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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (16,581)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Astrometry with the Hubble space telescope and Hipparcos satellite advanced the optical astrometric accuracies to the milliarcsec level. The global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics (GAIA) satellite and other proposed optical interferometry space missions would advance the optical astrometric accuracy to better than 10 microarcsec. A catalog figure of merit is defined which allows a quantitative comparison to be carried out for astrometric catalogs. Using two specific astrophysical problems, the level of the expected scientific contribution from a GAIA-type mission is assessed. The two problems are: the age of the globular clusters in relation to the age of the Universe, and the initial mass function compared with fluctuations in the star formation rate with time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Future Possibilities for Astrometry in Space; p 149-151
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 2; p. 831-847
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We consider the galactic evolutionary history of He-3 in models which deplete deuterium by as much as a factor of 2 to approximately 15 from its primordial value to its present-day observed value in the interstellar medium (ISM). We show that when He-3 production in low-mass stars (1-3 solar mass) is included over the history of the galaxy, He-3 is greatly overproduced and exceeds the inferred solar values and the abundances determined in galactic H II regions. Furthermore, the ISM abundances show a disturbing dispersion which is difficult to understand from the point of view of standard chemical evolution models. In principle, resolution of the problem may lie in either (1) the calculated He-3 production in low-mass stars; (2) the observations of the He-3 abundance; or (3) an observational bias twoard regions of depleted He-3. Since He-3 observations in planetary nebula support the calculated He-3 production in low-mass stars, option (1) is unlikely. We will argue for option (3) since the He-3 interstellar observations are indeed made in regions dominated by massive stars in which He-3 is destroyed. In conclusion, we note that the problem with He-3 seems to be galactic and not cosmological.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 2; p. 680-685
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Many features of Herbig-Haro objects can be reproduced using a kinematical bow shock model. We use the model to generate position-velocity (PV) diagrams of flux in H-alpha (O I) lambda lambda 6300+63, (S II) lambda lambda 6716+31, (O III) lambda lambda 4959+5007, and (C I) lambda lambda 9823+50, line ratios of (O I)/H-alpha, (O I)/(S II), (S II)/H-alpha, H-alpha(S II), and (O III)/H-alpha, electron density N(sub e), and electron temperature T(sub e). We show how position-velocity diagrams of N(sub e) and flux vary with shock velocity. By matching the diagrams from single lines, the line ratios, and N(sub e) with observations, we determined a narrow range of shock parameters for HH 1F, 2(A' + H), and 43 (B + C). We model the N(sub e) features of HH 2(A' + H) as a superposition of two bowshocks. We also show that the effects of slight misalignments of the two diagrams to be divided can produce artifacts in the line ratios and N(sub e) which obliterate the physical features. We show that N(sub e) in HH 1 can only be explained using the kinematical model by taking these misalignments into account.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 2; p. 752-761
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We calculated bolometric temperature (T(sub bol)) and luminosity (L(sub bol)) for 128 young stellar objects (YSOs) in Taurus, 74 in the Ophiuchus 'core', and 33 in the Ophiuchus 'off-core' region. We have constructed the bolometric luminosity-temperature (BLT) diagram, the log-log plot of L(sub bol) versus T(sub bol), for the three samples. T(sub bol) is defined as the temperature of a blackbody having the same frequency as the observed continuum spectrum. It measures the redness (or coldness) of an astronomical source. The BLT diagram is analogous to the H-R diagram and allows for a direct and quantitative comparison of YSOs at a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from the most deeply embedded stars to T Tauri stars nearly on the main sequence. We found (1) T(sub bol) increases monotonically from embedded sources (approximately 60-500 K) to classical T Tauri stars (approximately 1000-3000 K) to weak-line T Tauri stars (approximately 2000-5000 K); (2) T(sub bol) correlates reasonably well with the age inferred from the evolutionary models of pre-main-sequence stars and protostars for embedded 'protostars' and weak-line T Tauri stars. There is no significant correlation for the classical T Tauri stars. These results can be understood in terms of dissipation of circumstellar dust envelope and disk during the early stages of stellar evolution. Sources in the three regions have different distributions in the BLT diagram. The Ophiuchus core has the highest fraction of cold sources among the three regions. These cold sources are also more luminous than the YSOs in the other regions. The Ophiuchus off-core sample is dominated by the more evolved pre-main-sequence stars. The Taurus sources have distributions intermediate in L(sub bol), T(sub bol), and age between the Ophiuchus core and off-core distributions. These may suggest differences in the star formation history, and possibly in the stellar masses and mass accretion rates in these star-forming regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 445; 1; p. 377-392
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are known to be sites of dust formation and undergo significant mass loss. The outflow is believed to be driven by radiation pressure on grains and momentum coupling between the grains and gas. While the physics of shell dynamics and grain formation are closely coupled, most previous models of circumstellar shells have treated the problem separately. Studies of shell dynamics typically assume the existence of grains needed to drive the outflow, while most grain formation models assume a constant veolcity wind in which grains form. Furthermore, models of grain formation have relied primarily on classical nucleation theory instead of using a more realistic approach based on chemical kinetics. To model grain formation in carbon-rich AGB stars, we have coupled the kinetic equations governing small cluster growth to moment equations which determine the growth of large particles. Phenomenological models assuming stationary outflow are presented to demonstrate the differences between the classical nucleation approach and the kinetic equation method. It is found that classical nucleation theory predicts nucleation at a lower supersaturation ratio than is predicted by the kinetic equations, resulting in significant differences in grain properties. Coagulation of clusters larger than monomers is unimportant for grain formation in high mass-loss models but becomes more important to grain growth in low mass-loss situations. The properties of the dust grains are altered considerably if differential drift velocities are ignored in modeling grain formation. The effect of stellar temperature, stellar luminosity, and different outflow velocities are investigated. The models indicate that changing the stellar temperature while keeping the stellar luminosity constant has little effect on the physical parameters of the dust shell formed. Increasing the stellar luminosity while keeping the stellar temperature constant results in large differences in grain properties. For small outflow velocities, grains form at lower supersaturation ratios and close to the stellar photosphere, resulting in larger but fewer grains. The reverse is true when grains form under high outflow velocities, i.e., they form at higher supersaturation ratios, farther from the star, and are much smaller but at larger quantities.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. 251-269
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The globular clusters that we observe in galaxies may be only a fraction of the initial population. Among the evolutionary influences on the population is the destruction of globular clusters by tidal forces as the cluster moves through the field of influence of a disk, a bulge, and/or a putative nuclear component (black hole). We have conducted a series of N-body simulations of globular clusters on bound and marginally bound orbits through poetentials that include black hole and speroidal components. The degree of concentration of the spheroidal component can have a considerable impact on the extent to which a globular cluster is disrupted. If half the mass of a 10(exp 10) solar mass spheroid is concentrated within 800 pc, then only black holes with masses greater than 10(exp 9) solar mass can have a significant tidal influence over that already exerted by the bulge. However, if the matter in the spheroidal component is not so strongly concentrated toward the center of the galaxy, a more modest central black hole (down to 10(exp 8) solar mass) could have a dominant influence on the globular cluster distribution, particularly if many of the clusters were initially on highly radial orbits. Our simulations show that the stars that are stripped from a globular cluster follow orbits with roughly the same eccentricity as the initial cluster orbit, spreading out along the orbit like a 'string of pearls.' Since only clusters on close to radial orbits will suffer substantial disruption, the population of stripped stars will be on orbits of high eccentricity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 444; 1; p. 193-199
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We investigate observable effects of anisotropic turbulence on the velocity profiles and eclipse behavior of emission lines from accretion disks. Turbulence expands the local line broadening profile, enhancing the surface brightness of saturated emission lines. Anisotropic turbulence produces anisotropic emission in such lines. The effects become observable when the turbulence exceeds the thermal velocity. Each term in the velocity-velocity correlation matrix produces a distinctive azimuthal pattern of enhanced emission-line surface brightness on the face of the accretion disk. These patterns express themselves as changes in the observable shapes of the disk's emission lines. The best place to look for turbulence effects is in saturated emission lines of heavy elements such as Ca, Mg, and Fe, which have a smaller thermal velocity at a given sound speed and at moderate inclination (60-70 degrees), since the Keplerian shear broadening dominates at higher inclinations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 297; 1; p. 273-284
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7891-7897
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We use a maximum-entropy method to show that the transfer function (TF) of the broad-line region (BLR) in the Seyfert-1 galaxy NGC 3516 is time-varying. The TF decreased by nearly a factor of two over a time scale less than half a year during a monitoring campaign in 1990. We conclude that the observed time dependency is likely to be either due to variations of the spectral index of the ionizing continuum spectrum; due to a change in the number or covering fraction of broad-line clouds; due to nonlinear line response; or due to nonstationary anisotropy of the continuum source on time scales of several weeks to months. An extended continuum source could also explain the observed time-dependency. The symmetry of the time lag for variations in the red and blue wings of H-alpha indicates that the BLR kinematics is not dominated by organized radial inflow or outflow. If we assume circular orbits, the observed time lag 14 days at velocity v = 4000 km/s suggests a mass of the central object of approximately 2 x 10(exp 7) solar mass. The H-alpha TF peaks away from zero delay, indicating that the H-alpa BLR is either non-spherical or inwardly emitting.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 289; 1; p. 76-82
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