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  • ASTRONOMY  (1,733)
  • 1980-1984  (1,733)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 88
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: From 2000 A to 3000 A, both Uranus and Neptune have albedos that are about two times higher than Jupiter or Saturn's, implying that the outer giants have stratospheres that are relatively free of aerosol absorption. Uncertainties in the absolute calibration procedure allow discrepancies of order 15% between conservative models and the observations. A small amount of aerosol absorption is therefore possible. Below 2000 A, the derived albedo is highly dependent on the solar spectrum source used in the data reduction. The most recent result for Uranus is consistent with a secular change in C2H2 mixing ratio from approximately 3 x (10 to the -8 power) in 1980 to or = 10 to the -9 power in 1983. These values are approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than the mixing ratios of this gas on Saturn, and comparable to the amount on Jupiter.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Res.; p 501
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Analysis of the published IUE and ground based high resolution spectra of symbiotic stars, particularly RR Tel, shows that the dominant excitation mechanism of Fe II, Mn II, Ti II, and N I lines is the selective fluorescent excitation of some levels by the strong C IV, N V, and O VI emission lines. The same mechanism should work for the excitation of Fe II lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies and Q60's whose emission spectra are quite similar to those of symbiotic stars. The similarities and differences between the fluroescent excitation mechanism reported herein and the Bowen's mechanism is analyzed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Res.; p 147
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Several new facilities for ultraviolet astronomy are under construction or study for launch within the coming decade. These include the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 with instruments for spectroscopy, imaging, and photopolarimetry in the ultraviolet; the ASTRO Spacelab payload, also to be launched in 1986 with a similar range of instrumentation; STARLAB, a combined Canadian, Australian and U.S. mission concentrating primarily on imagery; and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which was renamed COLUMBUS. COLUMBUS is currently under study by NASA and ESA as a future joint mission for spectroscopic studies of astrophysical plasmas covering a temperature range from approximately 10 to the 3rd power to approximately 10 to the 7th power k. In order to achieve this objective, the optics should be optimized for wavelengths below 1200 Angstroms, with a total wavelength range from approximately 2000 to approximately 100 Angstroms. The operational concept will be based on experience with IUE, but changes in communications techniques since IUE was designed suggest some interesting new approaches to observing.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Res.; p 80
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Radio bursts traveling between the Sun and the Earth were tracked by radio astronomy experiments on Helios 1 and 2. A relatively short dipole antenna with a well-defined toroidal reception pattern was flown. The antenna spins in the ecliptic at 60.3 rpm and 2 frequencies are measured in each revolution. The signal analysis determines the strength of the signal, the direction of the source in the ecliptic, and the degree of modulation, and estimates source size. The experiments provide three-dimensional direction finding in space. They extend the radio frequency window beyond what is observable on Earth, and offer a long triangulation baseline.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: DFVLR Ten Years of Helios; p 111-114
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: IRAS (the Infrared Astronomical Satellite) was launched on January 25, 1983 (January 26 GMT) with the primary purpose of performing an infrared survey of the entire celestial sphere. To ensure completeness and reliability, every point of sky was to be covered by a minimum of four separate scans of the telescope field-of-view, and as much as possible with six, with certain added timing constraints on the elapsed interval between scans. These strong requirements for sky coverage, combined with a restricted, rotating viewing-window, made extensive planning for the survey strategy, both pre-launch and during operations, a necessity. The result was that on November 21 (November 22 GMT), when the liquid helium required for cooling was depleted, 96 percent of the sky was covered to the minimum depth of four and 71 percent was coverd to depth six or more.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0149
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Future orbital observatories will require star trackers of extremely high precision. These sensors must maintain high pointing accuracy and pointing stability simultaneously with a low light level signal from a guide star. To establish the fine guidance sensing requirements and to evaluate candidate fine guidance sensing concepts, the Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly was used as the reference optical system. The requirements review was separated into three areas: Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), Fine Guidance Sensing and astrometry. The results show that the detectors should be installed directly onto the focal surface presented by the optics. This would maximize throughput and minimize point stability error by not incoporating any additional optical elements.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:179129 , GP-00816 , NASA-CR-179129
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New ultraviolet and optical observations of Herbig-Haro Object No. 43 are reported. Continuum and emission line fluxes in the range 1250 A equal to or less than lambda equal to less than 7350A have been measured. The continuum fluxes are best matched by an enhanced H two photon component added to H free bound emission, assuming theta Ori extinction curve with E(B-V) = 0.2, R = 5. The strucutre and dynamics of three components within the object are discussed. The object has a radiative output of equal to or greater than 0.23 infrared luminosity in ultraviolet and optical radiation combined. The energy requirements are discussed in terms of the production of shock waves by a collimated, supersonic mass outflow from a nearby infrared source.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-87503 , NAS 1.15:87503
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine-readable, character-coded version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center(ADC), is described. The format and data provided in the magnetic tape version differ somewhat from those of the published catalog, which was also produced from a tape prepared at the ADC. The primary catalog data are positions and proper motions (equinox 1950.0) for 14597 stars.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-17 , NAS 1.15:87443 , NASA-TM-87443
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed description of the machine-readable revised catalog as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center is given. This catalog of star images was compiled from imagery obtained by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph (Experiments S201) operated from 21 to 23 April 1972 on the lunar surface during the Apollo 16 mission. The documentation includes a detailed data format description, a table of indigenous characteristics of the magnetic tape file, and a sample listing of data records exactly as they are presented in the machine-readable version.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:87439 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-12 , NASA-TM-87439
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: International Ultraviolet Explorer measurements of Mg II h and k emission fluxes are presented for 30 F and G stars that are on or near the main sequence and compared with Wilson's measurements of the Ca II H and K fluxes in these stars. The survey includes a large proportion of stars with very low chromospheric activity as well as 111 Tau, X(1) Ori and other examples of strong chromospheric emission. Emission cores are presented in all of the stars observed. A sharp lower limit to the flux in the cores of the k lines implies the existence of a minimum level of chromospheric activity in which the k line flux is a constant fraction of stellar luminosity. Reduction of Wilson's values to absolute fluxes produces a close correlation between Mg and Ca strength with possibly some dependence on color. For the most active stars, the Mg k and Ca fluxes are consistent with the presence of solar plage covering up to one half of the stellar surface. However, the ratio of k to h in these stars is much less than this simple interpretation predicts.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-175572 , NAS 1.26:175572
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The properties of the chromospheres, transition regions and coronas of cool evolved stars are reviewed based primarily on recent ultraviolet and X-ray studies. Determinations of mass loss rates using new observational techniques in the ultraviolet and radio spectral regions are discussed and observations indicating general atmospheric motions are considered. The techniques available for the quantitative modeling of these atmospheres are outlined and recent results discussed. Finally, the current rudimentary understanding of the evolution of these outer atmospheres and its causes are considered.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:174165 , NASA-CR-174165
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Whenever Viking Orbiter images included the limb of Mars, they recorded one or more layers of clouds above the limb. The height above the limb and the brightness (reflectivity) of these clouds were determined in a selected group of these images. Normalized individual brightness profiles of three separate traverses across the limb of each image are shown. The most notable finding is that some of these clouds can be very high. Many reach heights of over 60 km, and several are over 70 km above the limb. Statistically, the reflectivity of the clouds increases with phase angle. Reflectivity and height both appear to vary with season, but the selected images spanned only one Martian year, so the role of seasons cannot be isolated. Limb clouds in red-filter images tend to be brighter than violet-filter images, but both season and phase appear to be more dominant factors. Due to the limited sample available, the possible influences of latitude and longitude are less clear. The layering of these clouds ranges from a single layer to five or more layers. Reflectivity gradients range from smooth and gentle to steep and irregular.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-174027 , NAS 1.26:174027
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ray tracing modeling of the star tracker telescope for Gravity Probe was used to predict the character of the output signal and its sensitivity to fabrication errors. In particular, the impact of the optical subsystem on the requirement of 1 milliarc second signal linearity over a + or - 50 milliarc second range was examined. Photomultiplier and solid state detector options were considered. Recommendations are made.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:86474 , NASA-TM-86474
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Careful reductions of the short wave prime camera (SWP) spectrum was carried out. A line by line inspection of the spectrum was used to eliminate spurious spikes and a median filter applied to eliminate high frequency noise. Upper limits were obtained for far ultraviolet emission from a hot galactic halo.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-173968 , NAS 1.26:173968
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A search was made for 183 GHz line emission from water vapor in the direction of twelve Mira and two semiregular variables. Upper limits to the emission are in the range of 2000 to 5000 Jy. It is estimated that thermal emission from the inner regions of late type stellar envelopes will be on the order of ten Jy. Maser emission, according to one model, would be an order of magnitude stronger. From the limited set sampled, the possibility of very strong maser emission at 183 GHz cannot yet be ruled out.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85987 , A-9825 , NAS 1.15:85987
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Astronomical observations performed at the McDonald Observatory were summarized. Various spectra obtained from Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn, Neptune, Pluto, Titan, Iapetus, and sundry asteroids were described briefly. Spectra taken of various comets using an IDS (Intensified Dissector Scanner) spectrograph on a 2.7 m telescope were reviewed. The Octicon, a linear array of eight 1872-element Reticon arrays that was installed in the 2.7 m coude spectrograph at the observatory, was described. The 2.7 m coude scanner, 2.7 m coude CCD (charge coupled device), and 2.7 m radial velocity spectrometer were mentioned.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173798 , NASA-CR-173798
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The thermal emission from Io during eclipse by Jupiter yields data from which the total thermal flux from the volcanoes on the satellite surface can be estimated. Thermal infrared observations in spectral bands between 3.5 and 30 microns of five Io eclipse reappearances and one eclipse disappearance are reported and discussed. The thermal emission of the volcanoes which occurs almost all of the time was determined from the Io heat flux data. The thermal observations of Io are discussed with respect to previous thermophysical theories.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173631 , NASA-CR-173631
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The W3 North (G133.8 + 1.4) source is the northernmost member of a string of active star forming regions that marks the western boundary of the giant HII region W4. Far infrared and radio observations of molecular CO were made of the W3 star forming region. The W3 North object shows extended dust and gas emission which suggests a fairly advanced disruption of a molecular cloud. An estimate of the age of the embedded HII region is given, and emission maps of the W3 object are presented. The W3 North source may be the oldest object among the W3 complex of sources.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85961 , NAS 1.15:85961 , A-9755
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The broad line profiles of active galaxies are consistent with emission from the surface of an accretion disk ionized by an ultraviolet continuum emitted from a linear or point source of continuum above the disk. If the point source is offset from the axis of the disk, then the line peak is shifted from zero velocity in a way that resembles observed cases. This misalignment could result from the Lense-Thirring precession of a rotating black hole.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173632 , NASA-CR-173632
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The straylight analysis of the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the cosmic background explorer (COBE) mission is discussed. From the statement of work (SOW), the purpose of DIRBE is to measure, or set upper limits on, the spectral and spatial character of the diffuse extra galactic infrared radiation. Diffuse infrared sources within our own galaxy are measured. The required reduction of the unwanted radiation imposes severe design and operating restrictions on the DIRBE instrument. To accomplish its missions, it will operate at a multitude of wavelengths ranging from 1.25 um out to 200 to 300 microns. The operating bands and the required point source normalized irradiance transmittance (PSNIT) are shown. The important straylight concepts in the DIRBE design are reviewed. The model and assumptions used in APART analysis are explained. The limitations due to the scalar theory used in the analysis are outlined.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-175225 , NAS 1.26:175225
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several short U1 and U2 observations of Be stars are obtained with the Copernicus satellite. Pi Aquarii (B1 IV-Ve) is observed with the U1 and U2 spectrometers. These scans are compared with earlier observations. Variations in the strengths and profiles of selected shell and photospheric features are examined. In order to study possible changes in the temperature of the circumstellar envelope, features covering a wide range in ionization are observed. Included in the observing program are lines of O VI, N V, Si IV, Si III, S III, Fe III, and N I.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173611 , NASA-CR-173611
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Catalog of Infrared Observations and its Far Infrared Supplement summarize all infrared astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Catalog includes as appendices the Bibliography of infrared astronomy which keys observations in the Catalog with the original journal references, and the index of infrared source positions which gives source positions for alphabetically listed sources in the Catalog. The Catalog data base contains over 85,000 observations of about 10,000 infrared sources, of which about 2,000 have no known visible counterpart.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.61:1118 , NASA-RP-1118
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Detailed far-IR observations and complemenary submillimeter, 5 GHz continuum and c(18)0 observations of a sample of far-IR selected luminous regions of star formation. The clouds and that the exciting stars lie deep within these condensations. The far-IR sources have diversely shaped 40 micron to 180 micron spectra even through their 60 micron to 100 micron color temperatures are similar. The radio and far-IR results together show that the exciting stars are in clusters containing either zero-age main sequence and pre-main sequence stars or consisting entirely of premain sequence objects. C(18)0 and submillimeter observations imply gas densities approximately .00005 - high enough to make t(sub dust) approximately t(sub gas).
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85955 , NAS 1.15:85955 , A-9765
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-RP-1119 , NAS 1.61:1119
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This simulator was created so that C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators could test their Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System software on a system which is generally more accessible than the ADAMS on the plane. An investigator can currently test most of his data acquisition program using the data computer simulator in the Cave. (The Cave refers to the ground-based computer facilities for the KAO and the associated support personnel.) The main Cave computer is interfaced to the data computer simulator in order to simulate the data-Exec computer communications. However until now, there has been no way to test the data computer interface to the tracker. The simulator described here simulates both the KAO Exec and tracker computers with software which runs on the same Hewlett-Packard (HP) computer as the investigator's data acquisition program. A simulator control box is hardwired to the computer to provide monitoring of tracker functions, to provide an operator panel similar to the real tracker, and to simulate the 180 deg phase shifting of the chopper squre-wave reference with beam switching. If run in the Cave, one can use their Exec simulator and this tracker simulator.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85896 , NAS 1.15:85896 , A-9662
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A description of the machine readable catalog, including detailed format and tape file characteristics, is given. The machine file is a computation of mean values for position and magnitude at a mean epoch of observation for each unique star in the Oxford, Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse and Northern Hemisphere Algiers zone. The format was changed to effect more efficient data searching by position and additional duplicate entries were removed. The final catalog contains data for 997311 stars.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85569 , NAS 1.15:85569 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-16
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:85574 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-02 , NASA-TM-85574
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine readable catalog, as it is distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. Some minor reformatting of the magnetic tape version is received to decrease the record size and conserve space; the data content is identical to the sample shown in Table VI of the source reference.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-19 , NASA-TM-85572 , NAS 1.15:85572
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Theoretical models for the ionization of trace elements in a strong stellar wind by a compact binary X-ray source and for the resulting orbital phase dependence of the emergent soft X-ray spectra and the profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines are presented. Model results agree qualitatively with the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra of the system 4U 0900-40/HD 77581 and explain the suppression of the absorption profiles of the Si IV upsilon 1394 and C IV upsilon 1548 lines when the X-ray sources is in front of the star. The model predicts that the absorption profiles of the N V upsilon 1239 and O VI upsilon 1032 lines will be enhanced rather than suppressed during this orbital phase. We predict phase-dependent linear polarization in the resonance lines profiles. Future observations of these phase dependent effects in early-type binary X-ray systems may be used to investigate the dynamics of stellar winds and their interactions with the X-ray source.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:86060 , NASA-TM-86060
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The averager spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or - .36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N(H) 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm; the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0175-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:85118 , NASA-TM-85118
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine readable catalogue contains survey data from the papers of Pilkington and Scott and Gower, Scott and Wills. These data result from a survey of radio sources between declinations -07 deg and +80 deg using the large Cambridge interferometer at 178 MHz. The computerized catalog contains for each source the 4C number, 1950 position, measured flux density, and accuracy class. For some sources miscellaneous brief comments such as cross identifications to the 3C catalog or remarks on contamination from nearby sources are given at the ends of the data records. A detailed description of the machine readable catalog as it is currently being distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is given to enable users to read and process the data.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-10 , NASA-TM-85456 , NAS 1.15:85456
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-16-PT-1 , NASA-CR-173114 , NAS 1.26:173114
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A catalog of galactic O-type stars, a machine-readable version of the bright star catalog, a two-micron sky survey, sky survey sources with problematical Durchmusterung identifications, data retrieval for visual binary stars, faint blue objects, the sixth catalog of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, declination versus magnitude distribution, the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index catalog, star cross-identification tables, astronomical sources, bibliographical star index search updates, DO-HD and HD-DO cross indices, and catalogs, are reviewed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-04-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-85418 , NAS 1.15:85418
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A unified description of the properties of 14 X-ray pulsars is presented and compared with the current theoretical understanding of these systems. The sample extends over six orders of magnitude in luminosity, with the only trend in the phase averaged spectra being that the lower luminosity systems appear to have less abrupt high energy cutoffs. There is no correlation of luminosity with power law index, high energy cutoff energy or iron line EW. Detailed pulse phase spectroscopy is given for five systems.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-83975 , NAS 1.15:83975
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of a study into the loss of lock phenomenon associated with the Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) are documented. The primary cause of loss of lock has been found to be a combination of cosmic ray spikes and photon noise due to a 14.5 Mv star. The probability of maintaining lock versus time is estimated both for the baseline FGS design and with parameter changes in the FGS firmware which will improve the probability of maintaining lock. The parameters varied are changeable in-flight from the ground and hence do not impact the design of the FGS hardware.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-82523 , NAS 1.15:82523
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Extended near infrared (2 to 5 microns) emission was observed from three visual reflection nebulae, NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. The emission from each nebula consists of a smooth continuum, which can be described by a greybody with a color temperature of 1000 K, and emission features at 3.3 and 3.4 microns. The continuum emission cannot be explained by free-free emission, reflected light, or field stars, or by thermal emission from grains, with commonly accepted ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, which are in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. A possible explanation is thermal emission from grains with extremely low ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, or from grains with a temperature determined by mechanisms other than equilibrium radiative heating. Another possibility is continuum fluorescence.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85315 , NAS 1.15:85315
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Near infrared observations in the reflection nebulae NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068 are used to study clusters of young stars found associated with these nebulae. At least 30% to 60% of these stars are pre-main sequence objects, as indicated by their infrared excesses, hydrogen line emission, or irregular variability. The spatial distributions and observed luminosity functions of these young open clusters are derived, and the inferred mass function and star formation efficiencies are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-170305 , NAS 1.26:170305
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Galactic (C II) 157 micron, fine-structure emission was estimated. At a Galactic longitude of 8 deg, the peak power observed in a 7' x 7' field is approx. 5 x 10 to the -9 Watt. The method used to detect this radiation involved chopping against the cold side of the Moon.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-84355 , NAS 1.15:84355 , A-9312
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The principles by which the dust and masses and total masses of interstellar clouds and certain characteristics of interstellar dust grains can be derived from observations of far infrared and submillimeter thermal emission are reviewed. To the extent possible, the discussion will be independent of particular grain models.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-84356 , NAS 1.15:84356 , A-9313 , PREPRINT-9
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Magnetic-field observations were carried out for 29 G and K main-sequence stars. The area covering-factors of magnetic regions tends to be greater in the K dwarfs than in the G dwarfs. However, no spectral-type dependence is found for the field strengths, contrary to predictions that pressure equilibrium with the ambient photospheric gas pressure would determine the surface field strengths. Coronal soft X-ray fluxes from the G and K dwarfs correlate well with the fraction of the stellar surface covered by magnetic regions. The dependence of coronal soft X-ray fluxes on photospheric field strengths is consistent with Stein's predicted generation-rates for Alfven waves. These dependences are inconsistent with the one dynamo model for which a specific prediction is offered. Finally, time variability of magnetic fields is seen on the two active stars that have been extensively monitored. Significant changes in magnetic fields are seen to occur on timescales as short as one day.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-170296 , NAS 1.26:170296
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet data obtained with the IUE spacecraft are presented for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The evolution of transition regions and chromospheric emission with stellar age is studied along with the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:169710 , NASA-CR-169710
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of HD 44179 are reported. Absorption due to the CO molecule is present in the spectrum with NCO approximately 10 to the 18th power per sq cm. Emission due to either CO or a molecule containing C=C, C=N, C-C, and C-H bonds (or both) is also present.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-169613 , NAS 1.26:169613
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both HEAO-1 A2 and Einstein SSS observations of SMC X-1 are presented. An unpulsed soft component is found with a blackbody temperature of 0.16 keV and an area for the emission region of 10 to the 15th power sq cm to 10 to the 17th power sq cm. The hard X-ray component is pulsed; the phase averaged spectrum is a power law with alpha approximately 0.5 keV up to 17 keV above which it steepens. The SSS sets an upper limit of 4 x 10 to the 21st power H cm/2 to any absorption and is consistent with that expected from the wind of SK160. Absorption dips with a timescale of several hundred seconds are seen immediately following an eclipse exit and are probably caused by inhomogeneities in the wind of SK160.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:84002 , REPT-661 , NASA-TM-84002
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A first set of observations of the (OI) 3P to 3P1 (145.5 micron) transition was obtained. The line was observed both in a beam centered on the Trapezium, and in a 7 times wider beam encompassing most of the Orion Nebula. A wide beam map of the region was constructed which shows that most of the emission is confined to the central regions of the nebula. These observations may be compared with reported measurement of the 3P1 to 3P2 (63.2 micron) transition in Orion and are consistent with optically thin emission in the 145.5 micron line and self-adsorbed 63.2 micron emission lines. Mechanisms are discussed for the excitation of neutral oxygen. It is included that much of the observed emission originates in the thin, radio-recombination-line-emitting CII/HI envelope bordering on the HII region.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: A-9155 , NAS 1.15:84307 , NASA-TM-84307
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:83986 , NASA-TM-83986
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns were combined with visual spectrophotometry of 21 quasars having redshifts z or = 2.66. The primary result is that the rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of the high redshift quasars are well described by a sum of a power law continuum with slope of approximately -0.4 and a 3000 A bump. The rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of these quasars are quite similar to that of 3C273, the archetype of low redshift quasars. There does not appear to be any visual/ultraviolet properties distinguishing high redshift quasars selected via visual or radio techniques.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-169436 , NAS 1.26:169436
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  • 48
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observational evidence for Baryon symmetric (matter/antimatter) cosmology and future observational tests are reviewed. The most significant consequences of Baryon symmetric cosmology lie in the prediction of an observable cosmic background of gamma radiation from the decay of pi(0)-mesons produced in nucleon-antinucleon annihilations. Equations for the prediction of the amma ray background spectrum for the case of high redshifts are presented. The theoretical and observational plots of the background spectrum are shown to be in good agreement. Measurement of cosmic ray antiprotons and the use of high energy neutrino astronomy to look for antimatter elsewhere in the universe are also addressed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-84006 , NAS 1.15:84006
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A proposed method of employing the Cacciani magneto-optical filter (MOF) for stellar seismology studies is described. The method relies on the fact that the separation of the filter bandpasses in the MOF can be changed by varying the level of input power to the filter cells. With the use of a simple servosystem the bandpass of a MOF can be tuned to compensate for the changes in the radial velocity of a star introduced by the orbital motion of the Earth. Such a tuned filter can then be used to record intensity fluctuations through the MOF bandpass over an extended period of time for each given star. Also, the use of a two cell version of the MOF makes it possible to alternately chop between the bandpass located in the stellar line wing and a second bandpass located in the stellar continuum. Rapid interchange between the two channels makes it possible for atmospheric-introduced noise to be removed from the time series.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:176282 , NASA-CR-176282
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is presented. The complete catalog is contained in the magnetic tape file, and corrections published in all corrigenda were made to the data. The machine version contains 613959 records, but only 613953 stars (six stars were later deleted, but their logical records are retained in the file so that the zone counts are not different from the published catalog).
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-87441 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-15 , NAS 1.15:87441
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine readable library as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center is described. The library contains digital spectral for 161 stars of spectral classes O through M and luminosity classes 1, 3 and 5 in the wavelength range 3510 A to 7427 A. The resolution is approximately 4.5 A, while the typical photometric uncertainty of each resolution element is approximately 1 percent and broadband variations are 3 percent. The documentation includes a format description, a table of the indigenous characteristics of the magnetic tape file, and a sample listing of logical records exactly as they are recorded on the tape.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:87438 , NASA-TM-87438 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-11
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine-readable version of the Atlas as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center is described. The data were obtained with the Oke multichannel scanner on the 5-meter Hale reflector for purposes of synthesizing galaxy spectra, and the digitized Atlas contains normalized spectral energy distributions, computed colors, scan line and continuum indices for 175 selected stars covering the complete ranges of spectral type and luminosity class. The documentation includes a byte-by-byte format description, a table of the indigenous characteristics of the magnetic tape file, and a sample listing of logical records exactly as they are recorded on the tape.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-02 , NASA-TM-87437 , NAS 1.15:87437
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The infrared bright galaxy 0421+040P06 detected by IRAS at 25 and 60 microns was studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelength. It is a luminous galaxy with apparent spiral structure emitting 4 x 10 to the 37th power from far-infrared to optical wavelengths. Optical spectroscopy reveals a Seyfert 2 emission line spectrum, making 0421+040P06 the first active galaxy selected from an unbiased infrared survey of galaxies. The fact that this galaxy shows a flatter energy distribution with more 25 micron emission than other galaxies in the infrared sample may be related to the presence of an intense active nucleus. The radio observations reveal the presence of a non-thermal source that, at 6 cm, shows a prominent double lobed structure 20 to 30 kpc in size extending beyond the optical confines of the galaxy. The radio source is three to ten times larger than structures previously seen in spiral galaxies.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:174208 , NASA-CR-174208
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An attempt is made to place in context the vast amount of data obtained as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. Emphasis is on the RS CVn systems and their long period analogs. The following questions are considered: (1) are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) what is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) have any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems been derived? (4) what do the flare observations tell about magnetic fields in RS CVn systems? (5) is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:174164 , NASA-CR-174164
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Linear polarization of the submillimeter (270 micron) continuum radiation from two regions of Orion was observed: one centered on the Kleinmann-Low Nebula and one centered on the 400 micron peak 1.5' south of the nebula. The polarizations measured for these regions are P = (1.7 +/-0.4)% at phi = 23 deg +/-7 deg and P=(1.7 +/- 0.5)% at phi = 27 deg +/- 7 deg respectively. A 2(sigma) upper limit, P or = 1.6%, was found for the nebular W3(OH). The position angle at KL is orthogonal to that measured at 11 microns by Dyck and Beichman and at 11 and 20 microns by Knacke and Capps. The far-IR values for KL reported by Gull et. al. (approx 2%) and by Cudlip et al. (1 to 2% level) are consistent with the submillimeter results.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:86013 , REPT-85008 , NASA-TM-86013
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 50 and 100 micron emissions of OJ 287 were detected and upper limits for BL Lac were obtained. These first measurements of two BL Lac objects in the far-infrared show them to be similar to the few quasars previously observed in the far-infrared. In particular, there is no evidence for significant dust emission, and the lambda approximately 100 micron flux density fits on a smooth line joining the near-infrared and millimeter continuum fluxes. The implications of the results for models of the sources are discussed briefly.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-86022 , REPT-85016 , NAS 1.15:86022
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The atmospheric transmission window at 2.7 microns in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed at a spectral resolution of 0.1/cm from the Kuiiper Airborne Observatory. From an analysis of the CH4 abundance (80 m-am) and the H2O abundance ( 0.0125 cm-am) it was determined that the penetration depth of solar flux at 2.7 microns is near the base of the NH3 cloud layer. The upper limit to H2O at 2.7 microns and other results suggest that photolytic reactions in Jupiter's lower troposphere may not be as significant as was previously thought. A search for H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere yielded an upper limit of 0.1 cm-am. The corresponding limit to the element abundance ratio S/H was approx. 1.7x10(-8), about 10(-3) times the solar value. Upon modeling the abundance and distribution of H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere it was concluded that, contrary to expectations, sulfur-bearing chromophores are not present in significant amounts in Jupiter's visible clouds. Rather, it appears that most of Jupiter's sulfur is locked up as NH4SH in a lower cloud layer. Alternatively, the global abundance of sulfur in Jupiter may be significantly depleted.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-86661 , REPT-85043 , NAS 1.15:86661
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: On 22 Nov. 1982, the asteroid 93 Minerva occulted AG-29 deg 398 (= SAO 76O17A), a seventh magnitude star of AO spectral type. The data were best fitted by a circular limb profile having a diameter of 170.8 + or - 1.4 km, a value that agrees well with the published radiometric diameter for this asteroid. However, evidence of significant departure from a spherical shape is found in the occultation observations and in photometric measurements of Minerva. Additional observations are required to specify difinitively the three dimensional figure of Minerva.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173827 , NASA-CR-173827
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of infrared photometry from 2 to 160 microns of AFGL and CO(12) observations of its associated molecular cloud and high velocity molecular outflow are presented and discussed. The observed solar luminosity is 6.7 x 10(4) at a distance of 2 kpc. The spectrum of AFGL 2591 is interpreted in the context of a model in which a single embedded object is the dominant source of the infrared luminosity. This object is determined to be surrounded by a compact, optically thick dust shell with a temperature in excess of several hundred degrees kelvin. The extinction to this source is estimated to be between 26 and 50 visual magnitudes. The absolute position of the infrared sources at 10 microns was determined to an accuracy of + or in. This indicates for the first time that the IR source and H2O source are not coincident. The CO(12) observations show the high-velocity molecular flow near AFGL 2591 to be extended, bipolar and roughly centered on the infrared emission. The observations suggest that the red-shifted flow component extends beyond the boundary of the ambient cloud within which AFGL 2591 is embedded. The CO(12) observations also show that AFGL 2591 is embedded in a molecular cloud with an LSR velocity of -5 km/s.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85963 , NAS 1.15:85963 , A-9757
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Theoretical predictions about dust and gas in star forming regions are tested by observing a 4 arcmin region surrounding the radio continuum source in 5201. The object was mapped in two far infrared wavelengths and found to show significant extended emission. Under the assumption that the molecular gas is heated solely via thermal coupling with the dust, the volume density was mapped in 5201. The ratios of infrared optical depth to CO column density were calculated for a number of positions in the source. Near the center of the cloud the values are found to be in good agreement with other determinations for regions with lower column density. In addition, the observations suggest significant molecular destruction in the outer parts of the object. Current models of gas heating were used to calculate a strong limit for the radius of the far infrared emitting grains, equal to or less than 0.15 micron. Grains of about this size are required by the observation of high temperature (T equal to or greater than 20 K) gas in many sources.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: A-9738 , NASA-TM-85953 , NAS 1.15:85953
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A search for sub-mm C I emission from seven stars that are surrounded by dense molecular gas shells led to the detection, in the case of the "Egg Nebula' (AFGL 2688), of an 0.9 K line implying a C I/CO value greater than 5. The material surrounding this star must be extremely carbon-rich, and it is suggested that the apparently greater extent of the C I emission region may be due to the effects of the galactic UV field on the shell's chemistry, as suggested by Huggins and Glassgold (1982).
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:84360 , A-9322 , NASA-TM-84360
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A sample consisting primarily of radio bright quasars was observed in X-rays with the Einstein Observatory for times ranging from 1500 to 5000 seconds. Detected sources had luminosities ranging from 0.2 to 41.0 x 10 to the 45th power ergs/sec in the 0.5 to 4.5 keV band. Three of the fourteen objects which were reobserved showed flux increases greater than a factor of two on a time scale greater than six months. No variability was detected during the individual observations. The optical and X-ray luminosities are correlated, which suggests a common origin. However, the relationship (L sub x is approximately L sub op to the (.89 + or - .15)) found for historic radio variables may be significantly different than that reported for other radio bright sources. Some of the observed X-ray fluxes were substantially below the predicted self-Compton flux, assuming incoherent synchrotron emission and using VLBI results to constrain the size of the emission region, which suggests relativistic expansion in these sources. Normal CIV emission in two of the sources with an overpredicted Compton component suggests that although they, like BL Lac objects, have highly relativistic material apparently moving at small angle to the line of sight, they have a smaller fraction of the continuum component in the beam.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-86094 , NAS 1.15:86094
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The machine readable catalog is described. The machine version contains the same data as the published table, which includes a second file with the notes. The computerized data files are prepared at the Astronomical Data Center. Detected discrepancies and cluster identifications based on photometric estimators are included.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85571 , NAS 1.15:85571 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-18
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-85570 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-83-17 , NAS 1.15:85570
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Detailed descriptions of the three files of the machine-readable catalog are given. The files of the original tape have been restructured and the data records reformatted to produce a uniform data file having a single logical record per star and homogeneous data fields. The characteristics of the tape version as it is presently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center are given and the changes to the original tape supplied are described.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:85573 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-84-04 , NASA-TM-85573
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 3P1 - 3P2 fine structure line emission from neutral atomic oxygen at 63 microns in the vicinity of the galactic center was mapped. The emission is extended over more than 4' (12 pc) along the galactic plane, centered on the position of Sgr A West. The line center velocities show that the O I gas is rotating around the galactic center with an axis close to that of the general galactic rotation, but there appear also to be noncircular motions. The rotational velocity at R is approximately 1 pc corresponds to a mass within the central pc of about 3 x 10(6) solar mass. Between 1 and 6 pc from the center the mass is approximately proportional to radius. The (O I) line probability arises in a predominantly neutral, atomic region immediately outside of the ionized central parsec of out galaxy. Hydrogen densities in the (O I) emitting region are 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3) and gas temperatures are or = 100 K. The total integrated luminosity radiated in the line is about 10(5) solar luminosity, and is a substantial contribution to the cooling of the gas. Photoelectric heating or heating by ultraviolet excitation of H2 at high densities (10(5) cm(-3)) are promising mechanisms for heating of the gas, but heating due to dissipation of noncircular motions of the gas may be an alternative possibility. The 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line of (O III) at 88 microns toward Sgr A West was also detected. The (O III) emission comes from high density ionized gas (n 10(4) cm(-3)), and there is no evidence for a medium density region (n 10(3) cm(-3)), such as the ionized halo in Sgr A West deduced from radio observations. This radio halo may be nonthermal, or may consist of many compact, dense clumps of filaments on the inner edges of neutral condensations at R or = 2 pc.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-166510 , NAS 1.26:166510
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An in-progress investigation aimed at characterizing the X-ray luminosity of very faint QSOs is described. More than 100 faint, previously uncataloged QSOs which lie in areas imaged in X rays at very high sensitivity were discovered.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173311 , NASA-CR-173311
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  • 68
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet, infrared, and optical spectra were combined to obtain a data set sample as broad as possible in the range of hydrogen lines in individual quasars. From the measured Lyman fluxes, coupled with Balmer and Paschen line fluxes measured in these same objects, an effort was made to establish observational constraints that would guide models of the broad emission line regions of quasars. It was found that IUE spectra were generally of sufficiently high quality to derive line profiles of the ultraviolet lines Lyman alpha and CIV 1550 A, which were compared to the Balmer line profiles. The objects observed and the line fluxes are tabulated. Plots of line profiles are included.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:175376 , NASA-CR-175376
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  • 69
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 1/4 meter ultraviolet spectrometer, developed to measure the ultraviolet flux from several standard type stars was flown successfully on Aerobee rockets. The ultraviolet flux from alpha Lyr, eta U Ma, zeta Oph, delta Ori, alpha CMa, beta CMa, and alpha Leo were measured. These values agreed with the OAO data obtained by Code in the 1200 to 3400 A region to + or - 9%. The design and calibration of a faint object spectrometer for observing stars and nebula with a 3 A resolution and a 3% accuracy in a 60 second observation are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:175361 , NASA-CR-175361
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: To establish the expected sensitivity of a new hard X-ray telescope design, an experiment was conducted to measure the background counting rate at balloon altitudes (40 km) of mercuric iodide, a room temperature solid state X-ray detector. The prototype detector consisted of two thin mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors surrounded by a large bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) scintillator operated in anticoincidence. The bismuth germanate shield vetoed most of the background counting rate induced by atmospheric gamma-rays, neutrons and cosmic rays. A balloon-borne gondola containing a prototype detector assembly was designed, constructed and flown twice in the spring of 1982 from Palestine, Texas. The second flight of this instrument established a differential background counting rate of 4.2 O.7 x 10-5 counts/sec cm keV over the energy range of 40 to 80 keV. This measurement was within 50% of the predicted value. The measured rate is approx 5 times lower than previously achieved in shielded NaI/CsI or Ge systems operating in the same energy range. The prediction was based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the detector assembly in the radiation environment at float altitude.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-175329 , NAS 1.26:175329
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An intensive search for OH and H2O in the directions of sigma Sco, alpha Cam, and micron Per was undertaken with the Copernicus satellite. Multiple scans were carried out over the wavelength region for the expected absorption features due to the OH D-X and H2O C-X transitions. The feature due to OH was detected marginally towards sigma Sco, and only an upper limit can be given towards alpha Cam. H2O was not detected in any of the stars at the signal level accumulated. The OH abundance towards sigma Sco and the respective lower limits for the OH/H2O ratios are discussed with regard to the extant models for the steady state abundances of OH and H2O, and shown not to be inconsistent with ion-molecule schemes.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170601 , NASA-CR-170601
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A possible alternative to a spacecraft monostatic radar system for surface studies of Titan is introduced. The results of a short study of the characteristics of a bistatic radar investigation of Titan's surface, presented in terms of the Voyager 1 flyby and a proposed Galileo orbiter of Saturn are outlined. The critical factors which need to be addressed in order to optimize the radio occultation technique for the study of clouds and cloud regions in planetary atmospheres are outlined. Potential improvements in the techniques for measuring small-scale structures in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are addressed. The development of a technique for vastly improving the radial resolution from the radio occultation measurements of the rings of Saturn is discussed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-173072 , NAS 1.26:173072
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental solar correlation tracker was tested and evaluated on a ground-based solar magnetograph. Using sunspots as fixed targets, tracking error signals were derived by which the telescope image was stabilized against wind induced perturbations. Two methods of stabilization were investigated; mechanical stabilization of the image by controlled two-axes motion of an active optical element in the telescope beam, and electronic stabilization by biasing of the electron scan in the recording camera. Both approaches have demonstrated telescope stability of about 0.6 arc sec under random perturbations which can cause the unstabilized image to move up to 120 arc sec at frequencies up to 30 Hz.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-82538 , NAS 1.15:82538
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The four astronomical objectives addressed include: the measurement and mapping of extended low surface brightness infrared emission from the galaxy; the measurement of diffuse emission from intergalactic material and/or galaxies and quasi-stellar objects; the measurement of the zodiacal dust emission; and the measurement of a large number of discrete infrared sources.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170379 , NASA-CR-170379
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The JK = 1 sub 0 approaching O sub 0 transition of ammonia at 572.5 GHz was detected in OMC-1 from NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The central velocity of the line (VLSR approximately = 9 km/s) indicates that it originates in the molecular cloud material, not the hot core. The derived filling factor of approximately 0.09 in a 2' beam implies a source diameter of approximately 35" if it is a single clump. This clump area is much larger than that derived from observations of the sub 1 inversion transition. The larger optical depth in the 1 sub 0 approaching 0 sub 0 transition (75-350) can account for the increased source area and linewidth as compared with those seen in the 1 sub 0 inversion transition.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: A-9321 , NASA-TM-84359 , PREPRINT-SER-010 , NAS 1.15:84359
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Twelve very hot O-type subdwarfs were observed with the IUE-satellite in the low dispersion mode. Temperatures were derived from the slopes of the UV continua and distances were estimated from the color excesses. Most of them are hotter than 60,000 K, i.e., they are the hottest known subdwarfs. From their spectral appearance and location in a H.R.-diagram they form a rather inhomogeneous group. Three of them turned out to be central stars or nearly central stars, and four are definitely near the white dwarf stage. The surface helium to hydrogen ratio varies from about normal to the extreme case. Most of them appear to be post EHB objectives of 0.5 solar mass with a helium burning shell as their energy source, and their peculiar helium-to-hydrogen ratios are most likely the result of diffusion and convective mixing in surface layers.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-170214 , NAS 1.26:170214
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-CR-170267 , NAS 1.26:170267
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the extremely helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broad band photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective temperatures are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broad band photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict temperatures around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric temperatures of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new temperature scale for extreme helium stars extends to lower effective temperatures than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170261 , NASA-CR-170261
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  • 79
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The observed X-ray luminosities seen from an Einstein survey of nine Algol like systems are similar to those found by Pallavicini, et al. (1981) for single or widely separated rapidly rotating late stars, but fall an order of magnitude below those seen from RS CVn stars with similar orbital periods and spectral types. It is concluded that the X-ray emission is most probably associated with a hot coronae surrounding the secondary. Possible explanations for the lower luminosity of the Algol systems relative to the RS CVn systems are considered.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:84992 , NASA-TM-84992 , REPT-661
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During the 13 shifts dedicated to observations of Comet Bradfield (including the two European shifts), five high dispersion exposures were obtained with the LWR camera, 27 low dispersion images with the LWR camera, and 36 low dispersion images with the SWP camera of which 5 were observations of the geocoronal background and 4 were taken in a serendipity mode while the nucleus of the comet was centered on the large aperture of the LWR camera.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170066 , NASA-CR-170066
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultraviolet spectroscopy from the IUE, in combination with groundbased visual and infrared photometry, are to determine the energy distributions of the luminous blue variables, the Hubble-Sandage variables, in M31 and M33. The observed energy distributions, especially in the ultraviolet, show that these stars are suffering interstellar reddening. When corrected for interstellar extinction, the integrated energy distributions yield the total luminosities and black body temperatures of the stars. The resulting bolometric magnitudes and temperatures confirm that these peculiar stars are indeed very luminous, hot stars. They occupy the same regions of the sub B01 vs. log T sub e diagram as do eta Car, P Cyg and S Dor in our galaxy and the LMC. Many of the Hubble-Sandage variables have excess infrared radiation which is attributed to free-free emission from their extended atmospheres. Rough mass loss estimates from the infrared excess yield rates of 0.00001 M sub annual/yr. The ultraviolet spectra of the H-S variables are also compared with similar spectra of eta Car, P Cyg and S For.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.15:85258 , NASA-TM-85258
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Far-infrared lines of N++ and O++ in several galactic H II regions were measured in an effort to probe the abundance ratio N/O. New measurements are presented for W32 (630.8-0.0), Orion A, and G75.84+0.4. The combination of (N III) 57.3 millimicrons and (O III) 88.4 and 51.8 millimicrons yields measurements of N++/O++ that are largely insensitive to electron temperature, density uncertainties, and to clumping of the ionized gas, due to the similarity of the critical densities for these transitions. In the observed nebulae, N++/O++ should be indicative of N/O, a ratio that is of special importance in nucleosynthesis theory. Measurements are compared with previous measurements of M17 and W51. For nebulae in the solar circle, N++/O++ is greater than the N/O values derived from optical studies of N+/O+ in low ionization zones of the same nebulae. We find that N++/O++ in W43 is significantly higher than for the other H II regions in the sample. Since W43 is located at R = 5 kpc, which is the smallest galactocentric distance in our sample, our data appear consistent with the presence of a negative abundance gradient d(N/O)dR.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA-TM-84331 , NAS 1.15:84331 , A-9524
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