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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (578)
  • 1980-1984  (578)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (578)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A dating technique for faint, distant star clusters observable in the local group of galaxies with the space telescope is discussed. Color-magnitude diagrams of Magellanic Cloud clusters are mentioned along with the metallicity of star clusters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173927 , NAS 1.26:173927
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Assuming a simple but physically based prototype for behavior of interstellar material during formation of a disk galaxy, coupled with the lowest order description of infall, a scenario is developed for self-regulated disk galaxy formation. Radiation pressure, particularly that of Lyman depha (from fluorescence conversion Lyman continuum), is an essential component, maintaining an inflated disk and stopping infall when only a small fraction of the overall perturbation has joined the disk. The resulting galaxies consist of a two dimensional family whose typical scales and surface density are expressable in terms of fundamental constants. The model leads naturally to galaxies with a rich circumgalactic environment and flat rotation curves (but is weak in its analysis of the subsequent evolution of halo material).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173592 , NAS 1.26:173592
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The predictions of the boundary layer model for the X-ray emission from novae are summarized. A discrepancy between observations and theory in the X-ray observations is found. Constraints on the nature of the boundary layers in novae, based on the lack of detections of novae in the HEAO-1 soft X-ray survey are provided. Temperature and column densities for optically thick boundary layers in novae are estimated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85112 , NAS 1.15:85112
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of accreting magnetized neutron star atmospheres heated by the gradual deceleration of protons via Coulomb collisions are presented. Self consistent determinations of the temperature and density structure for different accretion rates are made by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and energy balance, coupled with radiative transfer. The full radiative transfer in two polarizations, using magnetic cross sections but with cyclotron resonance effects treated approximately, is carried out in the inhomogeneous atmospheres.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85087 , NAS 1.15:85087
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Voyager spacecraft radio, interplanetary plasma, and interplanetary magnetic field data are used to show that large amplitude fluctuations in the power generated by the Saturn kilometric radio emission are best correlated with solar wind ram pressure variation. In all, thirteen solar wind quantities previously found important in driving terrestrial magnetospheric substorms and other auroral processes were examined for evidence of correlations with the Saturn radio emission. The results are consistent with hydromagnetic wave or eddy diffusion processes driven by large scale solar wind pressure changes at Saturn's dayside magnetopause.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85004 , NASA-TM-85004
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial evolution of interplanetary flows and associated magnetic fields between 0.3 AU and 8.5 was analyzed using data from Helios 1 and Voyager 1, respectively. During a 70 day interval Voyager 1 observed two streams which appeared to be recurrent and which had little fine structure. The corresponding flows observed by Helios 1 were much more complex, showing numerous small streams, transient flows and shocks as well as a few large corotating streams. It is suggested that in moving to 8 AU the largest corotating streams swept up the slower flows (transient and/or corotating streams) and shocks into a relatively thin region in which they coalesced to form a single large amplitude compression wave. This combined process of sweeping and coalescence is referred to as entrainment. The resulting large amplitude compression wave is different from that formed by the steepening of a corotating stream from a coronal hole, because different flows from distinct sources, with possibly different composition and magnetic polarity, are brought together to form a single new structure.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84955 , NAS 1.15:84955
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of Einstein solid state spectrometer observations of the central region of Abell 576 combined with HEAO 1 spectra of the total cluster are given. Line emission was detected due to Fe, Si, and S from a hot plasma in the central region. The temperature of the total cluster spectrum may be in conflict with the central temperature. This difference can be explained either if cooling takes place in the center, or if part of the measured emission is due to individual galaxies. If the X-ray emission comes from the intergalactic gas only, there is some difficulty in producing all the silicon observed in the galaxies of A 576.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85103 , NASA-TM-85103
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectrophotometric observations of emission line intensities were made in seven positions in the planetary nebula NGC 6853; for five of the positions, coverage is across the entire spectral range 1400A to 9600A. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically-observable ionization stages give results over a wide range of ionization that are generally consistent and in agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines. As in the previous studies in this series, the lambda 4267 CII line implies a c(2+) abundance that is higher than that determined from UV lines. Although this effect is much smaller than in NGC 6720 and NGC 7009, it is again largest nearest the central star, giving more evidence that the excitation mechanism for the lambda 4267 line is not understood.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173240 , NASA-CR-173240
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evidence for two types of relatively large amplitude MHD waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel forward and reverse interplanetary shocks is presented. The first mode is an Alfven wave with frequencies (in the spacecraft frame) in the range of 0.025 to 0.07 Hz. This is a left-hand polarized mode and propagates within a few degrees of the ambient magnetic field. The second is a fast MHD mode with frequencies in the range of 0.025 to 0.17 Hz, right-hand polarization and propagating along the magnetic field. These waves are detected principally in association with quasi-parallel shock. The Alfven waves are found to have plasma rest frame frequencies in the range of 1.1 to 6.3 mHz with wavelengths in the order of 4.8 x 10 to the 8th power to 2.7 x 10 to the 9th power cm. Similarly, the fast MHD modes have rest frame frequencies in the range 1.6 to 26 mHz with typical wavelengths about 2.19 x 10 to the 8th power cm. The magnetic field power spectrum in the vicinity of these interplanetary shocks is much steeper than f to the -s/3 at high frequencies. The observed spectra have a high frequency dependence of f to the -2/5 to f to the -4.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85119 , NASA-TM-85119
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the binary X-ray source Circinus X-1 provide samples of a range of spectral and temporal behavior whose variety is thought to reflect a broad continuum of accretion conditions in an eccentric binary system. The data support an identification of three or more X-ray spectral components, probably associated with distinct emission regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85095 , NASA-TM-85095
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  • 11
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85101 , NASA-TM-85101
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Over the past two decades NASA spacecraft missions obtained photographs permitting accurate size measurements of the planets and moons, and their surface features. Planetary global views are displayed at the same scale, in each picture to allow visual size comparisons. Additionally, special geographical features on some of the planets are compared with selected Earth areas, again at the same scale. Artist renderings and estimated sizes are used for worlds not yet reached by spacecraft. Included with each picture is number designation for use in ordering copies of the photos.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85017 , NAS 1.15:85017
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The production of electron-positron pairs by single photons in magnetic fields 10 to the twelth power G was investigated in detail for photon energies near threshold as well as for the asymptotic limit of high photon energy. The exact attenuation coefficient, which is derived and then evaluated numerically, is strongly influenced by the discrete energy states of the electron and positron. Near threshold, it exhibits a sawtooth pattern as a function of photon energy, and its value is significantly below that predicted by the asymptotic expression for the attenuation coefficient. The energy distributions of the created pair are computed numerically near threshold and analytic expressions are derived in the asymptotic limit. These results indicate that as field strength and photon energy increase, it becomes increasingly probable for the pair to divide the photon energy unequally. This effect, as well as the threshold behavior of the attenuation coefficient, could have important consequences for pulsar models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two time periods are studied for which comprehensive data coverage is available at both 1 AU using IMP-8 and ISEE-3 and beyond using Voyager 1. One of these periods is characterized by the predominance of corotating stream interactions. Relatively small scale transient flows characterize the second period. The evolution of these flows with heliocentric distance is studied using power spectral techniques. The evolution of the transient dominated period is consistent with the hypothesis of turbulent evolution including an inverse cascade of large scales. The evolution of the corotating period is consistent with the entrainment of slow streams by faster streams in a deterministic model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85116 , NAS 1.15:85116
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new spatial array instrument provided diffraction-limited mid-infrared intensity profiles of the type-M supergiant stars alpha Orionis and alpha Scorpii, both of which are known to exhibit excess 10 microns radiation due to the presence of circumstellar dust shells. In the case of alpha Ori, there is a marked asymmetry in the dust distribution, with peak intensity of dust emission a distance of 0.9 inches from the star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173076 , NAS 1.26:173076
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The luminosity dependence of the equivalent width of CIV in active galaxies, the "Baldwin" effect, is shown to be a consequence of a luminosity dependent ionization parameter. This law also agrees with the lack of a "Baldwin" effect in Ly alpha or other hydrogen lines. A fit to the available data gives a weak indication that the mean covering factor decreases with increasing luminosity, consistent with the inference from X-ray observations. The effects of continuum shape and density on various line ratios of interest are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85096 , NAS 1.15:85096
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radio observations explain certain kinds of stellar activity and reliable estimates of magnetic field strengths are derived for the radio emitting regions. Radio observation of flare stars shows rapidly varying bursts of radiation with frequencies of up to 5 GHz. The inferred brightness temperatures of these bursts (10 to the 10th power to 10 to the 14th power) imply that the radiation is coherent. Two mechanisms are proposed to generate such radiation: (1) plasma radiation, and (2) electron cyclotron masers. The high brightness temperatures of the bursts up to 10 to the 20th power K) makes the latter the most plausible. For bursts in the 5 GHz range, the magnetic field strength would be approximately 900 Gauss.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175966 , NASA-CR-175966
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A class of grand unified theories in which cosmologicaly significant axion and neutrino energy densities arise naturally is discussed. To obtain large scale structure three scenarios are considered: (1) an inflationary scenario; (2) inflation followed by string production; and (3) a non-inflationary scenario with density fluctuations caused solely by strings. Inflation may be compatible with the recent observational indications that mega 1 on the scale of superclusters, particularly if strings are present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86146 , NASA-TM-86146
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Milgrom's recent revision of Newtonian dynamics was introduced to eliminate the inference that large quantities of invisible mass exist in galaxies. Simple examples show that a Milgrom acceleration, in the form presented so far, imply other far-reaching changes in dynamics. The momentum of an isolated system is not conserved, and the usual theorem for center-of-mass motion of any system does not hold. Naive applications require extreme caution. The model fails to provide a complete description of particle dynamics and should be thought of as a revision of Kepler's laws rather than Newton's. The Milgrom acceleration also implies fundamental changes in cosmology. A quasi-Newtonian calculation adapted from Newtonian cosmology suggests that a Milgrom universe will recollapse even if the classical closure parameter theta is less than 1. The solution, however, fails to satisfy the cosmological principle. Reasons for the breakdown of this calculation are examined. A theory of gravitation needed before the behavior of a Milgrom universe can be predicted.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86049 , NASA-TM-86049
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recently discovered millisecond pulsar (PSR1937-214) is observed to be rotating close to the limit of dynamical instability for a neutron star. Despite its extremely rapid rotation, measurements of the period derivative put a stringent upper limit on the energy loss from gravitational radiation, thus requiring that the quadrupole moment be quite small. The pulsar must also be rotating below the critical frequency at which its equilibrium configuration would become non-axisymmetric, since the lifetime of this configuration against decay by gravitational radiation is very short. This critical frequency, given by the theory of rotating ellipsoids, imposes a restriction on the rotation rate more severe than the break-up frequency and may be used to set a lower limit, rho 2 x 10 to the 14th power g/cu cm, on the density of the star. If the mass is 0.5 - 1.5 solar mass, several of the stiffer neutron star equations of state may be ruled out, and the radius should be less than 16 km. The condition for axisymmetry also imposes an upper limit on the rotation rate to which neutron stars may be spun up by accretion disks in binary systems, a model recently proposed for the evolution of the millisecond pulsar.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85040 , NAS 1.15:85040
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Holberg's analysis of the Voyager Saturn photographs in reflected and transparent light, and occultation data of stars seen through the rings are discussed. A hyperfine structure, with 10,000 ringlets can be explained by the Baxter-Thompson negative diffusion. This gives the ringlets a stability which makes it possible to interpret them as fossils, which originated at cosmogonic times. It is shown that the bulk structure can be explained by the combined cosmogonic shadows of the satellites Mimas, Janus and the Shepherd satellites. This structure originated at the transition from the plasma phase to the planetesimal phase. The shadows are not simple void regions but exhibit a characteristic signature. Parts of the fine structure, explained by Holberg as resonances with satellites, are interpreted as cosmogonic shadow effects. However, there are a number of ringlets which can neither be explained by cosmogonic nor by resonance effects. Analysis of ring data can reconstruct the plasma-planetesimal transition with an accuracy of a few percent.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174477 , NASA-CR-174477 , TRITA-EPP-83-04 , (ISSN 0348-7539)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-09-10
    Description: High energy observations of the galactic center on the subparsec scale seem to be consistent with electron-positron production in the form of relativistic jets. These jets could be produced by an approximately 1,000,000 solar mass black hole dynamo transportating pairs away from the massive core. An electromagnetic cascade shower would develop first from ambient soft protons and then nonlinearly; the shower using itself as a scattering medium. This is suited to producing, cooling and transporting pairs to the observed annihilation region. It is possible the center of our galaxy is a miniature version of more powerful active galactic nuclei that exhibit jet activity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA(Goddard Space Flight Center Contrib. to the Workshop on Positron-Electron Pairs in Astrophys.; p 1-6
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  • 23
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Differential equations that arise in astrodynamics are examined from the standpoint of Lie group theory. A summary of the Lie method is given for first degree differential equations. The Kepler problem in Hamiltonian form is treated by this method. Extension of the Lie method to optimal trajectories is outlined.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Johnson (Lyndon B.) Space Center The 1983 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program Research Reports; NASA. Johnson (Lynd
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Solar and stellar winds and mass-loss phenomena are discussed in reviews of recent observations and current theory. Topics examined include mass loss from the sun, the O-type stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, the Parker theory, B stars, T Tauri stars, Balmer line emission from Be stars, novae, symbiotic stars, planetary nebulae, and dwarf novae. Graphs, tables, diagrams, sample spectra, and extensive discussion on each contribution are provided.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The study of the inert gases in meteorites has provided many clues as to the origin and evolution of the solar system. Particularly crucial and complex are the gases krypton and xenon. To accurately measure the isotopic compositions of these gases requires a mass spectrometer of high sensitivity and resolution. A previously unused and largely untested mass spectrometer system was brought to the point where it was ready for routine sample analyses. This involved, among other things, focusing the ion beam for optimal peak shape and sensitivity, documenting the instrument's response to a series of characteristic tests such as multplier gain checks, and interfacing the instrument to a computer to run the sample analyses. Following this testing and setting up, three iron meteorite samples were to be analyzed for argon, krypton, and xenon. The three samples were shown in prior work to possibly contain primordial heavy inert gases. Although these analyses have not yet been carried out, it is anticipated that they will be completed in the near future.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Johnson (Lyndon B.) Space Center The 1983 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program Research Reports; NASA. Johnson (Lynd
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: It is noted that it is helpful to divide the atmosphere of an early-type star into two parts: a photosphere and a mantle. The photosphere can be modeled satisfactorily by normal model-atmosphere procedures. When modeling the mantle, one must take account of the deposition of nonradiative heat and momentum and one should recognize that the mantles of hot stars do not appear to be uniform or spherically symmetric. Five areas of discrepancy between classical theory and observation are noted and a possible way of modeling the mantles of early-type stars is outlined. The model consists of arcades of magnetic loops which form helmet-type structures in the equatorial band of the star, and of coronal-hole-type structures emmanating from weak unipolar regions which are chiefly distributed at polar latitudes.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Hvar Observatory, Bulletin (ISSN 0351-2651); 7; 1, 19
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The chemical and isotopic stratifications of supernova exhalations are discussed, with reference to a number of theoretical estimates. Particular attention is given to the theoretical models of the major chemical zones of explosive exhalation of isotopes of Mg, Si, and Ti in intermediate size supernovae. The contribution of supernova exhalations to oxygen anomalies in the solar system is also discussed within the framework of the theoretical models of Clayton et al. (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981). The initial stratigraphy of the major elements in the explosive exhalation of a progenitor star of 25 solar mass is illustrated in a graph, on the basis of the theoretical estimates of Waver et al. (1978), and Weaver and Woolsey (1980).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Cosmological mysteries which are not explained by the Big Bang hypothesis but may be approached by a revamped inflationary universe model are discussed. Attention is focused on the isotropy, the large-scale homogeneity, small-scale inhomogeneity, the oldness/flatness of the universe, and the baryon asymmetry. The universe is assumed to start in the lowest energy state, be initially dominated by false vacuum energy, enter a de Sitter phase, and then cross a barrier which is followed by the formation of fluctuation regions that lead to structure. The scalar fields (perturbation regions) experience quantum fluctuations which produce spontaneous symmetry breaking on a large scale. The scalar field value would need to be much greater than the expansion rate during the de Sitter epoch. A supersymmetric (flat) potential which satisfies the requirement, yields fluctuations of the right magnitude, and allows inflation to occur is described.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Information about the effective temperatures, radii, and masses of O-type stars is presented. It is argued that rapid variations in the amount of light from O stars and the spectral distribution are a result chiefly of changes which occur in the envelope of the star. The stability of the photospheric layers of O stars against convection is reviewed and it is noted that late O stars and early B stars have a convection zone in the deeper parts of the photosphere. This convection zone is due to the second ionization of helium. Evidence is reviewed that most of the line-profile changes seen for O stars are generated by changes in the physical state of the mantle of the star, that is of the outer atmosphere where the deposition of non-radiative energy and momentum controls the physical state of the atmosphere. The physical state of the mantle may change in response to changes in the upper envelope of a star with a different time constant than the photosphere does.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Hvar Observatory, Bulletin (ISSN 0351-2651); 7; 1, 19; 1-15; Di
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Consideration is given to several features of the chemical state of interstellar matter that may be relevant to the observed properties of chondrules if they are formed from aggregates of pre-existing particles. First, a brief summary of the numbers and types of interstellar particles as indicated by the extinction of starlight is given. Second, a model of the free decay interval required by the low solar abundance of 129-I is advanced. This model can support variations in the 129-I/127-I ratio that are larger than typical isotopic anomalies. Third, a new steady-state model of the chemical state of the interstellar medium is presented as a first step toward a quantitative distribution of the abundances among different chemical forms. Last, the advantages of fusing chondrules from aggregates of pre-solar dust by the action of exothermic chemistry are enumerated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Current models of galaxy formation are examined in a review of recent observational and theoretical studies. Observational data on elliptical galaxies, disk galaxies, luminosity functions, clustering, and angular fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background are summarized. Theoretical aspects discussed include the origin and early evolution of small fluctuations, matter and radiation fluctuations, the formation of large-scale structure, dissipationless galaxy formation, galaxy mergers, dissipational galaxy formation, and the implications of particle physics (GUTs, massive neutrinos, and gravitinos) for cosmology.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics (ISSN 0094-5846); 9; 1-138
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A powerful young supernova remnant (SNR) similar to Cas A has recently been discovered in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. X-ray, optical and ultraviolet data have been obtained which allow possible models for this object to be investigated and its age to be estimated. Several lines of argument indicate a massive star of order 25 solar masses as the precursor to this remnant. If the X-ray emision is attributed to a reverse shock in the ejecta, the remnant should be about 120 years old.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Neutron stars are the longest-lived remnants of supernova explosions. As a reservoir of thermal energy remaining from the explosion and generated by frictional coupling between core and crust, as a storehouse of magnetic and rotational kinetic energy which allows the star to act as a high energy particle accelerator, and as the source of a deep gravitational potential which can generate heat from infalling matter, neutron stars remain capable of producing high energy radiation for a Hubble time. The results of an extensive survey of supernova remnants and radio pulsars performed with the imaging instruments on board the Einstein Observatory are reviewed and the implications of these results for pulsar physics and for the origin and evolution of galactic neutron stars are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Soft X-ray diffuse background observations in the 0.3-1.5 keV interval of two sky regions, near the north galactic pole and the North Polar Spur (NPS) are reported. Data were taken with a solid-state spectrometer carried by a rocket. The near-polar region exhibited O VII ion emissions at 530 eV. A second component was not identified but was attributed to the Galactic Halo. Fe XVIII, Ne IX, and O VIII contributions were detected in the NPS, along with an enhancement at 1.35 keV from Mg XI lines. A two-temperature contour was fit to the spectra and chi-square confidence levels of 90 and 68 percent were obtained.
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Observational data and the capabilities of current models for observed filament and shock features of supernova remnants are considered. The filaments emit Balmer lines originating in nonthermal shocks. Models of the generation mechanisms must account for the shock structure and the possibilities of electron thermal precursors to the shock and plasma turbulence, as well as equilibration processes for electron and ion temperatures. It is not yet known if a Maxwellian velocity distribution fits the electrons and ions. An assumption of Coulombic equilibration of ions and electrons has agreed well with some observed forbidden line intensities in the Cygnus Loop, while other lines require detailed radiative transfer calculations.
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Einstein solid-state-spectrometer (SSS) spectra are presented for the Crab Nebula, Cas A, SN 1006, the Tycho SNR, and the Kepler SNR. The history of X-ray observations of SNRs is reviewed; the SSS instrument is briefly characterized; a reduction technique which accounts for all background sources in the 0.5-4.5-keV band is applied; and the physical models of SNRs constructed to reproduce the refined spectra are discussed. The limitations of the modeling methods and the need for further observations, especially of localized regions, are indicated.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Consideration is given to the different roles that magnetic fields play in the control of the structure and energy balance in the chromospheres and transition regions of late-type stars, in view of IUE and Einstein satellite observations. The rotational modulation of structures ('plages') that are bright in UV emission lines and overlie dark star spots suggests that magnetic flux tubes are the dominant structural elements in late-type stellar atmospheres, as well. It is proposed that the existence of a boundary between solar-type stars and those with little or no plasma, as well as the different types of G-K giants and supergiants, may be understood in terms of the fractional surface coverage by closed magnetic structures. Models computed for active and quiet regions of the sun are compared with those for active and quiet stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: It has been suggested that the recently discovered radio emission from AM Her arises as a result of gyrosynchrotron radiation from electrons at energies approximately 400 keV in the magnetosphere of the white dwarf. However, no mechanism for producing such energetic electrons was discussed. In this paper, it is argued that small departures from synchronous rotation can cause the companion star to act as a unipolar inductor. This leads to high voltages being produced across the companion star, which provides the necessary acceleration mechanism. This also implies that if the magnetic white dwarf was formed with a rapid rotation, synchronization would be achieved on a time scale approximately 10,000 yr.
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Advances in the study of cataclysmic variables made during the past few years are reviewed. The classification of cataclysmic binaries and their dynamic properties are summarized. The hard and soft X-ray emission from these objects is discussed, and two alternative accretion geometries for producing this radiation from deep in the potential well of the degenerate dwarf are considered. The ultraviolet and optical spectrum is addressed, including disk emission and contributions from the companion star. Magnetic fields in cataclysmic variables are discussed, and the temporal behavior of these stars is addressed, including periodic modulations associated with orbital motion and rotation as well as flickering and pulsation reflecting the mass transfer process and the dynamics of matter near the surface of the accreting star. The outburst process is considered, including classical novae, recurrent novae, and dwarf novae.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Evidence and arguments are presented supporting the theory that the 0.511 MeV line observed from the Galactic Center stems from photon-photon pair production near a black hole with a mass not greater than approximately 500 solar masses. Observations are reviewed and the subsequent implications on the annihilation site and the positron source are discussed. Because of the variations and line width of the e(+) - e(-) annihilation radiation from the Galactic Center, positrons must essentially be produced by a single source and annihilate in an ambient gas of density greater than 10 to the 5th/cu cm, an ionization fraction greater than 10 percent, a temperature less than 5 x 10 to the 4th K, and be confined to a region of size less than 10 to the 18th cm. Such conditions may exist in warm clouds and other IR sources within the central parsec of the Galaxy.
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Four regions of the galaxy, the Cygnus Superbubble, the Eta Carina complex, the Orion/Eridanus complex, and the Gum Nebula, are discussed as examples of collective effects in the interstellar medium. All four regions share certain features, indicating a common structure. The selection effects which determine the observable X-ray properties of the superbubbles are discussed, and it is demonstrated that only a very few more in our Galaxy can be detected in X rays. X-ray observation of extragalactic superbubbles is shown to be possible but requires the capabilities of a large, high quality, AXAF class observatory.
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Self-consistent transonic multifluid solutions for the dynamical and thermal structure of the two-phase dusty gas atmosphere of a comet containing a dirty H2O-clathrate ice nucleus have been obtained. This was done by solving a simultaneous set of differential equations representing conservation of number density, momentum, and energy, as well as the transfer of solar radiation responsible for the major photolytic processes and nuclear heating. The results presented include velocity and Mach number profiles of heavy species and the velocity of dust within the subsonic and supersonic regions, temperature profiles of the dust and gas in the supersonic region, and radial profiles of electron and ion densities in the collision-dominated region.
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Infrared observations of relatively isolated giant H II complexes in the LMC and the spiral arms of M33 and M101 are discussed, and complexes which extend over several kiloparsecs near the galactic centers are examined. The 30 Doradus nebula is emphasized, showing the variation of the 50-100 micron color temperature with position in that object. Ten-micron scans through the nucleus of NGC 1097 are compared to a visual photograph, showing the enhanced infrared emission which occurs at the nucleus and at the ring of H II regions about 1 kpc from the nucleus.
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A brief summary is given of the current concepts of the icy conglomerate cometary nucleus and of the origin of comets. Evidence that the cores of comets may contain less than average volatile material, whether in formation or by radiative heating, raises the question of why at least two very faint short-period comets suddenly experienced violent outbursts (about 4,000 times in brightness). A preliminary study of close double comet nuclei as affected by differential nongravitational forces shows that a collision of a cometary satellite with its primary is a likely outcome. Thus double nuclei may possibly explain these rare but extreme outbursts. Statistics suggest, however, that most comet splitting and comet outbursts represent intrinsic activities in extremely nonhomogeneous nuclei.
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A brief discussion of the systematic effects of selection bias on the extragalactic distance scale is given. Distance indicators with intrinsic scatter yield only upper limits to Ho, unless the true intrinsic scatter is either small or well determined. Several distance indicators (luminosity index, diameters, globular clusters, 21 cm line widths) are discussed. It is concluded that type I supernovae, calibrated through brightest M supergiants, yield presently the most reliable determination of the large-scale value of the Hubble constant, i.e., 50 + or - 7 km/s Mpc.
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Radiation emanating from hot (T greater than 40,000 K) white dwarfs can create large volumes of ionized material containing substantial column densities of highly ionized species, in particular Si IV and C IV. The ions N V and O VI can also be produced by hot, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs. These ionization spheres may be detectable around the nearby dwarfs. The relatively high space motions of these stars coupled with long recombination times in the interstellar medium suggest that a white dwarf leaves a region of ionized material - a fossil Stroemgren trail - that marks its progress through the galaxy. White dwarfs create a patchy substrate of ionized gas in the galactic plane and lead to extended ionized regions out of the plane. The spatial frequency of hot white dwarfs indicates that they contribute a radiative energy comparable to that provided by nondegenerate stars and by supernovae and capable of affecting the ionization balance of the interstellar medium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; L71-L75
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 916-921
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: It has been found that late-type giants and supergiants are losing large amounts of mass. However, it is still not known why these stars lose mass. In connection with the aim to understand this process, it is attempted to establish more accurate mass loss rates in order to consider in detail a popular model for mass loss, taking into account the hypothesis that radiation pressure on grains is important or even controls the mass outflows. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing measurements of the flux from the star, the mass loss rate, and the outflow velocity of the material. The largest uncertainty is related to the mass loss rate. Most models for interpreting the observations of these stars have been for spherically symmetric envelopes. However, highly anisotropic outflows have been observed. It is, therefore, one of the purposes of this investigation to study the importance of the anisotropy in the physical characteristics of the outflow. It is found that anisotropy does not greatly alter the important basic photochemical processes, and that radiation pressure on grains can be important.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 683-690
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Calculations are made of the approximate characteristics of the reprocessed optical radiation resulting from the absorption of a gamma-ray burst by a nearby star. The overall reprocessing time scale, including contributions from gamma-ray transfer and diffusion of the optical radiation, is estimated. It is noted that diffusive cooling occurs by either a 'self-similar' or a 'transparency' wave of postabsorption stellar surface temperatures greater or less than 10,000 K, respectively. Depending on the combination of stellar and gamma-ray burst properties, the reprocessing time scale can vary from the duration of the gamma-ray burst (approximately 1 s) to the maximum calculated cooling time (approximately 1000 s). Calculations for close binary systems are made of the number of optical photons per square centimeter expected at earth as a function of the observed gamma-ray burst fluences and likely distances. It is predicted that, if all gamma-ray bursters are in close binaries, the number of detections per year by an all sky monitor of 200 photons per sq cm sensitivity will be about 100.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; L59-L63
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Theoretical and observational evidence is presented that shock processing of interstellar dust grains by supernova blast waves affects both heavy element depletions and ultraviolet extinction curves. By coupling a realistic model of grain sizes and populations with a radiative shock code, significant grain destruction at velocities as low as 40 km/s is demonstrated. Nonthermal sputtering and grain-grain collisions destroy relatively more large grains than small, and more silicates than graphite. Consequently, both the 2175 A extinction 'bump' and the far-ultraviolet normalized extinction are increased in strength. Ultraviolet extinction studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer of nine stars near three supernova remnants (the Monoceros Loop, Shajn 147, and Vela) exhibit strong 2175 A bumps and normal or high far-ultraviolet extinction. Diffuse bands, if they are created by small grains, should show little correlation with such activity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 652-660
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The present investigation of N49, which is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), makes use of an analysis of optical emission-line profiles. Echelle spectrograph observations indicate the large-scale kinematic and structural properties of N49. It is found that this supernova remnant (SNR) is evolving in a clumpy interstellar medium (ISM), probably as many other remnants are. The very high resolution spectra of this remnant show three kinds of spectral feature, called broad bands, narrow bands, and spikes. It is shown that N49 can be regarded as the product of a supernova explosion in a heterogeneous interstellar medium. The heterogeneity is indicated in low-speed and high-speed systems of shocked material in N49.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 611-627
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Three observations, separated by 6 months, of the Local Group galaxy M33 using the high resolution imager (HRI) on the Einstein Observatory are reported. Eight X-ray sources with luminosites ranging from 8 x 10 to the 36th to 1.2 x 10 to the 39th ergs/s have been detected. For seven of these sources, finding charts with positions accurate to less than 5 arcsec are provided. The X-ray properties and possible identifications are discussed for the eight HRI-detected sources and for two other sources, previously described by Long et al. (1981), for which upper limits are provided. It is found that most of the sources are associated with Population I markers. One source may be coincident with an optical supernova remnant. The most luminous source (by a factor of at least 25) is that associated with the optical nucleus. Because the X-ray flux from the nucleus decreased by a factor of 1/2 between the first and second observations, it is most likely that a single, compact object is responsible for the X-ray emission. It is possible that this source may be an active galactic nucleus, a massive binary X-ray source, or a low-mass X-ray binary such as are found in globular clusters within the Galaxy.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 571-577
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Previous work on electron heating mechanisms operating at the supercritical earth's bow shock is extended to the generally lower Mach number interplanetary shocks. This is done by studying electron velocity distributions observed both upstream and downstream of interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE 3 between August 1978 and December 1979. It is found that perpendicular heating accompanied by little or no parallel heating occurs at the weaker shocks but that parallel heating is dominant for the stronger shocks. When perpendicular heating is dominant, downstream velocity distributions are for the most part Gaussian at low energies (core) and Lorentzian at high energies (halo). When parallel heating is dominant, however, these distributions are flat-topped at low energies, having power law extensions to higher energies. At the weaker shocks, the observations are consistent with electron heating resulting from conservation of the magnetic moment, whereas at the stronger shocks the heating is quite similar to that observed at the earth's bow shock.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 88; 9949-995
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: High-dispersion IUE spectra of 18 later type Be and A-F type shell stars as well as eight standard nonemission line stars have been analyzed for anomalous ionization and mass loss effects. It is found that superionization in the Be stars extends to the latest spectral subtypes but does not seem to be present in the A-F type stars. The superionized lines in the Be stars appear to be correlated with v sin i. Asymmetrical or violet-displaced resonance lines suggesting mass loss are observed in all the Be stars except one, in some of the standard stars, but not in the A-F stars. Lower limits to the mass loss rates computed from Si IV lines range between 5.3 x 10 to the -12th and 3.5 x 10 to the -11th solar masses/yr, with Be shell stars showing the largest values. Mass loss is correlated with luminosity and effective temperature but not with rotation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 53; 869-892
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Eight red giants and supergiants have been observed at 4885 MHz (6 cm) with the Very Large Array in an attempt to detect continuum emission. The bright giant Alpha-1 Her (M5 II) was detected at an average flux density of 0.9 + or - 0.13 mJy. Since the likely source of this emission is an ionized, optically thick component of a stellar wind, this detection implies a mass loss rate of 2 x 10 to the -9th solar masses per yr for the ionized gas. The fraction of the outflow in Alpha-1 Her that is ionized (0.002-0.02) seems to be similar to that previously found for Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A. Alpha Boo (K2 IIIp) and Beta Gem (K0 III) are probable and definite detections, respectively. The derived ionized mass loss rates for these two stars are about 1 x 10 to the -10th solar masses per yr, implying in the case of Alpha Boo that the wind is largely ionized.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 274; L77-L81
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The spectrum and time variation of Nova Ophiuchi (H1705-25) in the 10-200 keV range as measured by the UCSD/MIT instruments aboard HEAO 1 during the period 1977 August 25 to September 28 are reported. The composite curve is best fitted by a kT = 2 keV thin thermal bremsstrahlung model below 10 keV and a separate hard X-ray component fitted equally well by a power-law component with photon index 2.19 + or - 0.06 or a kT = 32.1 + or - 2.4 keV thermal bremsstrahlung model. This is the first observation of a hard tail in the spectrum of a transient X-ray source with sufficient statistical significance to allow a detailed study of its spectral and temporal variability. It is found that the intensity variations of the high-energy X-rays are consistent with the variability at lower energies (3-6 keV), but no hard X-ray spectral index variability is found on time scales from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results can be interpreted as due to accretion onto a neutron star (or possibly onto a black hole) that may also be surrounded by an extended corona.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 274; 717-722
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Data on the impulsive phase of the 1979 March 5 gamma ray burst, taken by three identical detectors aboard the Prognoz 7, Venera 11, and Venera 12 spacecraft with 2 ms time resolution, are presented. The first 200 ms of the time history may be described by an exponential decay with time constant of approximately 120 ms up to approximately 100 ms, and time constant of approximately 30 ms thereafter; at low energies, a pulsating component with a period of approximately 23 ms appears. The data could be consistent with torsional vibrations of a neutron star, the rotation of a rapidly spinning neutron star, or oscillations caused by interactions between hot plasma and a magnetic field.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 126; 2, Oc; 400-402
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Experimental values for the visible vibration-dipole bands of HD are improved through a study of weak, unsaturated absorption lines of HD against a well-defined white light continuum at low gas densities between 0.3 and 1.7 amagats. Spectral resolution was high enough to allow recovery of line profiles with only minor corrections for instrumental effects, so line strengths and shapes are determined directly without recourse to theoretical assumptions regarding the curve of growth, and the unusual phenomenon of collision narrowing in HD is directly observed in the line shape for the first time. Accurate line strengths are reported, the behavior of spectral profiles as a function of gas density is discussed, and the pressure shift coefficients are determined. These are compared with previous laboratory work done either at lower spectral resolving power or at higher gas densities.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 56; 176-183
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 299-308
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The dynamical and thermal structure of a dirty-clathrate cometary nucleus' gas atmosphere is presently given a self-consistent, transonic multifluid solution in which, although the heavy neutron and ion species are treated as a single fluid in the collision-dominated region, the photoproduced H is treated separately. The thermal profile of the atmosphere thus obtained is entirely different from those predicted by the earlier, single-fluid models as well as the multifluid models which assumed equipartition of energy between electrons and ions. While the electron gas, like the neutrals and the ions, cools due to expansion, its main mode of energy loss in the inner coma is by way of inelastic collisions with the predominant H2O molecule. The high electron temperature in the outer coma also decreases the efficiency of electron removal by dissociative recombination, thereby increasing electron density throughout the coma.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 381-396
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Assuming that star formation regions are supported against gravity by winds from low mass young objects, the stellar birthrate obtained for winds interacting in the momentum conservation stage is correlated with the molecular gas density of the parent fragment as n to the 13/8 power or n to the 5/8 power, respectively, for rates/unit volume or rates/unit mass. Birthrates derived from protostellar rotationally driven winds are in good agreement with the observed star production in the cloud B18. With the aid of observed Taurus-Auriga complex properties, the present model is extrapolated to the Galaxy as a whole, yielding a Milky Way predicted average rate that is in good agreement with standard estimates based on observations of the solar neighborhood.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 243-248
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Einstein Observatory simultaneous imaging proportional counter and monitor proportional counter data are combined in order to derive the energy spectra of the BL Lac objects PKS 0548-322 and 3C 66A between 0.2 and 10 keV. While the latter is found to be variable in both intensity and spectral shape, the former, although constant in the present data, is found to have experienced a spectrum variation in view of results from other experiments. Attention is given to the implications of flux and spectral variability in BL Lac objects for models of X-ray emission mechanisms. It is suggested that the wide spread of the spectral index distribution is due to the detection of the highly variable synchrotron-produced X-rays that are generally undetected in QSOs.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 70-74
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Duley (1982) has proposed that many of the diffuse interstellar bands in the wavelength interval 542-677 nm arise from vibronic transitions of Cr (3+) ions in MgO grains. No explanation has been offered for the fact that as many as 85 of the possible 108 transitions of this system have not been observed in the interstellar medium. Moreover, the relative intensities of the diffuse bands which are observed appear to be inconsistent with their assignment. It is therefore concluded that this model is not consistent with the observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysics and Space Science (ISSN 0004-640X); 95; 1, Se
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Obsrvations and theoretical investigations of the Gum nebula (GN) since about 1971 are reviewed. Direct observations of the GN, the Vela X supernova remnant (SNR), the Vela pulsar, and other stars in or near the GN are discussed with those of related phenomena such as the radio loops and known SNRs; the emphasis is on studies of the interstellar absorption lines, the evidence for hot gas in the GN, and the extended diffuse emission. The four basic models proposed for the GN are considered: a fossil Stromgren sphere, an old SNR, an H II region, or a superbubble. The GN physical parameters predicted by each model are listed in a table and compared. A minimum explanation which attributes the 36 x 36-deg filamentary structure and the 125-pc radius structure to the action of the stellar winds from Zeta Pup and Gamma-2 Vel (and perhaps the effect of a Vel X supernova explosion 20,000 years ago) is found most appropriate, at least until the questions of the net expansion rate of the GN (about 20 km/sec or about zero?) and the existence of the diffuse emission beyond the filamentary structure are resolved by observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Comments on Modern Physics, Part C - Comments on Astrophysics (ISSN 0146-2970); 10; 1-14
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Theoretical models proposed to explain the origin of the millisecond pulsar (MP) PSR 1937+214 are reviewed, examining their ability to explain its low surface dipole magnetic field (B), its low birth temperature (less than 10 to the 8th K), the absence of a companion or remnant, and its low velocity perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The models discussed are a single isolated explosion forming a rapidly spinning neutron star, spin-up of a dead pulsar by accretion from a companion, collapse of an accreting spinning white dwarf, and fusion of a tight binary composed of two old neutron stars. Although all of the models have difficulties in explaining one or more of the MP characteristics, the second model is found to be most probable in the light of present knowledge. The lack of a companion is explained by its tidal disruption after it had fed the accreting pre-pulsar for 1 Gyr or more and its mass had decreased to about 0.01 solar mass. Neutron stars accreting in this way have been observed in Galactic-bulge X-ray sources.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Comments on Modern Physics, Part C - Comments on Astrophysics (ISSN 0146-2970); 10; 15-22
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Two new possible planetary nebulae have been identified using the Parker, Gull, and Kirshner (1979) emission-line survey of the galactic plane. Both objects exhibit very strong forbidden O III lambda 5007 line emission, a symmetrical morphology, and a faint blue central star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280); 95; 614-618
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The heating of inflowing interstellar gas by the solar wind is calculated. The experimental differential cross sections have been used for calculating electron-H(He) and proton-H(He) elastic scattering rate coefficients. The solar wind is assumed to be a two-component (protons and electrons), steady, spherically symmetric stream moving radially outward, with the inflowing gas following Keplerian trajectories. The spatial distributions of effective temperature increase within interplanetary space have been obtained.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary and Space Science (ISSN 0032-0633); 31; 1157-116
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The concept of the precessing accretion disk in HZ Her/Her X-1 in its varied forms, to account for the 35 day periodicity in the X-ray flux, has met many objections from a number of workers on various grounds, but it is still being invoked in current publications. These objections are reviewed and additional arguments are presented against the precessing accretion disk model. The implausibility of the disk models is demonstrated. An alternate clock mechanism, based on nonlinear oscillations in the normal star, which provides the modulation of the mass flow is discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 716-721
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  • 69
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Variations in the Mg II 2800-A doublet of Zeta Aurigae have been observed. The Mg II profiles deviate from simple P-Cygni profiles in that they exhibit an absorption feature consistent with Chapman's (1981) interpretation of C IV absorption as evidence of a column of accretion onto the B-star component of the binary. The opening angle of the shock cone containing the accretion column is found to exceed 16 deg, implying a stellar wind velocity of approximately 67 km/s, unless the H II region temperature is unusually high. The turbulence velocity of the wind then appears to be about 33 km/s, compared to values of order 10 km/s previously determined closer to the K-star surface.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 126; 2, Oc
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The VLA has been used to search for radio emission from the AM Her-type binaries VV Pup, EF Eri, PG 1550 + 191, CW 1103 + 354, and AN UMa, at 4.9 GHz. A remarkable 10-min outburst was detected from AM Her at 4.9 GHz, which was about 20 times more intense than the quiescent emission and was essentially 100 percent circularly polarized. It is suggested that the quiescent emission of AM Her can be accounted for by 500-keV electrons trapped in the magnetosphere of the white dwarf, provided that the electron energy spectrum is quite hard and that the spectral hardness or number density of energetic electrons increases with radius, while the outburst is probably due to an electron-cyclotron maser operating near the surface of the red dwarf companion. The implied existence of a 1000-gauss localized magnetic field and a corona on the red dwarf has consequences for mass transfer, field line interactions, and variable activity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 249-254
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: VLA observations at 1.4 and 4.9 GHz of the jet and inner lobes of the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A have been used to construct maps of total intensity and polarization at resolutions of 31 x 10 and 3.6 x 1.1 arcsec. Surface brightness and pressure distributions in the jet, combined with the apparent X-ray emission from the ISM of NGC 5128, indicate that it is thermally confined. A comparison of the radio structure and the optical galaxy shows that the jet in Cen A emerges nearly along the major axis of the elliptical stellar component that is parallel to the angular momentum vector of the dust lane. The outer radio structure bends toward the galaxy minor axis. Evidence is found for a common synchrotron radiation origin of the full spectrum jet emission.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 128-153
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Redshift measurements and finding charts are presented for galaxy clusters in the field of two rich, distant superclusters. Both systems are shown to have morphological and dynamical properties similar to the nearby superclusters, including small internal velocity dispersions and high density contrasts in redshift space. This data is consistent with two interpretations: either both superclusters are highly flattened systems with major axes close to the plane of the sky, or the observed velocity dispersions do not arise from unperturbed Hubble flow. If the latter explanation is correct, these radial velocity data are a powerful probe of the large scale matter density in the universe.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 24-35
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A simple and objective algorithm is presented which not only accurately identifies the filamentary structures in the Shane-Wirtanen galaxy count catalog, but also finds a set of visually less impressive filaments in a static hierarchical model of the clustering conducted by Soneira and Peebles (1978). The statistical properties of the elements in the model, while very similar to those in the data, show a significant excess of long and bright filaments in the data relative to the model. Two possible interpretations of these results are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 273; 16-23
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The plausibility of relatively pure diatomic oxide crystals forming in the expanding atmospheres of cool stars is commented on, and the likelihood of SiO grains condensing is discussed on the basis of laboratory nucleation experiments. Results of annealing experiments are used to consider the further evolution of silicon oxide and silicate grains. The evidence shows that SiO solids form only when SiO condenses directly onto surfaces, and that the probability of pure crystalline SiO grains forming is rather small.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysics and Space Science (ISSN 0004-640X); 95; 1, Se
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  • 75
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Newly defined characteristics of planetary nebulae (PN) derived from analysis of a photometric survey of 57 PN are reported. The data were combined with measurements of 27 other PN made since 1918 and were found to indicate core masses ranging from 0.55-1.0 solar mass. N/O elemental abundance ratios observed were correlated with the planetary nuclei masses, and were in direct proportion. IUE data on PN that overlapped a large part of the survey indicated that the PN in the galactic disk are more massive than PN in the halo. It is suggested that PN evolve into white dwarfs, a hypothesis supported by astrometric solutions for three nearby visual binaries featuring white dwarfs with well-determined masses. It is noted, however, that PN with masses exceeding one solar mass have been sighted in the Magellanic Clouds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 305; 670
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The spectrum of Beta Lyrae from about 1975 to 3010 A taken with the Balloon-borne ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph experiment in May 1976 at phase 0.61 P is analyzed. Results show the presence of N II semi-forbidden emission and provide evidence for about the same location, in the outer envelope of the system, of the layers responsible for the resonance Mg II doublet emissions and for the "narrow" H-alpha emission. In addition, three sets of absorption lines, P Cygni profiles of Fe III and broad Beals Type III emissions of Mg II, are found to be present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 126; 1, Se; Sept
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The basic properties of broad emission-line profiles from quasars and Seyfert galaxies are suggested to indicate emissions originating from the surface of a rotating supermassive star. The areal extent of the ionizing luminosity and its energy are calculated, showing that the broad-line region has a mass of about 10 solar masses and a volume filling factor of 1/1,000,000. It is shown that if the broad-line region consists of a layer of ionized gas on the surface of a rotating supermassive star with an equatorial speed of 5,000 km/sec and a relatively cool surface, a layer of photoionized gas will result and emit a line emission per unit area that is proportional to the incident flux of ionizing radiation. The emitting layer will be heated to about 100 million K by an X ray component of a nonthermal continuum over a 10,000 K surface.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 305; Sept. 29
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  • 78
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Photoionization models are presented for the relative abundances of Si IV, C IV, and N V as a function of the ionization parameter and shape of the ionizing continuum spectrum in the EUV and X-ray energy range. These models are applied to the interpretation of the UV resonance lines observed from the cataclysmic variable TW Virginis by Cordova and Mason. The observed lines are assumed to be formed in gas flowing supersonically out from the continuum source in the form of a stellar wind. It is shown that the shape of the ionizing spectrum can be determined without assuming that the outflow is spherical by fitting to ratios of the line strengths. Models which fit the observed ratios include an X-ray continuum with a low-energy cutoff and may also include a lower luminosity component in the EUV spectral region. Under the added assumption of spherical outflow the derived ionization parameter for the X-ray component can be used to constrain the total mass flux in the wind.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 272; Sept. 1
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Walter and Kuhi (1981) have shown that at least 10 out of 12 T Tauri stars brighter than m(v) = 12.5 are X-ray emitters. The X-ray luminosities of these stars, L(x), are often close to the detection threshold value. One of the principal results of the present investigation is the evidence for at least a weak correlation between L(x) and V(R) sin i. If it is assumed that results obtained concerning stars in the Orion Ic Association are representative of other stellar fields, it appears that along with the RS CVn stars, pre-main-sequence G stars are among the most X-ray luminous late-type stars on the H-R diagram. A second conclusion is that the X-rays are almost certainly produced by flares and/or thin coronae close to the stellar surface.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 272; Sept. 1
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The results of a two-dimensional spectrophotometric survey of the core regions of 11 rich clusters of galaxies are presented. A number of these clusters have spectacular optical emission line systems in their cores. Both morphologically and kinematically, the emission line regions divide into extended, 20-100 kpc systems of long linear filaments associated with the cluster core and more compact, homogeneous elongated regions associated with the dominant central cluster galaxy. It is suggested that the present results can be expected, as hot X-ray emitting gas cools in the cluster center. Luminosities almost entirely agree with expected values. The morphology of the systems can be understood if the filaments form initially in the cooling flow and, in some cases, are subsequently accreted by the central galaxy.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 272; Sept. 1
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: It is shown analytically that the canonical stability postulate for low-mass binaries can be inaccurate when the secondary component mass is less than 0.02 solar mass. The adjustable evolutionary parameter h is demonstrated to have a value (in terms of the mass flow effects) of 2/3, less than which catastrophic instability and tidal disruption of the secondary might occur. The disrupted secondary would be reduced to a remnant significantly smaller in mass than the earth, and not be observable visually. Additionally, close passage by another star could accelerate or initiate the process. The model is applicable to the pulsar binary PSR1937+214, and is noted not to conflict with spin-up theories.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 304; Aug. 4
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A theory for the self-consistent configuration of upstream hydromagnetic waves, upstream energetic storm particle (ESP) events, and downstream postshock ion enhancements at interplanetary traveling shocks is presented. The observations of upstream ultralow frequency waves and those ESP events and postshock enhancements which exhibit approximately isotropic ion distributions in the solar wind or shock frame are briefly reviewed. The theory of Lee (1982) for application to interplanetary traveling shocks is modified and analytical solutions for the wave spectrum as a function of wavenumber and z are presented along with the ion omnidirectional distribution functions as functions of energy and z for all ion species. The theory quantitatively explaines the observed features of the shock-associted energetic ions and predicts the configuration of upstream hydromagnetic waves.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 88; Aug. 1
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  • 83
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The collapse of a very low thermal energy, rotating cloud results in fragmentation to a binary protostellar system even in the nonisothermal regime. The solar system therefore probably did not form from a fragmentation hierarchy involving ejection of the presolar nebula from a multiple system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 55; July 198
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Infrared spectrophotometry of the R-type carbon star HD 19557 is presented. Two unusual spectroscopic features are seen: a 3.1 micron band is lacking and a 2.8 micron band is present. Identifications are proposed for three previously unreported stellar absorption bands with electronic sequences of C2, CN, and C2H. The latter is proposed to be responsible for the 2.8 micron feature. The atmospheric structure of the star is studied with synthetic spectra, and an effective temperature between 2600 K and 3000 K is suggested. No SiC emission is seen at 11.3 microns, indicating that grain formation is not a viable process around the star. The lack of dust in R stars may suggest a salient difference between R and N types.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 270; July 1
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 270; July 1
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  • 86
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: An effective absorption cross section per hydrogen atom has been calculated as a function of energy in the 0.03-10 keV range using the most recent atomic cross section and cosmic abundance data. Coefficients of a piecewise polynomial fit to the numerical results are given to allow convenient application in automated calculations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 270; July 1
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  • 87
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Propagation of upstream energetic (50-200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simultaneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at about 200 earth radii and on IMP 8 at about 35 earth radii from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furthest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l less than about 15 earth radii upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond l of about 15 earth radii the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 88; July 1
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  • 88
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Results are presented for a statistical study of four years (1972-1976) of IMP 7 and 8 observations at approximately 40 R(E) of 50-200 keV upstream ion events measured with the Energetic Particle Experiment. A monotonic increase in the probability of observing upstream particle events is found with a decrease in the angle (theta-Bn) between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the local shock normal at the point where the IMF intersects the bow shock, independent of the length of time of bow shock connections exceeding approximately 10 min. Approximately equal probabilities are found for observing an event above a given flux from any portion of the bow shock with the same value of theta-Bn, a growth time of the 50-200 keV events of approximately 10 min, a maximum attainable flux of approximately 25,000/sq cm s sr, and a positive correlation between the probability of exceeding a given flux and the 3 hr Kp index. It is concluded that the local structure of the bow shock in the immediate vicinity of the field line connection is the dominant influence in the generation process of energetic upstream particle events and that wave-particle interactions produce a self-throttling mechanism that limits the maximum flux of ions escaping the upstream foreshock.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 88; July 1
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