulk flow, taking into account the anisotropy of the error ellipsoid, is much more difficult to match in the simulations. The models examined are ruled out at confidence levels between 94% and 98%.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 2; p. 507-519
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic clouds form a subset of interplanetary ejecta with well-defined magnetic and thermodynamic properties. Observationally, it is well established that magnetic clouds expand as they propagate antisunward. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast two models which have been proposed for the global magnetic field line topology of magnetic clouds: a magnetic flux tube geometry, on the one hand, and a spheromak geometry (including possible higher multiples), on the other. Traditionally, the magnetic structure of magnetic clouds has been modeled by force-free configurations. In a first step, we therefore analyze the ability of static force-free models to account for the asymmetries observed in the magnetic field profiles of magnetic clouds. For a cylindrical flux tube the magnetic field remains symmetric about closest approach to the magnetic axis on all spacecraft orbits intersecting it, whereas in a spheromak geometry one can have asymmetries in the magnetic field signatures along some spacecraft trajectories. The duration of typical magnetic cloud encounters at 1 AU (1 to 2 days) is comparable to their travel time from the Sun to 1 AU and thus magnetic clouds should be treated as strongly nonstationary objects. In a second step, therefore, we abandon the static approach and model magnetic clouds as self-similarly evolving MHD configurations. In our theory, the interaction of the expanding magnetic cloud with the ambient plasma is taken into account by a drag force proportional to the density and the velocity of expansion. Solving rigorously the full set of MHD equations, we demonstrate that the asymmetry in the magnetic signature may arise solely as a result of expansion. Using asymptotic solutions of the MHD equations, we least squares fit both theoretical models to interplanetary data. We find that while the central part of the magnetic cloud is adequately described by both models, the 'edges' of the cloud data are modeled better by the magnetic flux tube. Further comparisons of the two models necessarily involve thermodynamic properties, since real magnetic configurations are never exactly force-free and gas pressure plays an essential role. We consider a polytropic gas. Our theoretical analysis shows that the self-similar expansion of a magnetic flux tube requires the polytropic index gamma to be less than unity. For the spheromak, however, self-similar, radially expanding solutions are known only for gamma equal to 4/3. This difference, therefore, yields a good way of distinguishing between the two geometries. It has been shown recently that the polytropic relationship is applicable to magnetic clouds and that the corresponding polytropic index is approximately 0.5. This observational result is consistent with the self-similar model of the magnetic flux rope but is in conflict with the self-similar spheromak model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,293-12,306
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The ten-year binary delta Sge (M2 Ib-II+B9.5 V) is a zeta Aur binary containing an abnormally cool component. Combining our analysis of the system as a visual binary with Batten's radial-velocity solution leads to the following properties: i = 40 deg, a = 51 mas = 8.83 A.U. = 1893 solar radius, hence d = 173 pc; M(sub B) = 2.9 solar mass and M(sub M) = 3.8 solar mass; and R(sub B) = 2.6 solar radius and R(sub M) = 152 solar radius. This interpretation of the orbit places the M supergiant on the asymptotic giant branch. We have collected ultraviolet spectra throughout the star's 1980-90 orbit, concentrated around the conjuction of 1990. The wind of the M giant appears in these as narrow shell lines of singly ionized metals, chiefly Fe II, with P-Cyg profiles at many phases, which show the slow variation in strength expected for the orbit but no pronounced atmospheric eclipse. The terminal velocity of the wind is 16-18 km/s, and its excitation temperature is approximately 10,000 K. Most of the broadening of the wind lines is caused by differential expansion of the atmosphere, with (unmeasurably) low turbulent velocities. Nontheless, the mass loss rate (1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10 (exp -8) solar mas/yr) is almost the same as found previously by Reimers and Schroder for very different assumptions about the velocity structure. Also seen in the spectrum throughout the orbit are the effects of a variable, high-speed wind as well as evidence for accretion onto the B9.5 star. This high-speed wind absorbs in species of all ionization stages observed, e. g., C II, Mg II, Al III, SI IV, C IV, and has a terminaal velocity in the range 200-450 km/s. We presume this wind originates at the B dwarf, not the M supergiant, and speculate that it comes from an accretion disk, as suggested by recent models of magnetically moderated accretion. Evidence for accretion is redshifted absorption in the same transitions formed in the high-speed wind, as well as broad emission lines of singly ionized metals. This emission seems to be scattered out of the continuum of the B star. Finally, we discuss Auger ionization by accretion luminosity as the cause of the high ionization in these high-speed flows as well as the source of the extended circumstellar clouds of Si(3+) and C(3+) ions in zeta Aur binaries.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 4; p. 1856-1866
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: At 2.5 min southeast of SN 1987A, the Honeycomb Nebula Supernova remnant (SNR) is named after its interesting morphology, which consists of over ten loops with sizes of 2-3 pc. High-dispersion spectra of these loops show hemispheres expanding toward the observer at 100-300 km/s. Using archival data X-ray data and a combination of new and archival radio data, we find bright X-ray and nonthermal radio emisssion associated with the Honeycomb Nebula. New CCD images further show enhanced (S II) H-alpha ratios. These results confirm a model in which the Honeycomb Nebula is due to a supernova shock front, traveling toward the observer, encountering an intervening sheet of dense, but porous, interstellar gas. The bulk of the supernova remnant resides in a low-density cavity, and is not otherwise visible. The situation is similar to the hidden supernova remnants postulated for the X-ray bright superbubbles. The Honeycomb Nebula has an unusually steep radio spectral index (S(sub nu) is proportional to nu(exp -1.2)), normally associated with young SNRs.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 4; p. 1729-1734
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present new ultraviolet (UV) polarimetry of the well-studied interstellar line of sight toward HD 204827 obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope. HD 204827 is of great interest because the dust along this line of sight has extremely low values of both lambda(sub max) and R(sub V). Its far-UV extinction is very large, reflecting its small R(sub V) value. In addition, we reexamine the entire sample of 14 interstellar lines of sight for which there are now UV polarization data. We find that the previously suggested relationship between lambda(sub max) and the wavelength dependence of the polarization in the UV is strongly supported by the data for this larger sample including HD 204827. Seven stars with lambda(sub max) greater than or equal to 0.54 micron agree well with an extrapolation of the Serkowski relation into the UV while seven stars with lambda(sub max) less than or equal to 0.53 micron show polarization in excess of the Serkowski extrapolation (super-Serkowski). However, the division of the observed lines of sight into Serkowski and super-Serkowski categories is artificial. In fact, the amount of polarization in the UV is correlated with a single parameter, lambda(sub max). This may indicate that there is a mean interstellar polarization law analogous to the mean interstellar extinction law of Cardelli, Calyton, & Mathis which is based on R(sub V). The data are consistent with a linear relationship between 1/lambda(sub max) and rho(UV)/rho(sub max) but more data are needed to define the functional form. We suggest that the Serkowski and super-Serkowski designations be replaced by high and low lambda(sub max) which are more physically descriptive. At the same time, we note that all seven super-Serkowski (low lambda(sub max)) stars lie in a relatively small region of the sky between l(sup II) = 90 deg - 150 deg and b = -5 deg - 15 deg. These stars all lie in or behind a spur of the local Orion spiral arm. Similarly, most of the Serkowski (high lambda(sub max) stars lie in or near the Scorpio-Centaurus OB Association. So lines of sight covering larger areas of the sky are needed to test the universality of the lambda(sub max)/UV polarization relationship. The recent discovery of warm dust near HD 197770 suggests the possibility that a mechanism other than the traditional alignment to the Galactic magnetic field may be invoked to explain its 2175 A polarization bump.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 947-957
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The X-ray phenomena of the binary system SMC X-1/Sk 160, observed with the Ginga and ROSAT X-ray observatories, are compared with computed phenomena derived from a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model of the stellar wind perturbed by X-ray heating and ionization which is described in the accompanying paper (Blondin & Woo 1995). In the model the B0 I primary star has a line-driven stellar wind in the region of the X-ray shadow and a thermal wind in the region heated by X-rays. We find general agreement between the observed and predicted X-ray spectrum throughout the binary orbit cycle, including the extended, variable, and asymmetric eclipse transitions and the period of deep eclipse.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 896-908
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present a method related to the wavelet transform, the Gabor transform, for investigating astronomical time series containing nonconsistent frequencies. Instances in which such data sets may arise include variable star light curves, numerical studies of the gravitational three-body problem, X-ray binaries, and signals from more exotic objects such as planets around pulsars and mass infall from accretion structures onto compact objects. As an illustration of its power, we apply the technique to a numerical data set of a gravitational three-body interaction and to photometry of the rapidly oscillating peculiar A star HD 60435. In the three-body example, the method provides an insightful shorthand that allows for the determination of episodes where the system behaves as two nearly Keplerian orbits. For HD 60435, the power in the main frequency exhibits unusual evolution over the duration of the observation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 861-871
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Near-infrared images of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite are used to characterize its morphology and to determine its infrared luminosity and mass. Earlier analysis of the DIRBE observations (Weiland et al. 1994) provided supporting evidence for the claim made by Blitz & Spergel (1991) that the bulge is bar-shaped with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant. Adopting various triaxial analytical functions to represent the volume emissivity of the source, we confirm the barlike nature of the bulge and show that triaxial Gaussian-type functions provide a better fit to the data than other classes of functions, including an axisymmetric spheroid. The introduction of a `boxy' geometry, such as the one used by Kent, Dame, & Fazio (1991) improves the fit to the data. Our results show that the bar is rotated in the plane with its near side in the first Galactic quadrant creating an angle of 20 deg +/- 10 deg between its major axis and the line of sight to the Galactic center. Typical axis ratios of the bar are (1:0.33 +/- 0.11:0.23 +/- 0.08), resembling the geometry of prolate spheroids. There is no statistically significant evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of the bar at 2.2 microns, and marginal evidence for a tilt of approximately equal 2 deg at 4.9 microns. The introduction of a roll around the intrinsic major axis of the bulge improves the `boxy' appearance of some functions. A simple integration of the observed projected intensity of the bulge gives a bulge luminosity of 1.2 x 10(exp 9), 4.1 x 10(exp 8), 2.3 x 10(exp 8), and 4.3 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns wavelength for a Galactocentric distance of 8.5 kpc. The 2.2 microns luminosity function of the bulge population in the direction of Baade's window yields a bolometric luminosity of L(sub bol) = 5.3 x 10(exp 9) solar luminosity. Stellar evolutionary models relate this luminosity to the number of main-sequence progenitor stars that currently populate the red giant branch. Combined with the recent determination of the main-sequence turnoff mass for the bulge by the Hubble Space Telescope (Holtzman et al. 1993) we derive a photometrically determined bulge mass of approximately equal to 1.3 x 10(exp 10) solar mass for a Salpeter initial mass function extended down to 0.1 solar mass.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 716-730
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have produced two-dimensional maps of the intensity ratio, Q(sub 60), of 60 micron infrared to 20 cm radio continuum emission, for a set of 25 nearby galaxies, mostly spirals. The ratio maps were obtained from infrared images made using IRAS data with the maximum correlation method, and radio images made using VLA data. Before taking the ratio, the radio images were processed so as to have the same resolution properties as the infrared images; the final spatial resolution in all cases is approximately 1 min, corresponding to 1 - 2 kpc for most galaxies. This resolution represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Our new high-resolution maps confirm the slow decrease of Q(sub 60) with increasing radial distance from the nucleus, but show additional structure which is probably associated with separate sites of active star formation in the spiral arms. The maps show Q(sub 60) to be more closely related to infrared surface brightness than to the radial distance r in the galaxy disk. We note also that the Q(sub 60) gradients are absent (or at least reduced) for the edge-on galaxies, a property which can be attributed to the dilution of contrast due to the averaging of the additional structure along the line of sight. The results are all in qualitative agreement with the suggestion that the radio image represents a smeared version of the infrared image, as would be expected on the basis of current models in which the infrared-radio correlation is driven by the formation of massive stars, and the intensity distribution of radio emission is smeared as a result of the propagation of energetic electrons accelerated during the supernova phase.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 599-606
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper describes the formation of nonlinear structure in flat (zero curvature) Friedmann cosmological models. We consider models with two components: the usual nonrelativistic component that evolves under gravity and eventually forms the large-scale structure of the universe, and a uniform dark matter component that does not clump under gravity, and whose energy density varies with the scale factor a(t) like a(t)(sup -n), where n is a free parameter. Each model is characterized by two parameters: the exponent n and the present density parameter Omega(sub 0) of the nonrelativistic component. The linear perturbation equations are derived and solved for these models, for the three different cases n = 3, n is greater than 3, and n is less than 3. The case n = 3 is relevant to model with massive neutrinos. The presence of the uniform component strongly reduces the growth of the perturbation compared with the Einstein-de Sitter model. We show that the Meszaros effect (suppression of growth at high redshift) holds not only for n = 4, radiation-dominated models, but for all models with n is greater than 3. This essentially rules out any such model. For the case n is less than 3, we numerically integrate the perturbation equations from the big bang to the present, for 620 different models with various values of Omega(sub 0) and n. Using these solutions, we show that the function f(Omega(sub 0), n) = (a/delta(sub +))d(delta)(sub +)/da, which enters in the relationship between the present density contrast delta(sub 0) and peculiar velocity field u(sub 0) is essentially independent of n. We derive approximate solutions for the second-order perturbation equations. These second-order solutions are tested against the exact solutions and the Zel'dovich approximation for spherically symmetric perturbations in the marginally nonlinear regime (the absolute value of delta is less than or approximately 1). The second-order and Zel'dovich solutions have comparable accuracy, significantly higher than the accuracy of the linear solutions. We then investigate the dependence of the delta(sub 0) - u(sub 0) relationship upon the value of n in the nonlinear regime using the second-order solutions for marginally nonlinear, general perturbations, and the exact solutions for strongly nonlinear, spherically symmetric perturbations. In both cases, we find that the delta(sub 0) - u(sub 0) relationship remains independent of n. We speculate that this result extends to strongly nonlinear, general perturbations as well. This eliminates any hope to determine the presence of the uniform component or the value of n using dynamical methods. Finally, we compute the nonlinear evolution of the skewness of the distribution of values of delta, assuming Gaussian initial conditions. We find that the skewness is not only independent of n, but also of Omega(sub 0). Thus the skewness cannot be used to discriminate among various models with Gaussian initial conditions. However, it can be used for testing the Gaussianity of the initial conditions themselves. We conclude that the uniform component leaves no observable signature in the present large-scale structure of the universe. To determine its presence and nature, we must investigate the relationship between the past and present universe, using redshift-dependent tests.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS AST-90-20757 , Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. 537-552
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: With the strong Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (CGRO/BATSE) evidence that most gamma-ray bursts do not come from galactic neutron stars, models involving the accretion of a comet onto a neutron star (NS) no longer appear to be strong contenders for explaining the majority of bursts. If this is the case, then it is worth asking whether the lack of an observed galactic gamma-ray burst population provides a useful constraint on the number of comets and comet clouds in the galaxy. Owing to the previously unrecognized structural weakness of cometary nuclei, we find the capture cross sections for comet-NS events to be much higher than previously published estimates, with tidal breakup at distances R(sub b) approx. equals 4 x 10(exp 10) cm from the NS. As a result, impacts of comets onto field NSs penetrating the Oort Clouds of other stars are found to dominate all other galactic NS-comet capture rates by a factor of 100. This in turn predicts that if comet clouds are common, there should be a significant population of repeater sources with (1) a galactic distribution, (2) space-correlated repetition, and (3) a wide range of peak luminosities and luminosity time histories. If all main sequence stars have Oort Clouds like our own, we predict approximately 4000 such repeater sources in the Milky Way at any time, each repeating on time scales of months to years. Based on estimates of the sensitivity of the CGRO/BATSE instrument and assuming isotropic gamma-ray beaming from such events, we estimate that a population of approximately 20-200 of these galactic NS-Oort Cloud gamma-ray repeater sources should be detectable by CGRO. In addition, if giant planet formation is common in the galaxy, we estimate that the accretion of isolated comets injected to the interstellar medium by giant planet formation should produce an additional source of galactic, nonrepeating, events. Comparing these estimates to the 3-4 soft gamma-ray repeater sources detected by BATSE, one is forced to conclude that (1) comet impacts on NSs are inefficient at producing gamma rays; or (2) the gamma rays from such events are highly beamed; or (3) the fraction of stars in the galaxy with Oort Clouds like our own is not higher than a few percent.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 2; p. 690-697
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Time-dependent, radiative instabilities in the creation and transport of polarized astrophysical maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field are calculated. The instabilities are similar to and occur under the same conditions as those found previously by Scappaticci & Watson for unpolarized maser radiation. The common limits in which the Zeeman splitting is much greater than, and much less than, the spectral line breadths are both considered in the current investigation. The resulting fluctuations in the emergent radiation are potentially relevant for the OH 1665 MHz masers which have been reported to fluctuate on timescales of 1000 s and which tend to be polarized. Instabilities occur and alter the transport of maser radiation only under a quite limited range of conditions. In particular, we find here that the instabilities do not occur for conditions that are appropriate for astrophysical masers with small Zeeman splittings such as the SiO and H2O masers. The time-independent, numerical solutions to the GKK equations of radiative transfer that have been obtained in previous investigations are thus essentially always valid except within a narrow range of conditions relevant for the OH masers.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 465-469
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have calculated a grid of more than 700 model atmospheres valid for a wide range of parameters encompassing the coolest known M dwarfs, M subdwarfs, and brown dwarf candidates: 1500 less than or equal to T(sub eff) less than or equal to 4000 K, 3.5 less than or equal to log g less than or equal to 5.5, and -4.0 less than or equal to (M/H) less than or equal to +0.5. Our equation of state includes 105 molecules and up to 27 ionization stages of 39 elements. In the calculations of the base grid of model atmospheres presented here, we include over 300 molecular bands of four molecules (TiO, VO, CaH, FeH) in the JOLA approximation, the water opacity of Ludwig (1971), collision-induced opacities, b-f and f-f atomic processes, as well as about 2 million spectral lines selected from a list with more than 42 million atomic and 24 million molecular (H2, CH, NH, OH, MgH, SiH, C2, CN, CO, SiO) lines. High-resolution synthetic spectra are obtained using an opacity sampling method. The model atmospheres and spectra are calculated with the generalized stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, assuming LTE, plane-parallel geometry, energy (radiative plus convective) conservation, and hydrostatic equilibrium. The model spectra give close agreement with observations of M dwarfs across a wide spectral range from the blue to the near-IR, with one notable exception: the fit to the water bands. We discuss several practical applications of our model grid, e.g., broadband colors derived from the synthetic spectra. In light of current efforts to identify genuine brown dwarfs, we also show how low-resolution spectra of cool dwarfs vary with surface gravity, and how the high-regulation line profile of the Li I resonance doublet depends on the Li abundance.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 433-450
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Expanding envelopes of compact objects that possess a buring region at the base of the envelope are commonly observed and modeled. In many cases, such as the late stages of classical nova, the expanding envelope develops into a stationary, optically thick wind of matter escaping from the star. In the usual theoretical formalism there is one more unknown than equations, with closure being obtained by the requirement that the solution pass through the singularity at the sonic point. It is shown analytically that the mass flux, which is one of the unknowns, is almost completely determined by the physical conditions near the base of the envelope just above the burning zone. The sonic point closure relation determines whether the expanding solution can develop into a wind solution. For a given core mass the range of possible wind solutions is an outcome of the great sensitivity of the mass flux to the inner luminosity. Solutions determined through numerical integrations are shown to lie entirely within the narrow analytic boundaries.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 411-414
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An upper bound to the energy density of infrared background radiation is derived from considering the effect of gamma-gamma interactions on the observed TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the active galaxy Markarian 421. This upper bound proves to be the most restrictive for the wavelength range of 10-12 micrometers. These constraints are presently limited by the uncertainty of extrapolating the source spectrum from 5 to 500 GeV. Observations in the regime less than 100 GeV would significantly improve these limits, allowing for a wide range of IR production models to be constrained.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 227-230
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The efficacy of the UV reflectance spectroscopy technique used by Mariner 9 to remotely measure ozone abundance at Mars is discussed. Due to temporal and spatial variability in cloud and dust amount, previously inferred ozone abundances could be underestimated by a factor of 3. Until the large uncertainty in cloud and dust scattering properties and opacities can be reduced, the ozone abundance inferred by the reflectance spectroscopy technique will always have significant uncertainty.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 113; 1; p. 213-216
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The limb to limb Lyman-alpha reflectivities observed with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instruments during the fly-by of Saturn are reanalyzed using a revised H Lyman-alpha sensitivity for the Voyager 1 instrument. The new sensitivity reconciles the measured intensities to those of Voyager 2 and gives a coherent set of data. To fit the UV airglow observations, four sources are considered: (1) H resonance and H2 Rayleigh scattering of solar Lyman-alpha radiation, (2) the interplanetary Lyman-alpha radiation, (3) a possible internal source of unknown origin, (4) the possibility of atmospheric turbulence recently proposed to explain the Lyman-alpha bulge of Jupiter. The analysis supports neither a dominant collisional excitation source for the UV emissions nor the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence. The best fit, in terms of brightness but also in terms of shape of the limb to limb profile (that is to say independent on the absolute calibrations), is obtained for pure resonance and Rayleigh scattering of solar and interstellar wind line in an atmosphere enriched in atomic hydrogen up to three times the standard model. Influx of water from the rings of Saturn may provide a means for producing such enhanced H densities in the upper atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 113; 1; p. 91-102
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present a complete solution for a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Riemann problems in which the upstream and downstream states have the same total pressure, and in which the normal component of the magnetic field is very small. These solutions are pertinent to subfast flows in the earth's magnetic tail and near the magnetopause. In a coplanar situation a family of solutions exists that depend on two parameters as well as on dissapation mechanisms. In the parallel case the transverse magnetic field either does not change direction or changes the direction twice by involving two intermediate shocks. In the antiparallel case an intermediate shock is always required, except when the solution consists of two switch-off shocks. In a noncoplanar case the solution is not self-similar as a function of x/t, but continues to evolve. At early times the evolution is similar to the coplanar case. In general two time-dependent intermediate shocks are required to rotate the magnetic fields. The velocity shear has a strong effect on the Riemann solution. In some cases no Riemann solution can exist because of the cavitation caused by the slow refraction waves. The calculated magnetopause structure resembles the observed structure for northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, for southward IMF, the MHD result shows the existence of a depletion layer, which is not supported by observations. We also show that on the magnetosheath side, the Walen relation, which is exact for a rotational discontinuity, can also be well satisfied by a slow shock, an intermediate shock, or the head of a slow rarefaction wave.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5579- 5598
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. L133-L135
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report the results of new smoothed particle hydrodynamics calculations of parabolic collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars. The stars are assumed to be close the MS turnoff point in a globular cluster and are therefore modeled as n = 3, Gamma = 5/3 polytropes. We find that the high degree of central mass concentration in these stars has a profound effect on the hydrodynamics. In particular, very little hydrodynamic mixing occurs between the dense, helium-rich inner cores and the outer envelopes. As a result, and in contrast to what has been assumed in previous studies, blue stragglers formed by direct stellar collisions are not necessarily expected to have anomalously high helium abundances in their envelopes or to have their cores replenished with fresh hydrogen fuel.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 2; p. L117-L120
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: L1551NE is a very young protostar (class I or perhaps class 0), located very close to L1551NE IRS 5. It is the second brightest far-infrared source in the Taurus molecular cloud complex, but its proximity to the brightest source IRS 5 has prevented effective observations of any molecular outflow. We here present evidence that it does indeed process an outflow, that the optical/infrared reflection nebula is associated with the blueshifted outflow lobe, and that the L1551W outflow does not originate from L1551NE, as has been suggested.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. L55-L58
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Using the output from a grid of 60 Type II supernova models (Woosley & Weaver 1995) of varying mass (11 approx. less than (M/solar mass) approx. less than 40) and metallicity (0, 10(exp -4), 0.01, and 1 solar metallicity), the chemical evolution of 76 stable isotopes, from hydrogen to zinc, is calculated. The chemical evolution calculation employs a simple dynamical model for the Galaxy (infall with a 4 Gyr e-folding timescale onto a exponential dsk and 1/r(exp 2) bulge), and standard evolution parameters, such as a Salpeter initial mass function and a quadratic Schmidt star formation rate. The theoretical results are compared in detail with observed stellar abundances in stars with metallicities in the range -3.0 approx. less than (Fe/H) approx. less than 0.0 dex. While our discussion focuses on the solar neighborhood where there are the most observations, the supernova rates, an intrinsically Galactic quality, are also discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 98; 2; p. 617-658
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Flux transfer events (FTEs) are disturbances in and near the magnetopause current layer that cause a characteristic signature in the component of the magnetic field parallel to the average boundary normal. These disturbances have been observed at Mercury, Earth and Jupiter but not at Saturn, Uranus or Neptune. At Earth, FTEs last about 1 minute and repeat about every 8 but at Mercury, a much smaller magnetosphere, the events last seconds and are tens of seconds apart. These features have been interpreted in terms of magnetospheric flux ropes connected to the interplanetary magnetic field, arising as the result of reconnection. An analogous phenomenon occurs at Venus where magnetic flux ropes arise at the ionosphere, a boundary between a very strongly magnetized one. However, here the flux ropes do not appear to be due to reconnection.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)159-(4)163
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The upstream regions of all planets, except Pluto, have been investigated, using in situ spacecraft measurements and a variety of analysis techniques. The detailed studies at Earth indicate that these waves are generated locally in the magnetically connected solar wind by the interaction with ions backstreaming from the shock. However, since the properties of the solar wind vary with heliocentric distance and since properties of planetary shocks depend on plasma beta, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) spiral angle and Mach number, the amount of heating, acceleration efficiencies, etc. significantly change with heliocentric distance. In turn the waves seen at each planet propagate not in the same but different (physical) propagation modes. In this paper we compare the ULF wave observations at an outer and an inner planet. We use the results of the ratio, quantites easily derivable with sufficient accuracy at each planet. We use the full electromagnetic dispersion relation for comparison with theoretical predictions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)143-(4)148
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Observations of the Mars tail by the spacecraft have been used to estimate the draping angle of the magnetic field within the tail and the boundary flaring angle. The boundary of the tail is defined by the sudden disappearance of the proton flux by the TAUS ion spectrometer. Solar wind measurements by the TAUS instrument are used to calculate the approximate solar wind dynamic pressure when the spacecraft is within the tail boundary. The average draping angle (Acrsin((square root of (B(sub y)(exp 2) + B(sub z)(exp 2)))/B(sub T))) is found to be 27.2 deg +/- 1.4 deg. The draping angle magnitude depends on the solar wind dynamic pressure, but is quite variable. The flaring angle of the tail boundary at X = -2.5 R(sub M) has also been calculated from the balance of pressure between the lobe of the Martian tail and the component pressures of the solar wind. The flaring angle depends strongly on the solar wind dynamic pressure, and this dependence is identical to that obtained at the Earth by Petrinec and Russell. However, the magnitude of the flaring angle at Mars X = -2.5 R(sub M) is one-half the value obtained at Earth for -22.5 R(sub E) is less than or equal to X -10 R(sub E).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)99-(4)103
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: As the Galileo spacecraft passed the asteroids Gaspra in 1990 and Ida in 1993, the magnetometer recorded changes in the solar wind magnetic field that we associate with the presence of the nearby body. This paper focuses on the types of interactions that can produce perturbations in the solar wind. We have suggested that the interaction at Gaspra is consistent with expectations of flow diversion by a magnetic dipole moment and an associated 'magnetosphere' whose scale size is much larger than the diameter of the solid body. The conditions for the Ida flyby leave more room for ambiguity. The observations could plausibly be related to either interaction with a magnetized body or with a conducting body. We will report on details of the observations that may enable us to distinguish between the different types of interaction and to provide quantitative estimates of the physical properties of the asteroids themselves.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)59-(4)68
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We develop numerical models of accretions disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs), including and emphasizing the boundary layer region where the accretion disk meets the accreting white dwarf. We confine ourselves to solutions where the boundary layer region is vertically optically thick, and find that these solutions share several common features. The angular and radial velocities of the accreting material drop rapidly in a dynamical boundary layer, which has a radial width approximately 1%-3% of the white dwarf radius. The energy dissipated in this region diffuses through the inner part of the disk and is radiated from the disk surface in a thermal boundary layer, which has a radial width comparable to the disk thickness, approximately 5%-15% of the white dwarf radius. We examine the dependence of the boundary layer structure on the mass accretion rate, the white dwarf mass and rotation rate, and the viscosity parameter alpha. We delineate the boundary between optically thick and optically thin boundary layer solutions as a function of these parameters and suggest that by means of a careful comparison with observations it may be possible to estimate alpha in CVs. We derive an expression for the total boundary layer luminosities as a function of the parameters and show that it agrees well with the luminosites of our numerical solutions. Finally, we calcuate simple blackbody continuum spectra of the boundary layer and disk emission for our solutions and compare these to soft X-ray, EUV, and He II emission-line observations of CVs. We show that, through such comparisons, it may be possible to determine the rotation rates of the accreting stars in CVs, and perhaps also the white dwarf masses and the accretion rates. The spectra are quite insensitive to alpha, so the uncertainty in this parameter does not affect such comparisons.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 442; 1; p. 337-357
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We describe a numerical code to solve the equations for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is based on an explicit finite difference scheme on an Eulerian grid, called the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme, which is a second-order-accurate extension of the Roe-type upwind scheme. We also describe a non-linear Riemann solver for ideal MHD, which includes rarefractions as well as shocks. The numerical code and the Riemann solver have been used to test each other. Extensive tests encompassing all the possible ideal MHD structures with planar symmetries (i.e., one-dimensional flows) are presented. These include those for which the field structure is two dimensional (i.e., those flows often called '1 + 1/2 dimensional') as well as those for which the magnetic field plane rotates (i.e., those flows often called '1 + 1/2 + 1/2 dimensional'). Results indicate that the code can resolve strong fast, slow, and magnetosonic shocks within two to four cells, but more cells are required if shocks become weak. With proper steepening, we could resolve rotational discontinuities within three to five cells. However, without successful implementation of steepening, contact discontinuities are resolved with approximately 10 cells and tangential discountinuities are resolved with approximately 15 cells. Out tests confirm that slow compound structures with tow-dimensional magnetic fields are composed of intermediate shocks (so-called 2-4 intermediate shocks) followed by slow rarefaction waves. Finally, tests demostrate that in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics, fast compound structures, which are composed of intermediate shocks (so-called 1-3 intermediate shocks) preceeded by fast rarefaction waves, are also possible.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 442; 1; p. 228-258
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Photometric and polarimetric observations of both images of the gravitationally lensed quasar Q0957+561 (z(sub em) = 1.41) were obtained in the UV in 1993 with the High Speed Photometer on board the Hubble Space Photometer on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images exhibited no significant polarization in a bandpass centered on 2770 A (observer's frame); p less than or = 3.2 % (2 sigma upper limit) in each image. The ratio of the flux density in image A to that in image B in late 1993 had a constant valuee, 1.021 +/- 0.008, in four different UV bandpass between 1400 A and 3040 A observer's frame). These results are consistent with the prediction of the gravitation lens interpretation that the photometric ratio of the images measured simultaneously should be independent of frequency. Reprocessed archival spectra of the two images obtained between 1981 and 1983 by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) show that the photometric ratio of A to B varies between 0.96 and 2.0 in the Ly alpha emission line, and between 0.77 and 1.8 in the O VI lambda 1037 emission line (quasar rest frame). The photometric ratio of A to B at any single epoch is often significantly different in the two emission lines. Accepting the system as a gravitational lens implies that in the quasar the flux in the Ly alpha emsisson line can vary independently of the flux in the 0 IV emission line.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 442; 1; p. 87-90
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm absorption -- characterized by bound-free O VII or O VIII edegs near 0.8 keV -- if the column densities were N(sub H) greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 21)/sq cm (for solar abundances).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 606-616
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have systematically analyzed a sample of 13 new and archival ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of compact groups of galaxies: 12 Hickson compact groups plus the NCG 2300 group. We find that approximately two-thirds of the groups have extended X-ray emission and, in four of these, the emission is resolved into diffuse emission from gas at a temperature of kT approximately 1 keV in the group potential. All but one of the groups with extended emission have a spiral fraction of less than 50%. The baryon fraction of groups with diffuse emission is 5%-19%, similar to the values in clusters of galaxies. However, with a single exception (HCG 62), the gas-to-stellar mass ratio in our groups has a median value near 5%, somewhat greater than the values for individual early-type galaxies and two orders of magnitude than in clusters of galaxies. The X-ray luminosities of individual group galaxies are comparable to those of similar field galaxies, although the L(sub X)-L(sub B) relation for early-type galaxies may be flatter in compact groups than in the field.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 2; p. 514-526
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Whistler mode waves have been recorded in the upstream region of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Saturn. They are elliptically polarized and observed typically at frequencies between 0.1 to 4 Hz. These intrinsically right handed waves can be left-handed polarized in the spaceframe as a result of strong negative Doppler shift. The waves propagate at an angle between 10 and 60 deg to the background magnetic field, with (Delta B)/B rarely exceeding 0.1. Comprehensive studies of these waves at Earth and Venus indicate that upstream whistlers are generated at the shock rather than locally in the foreshock. In this paper, we compare properties of upstream whistlers at all these planets. We also discuss the utilization of selected properties of these waves to evaluate the effective Alfvenic Mach number and the shock thickness at Mercury where solar wind measurements are not available.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)137-(4)141
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: At Venus the interaction of the shocked solar wind and cold planetary ions takes place in the dayside mantle. The shocked solar wind is a warm, drifting Maxwellian plasma whereas the planetary plasma is cold; the plasma in the mantle is strongly magnetized. The coexistence of these two populations is unstable, and it leads to wave excitations that organize the energy and momentum exchange between the shocked solar wind and the plasma of planetary origin. The source of the free energy is the solar wind. The intensive wave activity seen in the 100 Hz channel of the wave instrument onboard the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter in the dayside mantle region of Venus can be identified as almost electrostatic VLF waves excited by the kinetic branch of the modified two-stream lower hybrid instability. The waves interact with the particles, and the planetary plasma is heated and accelerated outside the ionosphere, close to its upper boundary. This way solar wind scavenges the ionosphere, and planetary ions leave the planetary magnetosphere. A portion of the wave energy is capable of penetrating directly into the ionosphere and heating it.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 4; p. (4)71-(4)74
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is well known that in cataclysmic variables the mass transfer rate must fluctuate about the evolutionary mean on timescales too long to be directly observable. We show that limit-cycle behavior can occur if the radius change of the secondary star is sensitive to the instantaneous mass transfer rate. The only reasonable way in which such a dependence can arise is through irradiation of this star by the accreting component. The system oscillates between high states, in which irradiation causes slow expansion of the secondary and drives an elevated transfer rate, and low states, in which this star contracts.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. L37-L40
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Plasma waves observed in the VLF range upstream of planetary bow shocks not only modify the particle distributions, but also provide important information about the acceleration processes that occur at the bow shock. Electron plasma oscillations observed near the tangent field line in the electron foreshock are generated by electrons reflected at the bow shock through a process that has been referred to as Fast Fermi acceleration. Fast Fermi acceleration is the same as shock-drift acceleration, which is one of the mechanisms by which ions are energized at the shock. We have generated maps of the VLF emissions upstream of the Venus bow shock, using these maps to infer properties of the shock energization processes. We find that the plasma oscillations extend along the field line up to a distance that appears to be controlled by the shock scale size, implying that shock curvature restricsts the flux and energy of reflected electrons. We also find that the ion acoustic waves are observed in the ion foreshock, but at Venus these emissions are not detected near the ULF forshock boundary. Through analogy with terrestrial ion observations, this implies that the ion acoustic waves are not generated by ion beams, but are instead generated by diffuse ion distributions found deep within the ion foreshock. However, since the shock is much smaller at Venus, and there is no magnetosphere, we might expect ion distributions within the ion foreshock to be different than at the Earth. Mapping studies of the terrestrial foreshock similar to those carried out at Venus appear to be necessary to determine if the inferences drawn from Venus data are applicable to other foreshocks.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 29-42
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In this paper we describe a new technique for obtaining the conversion factor between the molecular hydrogen column density and the CO(J = 1-0) integrated antenna temperature. This factor, typically known as X(sub CO) is often to be of order a few times 10(exp 20)/sq cm/K km/s) for the molecular clouds in the Galaxy and is one of the primary means of determining the molecular cloud mass from CO observations. However, for the low-extinction interstellar clouds known as the translucent molecular clouds, estimates of X(sub CO) vary by up to a factor of 60 depending on the object and techniques employed to calibrate X(sub CO). Since the cloud mass is directly proportional to X(sub CO) uncertainties in mass estimates of translucent clouds can be more than an order of magnitude. We calibrate the H2 content in translucent clouds by using the linear relationship between the CH and H2 column densities. The CH column density is readily determined from observations of the CH ground-state hyperfine main-line transition at 3335 MHz. Using CH as a surrogate tracer for H2 and CO(J = 1-0) observations of a sample of translucent and dark molecular clouds, we find a wide variation in values for X(sub CO). For translucent clouds, X(sub CO) ranges from 0.3 to 6.8 x 10(exp 20) and for dark clouds the values range from 0.8 to 8.6. Although the average values for both types of cloud are similar to the canonical value determined for the Galactic molecular cloud ensemble (2-4 x 10(exp 20)), the scatter in individual X(sub CO) values may indicate that X(sub CO) for a given translucent cloud cannot be determined a priori and must be obtained for each cloud so that a reliable mass determination may be made.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 1; p. 169-180
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present new U- and I-band images of the centrally dominant galaxy in the Hydra A cluster, obtained with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. The galaxy is centered in a poor, X-ray-luminous cluster whose gaseous intracluster medium is apparently cooling at a rate of m-dot(sub CF) approximately 3000 solar masses/yr. The galaxy's structure is that of a normal giant elliptical galaxy, apart from the central approximately 8 x 6 arcsec (approximately 12 x 9 kpc) region which contains an unusually blue, lobelike structure that is spatially coincident with a luminous emission-line nebula in rotation about the nucleus. Based on near spatial coincidence of the central continuum structure and the emission-line nebula, we suggest that the blue continuum is due to a warm stellar population in a central disk. In order to isolate and study the structure of the disk, we have subtracted a smooth galactic background model from the U-band image. The disk's surface brightness profiles along its major and minor axes decline roughly exponentially with radius. The disk's axial ratio is consistent with a nearly edge-on thick disk or a thin disk that is inclined with respect to the line of sight. The bluest regions, located a few arcsec on either side of the nucleus (giving the lobelike appearance), may be due to locally enhanced star formation or a seeing-blurred ring of young stars embedded in the disk observed nearly edge-on. If star-formation is occurring with the local initial mass function, the central color, surface brightness, and dynamical mass would be consistent with models for star formation at a rate of less than and approximately 1 solar masses/yr which has persisted for the past approximately 10(exp 9) yr, a short burst (10(exp 7) yr) of star formation at a rate of approximately 30 solar masses/yr which occurred less than and approximately 10(exp 8) yr ago, or an instantaneous burst of star formation which occurred approximately 5 x 10(exp 7) yr ago. While the young population contributes approximately 30%-40% of the central U-band luminosity, its mass would be less than and approximately 1% to less than and approximately 10% (10(exp 8) solar masses - 2 x 10(exp 9) solar masses of the galaxy's central dynamical mass. We consider a number of possible origins for the disk material.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 1; p. 77-88
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are due to the presence of a central bar. Although bars cannot be detected photometrically in edge-on galaxies, we show that barred potentials produce a strong kinematic signature in the form of double-peaked line-of-sight velocity distributions with a characteristic 'figure-of-eight' variation with radius. We have obtained spectroscopic observations of two edge-on galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges (NGC 5746 and NGC 5965), and they reveal exactly such line-of-sight velocity distributions in both their gaseous (emission line) and their stellar (absorption line) components. These observations provide strong observational evidence that peanut-shaped bulges are a by-product of bar formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 443; 1; p. L13-L16
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24