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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (2,970)
  • 1980-1984  (2,970)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The pressure versus temperature curves for homogeneous nucleation and condensation of two gaseous mixtures with nearly relative solar abundance of Si, Fe, O, N, and C in an excess of H were determined experimentally. Mixtures of CO, Fe(CO)5, H2, SiH4, and N2O in Ar were heated behind reflected shocks in a shock tube. The nucleation and condensation, which took place in the subsequent gas-dynamic expansion (cooling phase), was monitored by light scattering and turbidity. Grain morphologies and crystalline phases present in the condensates were determined by electron microscopy. These data cast doubt on the validity of both equilibrium and classical nucleation theoretical approaches to predict homogeneous condensation in a solar nebula or stellar atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Solar physics was reviewed in the context of the solar atmoshere. The understanding of the solar atmosphere is linked to stellar atmospheric research. Topics covered include: the existence of the chromosphere, the corona, and the solar wind; the interactive complex of convection, differential rotation, magnetic field generation and concentration, and the activity cycle; phenomena such as granulation, supergranulation, the 5 minute oscillation, filigree, faculae, sunspots, spicules, prominences, surges, and the spectacular flares.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-SP-450 , REPT-81F0008 , LC-81-600064
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The molecular composition of interstellar grain mantles employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions is studied. The calculated mixtures consist mainly of the molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, CO2, H2O2, NH3, and their deuterated counterparts in varying ratios. The exact compositions depend strongly on the physical conditions in the gas phase. The calculated mixtures are compared to the observations by using laboratory spectra of grain mantle analogs. The two are in reasonable agreement except for the strength of the 6.8-micrometers band. A possible solution for this discrepancy is discussed. Finally, future observations are suggested which may shed further light on the composition of interstellar grain mantles.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Observatory Proc. of the Workshop on Lab. and Observational Infrared Spectra of Interstellar Dust; p 41-48
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A rapidly rotating neutron star with a solid crust will have a rotationally induced oblateness that is constrained by the rigidity of the solid. It is shown that the effective triaxiality and the gravitational radiation output are small, in agreement with the very small change in period of PSR 1937 + 21.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525 + 21 is reviewed, and the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisecond pulsars are examined. Inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected postglitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust are considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method of structural expansions for use in determining the equation of state of metallic hydrogen (and indeed other metals) up to the 4th order in the perturbation theory was developed. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the planetary interior of Jupiter were calculated. The nature of the interaction between molecules at short range and the importance of multicenter terms in arriving at an adequate description of the thermodynamic functions of condensed molecular hydrogen were also investigated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:177021 , NASA-CR-177021
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress in the investigation of absolute transition probabilities (A-values or F values) for ultraviolet lines is reported. A radio frequency ion trap was used for measurement of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The intersystem line at 2670 A in Al II, which is seen in pre-main sequence stars and symbiotic stars, was studied.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174141 , SASR-15 , NAS 1.26:174141
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A dating technique for faint, distant star clusters observable in the local group of galaxies with the space telescope is discussed. Color-magnitude diagrams of Magellanic Cloud clusters are mentioned along with the metallicity of star clusters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173927 , NAS 1.26:173927
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A liquid helium-cooled, 24 detector grating spectrometer was developed and used for low resolution astronomical observations in the 5 to 14 micron spectral range. The instrument operated on the 91 cm Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the 3 m IRTF (Mauna Kea), the 3 m Shane telescope Observatory, the 3 m Shane telescope (Lick Observatory), and the 152 cm NASA and University of Arizona telescope. The detectors are discrete Si:Bi photoconductors with individual metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor preamplifiers operating at 4 K. The system uses a liquid helium-cooled slit, order-sorter filter, collimator mirror, grating, and camera mirror arranged in a Czerny-Turner configuration with a cold stop added between the collimator mirror and the grating. The distances between components are chosen so that the collimator mirror images the secondary mirror of the telescope onto the cold stop, thus providing a very effective baffle. Scattered radiation is effectively reduced by using liquid helium-cooled, black baffles to divide the spectrometer into three separate compartments. The system noise-equivalent flux density, when used on the 152 cm telescope from 8 to 13 microns with a resolving power of 50, is 4.4 x 10 to the minus 17th power W/sq cm micron square root of Hz. The main applications are for measuring continuum radiation levels and solid state emission and absorption features in regions of star and planet formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86004 , A-9837 , NASA-TM-86004
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Intergalactic plasmas were investigated from both an observational and theoretical point of view. A multiobject spectrometer, the MX spectrograph was used to obtain detailed dynamical information on clusters of galaxies; this information was then compared with X ray emission from hot gas in these clusters. Several spectra of galaxies are presented, and data reduction of the spectra was discussed. The existence of quasar winds in Seyfert galaxies and the interaction between such a wind and the interstellar medium also were considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173825 , NASA-CR-173825
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  • 11
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A search for X-ray emission from five compact groups of galaxies with the Einstein Observatory revealed detections from three groups. Soft, extended X-ray emission was observed in Stephan's Quintet which is most likely caused by hot intracluster gas. This provides evidence for dynamical interaction among the group galaxies. X-ray emission from the group Arp 330 may also originate in hot intracluster gas. Stephan's Quintet and Arp 330 have the largest velocity dispersions among the groups studied suggesting a correlation between high velocity and the release (or properties) of hot gas. X-ray emission from Arp 318 may originate in its member galaxies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173609 , NASA-CR-173609
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Assuming a simple but physically based prototype for behavior of interstellar material during formation of a disk galaxy, coupled with the lowest order description of infall, a scenario is developed for self-regulated disk galaxy formation. Radiation pressure, particularly that of Lyman depha (from fluorescence conversion Lyman continuum), is an essential component, maintaining an inflated disk and stopping infall when only a small fraction of the overall perturbation has joined the disk. The resulting galaxies consist of a two dimensional family whose typical scales and surface density are expressable in terms of fundamental constants. The model leads naturally to galaxies with a rich circumgalactic environment and flat rotation curves (but is weak in its analysis of the subsequent evolution of halo material).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173592 , NAS 1.26:173592
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86100 , NASA-TM-86100
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The predictions of the boundary layer model for the X-ray emission from novae are summarized. A discrepancy between observations and theory in the X-ray observations is found. Constraints on the nature of the boundary layers in novae, based on the lack of detections of novae in the HEAO-1 soft X-ray survey are provided. Temperature and column densities for optically thick boundary layers in novae are estimated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85112 , NAS 1.15:85112
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of accreting magnetized neutron star atmospheres heated by the gradual deceleration of protons via Coulomb collisions are presented. Self consistent determinations of the temperature and density structure for different accretion rates are made by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and energy balance, coupled with radiative transfer. The full radiative transfer in two polarizations, using magnetic cross sections but with cyclotron resonance effects treated approximately, is carried out in the inhomogeneous atmospheres.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85087 , NAS 1.15:85087
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Voyager spacecraft radio, interplanetary plasma, and interplanetary magnetic field data are used to show that large amplitude fluctuations in the power generated by the Saturn kilometric radio emission are best correlated with solar wind ram pressure variation. In all, thirteen solar wind quantities previously found important in driving terrestrial magnetospheric substorms and other auroral processes were examined for evidence of correlations with the Saturn radio emission. The results are consistent with hydromagnetic wave or eddy diffusion processes driven by large scale solar wind pressure changes at Saturn's dayside magnetopause.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85004 , NASA-TM-85004
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Under the influence of a spiral gravitational field, there should be differences among the mean motions of different types of objects with different dispersion velocities in a sipral galaxy. The old stars with high dispersion velocity should have essentially no mean motion normal to the galactic rotation. On the other hand, young objects and interstellar gas may be moving relative to the old stars at a velocity of a few kilometer per second in both the radial (galacto-centric), and circular directions, depending on the spiral model adopted. Such a velocity is usually referred as the systematic motion or the streaming motion. The conventionally adopted local standard of rest is indeed co-moving with the young objects of the solar vicinity. Therefore, it has a net systematic motion with respect to the circular motion of an equilibrium galactic model, defined by the old stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170238 , NAS 1.26:170238
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial evolution of interplanetary flows and associated magnetic fields between 0.3 AU and 8.5 was analyzed using data from Helios 1 and Voyager 1, respectively. During a 70 day interval Voyager 1 observed two streams which appeared to be recurrent and which had little fine structure. The corresponding flows observed by Helios 1 were much more complex, showing numerous small streams, transient flows and shocks as well as a few large corotating streams. It is suggested that in moving to 8 AU the largest corotating streams swept up the slower flows (transient and/or corotating streams) and shocks into a relatively thin region in which they coalesced to form a single large amplitude compression wave. This combined process of sweeping and coalescence is referred to as entrainment. The resulting large amplitude compression wave is different from that formed by the steepening of a corotating stream from a coronal hole, because different flows from distinct sources, with possibly different composition and magnetic polarity, are brought together to form a single new structure.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84955 , NAS 1.15:84955
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two types of furnaces with differing temperature range capabilities were used to provide variations in melt temperatures and cooling rates in a study of the effects of heterogeneous nucleation on crystallization. Materials of chondrule composition were used to further understanding of how the disequilibrium features displayed by minerals in rocks are formed. Results show that the textures of natural chondrules were duplicated. It is concluded that the melt history is dominant over cooling rate and composition in controlling texture. The importance of nuclei, which are most readily derived from preexisting crystalline material, support an origin for natural chondrules based on remelting of crystalline material. This would be compatible with a simple, uniform chondrule forming process having only slight variations in thermal histories resulting in the wide range of textures.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174103 , NAS 1.26:174103
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The conditions under which the combined emission from power law sources can mimic the X-ray background (XRB) spectrum in the 3-50 keV range are considered in view of HEAO 1 A-2 experiment measurements, and it is confirmed that a good fit may be obtained. The required spectral properties of the component sources differ, however, from those observed for local active galactic nuclei. Constraints are deduced for both the low luminosity extension and evolution of such local objects, and it is shown that any other class of sources contributing to the X-ray background must be characterized by an energy spectral index lower than about 0.4, which is the mean index of the XRB, and exhibit sleeper spectra at higher energies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:82173 , NASA-TM-82173
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The diffuse 2-60 keV X-ray background has a galactic component clearly detectable by its strong variation with both galactic latitude and longitude. This galactic component is typically 10 percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic center, half that strong toward the anticenter, and extrapolated to a few percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic poles. It is acceptably modeled by a finite radius emission disk with a scale height of several kiloparsecs. The averaged galactic spectrum is best fitted by a thermal spectrum of kT about 9 keV, a spectrum much softer than the about 40 keV spectrum of the extragalactic component. The most likely source of this emission is low luminosity stars with large scale heights such as subdwarfs. Inverse Compton emission from GeV electrons on the microwave background contributes only a fraction of the galactic component unless the local cosmic ray electron spectrum and intensity are atypical.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83837 , NASA-TM-83837
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new X-ray source, H0523-00, with the optically variable Seyfert 1 galaxy AKN 120 is identified. The source has a 2-10 keV X-ray flux of 2 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm s which corresponds to a 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 10 to the 44th ergs/s. X-ray observations over a 1.5 year time span combined with contemporaneous optical photometry show a decrease in the optical with no corresponding decrease in the X-ray. In contrast, similar observations of MCG 8-11-11 show a contemporaneous decrease in optical and X-ray fluxes. It is noted that the infrared and X-ray spectral slopes for these two objects are similar, with the optical being steeper by roughly one unit.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80663 , NAS 1.15:80663
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of Einstein solid state spectrometer observations of the central region of Abell 576 combined with HEAO 1 spectra of the total cluster are given. Line emission was detected due to Fe, Si, and S from a hot plasma in the central region. The temperature of the total cluster spectrum may be in conflict with the central temperature. This difference can be explained either if cooling takes place in the center, or if part of the measured emission is due to individual galaxies. If the X-ray emission comes from the intergalactic gas only, there is some difficulty in producing all the silicon observed in the galaxies of A 576.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85103 , NASA-TM-85103
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In a class of grand unified theories containing SO(10), cosmologically significant axion and neutrino energy densities are obtainable naturally. To obtain large scale structure, both components of dark matter are considered to exist with comparable energy densities. To obtain large scale structure, inflationary and non-inflationary scenarios are considered, as well as scenarios with and without vacuum strings. It is shown that inflation may be compatible with recent observations of the mass density within galaxy clusters and superclusters, especially if strings are present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86139 , NASA-TM-86139 , Fermilab Inner Space-Outer Space Workshop
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173887 , NASA-CR-173887
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The large-scale radial and temporal variations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength B observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 are discussed. Two components of the magnetic field strength were considered: (1) an average component, B sub zero, based on solar rotation averages, and (2) a fluctuation component, delta B, expressed by 10- or 24-hour averages of B normalized by the best-fit average field for the corresponding time and distance. Observations of the sector structure, interfaces, and shocks are presented to further describe magnetic field strength.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86088 , NAS 1.15:86088
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spatial distribution of clusters of galaxies and the large scale structure of the universe is investigated. Correlations in the spatial cluster distribution are much stronger than those seen for galaxies, and over scales much larger than previously anticipated. The following main studies are completed and published; (1) The determination of the correlation functions of rich clusters of galaxies, and its dependence on richness and other parameters. Very large scale structure exists in the universe, and rich clusters participate in this structure more efficiently than galaxies. (2) A complete catalog of superclusters, is determined. The selection criteria is that of a volume density enhancement, and is done in 3 dimensions. (3) The giant galaxy void in Bootes is found to be surrouned by rich, large superclusters from the catalog described above. (4) A very large scale void of rich clusters of galaxies is found in the study of the spatial distribution of rich clusters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173608 , NASA-CR-173608
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86067 , NASA-TM-86067
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectrophotometric observations of emission line intensities were made in seven positions in the planetary nebula NGC 6853; for five of the positions, coverage is across the entire spectral range 1400A to 9600A. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically-observable ionization stages give results over a wide range of ionization that are generally consistent and in agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines. As in the previous studies in this series, the lambda 4267 CII line implies a c(2+) abundance that is higher than that determined from UV lines. Although this effect is much smaller than in NGC 6720 and NGC 7009, it is again largest nearest the central star, giving more evidence that the excitation mechanism for the lambda 4267 line is not understood.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173240 , NASA-CR-173240
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evidence for two types of relatively large amplitude MHD waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel forward and reverse interplanetary shocks is presented. The first mode is an Alfven wave with frequencies (in the spacecraft frame) in the range of 0.025 to 0.07 Hz. This is a left-hand polarized mode and propagates within a few degrees of the ambient magnetic field. The second is a fast MHD mode with frequencies in the range of 0.025 to 0.17 Hz, right-hand polarization and propagating along the magnetic field. These waves are detected principally in association with quasi-parallel shock. The Alfven waves are found to have plasma rest frame frequencies in the range of 1.1 to 6.3 mHz with wavelengths in the order of 4.8 x 10 to the 8th power to 2.7 x 10 to the 9th power cm. Similarly, the fast MHD modes have rest frame frequencies in the range 1.6 to 26 mHz with typical wavelengths about 2.19 x 10 to the 8th power cm. The magnetic field power spectrum in the vicinity of these interplanetary shocks is much steeper than f to the -s/3 at high frequencies. The observed spectra have a high frequency dependence of f to the -2/5 to f to the -4.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85119 , NASA-TM-85119
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the binary X-ray source Circinus X-1 provide samples of a range of spectral and temporal behavior whose variety is thought to reflect a broad continuum of accretion conditions in an eccentric binary system. The data support an identification of three or more X-ray spectral components, probably associated with distinct emission regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85095 , NASA-TM-85095
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85101 , NASA-TM-85101
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Over the past two decades NASA spacecraft missions obtained photographs permitting accurate size measurements of the planets and moons, and their surface features. Planetary global views are displayed at the same scale, in each picture to allow visual size comparisons. Additionally, special geographical features on some of the planets are compared with selected Earth areas, again at the same scale. Artist renderings and estimated sizes are used for worlds not yet reached by spacecraft. Included with each picture is number designation for use in ordering copies of the photos.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85017 , NAS 1.15:85017
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cosmic rays and astrophysical plasmas, NASA spacecraft experiment activities, and gamma rays are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170335 , NAS 1.26:170335
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The production of electron-positron pairs by single photons in magnetic fields 10 to the twelth power G was investigated in detail for photon energies near threshold as well as for the asymptotic limit of high photon energy. The exact attenuation coefficient, which is derived and then evaluated numerically, is strongly influenced by the discrete energy states of the electron and positron. Near threshold, it exhibits a sawtooth pattern as a function of photon energy, and its value is significantly below that predicted by the asymptotic expression for the attenuation coefficient. The energy distributions of the created pair are computed numerically near threshold and analytic expressions are derived in the asymptotic limit. These results indicate that as field strength and photon energy increase, it becomes increasingly probable for the pair to divide the photon energy unequally. This effect, as well as the threshold behavior of the attenuation coefficient, could have important consequences for pulsar models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationship of the ultraviolet background radiation to the X-ray background is shown. The ultraviolet background, which is four orders of magnitude brighter than the x-ray background, is much less well determined. The relationship of the ultraviolet background to the EUV background and an excellent summary of the discordant ultraviolet observations at high galactic latitudes are given. A picture of the universe from the point of view of those who study ultraviolet background radiation, with emphasis on the various sources of noise that can affect the measurements is presented. The altitudes of various observing platforms are also indicated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:169249 , NASA-CR-169249
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Variations on time scales ranging from minutes to several hours in the X-ray flux from 54 observations of 38 active galaxies are identified. The sample is composed mostly of Seyfert I galaxies but also includes radio galaxies, NELG's BL Lacs and 3C 273. Only NGC 6814 varied on time scales as short as 100 sec. No other source was observed to vary with a time scale of less than 12 hours. Large amplitude short term variations are not a characteristic of the X-ray emission from active galaxies. Upper limits on sigma sub I/I ranged from 2% for Cen A, 5% for NGC 4151, to approximately 20% for sources giving 1 ct/sec in the detector. Three objects NGC 3227, NGC 4151 and MCG 5-23-16 show variability consistent with a time scale of approximately 1 day. Ways to reconcile the rapid variability seen for NGC 6814 (and NGC 4051) with the general stability observed for the other objects are considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83966 , NAS 1.15:83966
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High signal-to-noise profiles of the broad diffuse interstellar band at 4430 A were obtained on the 2.2-m telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, using the newly-developed pulse-counting multi-anode microchannel array detector system in an effort to determine whether the band profile varies with mean grain size as expected if the band is produced by absorbers embedded in grain lattices. The lack of profile variability over several lines of sight where independent evidence indicates that the mean grain size varies shows that lambda 4430 is probably not formed by the same grains that are responsible for interstellar extinction at visible wavelengths. The possibility that this band is created by a population of very small ( approximately 100 A) grains is still viable, as is the hypothesis that it has a molecular origin.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169111 , NAS 1.26:169111
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet light curves were obtained for the quiescent dwarf novae U Gem and VW Hyi. The amplitude of the hump associated with the accretion hot spot is much smaller in the UV than in the visible. This implies that the bright spot temperature is roughly 12000 K if it is optically thick. The flux distribution of U Gem in quiescence cannot be fitted by model spectra of steady state, viscous accretion disks. The absolute luminosity, the flux distribution, and the far UV spectrum suggest that the primary star is visible in the far UV. The optical UV flux distribution of VW Hyi can be matched roughly by the model accretion disks.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-168683 , NAS 1.26:168683
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial evolution of the power spectra of the MHD turbulence within the trailing edge of high speed streams in the solar wind was investigated with the magnetic field data of Helios 1 and 2 for heliocentric distance between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. In the analyzed frequency range (.00028 Hz to .0083 Hz) the computed spectra have, near the Earth, values of the spectral index close to that predicted for an incompressible hydromagnetic turbulence in a stationary state. Approaching the Sun the spectral slope remains unchanged for frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, whereas at lower frequencies, a clear evolution toward a less steep fall off with frequency is found. The radial gradient of the power in Alfvenic fluctuations depends on frequency and it increases upon increasing frequency. For frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, however, the radial gradient remains approximately the same. Possible theoretical implications of the observational features are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: IPS-81-13
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The dispersion measures of a sample of 149 pulsars in the inner Galaxy (absolute value of l 50 deg) were statistically analyzed to deduce the large-scale distribution of free thermal electrons in this region. The dispersion measure distribution of these pulsars shows significant evidence for a decrease in the electron scale height from a local value greater than the pulsar scale height to a value less than the pulsar scale height at galactocentric radii inside of approximately 7 kpc. An increase in the electron density (to a value around .15/cu cm at 4 to 5 kpc) must accompany such a decrease in scale height. There is also evidence for a large-scale warp in the electron distribution below the b + 0 deg plane inside the Solar circle. A model is proposed for the electron distribution which incorporates these features and Monte Carlo generated dispersion measure distributions are presented for parameters which best reproduce the observed pulsar distributions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83875
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The steady flux from 4U1916-05 which undergoes periodic absorption dips every 50 minutes was demonstrated. This period represents the underlying orbital period of the system. It is suggested that variations in the depth and duration of these events are caused by a bulge in the edge of the accretion disk, at the point where the gas stream impacts the disk. The mass losing star in this system is probably a low mass white dwarf. The spectrum of the dips indicates that the metallicity of the absorbing material is at least a factor 17 below solar values.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83839
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82161
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cooling of neutron stars is calculated using an exact stellar evolution code. The full general relativistic version of the stellar structure equations are solved, with the best physical input available. For neutron stars with a stiff equation of state, it is found that the deviation from the isothermality in the interior is significant and that it takes at least a few thousand years to reach the isothermal state. By comparing theoretical and observational results, it is concluded that for Cas A, SN1006, and probably Tycho, standard cooling is inconsistent with the results from the Einstein Observatory, if neutron stars are assumed to be present in these objects. On the other hand, the detection points for RCW103 and the Crab are consistent with these theoretical results.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82145
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) exhibits an enhancement during 1978 to 1979 relative to all years back to 1963. It is shown that IMF magnitude variations over the 1966 to 1979 period represent the combined effect of variations in both the radial flux density of the IMF and the degree of spiraling of the IMG, consistent with the theoretical model of Parker. The 1978 to 1979 IMF magnitude enhancement is due to an enhancement of radial flux which was in turn related to an increase of magnetic flux leaving solar active regions. It is also shown that during the corotating stream dominated years 1973 to 1976, the IMF was less wound up than during other years, and that 1973 to 1974 were years of enhanced radial flux.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82075
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Inconsistencies in present data when related to the baryon dominated and neutrino dominated models are considered with emphasis on the abundances of deuterium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82082
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of plasma and magnetic field variations in the near-Earth solar wind are discussed. Both a corotating stream and a driven shock are present. The driver gas seems to be enveloped in the rising speed phase of this stream; this appearance is attributed to a convoluted surface separating the two plasma domains. The magnetic field in the post shock flow (0030-1230 UT of July 29) has a large and geoeffective southward component at times; the energy coupling coefficient reaches approximately 5.4 x 10 to the 19th power ergs/s. In the driver gas (1230 UT of July 29 to 0110 of July 30) the magnetic field is dominantly northward. The density and dynamic pressure decrease by almost two orders of magnitude (100 to 2 cm/3) from just behind the interplanetary shock to approximately 3 hours into the driver gas flow. The dominant magnetic field variation in the driver gas is modeled by a cloud-like structure. Significant plasma parameter variations within the driver gas are attributed to structure in the parent solar mass ejection event and to interplanetary kinematics.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82095
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The general characteristics of pulsar gamma ray spectra are presented for a model where the gamma rays are produced by curvature radiation from energetic particles above the polar cap and attenuated by pair production. The shape of the spectrum is found to depend on pulsar period, magnetic field strength, and primary particle energy. By a comparison of numerically calculated spectra with the observed spectra of the Crab and Vela pulsars, it is determined that primary particles must be accelerated to energies of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power mc sq. A genaral formula for pulsar gamma ray luminosity is determined and is found to depend on period and field strength.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82026
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of directional discontinuities (DD's) in the interplanetary magnetic field are studied using data from the Mariner 10 primary mission between 1.0 and 0.46 AU. Statistical and visual survey methods for DD identification resulted in a total of 644 events. Two methods were used to estimate the ratio of the number of tangential discontinuities (TD's) to the number of rotational discontinuities (RD's). Both methods show that the ratio of TD's to RD's varied with time and decreased with decreasing radial distance. A decrease in average discontinuity thickness of approx. 40 percent was found between 1.0 and 0.72 AU and approx. 54 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, independent of type (TD or RD). This decrease in thickness for decreasing r is in qualitative agreement with Pioneer 10 observations between 1 and 5 AU. When the individual DD thickness are normalized with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (RA sub L), the average thickness at the three locations is nearly constant, 43 + or - 6 R sub L. This also holds true for both RD's and TD's separately. Statistical distributions of other properties, such as normal components and discontinuity plane angles, are presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-695 , NASA-TM-82036
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Einstein Observatory imaging proportional counter was used to search for X-ray emission from nine nearby historical novae. Six of the novae were detected with estimated X-ray intensities between .1 to 4 keV of 10 to the -13th power to 10 to the -11th power ergs/sq cm-s, comparable to the intensities of previously detected cataclysmic variables. The X-ray intensity of one of the novae, V603 Aql, varies over times of several hundred seconds. The data suggest a correlation between the decay rate of the historical outburst and the current X-ray luminosity. Alternatively, the X-ray luminosity may be related to the inclination of the binary system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82014
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of three uncommon trajectory concepts for space missions in the Sun-Earth-Moon System is presented. One concept uses a special class of libration-point orbits called 'halo orbits.' It is shown that members of this orbit family are advantageous for monitoring the solar wind input to the Earth's magnetosphere, and could also be used to establish a continuous communications link between the Earth and the far side of the Moon. The second concept employs pretzel-like trajectories to explore the Earth's geomagnetic tail. These trajectories are formed by using the Moon to carry out a prescribed sequence of gravity-assist maneuvers. Finally, there is the 'boomerang' trajectory technique for multiple-encounter missions to comets and asteroids. In this plan, Earth-swingby maneuvers are used to retarget the original spacecraft trajectory. The boomerang method could be used to produce a triple-encounter sequence which includes flybys of comets Halley and Tempel-2 as well as the asteroid Geographos.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80740
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The instantaneous rates of change for the orbital elements eccentricity, longitude of perigee from the Sun, and longitude from the Sun of the ascending node are integrated simultaneously for the case of the inclination i = 0. The results confirm the validity of using mean rates when the orbits are tightly bound to the planet and serve as examples to be reproduced by the complicated numerical solutions required for arbitrary inclination. Strongly bound hydrogen atoms escaping from Earth due to radiation pressure do not seem a likely cause of the geotail extending in the anti-sun direction. Instead, radiation pressure will cause those particles' orbits to deteriorate into the Earth's atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-163373
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Examination of the interaction between supernova (SN) ejecta and the various environments in which the explosive event might occur shows that only a small fraction of the many SNs produce observable supernova remnants (SNRs). This fraction, which is found to depend weakly upon the lower mass limit of the SN progenitors, and more strongly on the specfic characteristics of the associated interstellar medium, decreases from approximately 15 percent near the galctic center to 10 percent at Rgal approximately 10 kpc and drops nearly to zero for Rgal 15 kpc. Generally, whether a SNR is detectable is determined by the density of the ambient interstellar medium in which it is embeeede. The presence of large, low density cavities arpund stellar associations due to the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova shells strongly suggests that a large portion of the detectable SNRs have runway stars as their progenitors. These results explain the differences between the substantially larger SN rates in the galaxy derived both from pulsar statistics and from observations of SN events in external galaxies, when compared to the substantially smaller SN rates derived form galactic SNR statistics.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80707
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The best wavelength for observing Jupiter-size planetary companions to stars other than the Sun is one at which a planet's thermal emission is strongest; typically this would occur in the far-infrared region. It is assumed that the orbiting infrared telescope used is diffraction-limited so that the resolution of the planet from the central star is accomplished in the wings of the star's Airy pattern. Proxima Centauri, Barnard's Star, Wolf 359, and Epsilon Eridani are just a few of the many nearest main-sequence stars that could be studied with the large deployable relfector (LDR). The detectability of a planet improves for warmer planets and less luminous stars; therefore, planets around white dwarfs and those young planets which have sufficient internal gravitational energy release so as to cause a significant increase in their temperatures are considered. If white dwarfs are as old as they are usually assumed to be (5-10 billion yr), then only the nearest white dwarf (Sirius B) is within the range of LDR. The Ursa Major cluster and Perseu cluster are within LDR's detection range mainly because of their proximity and young age, respectively.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85874 , A-9592 , NAS 1.15:85874
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  • 55
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz was surveyed in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy. Comparison of this survey with similar H1 data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21 cm features. To each of the classical 21 cm H1 spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is devised for the galactic distribution of molecular clouds. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-980 , NASA-TP-2288 , NAS 1.60:2288
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies of the time behavior of the galactic cosmic ray intensity have concluded that long term decreases in the intensity are generally associated with systems of interplanetary flows that contain flare generated shock waves, magnetic clouds and other transient phenomena. The magnetic field power spectral signatures of such flow systems are compared to power spectra obtained during times when the solar wind is dominated by stable corotating streams that do not usually produce long-lived reduction in the cosmic ray intensity. The spectral signatures of these two types of regimes (transient and corotating) are distinct. However, the distinguishing features are not the same throughout the heliosphere. In data collected beyond 1 AU the primary differences are in the power spectra of the magnitude of the magnetic field rather than in the power in the field components. Consequently, decreases in cosmic ray intensity are very likely due to magnetic mirror forces and gradient drifts rather than to small angle scattering due to cyclotron wave-particle interactions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86051 , NASA-TM-86051
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two time periods are studied for which comprehensive data coverage is available at both 1 AU using IMP-8 and ISEE-3 and beyond using Voyager 1. One of these periods is characterized by the predominance of corotating stream interactions. Relatively small scale transient flows characterize the second period. The evolution of these flows with heliocentric distance is studied using power spectral techniques. The evolution of the transient dominated period is consistent with the hypothesis of turbulent evolution including an inverse cascade of large scales. The evolution of the corotating period is consistent with the entrainment of slow streams by faster streams in a deterministic model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85116 , NAS 1.15:85116
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new spatial array instrument provided diffraction-limited mid-infrared intensity profiles of the type-M supergiant stars alpha Orionis and alpha Scorpii, both of which are known to exhibit excess 10 microns radiation due to the presence of circumstellar dust shells. In the case of alpha Ori, there is a marked asymmetry in the dust distribution, with peak intensity of dust emission a distance of 0.9 inches from the star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173076 , NAS 1.26:173076
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The luminosity dependence of the equivalent width of CIV in active galaxies, the "Baldwin" effect, is shown to be a consequence of a luminosity dependent ionization parameter. This law also agrees with the lack of a "Baldwin" effect in Ly alpha or other hydrogen lines. A fit to the available data gives a weak indication that the mean covering factor decreases with increasing luminosity, consistent with the inference from X-ray observations. The effects of continuum shape and density on various line ratios of interest are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85096 , NAS 1.15:85096
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The detection of the (J,K) = a(4,3) yields s(3,3) rotation inversion transition of ammonia at 124.6 microns toward the center of the Orion-KL region is reported. The line is in emission and has a FWHM or = to 30 km s 0.15. The far IR ammonia line emission probably comes mainly from the 'hot core', a compact region of warm, very dense gas previously identified by the radio inversion lines of NH3. The a(4,3) yields s(3,3) line is very optically thick, and since it is seen in emission, radiative excitation of the (4,3) NH3 level by far IR emission from dust within the source can be ruled out. Radiative excitation via the 10 microns of vibrational transitions of NH3 also seems unlikely. Hence, the (4,3) level is probably collisionally excited and the gas in the hot core region is warmer than the dust. Since the far IR line emission is highly trapped, densities of approximately 10 to the 7th power cu cm are high enough to explain the observations. Shock heating by the mass outflow from IRc2 may account for the high gas temperatures in the hot core region.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies which indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84941 , NASA-TM-84941
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectrophotometric observations of emission line intensities were made in 8 positions in the planetary nebula NGC 7009. For the 6 brightest positions, the coverage is from 1400 A to 10,000 A. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optical observable ionization stages give results over a wide range of ionization that are consistent and agree with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines. This result is particularly gratifying for N because previously the standard formula gave inconsistent abundances in NGC 7009. The major outstanding problem is that the lambda 4267 CII line implies a C(2+) abundance as much as 12 times greater than that determined from the UV lines. This discrepancy is greatest nearest the central star, as is the case in the planetary nebula NGC 6720. The logarithmic abundances (relative to H=12.00) are: He=11.07, 0=8.68, N=8.10, Ne=8.16, C=8.18, Ar=6.36, and S=7.12. The average of the Ne, Ar, and S abundances agrees to within 5% of that for NGC 6720, but the O, N, nd C abundances average 1.9 times lower in NGC 7009, suggesting that here may have been mixing of processed material in the planetary precursor in NGC 6720.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169712 , NAS 1.26:169712
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A few, specially selected interstellar absorption lines were measured in the high resolution, far ultraviolet spectra of 200 O and B type stars observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). For lines of sight extending beyond about 500 pc from the galactic plane, the abundance of singly ionized iron atoms increases relative to singly ionized sulfur. However, the relative abundances of singly ionized sulfur, silicon and aluminum do not seem to change appreciably. An explanation for the apparent increase of iron is the partial sputtering of material off the surfaces of dust grains by interstellar shocks. Another possibility might be that the ejecta from type I supernovae enrich the low density medium in the halo with iron.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:169324 , NASA-CR-169324
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The HEAO A2 experiment data was systematically searched for unresolved galactic disc emission. Although there were suggestions of non-uniformities in the emission, the data were consistent with a disc of half-thickness 241 + 22 pc and surface emissivity (2-10 keV) at galactic radius R(kpc) of 2.2 10 to the minus 7th power exp(-R/3.5) erg/sq cm to the (-2)power/s (R 7.8 kpc). giving a luminosity of approximately 4.4 10 to the 37th power erg S to the (-1) power. If the model is extrapolated to radii less than 7.8 kpc, the unresolved disc emission is approximately 1.4 10 to the 38th power erg S to the (-1) power (2-10 keV) i.e., a few percent of the luminosity of the galaxy in resolved sources. the disc emission has a spectrum which is significantly softer than that of the high galactic latitude diffuse X-ray background and it is most probably of discrete source origin.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83844
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  • 65
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A unified model for the formation of regular satellite systems and the planetary system is outlined. The basis for this modern Laplacian theory is that there existed a large supersonic turbulent stress arising from overshooting convective motions within the three primitive gaseous clouds which formed Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun. Calculations show that if each cloud possessed the same fraction of supersonic turbulent energy, equal to about 5% of the cloud's gravitational potential energy, then the broad mass distribution and chemistry of all regular satellite and planetary systems can be simultaneously accounted for. Titan is probably a captured moon of Saturn. Several predictions about observations made by Voyager 2 at Saturn are presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-164850 , JPL-PUB-81-79
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of post-Newtonian potentials on the rotation of a nearly rigid body is shown to consist of a precession and a torque. The frequency of the precession can be exactly represented by means of suitable differential operators. The relativistic torques in the quadrupole approximation depend on the instantaneous orientation of the principal axes of one body with respect to the position like the classical torque and velocity of the other. For a relatively low mass body, such as a gyroscope, these velocity-dependent torques have no observable consequences.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78295
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: X-ray observations of the first major outburst (since its initial discovery in 1969) of the "classical" transient X-ray source Cen X-4 were obtained with the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The flare light curve exhibits a double-peaked maximum at a level of approximately 4 times the Crab nebula, and its duration and characteristic decay time scale are the shortest yet observed from the class of "soft" X-ray transients. A total X-ray output of approximately 3 x 10 to the 43rd power ergs, a factor of approximately 20 less than that of the 1969 outburst is estimated. In addition, evidence is found for a regular modulation of the flux during the decline phase at a period of 8.2 plus or minus 0.2 hours. The existing data are consistent with a source model involving episodic mass exchange from a late-type dwarf onto a neutron star comparison in a relatively close binary system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80694
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radio observations explain certain kinds of stellar activity and reliable estimates of magnetic field strengths are derived for the radio emitting regions. Radio observation of flare stars shows rapidly varying bursts of radiation with frequencies of up to 5 GHz. The inferred brightness temperatures of these bursts (10 to the 10th power to 10 to the 14th power) imply that the radiation is coherent. Two mechanisms are proposed to generate such radiation: (1) plasma radiation, and (2) electron cyclotron masers. The high brightness temperatures of the bursts up to 10 to the 20th power K) makes the latter the most plausible. For bursts in the 5 GHz range, the magnetic field strength would be approximately 900 Gauss.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175966 , NASA-CR-175966
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  • 69
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The orbital radial velocity semi-amplitude of the binary star system LMC X-4 primary was determined to be 37.9 + or - 2.4 km/s from measurements of the hydrogen absorption lines. The semi-amplitude of the He I and He II absorption lines are consistent with this, namely 44.9 + or - 5.0 and 37.3 + or - 5.3 km/s. The phase and shape of the radial velocity curves of the three ions are consistent with a circular orbit and an ephemeris based upon X-ray measurements of the neutron star, with the exception that the He II absorption line radial velocity curve has detectable shape distortion. Measurements of the He II LAMBOA 4686 emission line velocity are consistent with a phase shifted sine wave of semi-amplitude 535 km/s, a square wave of semi-amplitude 407 km/s, or high order harmonic fits. The spectral type was found to be 08.5 IV-V during X-ray eclipse. Variations to types as early as 07 occur, but not as a function or orbital phase. Absorption line peculiarities were noted on 6 of 58 spectra.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174414 , CSR-HEA-82-14 , NAS 1.26:174414
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: X-ray spectral and temporal observations are reported for six narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), all of which are fitted by power-law X-ray spectra of energy slope 0.8 and have column densities in the line of sight greater than 1 x 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Three of the objects, NGC 526a, NGC 2110 and MCG-5-23-16 are variable in their X-ray flux, and the latter two, along with NGC 5506 and NGC 7582, showed detectable variability in at least one observation. The measured X-ray properties of these NELGs, which also included NGC 2992, strongly resemble those of previously-measured type 1 Seyferts of the same X-ray luminosity and lead to the conclusion of great similarity between the NELGs and low-luminosity type 1 Seyferts. The implications of these observations for the optical line-emitting region structure of these galaxies are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83859 , NASA-TM-83859
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wolf 630 AB is a double and perhaps triple star with a predominant dM 3.5e spectrum. It is one of the relatively strong red dwarf X-ray sources. The 0.5 to 4 keV spectral data for a steady, non-flaring flux are interpreted in terms of emission from thin thermal plasma with a dominant temperature of approximately 6,500,000 K. Both in temperature and average surface flux the quiescent corona is similar to that of the low temperature component found for RS Canum Venaticorum binaries. There is an indication of additional emission above 10 to the 7th power K, but the ratio of high to low temperature emission is smaller than for typical RS CVn systems. The solid state spectrometer observed the spectrum of only one other red dwarf, Ad Leo, which is very similar to that observed for Wolf 630 AB.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83947 , NASA-TM-83947
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A class of grand unified theories in which cosmologicaly significant axion and neutrino energy densities arise naturally is discussed. To obtain large scale structure three scenarios are considered: (1) an inflationary scenario; (2) inflation followed by string production; and (3) a non-inflationary scenario with density fluctuations caused solely by strings. Inflation may be compatible with the recent observational indications that mega 1 on the scale of superclusters, particularly if strings are present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86146 , NASA-TM-86146
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The combination of Pioneer photometric and Voyager spectrometric observations of EUV interstellar-interplanetary emissions in the region beyond 5 A was applied to a determination of atomic hydrogen and helium densities. These density estimates obtained from direct measurement of scattered radiation depend on absolute calibration of the instruments in the same way as other earlier determinations based on the same method. However, the spacecraft data were combined with daily full sun averages of the H Lyman 1216 A line obtained by the Solar Mesospheric Explorer satellite to obtain a measure of atomic hydrogen density independent of instrument absolute calibration. The method depends on observations of long and short term temporal variability of the solar line over a one year period, and the fact that the ISM is optically thick. The density estimates from preliminary work on these observations are H = 0.12 cu cm and H = .016 cu cm, giving a density ratio close to the cosmic abundance value in contrast to some earlier results indicating a depletion of atomic hydrogen. Estimates were obtained of galactic background emissions in the signals of both spacecraft.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173931 , NAS 1.26:173931
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86116 , NASA-TM-86116
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Estimates are made of the far-infrared and submillimeter continuum and line emission from regions of low mass star formation. The intensity of this emission is compared with the sensitivity of the large deployable reflector (LDR), a large space telescope designed for this wavelength range. The proposed LDR is designed to probe the temperature, density, chemical structure, and the velocity field of the collapsing envelopes of these protostars. The LDR is also designed to study the accretion shocks on the cores and circumstellar disks of low-mass protostars, and to detect shock waves driven by protostellar winds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: A-9754 , NASA-TM-85960 , NAS 1.15:85960
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results from a large scale survey of the first quadrant of the Milky Way galactic plane at wavelengths of 150, 250, and 300 microns with a 10x10 arcmin beam are presented. The emission detected in the survey arises from compact sources, most of which are identified with known peaks of 5 GHz and/or CO emission, and from an underlying diffuse background with a typical angular width of approximately 0.9 deg (FWHM) which accounts for most of the emission. A total of 80 prominent discrete sources were identified and characterized, of which about half were not previously reported at far infrared wavelengths. The total infrared luminosity within the solar circle is approximately 1 to 2x10 to the 10th power L sub 0, and is probably emitted by dust that resides in molecular clouds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86077 , NAS 1.15:86077
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86118 , NAS 1.15:86118
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An analytic expression for the integrated H alpha optical depth profile is derived for a one dimensional slab geometry model chromosphere, with electron temperature increasing as a power law with height. The formula predicts H alpha opacity and profile width to be sensitive functions of the thermal gradient. Application of the model to observation reveals that broad H alpha absorption widths in G and K giant stars are consistent with a mean H alpha chromospheric optical depth of 50, while narrower widths in M stars indicate slightly lower opacities. It is proposed that differences in H alpha width between late-type giants of similar spectral type may be due, in part, to differences in their chromospheric thermal gradient, and associated H alpha opacity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: BBSO-0230 , NAS 1.26:173359 , NASA-CR-173359
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Milgrom's recent revision of Newtonian dynamics was introduced to eliminate the inference that large quantities of invisible mass exist in galaxies. Simple examples show that a Milgrom acceleration, in the form presented so far, imply other far-reaching changes in dynamics. The momentum of an isolated system is not conserved, and the usual theorem for center-of-mass motion of any system does not hold. Naive applications require extreme caution. The model fails to provide a complete description of particle dynamics and should be thought of as a revision of Kepler's laws rather than Newton's. The Milgrom acceleration also implies fundamental changes in cosmology. A quasi-Newtonian calculation adapted from Newtonian cosmology suggests that a Milgrom universe will recollapse even if the classical closure parameter theta is less than 1. The solution, however, fails to satisfy the cosmological principle. Reasons for the breakdown of this calculation are examined. A theory of gravitation needed before the behavior of a Milgrom universe can be predicted.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86049 , NASA-TM-86049
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recently discovered millisecond pulsar (PSR1937-214) is observed to be rotating close to the limit of dynamical instability for a neutron star. Despite its extremely rapid rotation, measurements of the period derivative put a stringent upper limit on the energy loss from gravitational radiation, thus requiring that the quadrupole moment be quite small. The pulsar must also be rotating below the critical frequency at which its equilibrium configuration would become non-axisymmetric, since the lifetime of this configuration against decay by gravitational radiation is very short. This critical frequency, given by the theory of rotating ellipsoids, imposes a restriction on the rotation rate more severe than the break-up frequency and may be used to set a lower limit, rho 2 x 10 to the 14th power g/cu cm, on the density of the star. If the mass is 0.5 - 1.5 solar mass, several of the stiffer neutron star equations of state may be ruled out, and the radius should be less than 16 km. The condition for axisymmetry also imposes an upper limit on the rotation rate to which neutron stars may be spun up by accretion disks in binary systems, a model recently proposed for the evolution of the millisecond pulsar.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85040 , NAS 1.15:85040
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A scenario where axions provide the dark matter in the universe is considered. Fluctuations in the axion field density produced by domain walls and strings cause the appearance of axion clumps of masses of order 10 to the 6th power solar mass which most likely collapse to black holes by or at the time that the universe becomes axion dominated at T is approximately 10 eV. These objects form the building blocks for a clustering hierarchy theory of galaxy and supercluster formation on scales up to approximately 10 Mpc and approximately 10 to the 15th power solar mass.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84963 , REPT-660 , NAS 1.15:84963
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first high resolution non-dispersive 2-60 KeV X-ray spectra of 4U1700-37 is presented. The continuum is typical of that found from X-ray pulsars; that is a flat power law between 2 and 10 keV and, beyond 10 keV, an exponential decay of characteristic energy varying between 10 and 20 keV. No X-ray pulsations were detected between 160 ms and 6 min with an amplitude greater than approximately 2%. The absorption measured at binary phases approximately 0.72 is comparable to that expected from the stellar wind of the primary. The gravitational capture of material in the wind is found to be more than enough to power the X-ray source. The increase in the average absorption after phi o approximately 0.5 is confirmed. The minimum level of adsorption is a factor of 2 or 3 lower than that reported by previous observers, which may be related to a factor of approximately 10 decline in the average X-ray luminosity over the same interval. Short term approximately 50% variations in adsorption are seen for the first time which appear to be loosely correlated with approximately 10 min flickering activity in the X-ray flux. These most likely originate from inhomogeneities in the stellar wind of the primary.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83976 , NAS 1.15:83976
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The ISEE observations of the pi2 magnetic pulsations occuring substorm onset in the inner magnetosphere are discussed. One of these events which was also detected as a pi2 event by the AFGL midlatitude magnetometers is considered. The event occurred when the foot of the ISEE field line was over North America. The ground and satellite signals are remarkably similar: they start and stop at the same time, have the same period and can be correlated cycle by cycle. The waves are detected in the electric field data from ISEE 1 and in the magnetic field data from both ISEE 1 and ISEE 2. Calculation of the Poynting vector at ISEE 1 shows that the energy flowed mainly westward, but that there was also a component towards the nearer (southern) ionospheric foot of the field line. The phases between the various field components measured by ISEE 1 and 2 indicate that this is a standing hydromagnetic oscillation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84763 , NAS 1.15:84763
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos was calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results were then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data were used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. Thus an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model may have been found.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83873
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