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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (16,581)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A high-resolution mosaic of Ida shows a highly irregular body (roughly 56 km long), heavily covered with craters, with many interesting geological features, including grooves, blocks, chutes, dark-floored craters, and crater chains. A satellite of Ida, with a preliminary designation of 1993 (243) 1, was discovered in orbit around Ida. It is approximately 1.5 km in diameter, has an albedo and spectral reflectance not grossly different from Ida, and orbits Ida in a prograde direction with a period of roughly 20 hr. No other comparable-sized satellites have been found near Ida. New pictures of the opposite side of Ida reveal an irregular, dog-bone shape, with a prominent gouge that seems to separate Ida into two chief components. A V-shaped valley, well shown in the highest-resolution view of Ida returned in April, may mark a modest expression on the September face of the more dramatic feature on the back side. Ida's dense population of craters shows a wide diversity of morphologies, consistent with the surface having been subjected to saturated bombardment by smaller projectiles. Assuming the same projectile flux applies to Ida was used in deriving Gaspra's cratering age of about 200 m.y., and assuming that Gaspra and Ida both have the same impact strength, then the age of Ida's surface is calculated to be 1-2 b.y. This is considerably older than expected from other evidence concerning the Koronis family. Our favored explanation of Ida's satellite is that it (or a precursor satellite from which the present satellite was derived) formed during the catastrophic disruption event that formed Ida itself and formed the Koronis family of asteroids. Perhaps, instead, the satellite is a block ejected from a cratering impact. In any case, smaller blocks visible on some parts of Ida are more certain to be crater ejecta, whether or not they were ever temporary satellites.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 455
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Many of the textures that are observed in CM chondrites have been alternately assigned nebular, parent-body, or combined nebular-parent body origins. Since it is very difficult to substantiate the production of complex textures in the nebula, an alternate approach to this problem is to rigorously determine which of the observable textures could have been produced by reasonable aqueous alteration processes on the CM parent body. Potential parent body reactions involving S deserve special attention because S-bearing phase define many important CM textures, such as rims. We have examined the possibility that the thin (about 5 microns) rinds of sulfides observed around some partially dissolved olivines within the chondrules and matrixes of CM chondrites were formed by the preferential precipitation of sulfides at or near dissolving olivine boundaries during parent-body alteration. Our model defines two infinite and parallel planes of olivine that are separated by pure water. Average separation distances between olivine grains in CM chondrites at the time of accretion (about 100-200 microns) were estimated by assuming a closed system fluid/rock ratio of 45% and varying the bimodal grain-size distribution. We restrict our calculations to the case of an isochemical system with sufficient bisulfide in solution to account for precipitation of pyrrhotite at STP. Our model examines the possibility that dissolving olivines with compositions between Fo(sub 0.9) and Fo(sub 0.4) can produce a strong gradient of Fe(2+) at pHs from 7 to 12 such that the precipitation of pyrrhotite will be initiated at the olivine-fluid boundary. Since CM phase equilibria is consistent with highly reducing conditions, Fe released by olivines would largely remain in solution as Fe(2+) until the solubility product of a Fe(2+) bearing phase was exceeded. Our calculations indicate that all examined combinations of olivine composition and pH yield a strong Fe(2+) gradient at the time the pyrrhotite solubility is exceeded near the olivine-fluid boundary. This favors the initiation of sulfide precipitation around dissolving olivines. However, sulfide rinds are not observed around all partially dissolved olivine grains in CM chondrites, which suggests that the availability of aqueous sulfide species limits the production of the thin sulfide rinds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 450
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: ALH 84001 has recently been reclassified as a meteorite from Mars (SNC) and contains more than 90% orthopyroxene with minor chromite and accessory phases of augite, maskelynite, and carbonate. This meteorite represents a new class of igneous material from Mars. We have measured reflectance spectra of ALH 84001 as a chip as a powder, dry sieved to less than 125 microns to compare with previous spectral analyses of SNCs and remote observations of Mars. Spectra of the chip and powder in the visible-to-near-infrared region are shown. These spectra are composites of data measured with the RELAB bidirectional spectrometer from 0.3 to 2.55 microns and a Nicolet FTIR for longer wavelengths. As expected, the spectra of the chip have negative slopes and are significantly darker than the spectrum of the particulate sample, which has a positive slope. The strong absorptions near 1 micron and 2 microns are characteristic of low-Ca pyroxene and have band rninima of 0.925 microns and 1.930 microns. The strong absorption near 3 microns is characteristic of water. There is a distinct flattening in the spectrum between 1.0 and 1.5 microns indicating the presence of an additional absorption. This is interpreted to be the result of Fe(2+) in the M1 site of low-Ca pyroxene. Mid-infrared spectra showing the Christiansen feature and the reststrahlen bands are shown for spectra of the powder and of three different locations on the chip. These spectra exhibit several features in this range, some of which are associated with a specific region on the chip. Each of the spectra includes a doublet reststrahlen peak near 1100/cm, and peaks near 880 and 500/cm, which are typical for low-Ca pyroxenes. Weaker features at 940-1000/cm, 600-750/cm, and 530-560/cm are present in spectra from some locations on the chip, but not others, implying compositional and textural variation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 444-445
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which encompassed 57 experiments with more than 10,000 test specimens, spent 69 months in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) before it was retrieved by the Space Shuttle in January 1990. Hundreds of LDEF investigators, after studying for over two years these retrieved test specimens and the onboard recorded data and systems hardware, have generated a unique first-hand view of the long-term synergistic effects that the LEO environment can have on spacecraft. These studies have also contributed significantly toward more accurate models of the LEO radiation, meteoroid, manmade debris and atomic oxygen environments. This paper provides an overview of some of the many LDEF observations and the implications these can have on future spacecraft such as Space Station Freedom.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Life Sciences and Space Research 25 (2) Radiation Biology: Topical Meeting of the COSPAR Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sep. 5, 1 (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 10; p. 7-16
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Particle Capture, Recovery and Velocity(Trajectory Measurement Technologies; p 5-7
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now followed by analyses of isolated olivine grains in C2 and C3 meteorites.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1345-1346
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Dohnanyi established that the size distribution of a collisionally relaxed population is a power-law with a -3.5 slope (incremental diameter), provided that: (1) collisional parameters are independent of size and (2) there is no lower limit on the population size for shattering impacts. In the course of studying collisional effects over a wide range of asteroid sizes (cm up to hundreds of km range), we have investigated the consequences of relaxing the second condition, while maintaining the first one.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 377-378
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The possibility of diamond formation in radiation processes was checked by studying diamond contents in carburanium sample. The diamonds were not found and this result is discussed. At present one possible process of formation of nanometer-size diamond crystals in some meteorites and Earth's diamonds (carbonado), the radiation mechanism, is suggested: the formation of diamonds from carbonaceous matter in tracks of U fragment fissions and heavy fragmentation due to the action of energetic particles of cosmic rays. Bjakov et. al. have carried out the calculations and shown that the volume of formed diamonds in carbonaceous chondrites by radiation processes corresponds to discovery of diamond volume in chondrites. The discovery by Ozima et. al. of the unsupported fission of Xe and Kr in carbonado supports the supposition that carbonado could be formed by radiation processes. The possibility of diamond formation in radiation processes leads to the study of diamond contents in Earth's samples enriched by uranium and carbon. The attempt to release the diamonds from carburanium was undertaken.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 483-484
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Lodran achondrite contains about one-quarter metallic Fe/Ni, two-thirds olivine and pyroxene, some troilite, plus minor phases. In a previous study we demonstrated that Lodran and three other lodranites - LEW88280, Yamato-791491, and MAC88177 - yield the same cosmic-ray exposure age of a few million years, suggesting that they originate from the same parent body. In the present work we show that the mineral phases of Lodran contain large concentrations of planetary-type but no solar-type trapped noble gases. Surprisingly, the highest concentrations were observed in the Fe/Ni-phase (e.g. 1520 x 10(exp -12) cc STP per g (132)Xe). A large fraction of the trapped gas is released between 1200 C and 1400 C. The Xe isotopic pattern is similar to that of Xe-Q. The 1400 C fraction of the Fe/Ni-phase shows excesses of (124)Xe, (126)Xe, and (128)Xe similar to Xe-L (pre-solar Xe enriched in the light isotopes) that has, until now, only been observed in combination with Xe-H (pre-solar Xe enriched in the heavy isotopes).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 453-454
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Weathering products and contamination severely hamper our ability to accurately measure the C-14 spallation component in meteorites, but can give insights into a sample's terrestrial history. A procedure was developed to measure the C-14 in these components using CO and CO2 separations from temperature extractions from 200-500 mg of material. The Bruderheim (L6) chondrite was chosen as a standard following the practice of previous researchers, crosschecked against Peace River (L6), Abee (EH4), and Juvinas (EUC). Low temperature fractions (less than 900 C) give C-14 signatures consistent with a modern terrestrial C-14 source; melt fractions show elevated levels attesting to a spallogenic origin. Higher yields of CO in the melt fraction are less affected by the low levels of experimental contamination than the CO2. This fraction gave a mean CO:CO2 ratio in Bruderheim of 81.6 +/- 7.7; the ratio of the spallation component is 79.8 +/- 8.1. These values suggest equilibrium release of gases on the olivine-silica-pyroxene-iron buffer. This is corroborated by approximately equal release of the two components at 900 C. The chondrites gave an average saturation level of 54.3 +/- 2.9 dpm/kg; the achondrite gave 49.6 +/- 2.0 dpm/kg. No clear correlation with oxygen content is apparent, though shielding effects have yet to be evaluated. A further evaluation of this subject matter is given.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 341-342
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  • 11
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: An elongate year-day concentration of CM meteoroid falls between 1921 and 1969 is inconsistent with a random flux of CM meteoroids and suggests that most or all such meteorites, and perhaps the Kaidun C-E chondrite breccia, resulted from streams of meteoroids in nearly circular, Earth-like orbits. To establish whether the post-1920 cluster might have arisen from random sampling, we determined the year-day distribution of 14 falls between 1879 and 1969 by treating each as the corner of a cell of specified dimensions (e.g. 30 years x 30 days) and calculated how many falls occurred in that cell. We then compared the CM cell distribution with random distributions over the same range of years. The results show that for 30 x 30 and 45 x 45 cells, fewer than 5 percent of random sets match the CM distribution with respect to maximum cell content and number of one-fall cells.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 405-406
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  • 12
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The determination of spin axis and shape is well known to be of fundamental importance for studies about the rotational and physical properties of asteroids. In particular, knowledge that the pole coordinate distribution is random or not could indicate the probable non-Maxwellian distribution of asteroid spin axes, while the distribution in terms of size and shape could place important constraints on the theories about the collisional history of some individual asteroids, of asteroid families, and of the asteroid population as a whole. Many kinds of methods have been developed to determine pole coordinates. An EA method is presented, from which it is possible to obtain the solution with no trial poles, but with a simultaneous least square fit on both the E and A part. Results for rotational and shape parameters were obtained for 18 asteroids: the values of the obtained parameters are generally in close agreement with those of others.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 385-386
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A low-power cathodoluminescence (CL) mosaic of a 1x2 cm section of the Murchison CM chondrite contains chondrules of two types: one contains olivines with red CL and is thought to be the equivalent of group A chondrules of Sears et.; and one without observable CL, which is probably equivalent to their group B chondrules. Both types of chondrule contain dust mantles with a characteristic uniform red CL due to very fine-grained forsterites, but the mantles of group A chondrules have a complex internal structure and are much thicker than the relatively thin rims on the group B chondrules. The variety of internal textures and the progressive integration of the objects with the surrounding matrix suggests to us that these features are large group A chondrules in the process of being destroyed by aqueous alteration. Prior to aqueous alteration, group A chondrules in CM chondrites were larger than group B chondrules, which is contrary to the situation in ordinary chondrites and were apparently destroyed more rapidly than group B chondrules by aqueous alteration.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1269-1270
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1267-1268
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: This paper presents the results of an attempt to determine S-Type asteroid mineralogies with the use of Hapke theory spectral mixing modelling. Previous attempts to understand the spectral variations present in this single class of asteroids have concentrated on spectral parameters such as absorption band center wavelengths, band area ratios, and geometric albedos. The procedure taken here is to utilize the Hapke spectral reflectance model to calculate single scatter albedo as a function of wavelength for a suite of candidate end-member materials. These materials are then mixed linearly in single scatter albedo space, and the mixture is converted, assuming intimate particle mixing, back to reflectance for the spectrum matching routine. A total of 39 S-Type asteroids selected from the Bell et al. survey have been matched with mixture model spectra.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 303-304
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The new Seven-Color infrared filter system (SCAS), designed specifically to capture the essential mineralogical information present in asteroid spectra, is composed of seven broad-band filters which allow for IR observations of objects as faint as 17th magnitude. The first test of the SCAS system occurred in Jul. 1992. In four nights at the IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, over 67 objects were observed. Five of the observations were to test the new system for accuracy relative to previous observations with the high-resolution 52 Color Infrared Survey and with the Eight-Color Asteroid Survey (ECAS). In three cases, the match with previous data was good. In two cases, the match to previous observations was not as good. In addition, sixty S-Type asteroids were measured with the SCAS system. Forty of those asteroids were also observed with the ECAS system. Among the new observations is infrared data of 371 Bohemia, a main belt asteroid which was classified 'QSV' according to its UBV colors in the taxonomic system of D.J. Tholen. There are no corresponding ECAS data for 371. Q-type asteroids are of special interest as they are proposed to be the elusive parent bodies of the ordinary chondrite meteorites. Most Q-types are Earth-crossing asteroids and have not yet been observed in the infrared (except, perhaps, 371). Positive identification of a large main belt Q-type would be of major importance in the scheme of the geological structure of the asteroid belt. Without visible wavelength data, however, the classification of 371 Bohemia remains ambiguous. An attempt to conjoin Bohemia SCAS data with ECAS data of both a typical Q-Type asteroid and an average S-Type asteroid is shown. This figure thus illustrates the importance of visible wavelength data to the SCAS system. In other words, without ECAS data of 371 Bohemia we cannot use its spectral characteristics to identify it as a possible parent body of ordinary chondrite meteorites.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 299-300
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  • 17
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: For approximately twenty years, many different asteroid taxonomies, which used many different observational data sets, have been developed to try to group asteroids into classes that contain members with similar spectral characteristics. However, to understand the structure of the asteroid belt, the resulting classes are only useful if they are grouping together asteroids with somewhat similar mineralogies and thermal histories. Until recently, these taxonomies have focused on spectral reflectance data from 0.3 to 1.1 microns and visual albedo. But in the last five years, observational data sets (e.g., 0.8 to 2.5 microns spectra, CCD spectra, 3 microns spectra, and radar albedos) for a small number of asteroids were compiled that can give a better mineralogical interpretation, but whose use in asteroid taxonomy was relatively limited. Analyses of these 'supplementary' data sets show that most asteroid classes contain members with different compositions and/or thermal histories. To understand the diversity of the asteroid belt, the number of objects with these observations must be expanded and used in the next generation of taxonomies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 223-224
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: He release temperature curves were determined for a specially processed set of 5 microns to 15 microns stratospheric IDP's whose masses, densities, and compositions were accurately measured. The He release temperature in combination with atmospheric entry calculations yields a most probable entry velocity for each particle and association with either an asteroidal (low velocity) or cometary (high velocity) origin. It was found that over half of the 5-15 microns IDP's have entry velocities consistent with asteroidal origin and that at least 20 percent have cometary origins. A few of the asteroidal particles are porous aggregates and it appears that there may be close material similarities among some primitive asteroids and comets. In the processing of individual 5 microns IDP's and determination of entry velocities, a few dozen microtome slices that can be used for a variety of detailed TEM, IR, and ion probe studies were preserved. These procedures provide laboratory samples that can be generically associated with asteroids and comets and are in a sense a limited sample return mission from these primitive bodies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 205-206
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The I-Xe system, based on the decay of 15.7 Ma I-129, is a potentially precise chronometer of early solar system events. However, it is not known how the system responded to thermal events during the post-formation histories of ordinary chondrites, severely limiting the usefulness of this system. Isothermal experiments on Bjurbole for different heating durations suggest that at least three domains are responsible for the thermal release of radiogenic Xe-129 (Xe*-129) and that the system may be less susceptible to thermal resetting than some calculations indicated. Two scenarios for the release of Xe*-129 were proposed. In one, the mobility of Xe*-129 is governed by diffusion in mineral grains. This leads to predicted closure temperatures comparable to, or less than, metamorphic temperatures. In the second, mineral grains that solidified at specific temperatures trapped I-129 within them, and the resulting Xe*-129 is only released when those minerals melt, such that isotopic closure occurs at the temperature of solidification.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 225-226
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 203-204
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Vesta is a large asteroid whose crust is mostly basaltic. Spectral heterogeneity suggests a sizable olivine feature which may be explained as impact excavation. The spectral data probably show a localized feature approximately 200 km in diameter or a diffuse feature approximately 400 km in diameter. Lightcurve irregularities suggest heterogeneity on a similar scale. This heterogeneity may represent the crater bowl, the extent of its ejecta deposit, or indeed something unrelated to cratering. In any case, drawing direct inferences about the state of Vesta's surface on the basis of these observations involves substantial speculation. We are still far from understanding the boundary between cratering and catastrophic disruption, particularly on targets for which strength and self-gravity both matter. But we are now able to model the underlying physical process -- dynamic fragmentation -- accurately with fragmentation hydrocodes such as SALE 2D and SPH3D. We present several impact scenarios for Vesta; our study is similar to a previous impact model for the formation of Stickney crater on Phobos. We illustrate the effects of impactors of different sizes and velocities, and the effect of gravity and structural inhomogeneity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 45-46
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We report here the first use of a new ion-imaging system to locate a rare interstellar aluminum oxide grain in a Murchison acid residue. While several types of carbon-rich interstellar grains, including graphite, diamond, SiC, and TiC, have previously been found, isotopically anomalous interstellar oxide grains have proven more elusive. We have developed an ion imaging system which allows us to map the isotopic composition of large numbers of grains relatively quickly and is, thus, ideally suited to search for isotopically exotic subsets of grains. The system consists of a PHOTOMETRICS CCD camera coupled to the microchannel plate/fluorescent screen of the WU modified CAMECA IMS-3F ion microprobe. Isotopic images of the sample surface are focused on the CCD and digitized. Subsequent image processing identifies individual grains in the images and determines isotopic ratios for each. For the present work, we have imaged in O-16 and O-18; negligible contributions of (17)OH(-) and (16)OH2(-) signals to the O-18 signal allow the use of low mass resolution, simplifying the measurements. Repeated imaging runs on terrestrial corundum particles showed that the system measures isotopic ratios reproducibly to about +/- 40%. Each imaging run took about six minutes to complete, and for this study there were on average 5-15 grains in each image. We have conducted imaging searches in 2-4 micron size separates of both Orgueil and Murchison.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1087-1088
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  • 23
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Helium and neon were extracted from fragments of individual stratosphere-collected interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) by subjecting them to increasing temperature by applying short-duration pulses of power in increasing amounts to the ovens containing the fragments. The experiment was designed to see whether differences in release temperatures could be observed which might provide clues as to the asteroidal or cometary origin of the particles. Variations were observed which show promise for elucidating the problem.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1075-1076
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Many meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with primitive compositions contain significant amounts of phyllosilicate minerals, which are generally interpreted as evidence of protoplanetary aqueous alteration at an early period of the solar system. These meteorites are chondrites (near solar composition) of the carbonaceous and ordinary varieties. The former are subdivided (according to bulk composition and petrology) into CI, CM, CV, CO, CR, and ungrouped classes. IDPs are extraterrestrial particulates, collected in stratosphere, which have chemical compositions indicative of a primitive origin; they are typically distinct from the primitive meteorites. Characterization of phyllosilicates in these materials is a high priority because of the important physico-chemical information they hold. The most common phyllosilicates present in chondritic extraterrestrial materials are serpentine-group minerals, smectites, and micas. We discuss these phyllosilicates and describe the interpretation of their occurrence in meteorites and IDPs and what this indicates about history of their parent bodies, which are probably the hydrous asteroids.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Program and Abstracts for Clay Minerals Society 28th Annual Meeting; p 184
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  • 25
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and strategy of space exploration.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Arizona Univ., Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts; p 37
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  • 26
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Three asteroid classes were defined from the early spectral surveys of the asteroids: C for carbonaceous, M for metallic, and S for stony. Subsequent spectral studies have defined new asteroid classes and have shown that the original classes can be divided into a number of additional asteroid types. The low albedo asteroids are now classified as types B, C, D, F, G, K and P. These types are concentrated in the middle asteroid belt and beyond. Their visible and near infrared spectra are generally featureless and dark, with a red slope in the ultraviolet. Some of them show water absorption features in the mid-infrared, indicating the presence of bound water. The lack of absorption features in the telescopic reflectance spectra has made it difficult to determine the mineralogy of the low albedo asteroids. Some of the asteroid spectra closely resemble laboratory spectra of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, implying similar mineralogy. These meteorites are chemically primitive, composed of fine-grained matrix material which includes hydrous silicates, complex carbon compounds, olivine and pyroxene, combined with olivine and/or pyroxene chondrules. The main belt low albedo asteroids are probably very similar to these asteroids, but no meteoritic analogues exist for the most distant asteroid types.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts; p 15
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Hypervelocity impact features on several of the electro-active dust sensors utilized in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microprobe. The negatively biased dust sensor surfaces acted as ion traps for cations produced in the plasma plumes of impacting particles. Impactor residue surrounds most impact features to two or three feature diameters. After etching away a layer of carbonaceous/silicaceous surface contamination, low mass resolution elemental survey scans are used to tentatively identify the presence of impactor debris. High mass resolution two-dimensional elemental maps and three dimensional depth profiling of the feature and surrounding area show the distribution and relative composition of the debris. The location of these sensors on the six primary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) sides provides a unique opportunity to further define the debris environment. Researchers applied the same techniques to impact and contaminant features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on row 12 and exposed to the environment during the entire mission.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 39
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils in order to collect neutral particles from the interstellar gas. These particles were entrapped in the foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and ambient atmospheric particles. Seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft for the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. The authors' mass spectroscopy analysis of the noble gas component of these interstellar particles detected isotopes of helium and neon. These preliminary measurements suggest that the various isotopes are occurring in approximately the expected amounts and that their distribution in direction of arrival is close to what models predict. The analysis to subtract the background fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress. The hope of this experiment is to investigate the noble gas isotopic ratios of this interstellar sample of matter which originated outside the solar system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 47
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Thermal control surfaces on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were exposed to 5.75 years of low-Earth orbit environments. Since LDEF was gravity gradient stabilized and directionally stable, the effects of each of the environments can be distinguished via changes in material responses to hypervelocity impacts. The extent of these effects are being visually and microscopically characterized using thermal control surfaces archived at Johnson Space Center in order to determine the the relationship between environment exposure and resulting ring sizes, delamination areas, and penetration diameters. The characterization of these affected areas will provide spacecraft system designers with the information they require to determine degradation of thermal control systems during satellite lifetimes.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 45b
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Spacecraft observations at comet Halley as well as computer simulations have shown that pitch angle scattering of newborn cometary ions proceeds at a relatively fast rate, leading to relatively isotropic shell-like velocity distribution functions. Energization processes whereby shell distributions become more Maxwellian and a few ions are accelerated to high energies appear to proceed more slowly. The research on the latter, slower process is described, in which the scattering is assumed to be due to the resonant, growing magnetic fluctuations driven by the non-Maxwellian nature of the ion distribution. An ion shell distribution which is isotropic in the wave frame begins the process and a Fokker-Plank derived from quasilinear plasma theory is used to describe the broadening and energization of the cometary ion distribution.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Southwest Research Inst., Workshop on Observations of Recent Comets (1990); p 166
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Comet Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on UT 21 to 24 Aug. 1989 using the CRSP spectrometer and the 1.3 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The cometary continuum was detected on all nights. The data are very noisy, due to the short observation window and the untried nature of the instrument. Low resolution (0.0227 micron) spectra show the 3.4 micron C-H stretch feature having a contrast of at most a factor of two to the neighboring continuum. High resolution (0.0031 micron) spectra between 3.4 and 3.6 microns show 1 sigma features that might be attributed to the nu 5 band of formaldehyde (H2CO). Similar spectra of the region between 3.2 and 3.4 microns show one 3 sigma line at 3.34 microns, which is as yet unidentified. Although the cometary spectra were more spatially extended than the spectra of standard stars, no extension of the line emission beyond the continuum was observed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Southwest Research Inst., Workshop on Observations of Recent Comets (1990); p 102
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Planetary nebulae of the galactic disk are generally seen to emit a thermal continuum due to dust grains heated by stellar and nebular photons. This continuum typically peaks between 25 and 60 micron m, so that the total power emitted by the dust is sampled well by the broad-band measurements made by IRAS. Researchers examine here the characteristics of the infrared emission from the four planetary nebulae which are believed on the basis of their low overall metallicities to belong to the halo population. These nebulae are of particular interest because they are the most metal-poor ionized nebulae known in our Galaxy, and offer the opportunity to probe possible dependences of the dust properties on nebular composition. Researchers present fluxes extracted from co-addition of the IRAS data, as well as ground-based near infrared measurements. Each of the four halo objects, including the planetary nebula in the globular cluster M15, is detected in at least one infrared band. Researchers compare the estimated infrared excesses of these nebulae (IRE, the ratio of measured infrared power to the power available in the form of resonantly-trapped Lyman alpha photons) to those of disk planetary nebulae with similar densities but more normal abundances. Three of the halo planetaries have IRE values similar to those of the disk nebulae, despite the fact that their Fe- and Si-peak gas phase abundances are factors of 10 to 100 lower. However, these halo nebulae have normal or elevated C/H ratios, due to nuclear processing and mixing in their red giant progenitors. Unlike the other halo planetaries, DDDM1 is deficient in carbon as well as in the other light metals. This nebula has a substantially lower IRE than the other halo planetaries, and may be truly dust efficient. Researchers suggest that the deficiency is due to a lack of the raw material for producing carbon-based grains, and that the main bulk constituent of the dust in these planetary nebulae is carbon.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 327
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: During the past 15 years considerable progress in observational techniques has been achieved in the middle infrared (5000 to 500 cm(-1), 2 to 20 microns m), the spectral region most diagnostic of molecular vibrations. Spectra of many different astronomical infrared sources, some deeply embedded in dark molecular clouds, are now available. These spectra provide a powerful probe, not only for the identification of interstellar molecules in both the gas solid phases, but also of the physical and chemical conditions which prevail in these two very different domains. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory ices one can determine the composition and abundance of the icy materials frozen on the cold (10K) dust grains present in the interior of molecular clouds. These grains and their ice mantles may well be the building blocks from which comets are made. As an illustration of the processes which can take place as an ice is irradiated and subsequently warmed, researchers present the infrared spectra of the mixture H2O:CH3OH:CO:NH3:C6H14 (100:50:10:10:10). Apart from the last species, the ratio of these compounds is representative of the simplest ices found in interstellar clouds. The last component was incorporated into this particular experiment as a tracer of the behavior of a non-aromatic hydrocarbon. The change in the composition that results from ultraviolet photolysis of this ice mixture using a UV lamp to simulate the interstellar radiation field is shown. Photolysis produces CO, CO2, CH4, HCO, H2CO, as well as a family of moderately volatile hydrocarbons. Less volatile carbonaceous materials are also produced. The evolution of the infrared spectrum of the ice as the sample is warmed up to room temperature is illustrated. Researchers believe that the changes are similar to those which occur as ice is ejected from a comet and warmed up by solar radiation. The warm-up sequence shows that the nitrile or iso-nitrile bearing compound produced during photolysis evaporates between 200 and 250K, suggesting that it is carried by a small molecular species. These molecules could be similar to the source material in Comet Halley that is ejected in grains into the coma, freed by sublimation, and photolyzed by solar radiation to produce the observed jets.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 321-322
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Carbon is among the most abundant elements in the universe and carbon chemistry in meteorites and comets is an important key to understanding many Solar System and interstellar processes. Yet, the mineralogical properties and interrelations between various structural forms of elemental carbon remain ambiguous. Crystalline elemental carbons include rhombohedral graphite, hexagonal graphite, cubic diamond, hexagonal diamond (i.e., lonsdaleite or carbon-2H) and chaoite. Elemental carbon also occurs as amorphous carbon and poorly graphitized (or turbostratic) carbon but of all the forms of elemental carbon only graphite is stable under physical conditions that prevail in small Solar System bodies and in the interstellar medium. The recent discovery of cubic diamond in carbonaceous chondrites and hexagonal diamond in chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have created a renewed interest in the crystalline elemental carbons that were not formed by shock processes on a parent body. Another technique, Raman spectroscopy, confirms a widespread occurrence of disordered graphite in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite and in chondritic IDPs. Elemental carbons have also been identified by their characteristic K-edge features in electron energy loss spectra (EELS). However, the spectroscopic data do not necessarily coincide with those obtained by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In order to interpret these data in terms of rational crystalline structures, it may be useful to consider the principles underlying electron diffraction and spectroscopic analyses. Electron diffraction depends on electron scattering, on the type of atom and the distance between atoms in a crystal lattice. Spectroscopic data are a function of the type of atom and the energy of bonds between atoms. Also, SAED is a bulk sampling technique when compared to techniques such as Raman spectroscopy or EELS. Thus, it appears that combined analyses provide contradictory results and that amorphous, or short-range ordered, carbon identified by conventional TEM imaging and SAED may show evidence for sp(3) bonds in EELS spectra. It is suggested that complex, nanometer-scale, mineralogical interrelations are common to all elemental carbons irrespective of their origin. The subsequent thermal history, or energy balance, will determine the ultimate microstructure.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 339-340
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Many moderately complex carbon-based molecules of the type associated with biological systems can exist in one of two mirror-image forms (left-handed and right-handed), which can be distinguished on the basis of their influence on the state of polarization of a light beam. Both forms are possible in nature; yet in living organisms it is invariably the rule that one of these two species predominates. This gives rise to a net chirality. One possible explanation for the net chirality is that the early earth was somehow seeded from the ISM with an excess of chiral organic compounds which led to the development of life forms which are based on left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars. Molecular spectroscopy of the interstellar medium (ISM) has revealed a complex variety of molecular species similar to those thought to have been available in the oceans and atmospheres of the earth at the time life formed. The detection of such molecules demonstrates the generality of the chemical processes occurring in both environments. If this generality extends to the processes which produce chirality, it may be possible to detect a net chirality in the ISM. This is of particular interest because determining whether or not net chirality exists elsewhere in the universe is an essential aspect of understanding how life developed on earth and how widely distributed it might be. Researchers report preliminary results of a feasibility study to determine whether or not a net chirality in the ISM can be measured. If laboratory results identify candidate chiral molecules that might exist in the ISM, the next step in this feasibility study will be to estimate the detectability of the chiral signature in astrophysical environments.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 337-338
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The measurements obtained here indicate ways in which micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to elucidate structural characteristics and distribution of carbon in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Existing information about structurally significant aspects of Raman measurements of graphite is combined with structurally relevant findings from the present micro-Raman studies of carbons prepared by carbonization of polyvinylidine chloride (PVDC) at various temperatures and natural material, as well as several acid residues from the Allende and Murchison meteorites in order to establish new spectra-structure relationships. Structural features of many of the materials in this study have been measured by x ray analysis and electron microscopy: thus, their structural differences can be directly correlated with differences in the Raman spectra. The spectral parameters consequently affirmed as indicators of structure are used as a measure of structure in materials that have unknown carbon structure, especially IDPs. The unique applicability of micro-Raman spectroscopy is realized not only in the ability to conveniently measure spectra of micron-size IDPs, but also micro-sized parts of an inhomogeneous material. Microcrystalline graphite is known to give Raman spectra that differ dependent on crystallite size (see e.g., Lespade, et. al., 1984, or Nemanich and Solin, 1979). The spectral changes that accompany decreasing particle size include increase in the ratio (R) of the intensity of the band near 1350 cm(-1) (D band) to that of the band near 1600 cm(-1) (G band) increase in the half width of the D band (wD) increase in the frequency maximum of the G band and increase in the half-width (wG) of the 2nd order band near 2700 cm(-1) (G) band.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 336
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Morphological and spectrophotometric investigations have been extensively applied in the past years to various kinds of micron and/or submicron-sized grains formed by materials which are candidate to be present in space. The samples are produced in the laboratory and then characterized in their physio-chemical properties. Some of the most recent results obtained on various kinds of carbonaceous materials are reported. Main attention is devoted to spectroscopic results in the VUV and IR wavelength ranges, where many of the analyzed samples show typical fingerprints which can be identified also in astrophysical and cometary materials. The laboratory methodologies used so far are also critically discussed in order to point out capabilities and present limitations, in the view of possible application to returned comet samples. Suggestions are given to develop new techniques which should overcome some of the problems faced in the manipulation and analysis of micron solid samples.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples; p 15
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A non-equilibrium mechanism that may produce substantial thermal and chemical processing of the outermost layer of cometary nuclei is proposed. If this phenomenon does occur, its effects will impact the interpretation of results from the CNSR and CRAF missions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples; p 12
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Electron microscopy will be useful for characterization of inorganic dust grains in returned comet nucleus samples. The choice of instrument(s) will depend primarily on the nature of the samples, but ultimately a variety of electron-beam methods could be employed. Scanning and analytical (transmission) electron microscopy are the logical choise for morphological, mineralogical, and bulk chemical analyses of dust grains removed from ices. It may also be possible to examine unmelted ice/dust mixtures using an environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a cryo-transfer unit and a cold stage. Electron microscopic observations of comet nuclei might include: (1) porosities of dust grains; (2) morphologies and microstructures of individual mineral grains; (3) relative abundances of olivine, pyroxene, and glass; and (4) the presence of phases that might have resulted from aqueous alteration (layer silicates, carbonates, sulfates).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples; p 11
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Ices of various kinds (H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, CH3OH, etc.) comprise a volumetrically significant proportion of objects in the solar system (comets, outer planets, planetary rings, satellites) as well as in interstellar space (astrophysical ices). The refinement of analytical electron microscopy (AEM) procedures for storing, preparing and analyzing ices and other materials at cryogenic temperatures is discussed. These procedures will be essential to the successful analysis of returned comet nucleus samples.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples; p 9-10
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: It is thought that comets are an intimate mixture of ices and sub-micron to pebble sized silicates. Based on experience with carbonaceous chrondrites, part of the smallest grains are expected to be primary condensates carrying the unadulterated isotopic signature of their place of origin. In order to extract this information a grain-by-grain analysis will be necessary.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples; p 8
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Evidence for short-lived nuclides in the early solar system is reviewed. The presence of these nuclides requires the addition to the interstellar medium, from which the solar system formed, of freshly synthesized materials just prior to the formation of the solar system. The best evidence is obtained for Al26. The time scale implied by the Al26 effects is equated with the free-fall time for the collapse of the protosolar cloud. From the observation of ratios of short-lived parent to stable isotopes for nuclides with different half-lives, it is apparent that addition of exotic material to the solar system occurred just prior to its formation. Evidence for a diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission attributed to Al26 provides support for the existence of Al26 in the protosolar cloud. The time scale for isolation of the protosolar cloud would still be restricted on a timescale comparable to tau 1/2 (Al26).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: CNES Isotopic Ratios in the Solar System; p 77-88
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Recurrent low energy (not less than 0.5 MeV) proton flux enhancements, reliable indicators of corotating plasma inteaction regions in interplanetary space, have been observed on the Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft in the heliographic latitude range 2 deg S to 23 deg N and the heliocentric radial range 11 to 20 AU. After a period of rather high correlation between fluxes at different latitudes in early 1983, distinct differences develop. The evolution of the fluxes appears to be related to the temporal and latitudinal dynamics of solar coronal holes, suggesting that information about the latitudinal structure of solar wind stream sources propagates to these distances.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: SH-4.1-13 , Contrib. to the 19th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf.; 1 p
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The pressure versus temperature curves for homogeneous nucleation and condensation of two gaseous mixtures with nearly relative solar abundance of Si, Fe, O, N, and C in an excess of H were determined experimentally. Mixtures of CO, Fe(CO)5, H2, SiH4, and N2O in Ar were heated behind reflected shocks in a shock tube. The nucleation and condensation, which took place in the subsequent gas-dynamic expansion (cooling phase), was monitored by light scattering and turbidity. Grain morphologies and crystalline phases present in the condensates were determined by electron microscopy. These data cast doubt on the validity of both equilibrium and classical nucleation theoretical approaches to predict homogeneous condensation in a solar nebula or stellar atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 45
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Solar physics was reviewed in the context of the solar atmoshere. The understanding of the solar atmosphere is linked to stellar atmospheric research. Topics covered include: the existence of the chromosphere, the corona, and the solar wind; the interactive complex of convection, differential rotation, magnetic field generation and concentration, and the activity cycle; phenomena such as granulation, supergranulation, the 5 minute oscillation, filigree, faculae, sunspots, spicules, prominences, surges, and the spectacular flares.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-SP-450 , REPT-81F0008 , LC-81-600064
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Two possible closed magnetic topologies are considered for clouds: an elongated bottle with field lines rooted at both ends in the sun and a magnetic bubble or plasmoid consisting of closed field lines. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are used as probes of the cloud topologies. The rapid access of SEPs to clouds in many events indicates that the cloud field lines extend back to the sun.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: PB-280816 , Astrophysical Journal; vol. 220
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Five bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) have also been detected at higher energies by EGRET. Four are consistent with power-law spectra extending to energies as high as, in the case of GRB930131, 1 GeV. The fifth, and most recent, GRB940217, has a more complex spectrum, with one photon detected at 18 GeV, the most energetic GRB photon detection to date. The optical depth to photon-photon pair production in these sources is extremely large for distances more than about 10pc away if the radiation is emitted isotropically in the observer's frame. This optical depth can be dramatically reduced if the source is moving with a relativstic bulk Lorentz factor Gamma, and recent calculations for this situation have been limited to cases of a beam with opening angle 1 Gamma, or expansions of infinitely thin spherical shells. This paper presents our extension of the pair production otpical depth calculation in relativistically expanding sources to more general geometries, including shells of finite thickness and arbitrary opening angle. We find that the minimum bulk Lorentz factors for the Energy Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) sources to be optically thin, i.e. display no spectral attenuation, is only moderately dependent on the shell thickness and its opening solid angle; these new limits on required velocity for given geometries will aid in placing realistic constraints on GRB source models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 5; p. (5)153-(5)156
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The new method of statistical studying of cosmic gamma-ray bursts is presented based on the averaging of time profiles. The comparison is done between bright and dim events: while no differences were found between average flux curves, the hardness ratios pointed out the effect of hardness/brightness correlation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 5; p. (5)131-(5)134
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 5; p. (5)85-(5)88
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Nova LMC 1990A was a very fast Ne-O-Mg nova, for which a particularly dense coverage of spectral observation in both the UV and optical was obtained. The data for the nebular phase were subjected to an analysis by the photoionization modeling code MAPPINGS 2. The following parameters were obtained: L(sub max) = 8 x 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, T(sub eff) = 2 x 10(exp 5) K and the mass of ejecta = 5/5 x 10(exp -5) solar mass. The abundnace ratios in the ejecta were similar to those obtained by Williams et al. (1985) in the case of V693 CrA 1981. The N/O ratio and the overabundance of Al is consistent with ourburst on a ONeMg white dwarf of mass approximately equal to 1.2 solar mass, but the super-Eddington luminosity, and amount of mass ejected presents some problems to theory.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ; : Composite material
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined, and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Interplanetary dust thereby joins lunar samples and Antarctic meteorites as a critical extraterrestrial material being curated at JSC.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on the Analysis of Interplanetary Dust Particles; p 56-57
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The topics discussed include the following: stratospheric collection of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's); sources of interplanetary dust particles; and solar wind and noble gas isotopic ratios in IDP's.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on the Analysis of Interplanetary Dust Particles; p 40-43
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The dispersal of glass spherules or tektites from a bolide impact with the Earth is modelled as ballistic trajectories in standard atmosphere. Ballistic dispersal of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact glass spherules found in Haiti and Mimbral, Mexico requires a fireball radius in excess of 50 km but less than 100 km to account for the observed distribution. Glass spherules from 1 and up to 8 mm in diameter have been found at the KT boundary at Beloc in Haiti, at Mimbral, Mexico, and at DSDP Sites 536 and 540 in the Gulf of Mexico corresponding to paleodistances of 600 to 1000 km from the Chicxulub crater. In Haiti the basal and major glass-bearing unit at the KT boundary is attributed to fallout on basis of sedimentologic features. When compared with theoretical and observed dispersal of volcanic ejecta, the grain size versus distance relationship of the KT boundary tektite fallout is extreme, and rules out a volcanic fallout origin. At a comparable distance from source, the KT impact glass spherules are more than an order of mangitude coarser than ejecta of the largest known volcanic events. We model the dispersal of KT boundary impact glass spherules as ballistic ejecta from a fireball generated by the impact of a 10 km diameter bolide. Mass of ejecta in the fireball is taken as twice the bolide mass. Melt droplets are accelerated by gas flow in the fireball cloud, and leave the fireball on ballistic trajectories within the atmosphere, subject to drag, depending on angle of ejection and altitude. The model for ballistic dispersal is based on equations of motion, drag and ablation for silicate spheres in standard atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 451-452
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The CR2 chondrite Acfer 059 is unusual in that the original droplet shapes of metal chondrules are well preserved. We determined separate size distributions for metal chondrules and silicate chondrules; the two types are well sorted and have similar size distributions about their respective mean diameters of 0.74 mm and 1.44 mm. These mean values are aerodynamically equivalent for the contrasting densities, as shown by calculated terminal settling velocities in a model solar nebula. Aerodynamic equivalence and similarity of size distributions suggest that metal and silicate fractions experienced the same sorting process before they were accreted onto the parent body. These characteristics, together with depletion of iron in Acfer 059 and essentially all other chondrites relative to primitive CI compositions, strongly suggest that sorting in the solar nebula involved a radial aerodynamic component and that sorting and siderophile depletion in chondrites are closely related.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1315-1316
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: By freeze-thaw disaggregation, we have recovered a total of 47 refractory inclusions. New discoveries include the following: a hibonite-pyroxene spherule from Murray; a CaAl4O7-bearing spherule from Murchison; and a Sc-fassaite-bearing ultrarefractory inclusion from Murchison. Freeze-thaw disaggregation, combined with density separation and hand-picking as described is a proven method for recovering rare objects from carbonaceous chondrites. This method is especially effective on C2's due to their porosity and typically results in the discovery of new types of refractory inclusions. Because few refractory inclusions from Murray have been described, we studied this meteorite, although only a small amount of material (730 mg) was available for disaggregation. Many refractory inclusions from Murchison have been described, and we disaggregated a larger amount (approximately 18 g) of Murchison in an attempt to find new types of refractory inclusions, especially corundum-bearing ones.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1309-1310
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We have recently presented evidence for the existence of live Fe-60 in the early solar system. This evidence comes from observations of 2.4 to 50 epsilon unit (1 part in 10(exp 4)) relative excesses of Ni-60 measured in samples from the eucrite Chervony Kut (CK). These isotopic excesses have been produced by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide Fe-60 (T(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma). Because CK originates from a planetesimal which was totally molten and its high Fe/Ni ratio is due to a planet-wide Fe-Ni fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, the presence of the Fe-60 decay product indicates the large scale abundance of Fe-60 in the early solar system and its presence during differentiation of this planetesimal. The observed variable Ni-60 excesses in different bulk samples and mineral separates from CK can only be understood if some Fe-60 was still alive at the time when basaltic magma had solidified on the eucrite parent body. The lack of a correlation between Ni-60 and the respective Fe/Ni ratios in different mineral fractions from CK indicates a metamorphic remobilization of Ni after essentially all Fe-60 has decayed. However, Ni-60 from three bulk samples from different locations within the meteorite appears to correlate reasonably well with the respective Fe/Ni ratios. If we regard this correlation as an isochron then its slope yields a Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio f (3.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -9) and an initial Ni-60 of 3.2 plus or minus 0.9 epsilon units at the time of crystallization of CK. Estimates based on these values and a approximately 10 Ma time interval between CK solidification and formation of the earliest condensates in the solar system followed by rapid accretion of planetary bodies indicate that the decay of Fe-60 could produce sufficient heat to melt these planetesimals. If Al-26 was present on a planetary scale as Fe-60 and at abundances close to values observed in Allende inclusions then melting of small early formed planets is inevitable. As an attempt to further explore the Fe-60/Ni-60 isotope system as an early solar system chronometer we studied another noncumulate eucrite, Juvinas (JUV) (sample USNM 1051), which belongs to the same subgroup as CK.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1305-1306
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  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: On 10 Dec. 1992, 21:00 hours Japanese standard time, a stone weighing 6.385kg, struck a two-story house in Mihonoseki-machi, Yatsuka-gun, Shimane-ken, Japan, 35 deg 34.1 min N, 133 deg 13.2 min E. Through petrographical and mineralogical examination and rare gas analysis, the meteorite was classified as an L6 chondrite. The preatmospheric chondrite is rather small in size (Ne-22/Ne-21 = 1.180 and extremely low Co-60 activity), and shocked features are not distinct. Cosmic-ray exposure ages obtained from He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38 are 61 m.y., and K-40/Ar-40 age is 4.41 b.y. Measurements of cosmogenic radioactive nuclides and chemical analyses are now proceeding.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1297-1298
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Chemical equilibria in stellar atmospheres have been investigated by many authors. Lattimer, Schramm, and Grossman presented calculations in both O rich and C rich environments and predicted possible presolar condensates. A recent paper by Cherchneff and Barker considered a C rich composition with PAH's included in the calculations. However, the condensation sequences of C bearing species have not been investigated in detail. In a carbon rich gas surrounding an AGB star, it is often assumed that graphite (or diamond) condenses out before TiC and SiC. However, Lattimer et al. found some conditions under which TiC condenses before graphite. We have performed molecular equilibrium calculations to establish the stability fields of C(s), TiC(s), and SiC(s) and other high temperature phases under conditions of different pressures and C/O. The preserved presolar interstellar dust grains so far discovered in meteorites are graphite, diamond, SiC, TiC, and possibly Al2O3.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1281-1282
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1273-1274
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 309-310
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Column density profiles in C2 and CN as well as in blue and red continuum (BC and RC) were constructed from two dimensional images of the coma of Comet Wilson (1987VII). The authors' analysis showed that the continuum profiles decrease with the nuclear distance rho as 1/rho. From the C2 and CN profiles the authors determined the parent and the daughter lifetimes as well as the production rates in terms of the vectorial model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1261-1262
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We present new analyses of Th-232/U-238 in CI and CM meteorites. The relative abundance of these nuclides is important in estimates of the age of r-process elements. The cosmochronology based upon the Th-232/U-238 ratio (kappa) depends on the precise determinations of these two different elements in meteorites and on the production ratios. Both parameters are subject to substantial errors. Recent recalculations of this chronology have used selected values from compilations but do not adequately address the errors in terms of a reliable data base. Morgan and Lovering provided extensive neutron activation analyses for ordinary chondrites which yield an average kappa of 3.6 +/- 0.4. Their work on carbonaceous chondrites showed a wide range in kappa from 2 to 6. More recent investigations by isotopic dilution have established the following: (1) highly variable kappa from 2.7 to 11 in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions and a value of 3.6 in the Orgueil CI1 chondrite; (2) a range from 2.71 to 6.63 for 7 L-type chondrites and a range from 2.7 to 4.4 for 6 L, H, and LL chondrites. A further investigation of this subject matter is presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 277-278
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Oxygen isotope studies of tektites and impact glasses provide an important tool to help in identifying the target lithologies for terrestrial impacts, including the K-T boundary impact. However, such studies may be complicated by modification of the original oxygen isotope values of some source rocks during the tektite formation process either by vapor fractionation or incorporation of meteoric water. To further investigate the relationship between the oxygen isotopic composition of tektites and their source rocks, Ivory Coast tektites and samples of impact glasses and bedrock lithologies from the Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana--which is widely believed to be the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites--were studied. Our preliminary results suggest that the phyllites and metagraywackes from the Bosumtwi Crater were the predominant source materials for the impact glasses and tektites and that no significant oxygen isotope modification (less than 1 percent delta(O-18)) took place during impact melting. This contrasts with previous studies of moldavites and Australasian tektites and their sedimentary source materials which suggests a 4 to 5 percent lowering of delta(O-18) due to meteoric water incorporation during impact melting.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 267-268
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  • 65
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The author's current simulations of Giant Impacts on the protoearth show the development of large hot rock vapor atmospheres. The Balbus-Hawley mechanism will pump mass and angular momentum outwards in the equatorial plane; upon cooling and expansion the rock vapor will condense refractory material beyond the Roche distance, where it is available for lunar formation. During the last seven years, the author together with several colleagues has carried out a series of numerical investigations of the Giant Impact theory for the origin of the Moon. These involved three-dimensional simulations of the impact and its aftermath using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), in which the matter in the system is divided into discrete particles whose motions and internal energies are determined as a result of the imposed initial conditions. Densities and pressures are determined from the combined overlaps of the particles, which have a bell-shaped density distribution characterized by a smoothing length. In the original series of runs all particle masses and smoothing lengths had the same values; the matter in the colliding bodies consisted of initial iron cores and rock (dunite) mantles. Each of 41 runs used 3,008 particles, took several weeks of continuous computation, and gave fairly good representations of the ultimate state of the post-collision body or bodies but at best crude and qualitative information about individual particles in orbit. During the last two years an improved SPH program was used in which the masses and smoothing lengths of the particles are variable, and the intent of the current series of computations is to investigate the behavior of the matter exterior to the main parts of the body or bodies subsequent to the collisions. These runs are taking times comparable to a year of continuous computation in each case; they use 10,000 particles with 5,000 particles in the target and 5,000 in the impactor, and the particles thus have variable masses and smoothing lengths (the latter are dynamically adjusted so that a particle typically overlaps a few tens of its neighbors). Since the matter in the impactor provides the majority of the mass left in orbit after the collision, and since the masses of the particles that originated in the impactor are smaller than those in the target, the mass resolution in the exterior parts of the problem is greatly improved and the exterior particles properly simulate atmospheres in hydrostatic equilibrium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 245-246
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In an attempt to classify the nature of volatiles within interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), 14 IDP's using a laser microprobe/mass spectrometer (LM/MS) technique were studied. Volatile abundances and distributions found for the IDP's are compared with those measured for carbonaceous chondrites in order to determine if the IDP's are related to the parent bodies of these primitive meteorites.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 239-240
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: To study the dynamic fragmentation of rock to simulate asteroid collisions, we use a 2-D, continuum damage numerical hydrocode which models two-body impacts. This hydrocode monitors stress wave propagation and interaction within the target body, and includes a physical model for the formation and growth of cracks in rock. With this algorithm we have successfully reproduced fragment size distributions and mean ejecta speeds from laboratory impact experiments using basalt, and weak and strong mortar as target materials. Using the hydrocode, we have determined that the energy needed to fracture a body has a much stronger dependence on target size than predicted from most scaling theories. In addition, velocity distributions obtained indicate that mean ejecta speeds resulting from large-body collisions do not exceed escape velocities.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1227-1228
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The ureilite meteorite group is known to be rich in carbon in the form of graphite/diamond veins that are associated with planetary type noble gases. This paper reports preliminary data from a systematic study of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of this carbonaceous vein material. A previous study focused on the whole rock signatures and reported that the carbon inventory appeared to be dominated by the graphitic/diamond intergrowths, whereas the nitrogen was clearly composed of several distinct components including one that was isotopically light, possibly associated with the carbonaceous material. Recent studies have demonstrated that diamonds in the solar system formed in many different environments. C and N measurements from ureilitic diamond made in a similar way would be a useful addition to this overall study. The methods used for isolating diamonds of possible presolar origin from primitive meteorites are equally applicable to the processing of carbon bearing components in the ureilite group so that their stable isotopic composition can be determined. Herein we discuss conjoint C and N stepped combustion measurements made on crushed whole rock ureilite samples that have been treated with 1M HCl/9M HF to dissolve silicate and free metal. In addition, two samples have been further treated with oxidizing acids to leave a diamond rich residue.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1221-1222
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A research program on the Manson impact structure has substantially improved our knowledge of the detailed features of this eroded crater. As part of our structural studies, we have derived a value of 21 km for the diameter of the final transient cavity formed during crater excavation. With this information, we can estimate the energy of formation of the Manson crater and the possible size of the impacting asteroid or comet. In addition, we have estimated the near- and far-field ejecta volumes and masses.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1211-1212
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Dynamic pyrometamorphism describes the mineralogical changes in a micrometeorite that occur in response to flash-heating during atmospheric entry. Mineral reactions during this event will be endothermic and act as local sinks for thermal energy which delays a uniform temperature distribution in decelerating micrometeorites. The most common pyrometamorphic reaction is formation of magnetite nanocrystal decorations on Mg,Fe-silicate grains and magnetite or (partial) maghemite rims. Constituent silicates also respond to this thermal event and show formation of olivine-maghemite symplectites and growth of garnet and partial laihunitisation. In continued effort to constrain dynamic pyrometamorphism of unmelted interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), I determined the mineralogical composition, and Fe,Ni-sulfide chemistry, in the sulfide-rich particles L2005C39, L2005E40, and L2006A28 using a JEOL 2000FX analytical electron microscope equipped with a TN5500 energy dispersive spectrometer for in situ microanalysis. Sulfide compositions in these three IDP's are distinctly different from those in silicate-rich particle L2005T13 which might suggest a delicate balance of the fO2/fS2 ratios during dynamic pyrometamorphism.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1201-1202
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Polymorphs of enstatite are common phases in many meteorites. They contain clues on their formation and the thermal evolution of their host rock which includes shock metamorphism. Rare, micron-sized, CLEN whiskers and thin platelets in chondritic porous micrometeorites were interpreted as solar nebula condensates that remained unaffected during atmospheric entry flash-heating. This CLEN formed by protoenstatite (PEN) inversion whereby the surface energy of the micron-sized PEN crystals aided the OREN-CLEN transformation or by metastable growth. Ca-poor, Mg,Fe-pyroxene with unequilibrated, intraparticle, Mg/(Mg+Fe) distributions occur in most chondritic micrometeorites. These distributions are a parent body signature that survived dynamic pyrometamorphism because the duration of the thermal spike during atmospheric entry is too short but this conclusion does not consider the ultrafine grain size of micrometeorites. The maximum temperature and duration of the heating event will depend on the kinetic energy and entry angle of the incoming micrometeorite. But lacking detailed petrological data for an individual particle, its thermal profile during atmospheric entry can not be deduced from its mass alone as a function of entry angle. In order to constrain dynamic pyrometamorphism in unmelted micrometeorites, I determined the petrological composition and silicate mineralogy in non-chondritic micrometeorites L2005T13, L2005E40, and L2006A28.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1199-1200
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: LEW85332, originally described as a unique C3 chondrite, was shown to be a C2 chondrite with important linkages to the CR clan. An important petrologic aspect of LEW85332 is that it contains anhydrous chondrules and hydrated matrix, and new oxygen isotopic data on chondrules, matrix and whole rock are consistent with the petrology. Chondrules fall on the equilibrated chondrite line (ECL), with a slope near 1, which goes through ordinary chondrite chondrules. This contrasts with the CR chondrule line which has a lower slope due to hydrated components. LEW85332 chondrules define a new carbonaceous chondrite chondrule line, parallel to the anhydrous CV chondrule line (CCC), consistent with the well-established concept of two oxygen isotopic reservoirs. Matrix and whole rock fall on the CR line. The whole rock composition indicates that the chondrite is dominated by chondrules, and that most of them contain light oxygen similar to that of anhydrous olivine and pyroxene separates in the Renazzo and Al Rais CR chondrites.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1185-1186
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: An opaque-rich lithology (ORL) makes up to approximately 9 vol. percent of the Divnoe achondrite. It is characterized by enrichment of troilite and pyroxene, compared to the bulk Divnoe, and by the presence of tiny remnants of olivine in low-CA pyroxene and low minor element concentrations in pyroxene. The ORL was formed by local reaction between gaseous sulfur and olivine in the Divnoe. The Divnoe meteorite is an olivine-rich achondrite with subchondritic chemistry and mineralogy. It has a granoblastic coarse-grained olivine groundmass (CGL: coarse-grained lithology) with relatively large (2-10 mm) poikilitic patches (PP) of pyroxene and, rarely, plagioclase. The groundmass also contains an opaque-rich fine-grained lithology (ORL) which comprises approximately 9 vol. percent of the meteorite, displays reaction boundaries with the groundmass, and differs in mineral chemistry from it. Numerous micron- to mm-thick veins of troilite and, rarely, metal cross all the lithologies found in the meteorite. The Divnoe itself appears to represent a sample of an igneous source region.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1129-1130
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The 1990 g Chaunskij meteorite was found in 1985 and classified as an anomalous ungrouped iron. It contains approximately 10 vol. percent mono- and polymineralic troilite-phosphate-silicate inclusions, microns to centimeters in size. We proposed its affinity with mesosiderites; here we present mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic data establishing that Chaunskij is the most highly metamorphosed, shock-modified, and metal-rich of the mesosiderites. The most striking manifestation of metamorphism in Chaunskij is the presence in it of a cordierite-bearing assemblage substituting for basalt lithology.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1131-1132
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In order to investigate the petrogenesis of primitive achondrites, we have carried out precise isotope dilution analyses of REE, Sr, Ba, Rb, K, Li, Ca, Mg, and Fe for three new meteorites: (Lodranites) MAC88177, LEW88280, (Brachinite) LEW88763, together with analyses for Acapulco. Present results are compared with those of other primitive achondrites previously reported by us and others.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1047-1048
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Because of its exposure time and total exposed surface area, the LDEF provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of the natural and man-made particle populations in low earth orbit (LEO). This study concentrated on collecting and analyzing measurements of impact craters from seven painted aluminum surfaces at different locations on the satellite. These data are being used to: (1) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (2) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid and debris environment of satellite components and designs; (3) help assess the probability of collision between spacecraft in LEO and already resident debris and the survivability of those spacecraft that must travel through, or reside in, LEO; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Measurements were collected from one aluminum experiment tray cover (Bay C-12), two aluminum grapple plates (Bays C-01, C-10), and four aluminum experiment sun-shields (Bay E-09), all of which were coated with thermal paint. These measurements were taken at the Facility for Optical Interpretation of Large Surfaces (FOILS) Lab at JSC. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possessed a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface, and which varied in size from 2-5 crater diameters. The actual craters vary from central pits without raised rims to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity impact conditions for larger features. Most craters exhibit a shock zone that varies in size from approximately 1-20 crater diameters. In general, only the outermost layer of paint was affected by this impact-related phenomenon, with several impacts possessing ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations or bulges on the underside of the trays. One tray from the E-09 bay exhibited a spallation zone on the backside, approximately equal in size to that on the front side. Results from this study demonstrate that the impact damaged areas extend far beyond the actual craters in coated or painted surfaces. While the cratering damaged much greater than 1 percent of the total surface area, the total impact damage area exceeded 3 percent.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, Second LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 35
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) impact signature record and the size frequency distribution of craters and perforations offers a unique record of environmental data referenced conveniently to the geocentric reference frame. Chemical analysis of residues can offer only limited assistance. Hence, flux modeling has been developed to transform both geocentric orbital distributions and geocentrically unbounded interplanetary source distributions. This is applied to the foil and crater penetration records in the Ram (E), Trailing (W), and Space Pointing directions to offer the means of decoding the records. It shows that the mix of the components is size dependent. Parametric forms of the modeling transformations are presented for the orbital and unbounded populations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, LDEF: 69 Months in Space. First Post-Retrieval Symposium, Part 1; p 565
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two small craters (number 74, 119 microns, and number 31, 158 microns in diameter) with depth to diameter ratios of about 0.59 and 0.8, respectively, were found in Al from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment tray A11EOOF). Both craters have residues concentrated in the crater bottoms, along the walls, and on top of the overturned rims. Low voltage scanning electron electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to obtain high resolution imagery and elemental analysis. Analyses indicate that the impactor for both craters was carbon-rich, as the residues contain mostly C. Silicon, S, and F in low concentrations are present on the Al surface away from the craters and may be, in part, contaminants.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 40
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Discussed here are the first Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis of projectile material deposited in extended impact features on Ge wafers from the trailing edge. Although most capture cells lost their plastic film covers, they contain extended impact features that apparently were produced by high velocity impacts when the plastic foils were still intact. Detailed optical scanning of all bare capture cells from the trailing edge revealed more than 100 impacts. Fifty-eight were selected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection as prime candidates for SIMS analysis. Preliminary SIMS measurements were made on 15 impacts. More than half showed substantial enhancements of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe in the impact region, indicating micrometeorites as the projectiles.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 38
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A number of unusual effects are presented that were observed on the TCSE test samples, front cover, and structural components. These include induced UV fluorescence in some materials, the migration and degradation of KRS-5 materials, atomic oxygen (AO), and contaminant texturing and discoloration, and meteoroid and debris impacts. These effects and their causes are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 33
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  • 81
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The numerous meteoroid and space debris impacts found on AO171, AO034, S0069, and other MSFC experiments are examined. Besides those impacts found by the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigative Group at KSC, numerous impacts of less than 0.5 mm were found and photographed. The flux and size distribution of impacts are presented as well as EDS analysis of impact residue. Emphasis is on morphology of impacts in the various materials, including graphite/epoxy composites, polymeric materials, optical coatings, thin films, and solar cells.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts; p 32
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The effect that the proper inclusion of suspended particles has on Jeans' criterion for the self-gravitational instability of an unbounded nonrotating adiabatic gas cloud is examined by formulating the appropriate model system, introducing particular physically plausible equations of state and constitutive relations, performing a linear stability analysis of a uniformly expanding exact solution to these governing equations, and exploiting the fact that there exists a natural small material parameter for this problem given by N sub 1/n sub 1, the ratio of the initial number density for the particles to that for the gas. The main result of this investigation is the derivation of an altered criterion which can substantially reduce Jeans' original critical wavelength for instability. It is then shown that the existing discrepancy between Jeans' theoretical prediction using and actual observational data relevant to the Andromeda nebula M31 can be accounted for by this new criterion of assuming suspended particles of a reasonable grain size and distribution to be present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers; p 250-251
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In starburst galaxies, active galaxies, and the mysterious ultraluminous infrared galaxies, x rays are likely to interact with molecular gas and dust, thereby inducing infrared emission. X ray heated thermal dust will emit the IR continuum, and x ray photoelectrons will excite an IR emission-line spectrum. Here, researchers model the IR continuum emission characteristic of some selected x ray spectral fluxes, in particular the x ray bremsstrahlung characteristic of supernova and stellar wind bubble shocks in dense media and the power law spectra characteristic of active galactic nuclei. These models are part of a larger project to determine the complete IR spectra, lines plus continuum, of x ray sources embedded in molecular gas. They modeled the thermal emission from grains by calculating a grain temperature/size/composition distribution function, f(T,a,Comp.), which accounts for temperature fluctuations by averaging over all grain thermal histories. In determining the grain thermal distribution, researchers account for both direct grain heating (by x ray absorption and subsequent electron energy deposition) and indirect grain heating (by absorption of the UV emission stimulated by non-thermal photo- and Auger electrons in the gas phase). We let the grain size distribution be proportional to a(exp -3.5), and they consider two types of grain composition: graphites, which we assume to be pure carbon, and silicates, which contain all other depleted heavy elements. They derive the grain composition distribution function from solar abundances and interstellar depletion data.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers; p 126
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Researchers present maps of the CO-12(1=0) line and the 100 micron and 50 micron far-infrared emission of Centaurus A, as well as measurements of the CO-12(2-1), CO-13(1-0), and the C-18O(1-0) lines at selected positions. The observations were taken with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) and the CPC instrument on board the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The millimeter data show that the bulk molecular material is closely associated with the dust lane and contained in a disk of about 180 seconds diameter and a total molecular mass of about 2 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The total molecular mass of the disk and bulge is of the order of 3 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The molecular gas in the nucleus is warm with a kinetic temperature of the order of 15 K and a number density of 10 to the 3rd power to 3 x 10 to the 4th power cm(-3). Absorption features in the CO-12 and CO-13 lines against the nuclear continuum emission indicate that the properties of giant molecular clouds are comparable to those of the Galaxy. The far-infrared data show that to a good approximation the dust temperature is constant across the dust lane at a value of about 42 K. The ratio between the far-infrared luminosity and the total molecular mass is 18 solar luminosity/solar mass and close to the mean value obtained for isolated galaxies. A comparison of the CO-12(1-0) and the far-infrared data indicates that a considerable amount of the far-infrared emission is not intimately associated with massive star formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers; p 71
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  • 85
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: According to results of Earth based observations and in situ measurements cometary nuclei are intensive sources of both the gaseous and the dusty matter. Investigations of the interaction between gas-dust cometary atmospheres and dust grains of the Zodiacal dust cloud reveals the presence of two principally possible mechanisms: meteor-like and explosive-type ones. The meteor-like mechanism is connected with bombardment of zodiacal dust particles by cometary molecules when the temperatures T = 2000 to 3000 K are developed. This mechanism can create over-saturated vapors of ref