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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (5,125)
  • 1980-1984  (2,970)
  • 1975-1979  (2,155)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The pressure versus temperature curves for homogeneous nucleation and condensation of two gaseous mixtures with nearly relative solar abundance of Si, Fe, O, N, and C in an excess of H were determined experimentally. Mixtures of CO, Fe(CO)5, H2, SiH4, and N2O in Ar were heated behind reflected shocks in a shock tube. The nucleation and condensation, which took place in the subsequent gas-dynamic expansion (cooling phase), was monitored by light scattering and turbidity. Grain morphologies and crystalline phases present in the condensates were determined by electron microscopy. These data cast doubt on the validity of both equilibrium and classical nucleation theoretical approaches to predict homogeneous condensation in a solar nebula or stellar atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Solar physics was reviewed in the context of the solar atmoshere. The understanding of the solar atmosphere is linked to stellar atmospheric research. Topics covered include: the existence of the chromosphere, the corona, and the solar wind; the interactive complex of convection, differential rotation, magnetic field generation and concentration, and the activity cycle; phenomena such as granulation, supergranulation, the 5 minute oscillation, filigree, faculae, sunspots, spicules, prominences, surges, and the spectacular flares.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-SP-450 , REPT-81F0008 , LC-81-600064
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: PB-280816 , Astrophysical Journal; vol. 220
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The molecular composition of interstellar grain mantles employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions is studied. The calculated mixtures consist mainly of the molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, CO2, H2O2, NH3, and their deuterated counterparts in varying ratios. The exact compositions depend strongly on the physical conditions in the gas phase. The calculated mixtures are compared to the observations by using laboratory spectra of grain mantle analogs. The two are in reasonable agreement except for the strength of the 6.8-micrometers band. A possible solution for this discrepancy is discussed. Finally, future observations are suggested which may shed further light on the composition of interstellar grain mantles.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Observatory Proc. of the Workshop on Lab. and Observational Infrared Spectra of Interstellar Dust; p 41-48
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Proc. of the 9th Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Appl. and Planning Meeting; p 97-111
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A rapidly rotating neutron star with a solid crust will have a rotationally induced oblateness that is constrained by the rigidity of the solid. It is shown that the effective triaxiality and the gravitational radiation output are small, in agreement with the very small change in period of PSR 1937 + 21.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 7
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525 + 21 is reviewed, and the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisecond pulsars are examined. Inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected postglitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust are considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method of structural expansions for use in determining the equation of state of metallic hydrogen (and indeed other metals) up to the 4th order in the perturbation theory was developed. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the planetary interior of Jupiter were calculated. The nature of the interaction between molecules at short range and the importance of multicenter terms in arriving at an adequate description of the thermodynamic functions of condensed molecular hydrogen were also investigated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:177021 , NASA-CR-177021
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress in the investigation of absolute transition probabilities (A-values or F values) for ultraviolet lines is reported. A radio frequency ion trap was used for measurement of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The intersystem line at 2670 A in Al II, which is seen in pre-main sequence stars and symbiotic stars, was studied.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174141 , SASR-15 , NAS 1.26:174141
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A dating technique for faint, distant star clusters observable in the local group of galaxies with the space telescope is discussed. Color-magnitude diagrams of Magellanic Cloud clusters are mentioned along with the metallicity of star clusters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173927 , NAS 1.26:173927
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A liquid helium-cooled, 24 detector grating spectrometer was developed and used for low resolution astronomical observations in the 5 to 14 micron spectral range. The instrument operated on the 91 cm Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the 3 m IRTF (Mauna Kea), the 3 m Shane telescope Observatory, the 3 m Shane telescope (Lick Observatory), and the 152 cm NASA and University of Arizona telescope. The detectors are discrete Si:Bi photoconductors with individual metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor preamplifiers operating at 4 K. The system uses a liquid helium-cooled slit, order-sorter filter, collimator mirror, grating, and camera mirror arranged in a Czerny-Turner configuration with a cold stop added between the collimator mirror and the grating. The distances between components are chosen so that the collimator mirror images the secondary mirror of the telescope onto the cold stop, thus providing a very effective baffle. Scattered radiation is effectively reduced by using liquid helium-cooled, black baffles to divide the spectrometer into three separate compartments. The system noise-equivalent flux density, when used on the 152 cm telescope from 8 to 13 microns with a resolving power of 50, is 4.4 x 10 to the minus 17th power W/sq cm micron square root of Hz. The main applications are for measuring continuum radiation levels and solid state emission and absorption features in regions of star and planet formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86004 , A-9837 , NASA-TM-86004
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Intergalactic plasmas were investigated from both an observational and theoretical point of view. A multiobject spectrometer, the MX spectrograph was used to obtain detailed dynamical information on clusters of galaxies; this information was then compared with X ray emission from hot gas in these clusters. Several spectra of galaxies are presented, and data reduction of the spectra was discussed. The existence of quasar winds in Seyfert galaxies and the interaction between such a wind and the interstellar medium also were considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173825 , NASA-CR-173825
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A search for X-ray emission from five compact groups of galaxies with the Einstein Observatory revealed detections from three groups. Soft, extended X-ray emission was observed in Stephan's Quintet which is most likely caused by hot intracluster gas. This provides evidence for dynamical interaction among the group galaxies. X-ray emission from the group Arp 330 may also originate in hot intracluster gas. Stephan's Quintet and Arp 330 have the largest velocity dispersions among the groups studied suggesting a correlation between high velocity and the release (or properties) of hot gas. X-ray emission from Arp 318 may originate in its member galaxies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173609 , NASA-CR-173609
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Assuming a simple but physically based prototype for behavior of interstellar material during formation of a disk galaxy, coupled with the lowest order description of infall, a scenario is developed for self-regulated disk galaxy formation. Radiation pressure, particularly that of Lyman depha (from fluorescence conversion Lyman continuum), is an essential component, maintaining an inflated disk and stopping infall when only a small fraction of the overall perturbation has joined the disk. The resulting galaxies consist of a two dimensional family whose typical scales and surface density are expressable in terms of fundamental constants. The model leads naturally to galaxies with a rich circumgalactic environment and flat rotation curves (but is weak in its analysis of the subsequent evolution of halo material).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173592 , NAS 1.26:173592
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86100 , NASA-TM-86100
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The predictions of the boundary layer model for the X-ray emission from novae are summarized. A discrepancy between observations and theory in the X-ray observations is found. Constraints on the nature of the boundary layers in novae, based on the lack of detections of novae in the HEAO-1 soft X-ray survey are provided. Temperature and column densities for optically thick boundary layers in novae are estimated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85112 , NAS 1.15:85112
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of accreting magnetized neutron star atmospheres heated by the gradual deceleration of protons via Coulomb collisions are presented. Self consistent determinations of the temperature and density structure for different accretion rates are made by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and energy balance, coupled with radiative transfer. The full radiative transfer in two polarizations, using magnetic cross sections but with cyclotron resonance effects treated approximately, is carried out in the inhomogeneous atmospheres.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85087 , NAS 1.15:85087
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Voyager spacecraft radio, interplanetary plasma, and interplanetary magnetic field data are used to show that large amplitude fluctuations in the power generated by the Saturn kilometric radio emission are best correlated with solar wind ram pressure variation. In all, thirteen solar wind quantities previously found important in driving terrestrial magnetospheric substorms and other auroral processes were examined for evidence of correlations with the Saturn radio emission. The results are consistent with hydromagnetic wave or eddy diffusion processes driven by large scale solar wind pressure changes at Saturn's dayside magnetopause.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85004 , NASA-TM-85004
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Under the influence of a spiral gravitational field, there should be differences among the mean motions of different types of objects with different dispersion velocities in a sipral galaxy. The old stars with high dispersion velocity should have essentially no mean motion normal to the galactic rotation. On the other hand, young objects and interstellar gas may be moving relative to the old stars at a velocity of a few kilometer per second in both the radial (galacto-centric), and circular directions, depending on the spiral model adopted. Such a velocity is usually referred as the systematic motion or the streaming motion. The conventionally adopted local standard of rest is indeed co-moving with the young objects of the solar vicinity. Therefore, it has a net systematic motion with respect to the circular motion of an equilibrium galactic model, defined by the old stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170238 , NAS 1.26:170238
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial evolution of interplanetary flows and associated magnetic fields between 0.3 AU and 8.5 was analyzed using data from Helios 1 and Voyager 1, respectively. During a 70 day interval Voyager 1 observed two streams which appeared to be recurrent and which had little fine structure. The corresponding flows observed by Helios 1 were much more complex, showing numerous small streams, transient flows and shocks as well as a few large corotating streams. It is suggested that in moving to 8 AU the largest corotating streams swept up the slower flows (transient and/or corotating streams) and shocks into a relatively thin region in which they coalesced to form a single large amplitude compression wave. This combined process of sweeping and coalescence is referred to as entrainment. The resulting large amplitude compression wave is different from that formed by the steepening of a corotating stream from a coronal hole, because different flows from distinct sources, with possibly different composition and magnetic polarity, are brought together to form a single new structure.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84955 , NAS 1.15:84955
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  • 21
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two types of furnaces with differing temperature range capabilities were used to provide variations in melt temperatures and cooling rates in a study of the effects of heterogeneous nucleation on crystallization. Materials of chondrule composition were used to further understanding of how the disequilibrium features displayed by minerals in rocks are formed. Results show that the textures of natural chondrules were duplicated. It is concluded that the melt history is dominant over cooling rate and composition in controlling texture. The importance of nuclei, which are most readily derived from preexisting crystalline material, support an origin for natural chondrules based on remelting of crystalline material. This would be compatible with a simple, uniform chondrule forming process having only slight variations in thermal histories resulting in the wide range of textures.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174103 , NAS 1.26:174103
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The conditions under which the combined emission from power law sources can mimic the X-ray background (XRB) spectrum in the 3-50 keV range are considered in view of HEAO 1 A-2 experiment measurements, and it is confirmed that a good fit may be obtained. The required spectral properties of the component sources differ, however, from those observed for local active galactic nuclei. Constraints are deduced for both the low luminosity extension and evolution of such local objects, and it is shown that any other class of sources contributing to the X-ray background must be characterized by an energy spectral index lower than about 0.4, which is the mean index of the XRB, and exhibit sleeper spectra at higher energies.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:82173 , NASA-TM-82173
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The diffuse 2-60 keV X-ray background has a galactic component clearly detectable by its strong variation with both galactic latitude and longitude. This galactic component is typically 10 percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic center, half that strong toward the anticenter, and extrapolated to a few percent of the extragalactic background toward the galactic poles. It is acceptably modeled by a finite radius emission disk with a scale height of several kiloparsecs. The averaged galactic spectrum is best fitted by a thermal spectrum of kT about 9 keV, a spectrum much softer than the about 40 keV spectrum of the extragalactic component. The most likely source of this emission is low luminosity stars with large scale heights such as subdwarfs. Inverse Compton emission from GeV electrons on the microwave background contributes only a fraction of the galactic component unless the local cosmic ray electron spectrum and intensity are atypical.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83837 , NASA-TM-83837
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new X-ray source, H0523-00, with the optically variable Seyfert 1 galaxy AKN 120 is identified. The source has a 2-10 keV X-ray flux of 2 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm s which corresponds to a 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 10 to the 44th ergs/s. X-ray observations over a 1.5 year time span combined with contemporaneous optical photometry show a decrease in the optical with no corresponding decrease in the X-ray. In contrast, similar observations of MCG 8-11-11 show a contemporaneous decrease in optical and X-ray fluxes. It is noted that the infrared and X-ray spectral slopes for these two objects are similar, with the optical being steeper by roughly one unit.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80663 , NAS 1.15:80663
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of Einstein solid state spectrometer observations of the central region of Abell 576 combined with HEAO 1 spectra of the total cluster are given. Line emission was detected due to Fe, Si, and S from a hot plasma in the central region. The temperature of the total cluster spectrum may be in conflict with the central temperature. This difference can be explained either if cooling takes place in the center, or if part of the measured emission is due to individual galaxies. If the X-ray emission comes from the intergalactic gas only, there is some difficulty in producing all the silicon observed in the galaxies of A 576.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85103 , NASA-TM-85103
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In a class of grand unified theories containing SO(10), cosmologically significant axion and neutrino energy densities are obtainable naturally. To obtain large scale structure, both components of dark matter are considered to exist with comparable energy densities. To obtain large scale structure, inflationary and non-inflationary scenarios are considered, as well as scenarios with and without vacuum strings. It is shown that inflation may be compatible with recent observations of the mass density within galaxy clusters and superclusters, especially if strings are present.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86139 , NASA-TM-86139 , Fermilab Inner Space-Outer Space Workshop
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173887 , NASA-CR-173887
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The large-scale radial and temporal variations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength B observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 are discussed. Two components of the magnetic field strength were considered: (1) an average component, B sub zero, based on solar rotation averages, and (2) a fluctuation component, delta B, expressed by 10- or 24-hour averages of B normalized by the best-fit average field for the corresponding time and distance. Observations of the sector structure, interfaces, and shocks are presented to further describe magnetic field strength.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86088 , NAS 1.15:86088
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  • 29
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spatial distribution of clusters of galaxies and the large scale structure of the universe is investigated. Correlations in the spatial cluster distribution are much stronger than those seen for galaxies, and over scales much larger than previously anticipated. The following main studies are completed and published; (1) The determination of the correlation functions of rich clusters of galaxies, and its dependence on richness and other parameters. Very large scale structure exists in the universe, and rich clusters participate in this structure more efficiently than galaxies. (2) A complete catalog of superclusters, is determined. The selection criteria is that of a volume density enhancement, and is done in 3 dimensions. (3) The giant galaxy void in Bootes is found to be surrouned by rich, large superclusters from the catalog described above. (4) A very large scale void of rich clusters of galaxies is found in the study of the spatial distribution of rich clusters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173608 , NASA-CR-173608
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86067 , NASA-TM-86067
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectrophotometric observations of emission line intensities were made in seven positions in the planetary nebula NGC 6853; for five of the positions, coverage is across the entire spectral range 1400A to 9600A. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically-observable ionization stages give results over a wide range of ionization that are generally consistent and in agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines. As in the previous studies in this series, the lambda 4267 CII line implies a c(2+) abundance that is higher than that determined from UV lines. Although this effect is much smaller than in NGC 6720 and NGC 7009, it is again largest nearest the central star, giving more evidence that the excitation mechanism for the lambda 4267 line is not understood.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173240 , NASA-CR-173240
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evidence for two types of relatively large amplitude MHD waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel forward and reverse interplanetary shocks is presented. The first mode is an Alfven wave with frequencies (in the spacecraft frame) in the range of 0.025 to 0.07 Hz. This is a left-hand polarized mode and propagates within a few degrees of the ambient magnetic field. The second is a fast MHD mode with frequencies in the range of 0.025 to 0.17 Hz, right-hand polarization and propagating along the magnetic field. These waves are detected principally in association with quasi-parallel shock. The Alfven waves are found to have plasma rest frame frequencies in the range of 1.1 to 6.3 mHz with wavelengths in the order of 4.8 x 10 to the 8th power to 2.7 x 10 to the 9th power cm. Similarly, the fast MHD modes have rest frame frequencies in the range 1.6 to 26 mHz with typical wavelengths about 2.19 x 10 to the 8th power cm. The magnetic field power spectrum in the vicinity of these interplanetary shocks is much steeper than f to the -s/3 at high frequencies. The observed spectra have a high frequency dependence of f to the -2/5 to f to the -4.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85119 , NASA-TM-85119
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the binary X-ray source Circinus X-1 provide samples of a range of spectral and temporal behavior whose variety is thought to reflect a broad continuum of accretion conditions in an eccentric binary system. The data support an identification of three or more X-ray spectral components, probably associated with distinct emission regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85095 , NASA-TM-85095
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85101 , NASA-TM-85101
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Over the past two decades NASA spacecraft missions obtained photographs permitting accurate size measurements of the planets and moons, and their surface features. Planetary global views are displayed at the same scale, in each picture to allow visual size comparisons. Additionally, special geographical features on some of the planets are compared with selected Earth areas, again at the same scale. Artist renderings and estimated sizes are used for worlds not yet reached by spacecraft. Included with each picture is number designation for use in ordering copies of the photos.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85017 , NAS 1.15:85017
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cosmic rays and astrophysical plasmas, NASA spacecraft experiment activities, and gamma rays are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170335 , NAS 1.26:170335
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The production of electron-positron pairs by single photons in magnetic fields 10 to the twelth power G was investigated in detail for photon energies near threshold as well as for the asymptotic limit of high photon energy. The exact attenuation coefficient, which is derived and then evaluated numerically, is strongly influenced by the discrete energy states of the electron and positron. Near threshold, it exhibits a sawtooth pattern as a function of photon energy, and its value is significantly below that predicted by the asymptotic expression for the attenuation coefficient. The energy distributions of the created pair are computed numerically near threshold and analytic expressions are derived in the asymptotic limit. These results indicate that as field strength and photon energy increase, it becomes increasingly probable for the pair to divide the photon energy unequally. This effect, as well as the threshold behavior of the attenuation coefficient, could have important consequences for pulsar models.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationship of the ultraviolet background radiation to the X-ray background is shown. The ultraviolet background, which is four orders of magnitude brighter than the x-ray background, is much less well determined. The relationship of the ultraviolet background to the EUV background and an excellent summary of the discordant ultraviolet observations at high galactic latitudes are given. A picture of the universe from the point of view of those who study ultraviolet background radiation, with emphasis on the various sources of noise that can affect the measurements is presented. The altitudes of various observing platforms are also indicated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:169249 , NASA-CR-169249
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Variations on time scales ranging from minutes to several hours in the X-ray flux from 54 observations of 38 active galaxies are identified. The sample is composed mostly of Seyfert I galaxies but also includes radio galaxies, NELG's BL Lacs and 3C 273. Only NGC 6814 varied on time scales as short as 100 sec. No other source was observed to vary with a time scale of less than 12 hours. Large amplitude short term variations are not a characteristic of the X-ray emission from active galaxies. Upper limits on sigma sub I/I ranged from 2% for Cen A, 5% for NGC 4151, to approximately 20% for sources giving 1 ct/sec in the detector. Three objects NGC 3227, NGC 4151 and MCG 5-23-16 show variability consistent with a time scale of approximately 1 day. Ways to reconcile the rapid variability seen for NGC 6814 (and NGC 4051) with the general stability observed for the other objects are considered.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83966 , NAS 1.15:83966
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High signal-to-noise profiles of the broad diffuse interstellar band at 4430 A were obtained on the 2.2-m telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, using the newly-developed pulse-counting multi-anode microchannel array detector system in an effort to determine whether the band profile varies with mean grain size as expected if the band is produced by absorbers embedded in grain lattices. The lack of profile variability over several lines of sight where independent evidence indicates that the mean grain size varies shows that lambda 4430 is probably not formed by the same grains that are responsible for interstellar extinction at visible wavelengths. The possibility that this band is created by a population of very small ( approximately 100 A) grains is still viable, as is the hypothesis that it has a molecular origin.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169111 , NAS 1.26:169111
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet light curves were obtained for the quiescent dwarf novae U Gem and VW Hyi. The amplitude of the hump associated with the accretion hot spot is much smaller in the UV than in the visible. This implies that the bright spot temperature is roughly 12000 K if it is optically thick. The flux distribution of U Gem in quiescence cannot be fitted by model spectra of steady state, viscous accretion disks. The absolute luminosity, the flux distribution, and the far UV spectrum suggest that the primary star is visible in the far UV. The optical UV flux distribution of VW Hyi can be matched roughly by the model accretion disks.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-168683 , NAS 1.26:168683
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radial evolution of the power spectra of the MHD turbulence within the trailing edge of high speed streams in the solar wind was investigated with the magnetic field data of Helios 1 and 2 for heliocentric distance between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. In the analyzed frequency range (.00028 Hz to .0083 Hz) the computed spectra have, near the Earth, values of the spectral index close to that predicted for an incompressible hydromagnetic turbulence in a stationary state. Approaching the Sun the spectral slope remains unchanged for frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, whereas at lower frequencies, a clear evolution toward a less steep fall off with frequency is found. The radial gradient of the power in Alfvenic fluctuations depends on frequency and it increases upon increasing frequency. For frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, however, the radial gradient remains approximately the same. Possible theoretical implications of the observational features are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: IPS-81-13
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The dispersion measures of a sample of 149 pulsars in the inner Galaxy (absolute value of l 50 deg) were statistically analyzed to deduce the large-scale distribution of free thermal electrons in this region. The dispersion measure distribution of these pulsars shows significant evidence for a decrease in the electron scale height from a local value greater than the pulsar scale height to a value less than the pulsar scale height at galactocentric radii inside of approximately 7 kpc. An increase in the electron density (to a value around .15/cu cm at 4 to 5 kpc) must accompany such a decrease in scale height. There is also evidence for a large-scale warp in the electron distribution below the b + 0 deg plane inside the Solar circle. A model is proposed for the electron distribution which incorporates these features and Monte Carlo generated dispersion measure distributions are presented for parameters which best reproduce the observed pulsar distributions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83875
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The steady flux from 4U1916-05 which undergoes periodic absorption dips every 50 minutes was demonstrated. This period represents the underlying orbital period of the system. It is suggested that variations in the depth and duration of these events are caused by a bulge in the edge of the accretion disk, at the point where the gas stream impacts the disk. The mass losing star in this system is probably a low mass white dwarf. The spectrum of the dips indicates that the metallicity of the absorbing material is at least a factor 17 below solar values.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83839
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82161
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cooling of neutron stars is calculated using an exact stellar evolution code. The full general relativistic version of the stellar structure equations are solved, with the best physical input available. For neutron stars with a stiff equation of state, it is found that the deviation from the isothermality in the interior is significant and that it takes at least a few thousand years to reach the isothermal state. By comparing theoretical and observational results, it is concluded that for Cas A, SN1006, and probably Tycho, standard cooling is inconsistent with the results from the Einstein Observatory, if neutron stars are assumed to be present in these objects. On the other hand, the detection points for RCW103 and the Crab are consistent with these theoretical results.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82145
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) exhibits an enhancement during 1978 to 1979 relative to all years back to 1963. It is shown that IMF magnitude variations over the 1966 to 1979 period represent the combined effect of variations in both the radial flux density of the IMF and the degree of spiraling of the IMG, consistent with the theoretical model of Parker. The 1978 to 1979 IMF magnitude enhancement is due to an enhancement of radial flux which was in turn related to an increase of magnetic flux leaving solar active regions. It is also shown that during the corotating stream dominated years 1973 to 1976, the IMF was less wound up than during other years, and that 1973 to 1974 were years of enhanced radial flux.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82075
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Inconsistencies in present data when related to the baryon dominated and neutrino dominated models are considered with emphasis on the abundances of deuterium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82082
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of plasma and magnetic field variations in the near-Earth solar wind are discussed. Both a corotating stream and a driven shock are present. The driver gas seems to be enveloped in the rising speed phase of this stream; this appearance is attributed to a convoluted surface separating the two plasma domains. The magnetic field in the post shock flow (0030-1230 UT of July 29) has a large and geoeffective southward component at times; the energy coupling coefficient reaches approximately 5.4 x 10 to the 19th power ergs/s. In the driver gas (1230 UT of July 29 to 0110 of July 30) the magnetic field is dominantly northward. The density and dynamic pressure decrease by almost two orders of magnitude (100 to 2 cm/3) from just behind the interplanetary shock to approximately 3 hours into the driver gas flow. The dominant magnetic field variation in the driver gas is modeled by a cloud-like structure. Significant plasma parameter variations within the driver gas are attributed to structure in the parent solar mass ejection event and to interplanetary kinematics.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82095
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The general characteristics of pulsar gamma ray spectra are presented for a model where the gamma rays are produced by curvature radiation from energetic particles above the polar cap and attenuated by pair production. The shape of the spectrum is found to depend on pulsar period, magnetic field strength, and primary particle energy. By a comparison of numerically calculated spectra with the observed spectra of the Crab and Vela pulsars, it is determined that primary particles must be accelerated to energies of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power mc sq. A genaral formula for pulsar gamma ray luminosity is determined and is found to depend on period and field strength.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82026
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of directional discontinuities (DD's) in the interplanetary magnetic field are studied using data from the Mariner 10 primary mission between 1.0 and 0.46 AU. Statistical and visual survey methods for DD identification resulted in a total of 644 events. Two methods were used to estimate the ratio of the number of tangential discontinuities (TD's) to the number of rotational discontinuities (RD's). Both methods show that the ratio of TD's to RD's varied with time and decreased with decreasing radial distance. A decrease in average discontinuity thickness of approx. 40 percent was found between 1.0 and 0.72 AU and approx. 54 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, independent of type (TD or RD). This decrease in thickness for decreasing r is in qualitative agreement with Pioneer 10 observations between 1 and 5 AU. When the individual DD thickness are normalized with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (RA sub L), the average thickness at the three locations is nearly constant, 43 + or - 6 R sub L. This also holds true for both RD's and TD's separately. Statistical distributions of other properties, such as normal components and discontinuity plane angles, are presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-695 , NASA-TM-82036
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Einstein Observatory imaging proportional counter was used to search for X-ray emission from nine nearby historical novae. Six of the novae were detected with estimated X-ray intensities between .1 to 4 keV of 10 to the -13th power to 10 to the -11th power ergs/sq cm-s, comparable to the intensities of previously detected cataclysmic variables. The X-ray intensity of one of the novae, V603 Aql, varies over times of several hundred seconds. The data suggest a correlation between the decay rate of the historical outburst and the current X-ray luminosity. Alternatively, the X-ray luminosity may be related to the inclination of the binary system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82014
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of three uncommon trajectory concepts for space missions in the Sun-Earth-Moon System is presented. One concept uses a special class of libration-point orbits called 'halo orbits.' It is shown that members of this orbit family are advantageous for monitoring the solar wind input to the Earth's magnetosphere, and could also be used to establish a continuous communications link between the Earth and the far side of the Moon. The second concept employs pretzel-like trajectories to explore the Earth's geomagnetic tail. These trajectories are formed by using the Moon to carry out a prescribed sequence of gravity-assist maneuvers. Finally, there is the 'boomerang' trajectory technique for multiple-encounter missions to comets and asteroids. In this plan, Earth-swingby maneuvers are used to retarget the original spacecraft trajectory. The boomerang method could be used to produce a triple-encounter sequence which includes flybys of comets Halley and Tempel-2 as well as the asteroid Geographos.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80740
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The instantaneous rates of change for the orbital elements eccentricity, longitude of perigee from the Sun, and longitude from the Sun of the ascending node are integrated simultaneously for the case of the inclination i = 0. The results confirm the validity of using mean rates when the orbits are tightly bound to the planet and serve as examples to be reproduced by the complicated numerical solutions required for arbitrary inclination. Strongly bound hydrogen atoms escaping from Earth due to radiation pressure do not seem a likely cause of the geotail extending in the anti-sun direction. Instead, radiation pressure will cause those particles' orbits to deteriorate into the Earth's atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-163373
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Examination of the interaction between supernova (SN) ejecta and the various environments in which the explosive event might occur shows that only a small fraction of the many SNs produce observable supernova remnants (SNRs). This fraction, which is found to depend weakly upon the lower mass limit of the SN progenitors, and more strongly on the specfic characteristics of the associated interstellar medium, decreases from approximately 15 percent near the galctic center to 10 percent at Rgal approximately 10 kpc and drops nearly to zero for Rgal 15 kpc. Generally, whether a SNR is detectable is determined by the density of the ambient interstellar medium in which it is embeeede. The presence of large, low density cavities arpund stellar associations due to the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova shells strongly suggests that a large portion of the detectable SNRs have runway stars as their progenitors. These results explain the differences between the substantially larger SN rates in the galaxy derived both from pulsar statistics and from observations of SN events in external galaxies, when compared to the substantially smaller SN rates derived form galactic SNR statistics.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80707
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Scout D rocket was launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, carrying an atomic hydrogen maser oscillator system as the payload. The frequency of signals from the oscillator was monitored on the ground at Merritt Island, Florida, by using two hydrogen masers as comparison oscillators. The first-order Doppler shift in the signals was eliminated by a go-return transponder link to the payload, and the resulting data, representing the relativistic shifts, were recovered and recorded. The objective was to measure directly the effect of gravitational potential on the frequency of an atomic hydrogen maser assuming it to be a 'proper' clock. A gravitational effect amounting to some 4.5 parts in 10 to the 10th power was measured with an oscillator having a stability better than 1 part in 10 to the 14th power. Therefore, to make the best possible use of the oscillator, all frequency shifts at the 2 to 5 X 10 to the -15 power level in delta f/f in the system must be accounted for. This includes all the phase variations that can cause such a shift to appear. The experiment, the data available and the manner in which they were processed, and the results are described.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-161409
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80759 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-79-08-SUPPL-1
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Coronal heating by resonant absorption of Alfvenic surface waves (quiescent), and magnetic tearing instabilities (impulsive), is discussed with emphasis on three principles which may have application to late-type evolved stars. (1) If sq B/8 pi greater than sq. rho V is observed 2 in a stellar atmosphere, then the observed magnetic field must originate in an interior dynamo. (2) Low mass loss rates could imply the presence of closed magnetic flux loops within the outer atmosphere which constrain hydrodynamic flows when the magnetic body forces exceed the driving forces. (3) given that such magnetic loops effect an enhancement of the local heating rate, a positive correlation is predicted between the existence of a corona and low mass loss rates. These principles are applied to the M giant star HD 4174, which is purported to have a kilogauss magnetic field. Several of its spectroscopic peculiarities are shown to be consistent with the above principles, and further observational checks are suggested.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80270
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-158245 , CRSR-711
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  • 60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The structure of pulsar magnetospheres and the acceleration mechanism for charged particles in the magnetosphere was studied using a pulsar model which required large acceleration of the particles near the surface of the star. A theorem was developed which showed that particle acceleration cannot be expected when the angle between the magnetic field lines and the rotation axis is constant (e.g. radial field lines). If this angle is not constant, however, acceleration must occur. The more realistic model of an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis was investigated. In this case, acceleration occurred at large distances from the surface of the star. The magnitude of the current can be determined using the model presented. In the case of nonaxisymmetric systems, the acceleration is expected to occur nearer to the surface of the star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-157768 , SUIPR-762
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A propagation model which combines a Gaussian profile for particle release from the sun, with interplanetary particle densities predicted by focused diffusion, was proposed to explain the propagation history of flare associated energetic particles. This model, which depends on only two parameters, successfully describes the time-intensity profiles of 30 proton and electron events originating from the western hemisphere of the sun. Generally, particles are released from the sun over a finite interval. In almost all events, particle release begins at the time of flare acceleration.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-79534
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recurrent flow and field patterns observed by HELIOS 1, and the relation between these patterns and coronal holes are discussed. Four types of recurrent patterns were observed: a large recurrent stream, a recurrent slow (quiet) flow, a rapidly evolving flow, and a recurrent compound stream. There recurrent streams were not stationary, for although the sources recurred at approximately the same longitudes on successive rotations, the shapes and latitudinal patterns changed from one rotation to the next. A type of magnetic field and plasma structure characterized by a low ion temperature and a high magnetic field intensity is described as well as the structures of stream boundaries between the sun at approximately 0.3 AU.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78074
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of dust scattering on observable optical and infrared parameters, and the accuracy of approximate solutions were examined. The equation of radiative transfer in a static and homogeneous, but not necessarily uniform, distribution gas and dust around a central empty core with a point source of energy at its center was solved. The dust properties were characterized by a phenomenological extinction cross section, albedo and parameters describing the anisotropy of dust scattering. For ultraviolet photons, ionization equilibrium equations for the gas were solved, and for infrared photons a self-consistent dust temperature was calculated. Ray tracing was used to solve for the angular dependence of the intensity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: SU-SUIPR-722 , NASA-CR-155580
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Copernicus satellite surveyed the spectral region near L alpha to obtain column densities of interstellar HI toward 100 stars. The distance to 10 stars exceeds 2 kpc and 34 stars lie beyond 1 kpc. Stars with color excess E(B-V) up to 0.5 mag are observed. The value of the mean ratio of total neutral hydrogen to color excess was found to equal 5.8 x 10 to the 21st power atoms per (sq cm x mag). For stars with accurate E(B-V), the deviations from this mean are generally less than a factor of 1.5. A notable exception is the dark cloud star, rho Oph. A reduction in visual reddening efficiency for the grains that are larger than normal in the rho Oph dark cloud probably explains this result. The conversion of atomic hydrogen into molecular form in dense clouds was observed in the gas to E(B-V) correlation plots. The best estimate for the mean total gas density for clouds and the intercloud medium, as a whole, in the solar neighborhood and in the plane of the galaxy is 1.15 atoms per cu. cm; those for the atomic gas and molecular gas alone are 0.86 atoms per cu cm and 0.143 molecules per cu cm respectively. For the intercloud medium, where molecular hydrogen is a negligible fraction of the total gas, atomic gas density was found to equal 0.16 atoms per cu cm with a Gaussian scale height perpendicular to the plane of about 350 pc, as derived from high latitude stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: X-681-77-255 , NASA-TM-78044
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  • 65
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer generated listings of hourly average interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters are given. Parameters include proton temperature, proton density, bulk speed, an identifier of the source of the plasma data for the hour, average magnetic field magnitude and cartesian components of the magnetic field. Also included are longitude and latitude angles of the vector made up of the average field components, a vector standard deviation, and an identifier of the source of magnetic field data.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72615 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-77-04A
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Basic knowledge is provided on the behavior of ice and ice particles under a wide variety of conditions including those of interplanetary space. This information and, in particular, the lifetime of ice particles as a function of solar distance is an absolute requirement for a proper interpretation of photometric profiles in comets. Because fundamental properties of ice and ice particles are developed in this report, the applicability of this information extends beyond the realm of comets into any area where volatile particles exist, be it in space or in the earth's atmosphere.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-150417
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent and ongoing planetary missions have provided extensive observations of the variations of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) both in time and with heliocentric distance from the sun. Large time variations in both the IMF and its fluctuations were observed. These are produced predominantly by dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium associated with stream interactions. Magnetic field variations near the sun are propagated to greater heliocentric distances, also contributing to the observed variablity of the IMF. Temporal variations on a time-scale comparable to or less than the corotation period complicate attempts to deduce radial gradients of the field and its fluctuations from the various observations. However, recent measurements inward to 0.46 AU and outward to 5 AU suggest that the radial component of the field on average decreases approximately as r to the minus second power, while the azimuthal component decreases more rapidly than the r to the minum first power dependence predicted by simple theory. This, and other observations, are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: X-692-77-196 , NASA-TM-X-71398
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The guiding center motion of particles in a nearly drift free magnetic field is analyzed in order to investigate the dependence of mean drift velocity on equatorial pitch angle, the variation of local drift velocity along the trajectory, and other properties. The mean drift for adiabatic particles is expressed by means of elliptic integrals. Approximations to the twice-averaged Hamiltonian W near z = O are derived, permitting simple representation of drift paths if an electric potential also exists. In addition, the use of W or of expressions for the longitudinal invariant allows the derivation of the twice averaged Liouville equation and of the corresponding Vlasov equation. Bounce times are calculated (using the drift-free approximation), as are instantaneous guiding center drift velocities, which are then used to provide a numerical check on the formulas for the mean drift.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71310 , X-602-77-89
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnetic field experiment to be carried on the Voyager 1 and 2 missions consists of dual low field (LFM) and high field magnetometer (HFM) systems. The dual systems provide greater reliability and, in the case of the LFM's, permit the separation of spacecraft magnetic fields from the ambient fields. Additional reliability is achieved through electronics redundancy. The wide dynamic ranges of plus or minus 0.5G for the LFM's and plus or minus 20G for the HFM's, low quantization uncertainty of plus or minus 0.002 gamma in the most sensitive (plus or minus 8 gamma) LFM range, low sensor RMS noise level of 0.006 gamma, and use of data compaction schemes to optimize the experiment information rate all combine to permit the study of a broad spectrum of phenomena during the mission. Planetary fields at Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus; satellites of these planets; solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields; and the large-scale structure and microscale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field are studied. The interstellar field may also be measured.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71297 , X-692-77-16
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Strong small scale turbulence is observed in the Crab Nebula from the temporal pulse broadening data. It is shown that the strong 30 Hz pulsar wave can parametrically excite instabilities near the lower hybrid frequency in the thermal plasma of the Crab Nebula with a characteristic wavelength of the order of the scale size a of the turbulence observed. These instabilities provided a coupling mechanism between the pulsar wave and the Nebula plasma.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71295 , X-602-77-69
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  • 71
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A philosophy for planetary geoscience is presented to aid in addressing a number of major scientific questions; answers to these questions should constitute the basic geoscientific knowledge of the solar system. However, any compilation of major questions or basic knowledge in planetary geoscience involves compromises and somewhat arbitrary boundaries that reflect the prevalent level of understanding at the time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58202 , JSC-12521
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  • 72
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-74275
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The fourth issue of JPL Planetary Ephemerides, designated JPL Development Ephemeris No. 96 (DE96), is described. This ephemeris replaces a previous issue which has become obsolete since its release in 1969. Improvements in this issue include more recent and more accurate observational data, new types of data, better processing of the data, and refined equations of motion which more accurately describe the actual physics of the solar system. The descriptions in this report include these new features as well as the new export version of the ephemeris. The tapes and requisite software will be distributed through the NASA Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-147923 , JPL-TR-32-1603
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The thermodynamics of water ice formation was experimentally investigated under a wide variety of conditions, including those of outer space. This information, and in particular, the lifetime of ice particles as a function of solar distance is an absolute requirement for proper interpretation of photometric profiles of comets. The sublimation of ice particles in a nonequilibrium situation was studied. An oscillating fiber microbalance was used to measure the sublimation rate of water droplets (which were suspended on a long quartz fiber which was oscillating in a vacuum chamber). The influence of particle size, surface temperature, and the index refraction from simulated solar radiation were studied in relation to ice formation. Also examined was the influence of impurities (clathrates) on ice formation. Windows in the vacuum chamber allowed the ice particles to be exposed to a 1 kilowatt xenon arc lamp which was used to simulate solar radiation. Ice is proposed as a possible energy source for comets, as amorphous water ice and ammonia in low temperature and pressure environments demonstrated a clear energy release upon warming. Motion pictures of ice formation were taken and photographs are shown.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-144273
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High-resolution spectral scans of several QSOs and Seyfert galaxies show broad Balmer lines and permitted Fe II lines in emission. It is suggested that a careful comparison of the Fe II and Balmer profiles may distinguish between the different proposed mechanisms for broadening of the lines. In particular, if the Fe II profile is much narrower that the hydrogen profile, the suprathermal particle mechanism is most likely presented.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-146816
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The ionization structure of hydrogen and helium in dusty nebulae is discussed. The general equations for pure hydrogen nebulae are modified to include helium. An approximate analytic solution is presented for Stroemgren radii of hydrogen and helium in the absence of dust. It is shown that these results, with simple modifications, are also applicable to dusty nebulae where the effective absorption cross section of dust grains varies slowly with frequency in the 1000 to 200A range. No analytic solutions are possible if this cross section varies rapidly with frequency. In this case, however, simple coupled differential equations are derived. Approximate analytic expressions are presented for evaluation of the variation of the fraction of ionizing radiation absorbed by dust and the ratio of the volume emission measures of He II to H II regions with the spectrum of the ionizing source, helium abundance, and absorption properties of dust. The effects of dust on the He III zone are discussed. Results are restricted to spherically symmetric nebulae, but nonuniform gas and dust distributions and clumpiness can be taken into account.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-146392 , SU-IPR-637
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  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Convective instability in the solar corona growth, especially linear growth, was studied. An investigation was also made of nonlinear instability development on a computer. The computer was used to follow a growing perturbation from a small local enhancement in the density of the solar wind to a large increase in the density which would look like one of the rays seen in the sun's corona.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-145391
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Neutral composition waves with a wave length of about 5000 km and a wave period of about 2.5 hours were observed by ESRO 4 in the altitude region of 250 km. The amplitudes are of the order of 25 percent for Ar, 15 percent for N2, and roughly 10 percent for He and O at 25 percent geographic latitude. The wave amplitudes are seen to decrease towards lower latitudes suggesting that the composition waves are launched by auroral sources. Simultaneous ground based ionosonde measurements of the F2 layer critical frequency at mid and low latitudes show a wave period consistent with the satellite observations. The theoretical investigation with a multi-component model shows that diffusion plays a major role in explaining these wave phenomena. The phase and amplitude relation between atmospheric constituents are sensitive to the altitude region in which energy is deposited thus suggesting that Joule heating or soft particle precipitation are the predominant energy sources.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: X-621-75-254 , NASA-TM-X-70989
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The disturbing functions due to the geopotential and Luni-solar attractions are linear and bilinear forms in spherical harmonics. Making use of recurrence relations for the solid spherical harmonics and their derivatives, recurrence formulas are obtained for high degree terms as function of lower degree for any term of those disturbing functions and their derivative with respect to any element. The equations obtained are effective when a numerical integration of the equations of motion is appropriate. In analytical theories, they provide a fast way of obtaining high degree terms starting from initial very simple functions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: AMRL-1073 , NASA-CR-143500
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: X-623-75-145-PT-2 , NASA-TM-X-70931
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The atomic hydrogen distribution at 250 km during December 1974 solstice was inferred, considering charge exchange equilibrium, from Atmosphere Explorer-C measurements of n(H(+)), n(O(+) and N(O). An empirical model, derived from the observations by least suqare analysis in terms of spherical harmonics, has the following characteristics: (1) n(H) increases by as much as a factor of two between the summer and winter hemispheres, (2) the n(H) diurnal variation is largest at the equator and (3) the diurnal variation is larger in the winter hemisphere than in the summer. Similar analysis of the gas temperature derived from n(N2) measurements reveals that all n(H) and Tg spherical harmonic coefficients are anticorrelated. Both the diurnal and latitudinal (annual) n(H) and Tg amplitudes are in substantial agreement with the zero flux condition, in which exospheric flow dominates the hydrogen distribution. The observed diurnal phase lag of n(H) with respect to Tg is about one hour, agreeing with theory.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70932 , X-621-75-149
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Ariel-V satellite monitored the X-ray light curve of A1524-62 almost continuously from 40 days prior to maximum light until its disappearance below the effective experimental sensitivity. The source exhibited maximum light on approximately 4 December 1974, at a level of 0.9 the apparent magnitude of the Crab Nebula in the energy band 3-6 keV. Although similar to previously reported transient sources with a decay time constant of approximately 2 months, the source exhibited an extended, variable pre-flare on-state of about 1 month at a level of greater than approximately 0.1 maximum light. The four bright (greater than 0.2 of the Crab Nebula) transient sources observed during the first half-year of Ariel-V operation are indicative of a galactic disk distribution, and a luminosity at maximum in excess of 10 to the 37th power ergs/sec.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70938 , X-661-75-178
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: From the Triad magnetometer observation of a step-like level shift in the east-west component of the magnetic field at 800 km altitude, the existence of a net current flowing into or away from the ionosphere in a current layer was inferred. The current direction is toward the ionosphere on the morning side and away from it on the afternoon side. The field aligned currents observed by Triad are considered as being an important element in the electro-dynamical coupling between the distant magnetosphere and the ionosphere. The current density integrated over the thickness of the layer increases with increasing magnetic activity, but the relation between the current density and Kp in individual cases is not a simple linear relation. An extrapolation of the statistical relation to Kp = 0 indicates existence of a sheet current of order 0.1 amp/m even at extremely quiet times. During periods of higher magnetic activity an integrated current of approximately 1 amp/m and average current density of order 0.000001 amp/sq m are observed. The location and the latitudinal width of the field aligned current layer carrying the net current very roughly agree with those of the region of high electron intensities in the trapping boundary.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70939 , X-625-75-180
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  • 84
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is shown that the plasma in Jupiter's ionosphere is collisionless above a certain level. In the outer magnetosphere, where the rotational force dominates the gravitational force, the collisionless plasma has a beam-like distribution and gives rise to a two-stream instability. This leads to trapping of plasma in the centrifugally dominated region of the magnetosphere. Plasma is lost by recombination. Equilibrium-trapped particle densities are calculated by requiring a balance between trapping by wave-particle interaction and loss by recombination. The results are compared with recent observations from Pioneer 10. It is suggested that the observations require an unexplained ion-heating mechanism. Some consequences of the model are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142761 , U-OF-IOWA-75-16
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A contention that Mercury possesses an intrinsic magnetic field sufficient to deflect the solar wind flow was confirmed by the Mariner 10 experiment. Predictions made as to the locations where characteristic bow shock and magnetopause boundaries may be observed were also confirmed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS