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  • AERODYNAMICS  (2,984)
  • 1985-1989  (2,968)
  • 1950-1954  (16)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction analysis has been developed to predict the performance of rotors in hover and forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The analysis solves the full-potential and boundary-layer equations by finite-difference numerical procedures. Calculations were made for several different model rotor configurations in hover and forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The results were compared with predictions from a two-dimensional integral method and with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreement between test data and predictions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Computational experiments have been performed for a few configurations in order to investigate the effects of external flow disturbances on the extent of laminar flow and wake drag. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental data for the AEDC cone, for Mach numbers from subsonic to supersonic, and for both free flight and wind tunnel environments. The comparisons have been found to be very satisfactory, thus establishing the utility of the present method for the design and development of laminar flow configurations and for the assessment of wind tunnel data. In addition, results of calculations concerning the effects of unit Reynolds numbers on transition are presented. In addition to the AEDC cone, computations have been performed for an ogive body of revolution at zero angle of attack and supersonic Mach numbers. Results are presented for transition Reynolds number and wake drag for external disturbances corresponding to free air and the test section of the AEDC-VKF tunnel. These results have been found to compare quite well with wind tunnel data for cases when surface suction is applied as well as when suction is absent.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 892381
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Induced drag is associated with the shedding of vorticity along the span of a finite wing, especially its tip region; for most subsonic aircraft configurations, induced drag constitutes about 50 percent of total aircraft drag throughout the flight envelope. NASA and the U.S. aircraft industry have aggressively studied induced-drag reduction methods. The state-of-the-art CTOL commercial aircraft wing is as a result of these efforts virtually optimal, with a total induced drag lying within a percent of the theoretical minimum. Many of the devices currently under study for induced drag reduction are added to wingtips, yielding benefits through their effects on the wake vortex as well as through forces generated in the flowfield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 892341
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  • 4
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A fundamentally new approach to the aircraft minimum induced drag problem is presented. The method, a 'viscous lifting line', is based on the minimum entropy production principle and does not require the planar wake assumption. An approximate, closed form solution is obtained for several wing configurations including a comparison of wing extension, winglets, and in-plane wing sweep, with and without a constraint on wing-root bending moment. Like the classical lifting-line theory, this theory predicts that induced drag is proportional to the square of the lift coefficient and inversely proportioinal to the wing aspect ratio. Unlike the classical theory, it predicts that induced drag is Reynolds number dependent and that the optimum spanwise circulation distribution is non-elliptic.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 892344
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Stability and transition experiments are conducted on a 45 degree sweep airfoil in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel. Combined flow-visualization techniques and hot-wire measurements are used in conjuction with stability-code calculations to map out transition behavior for this flow geometry. Both steady and unsteady crossflow vortices are observed and at this time there is no contradiction with the theoretical predictions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A swept, supercritical laminar flow control (LFC) airfoil designated NASA SCLFC(1)-0513F was tested at subsonic and transonic speeds in the NASA Langley eight-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. This paper examines Tollmien-Schlichting and crossflow disturbance amplification for this airfoil using the linear stability method. The design methodology using linear stability analysis is evaluated and the results of the incompressible and compressible methods are compared. Experimental data on the swept, supercritical LFC airfoil and reference wind tunnel and flight results are used to correlate and evaluate the N-factor method for transition prediction over a speed range M(infinity) from zero to one.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A finite difference code was developed for modeling inviscid, unsteady supersonic flow by solution of the compressible Euler equations. The code uses a deforming grid technique to capture the motion of the airfoils and can model oscillating cascades with any arbitrary interblade phase angle. A flat plate cascade is analyzed, and results are compared with results from a small-perturbation theory. The results show very good agreement for both the unsteady pressure distributions and the integrated force predictions. The reason for using the numerical Euler code over a small-perturbation theory is the ability to model real airfoils that have thickness and camber. Sample predictions are presented for a section of the rotor on a supersonic throughflow compressor designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. Preliminary results indicate that two-dimensional, flat plate analysis predicts conservative flutter boundaries.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2805
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Flight boundary-layer transition experiments were conducted on a 30-degree swept wing with a perforated leading-edge suction panel. The transition location on the panel was changed by systematically varying the location and amount of suction. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow was due to leading-edge turbulence contamination or crossflow disturbance growth and/or Tollmien-Schlichting disturbance growth, depending on flight condition and suction variation. Amplification factor correlations with transition location were made for various suction configurations using a state-of-the-art linear stability theory which accounts for body and streamline curvature and compressibility.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2943
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A modified version of the upwind flux-difference scheme of Roe for supersonic flow solution is described. This efficient iterative Space Marching Scheme (SMS) is used to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, for underexpanded and overexpanded supersonic free jet with a single time sweep. Comparisons with experimental data and the Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solutions are presented. These results show that the present scheme gives good agreement with experimental data in less computer time and the convergence history of the SMS is much faster than the PNS solution.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2897
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A kinetic theory analysis is made of the flow of a rarefied gas from one reservoir to another through two-dimensional nozzles with arbitrary curvature. The Boltzmann equation simplified by a model collision integral is solved by means of finite-difference approximations with the discrete ordinate method. The physical space is transformed by a general grid generation technique and the velocity space is transformed to a polar coordinate system. A numerical code is developed which can be applied to any two-dimensional passage of complicated geometry for the flow regimes from free-molecular to slip. Numerical values of flow quantities can be calculated for the entire physical space including both inside the nozzle and in the outside plume. Predictions are made for the case of parallel slots and compared with existing literature data. Also, results for the cases of convergent or divergent slots and two-dimensional nozzles with arbitrary curvature at arbitrary knudsen number are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2893
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A marching Euler solver, GEM3D, was used to predict the Mach 3 flow field for the wing and body of a High-Speed Civil Transport concept. The analysis focused on a typical cruise lift coefficient of 0.1 at alpha = 3 deg. The Euler solution indicated that embedded shocks formed on the upper surface of the inboard wing panel and at the leading-edge of the outboard wing panel, due to its supersonic leading edge condition. According to a simple static-pressure criterion, the embedded wing upper-surface shocks were sufficiently strong to separate a turbulent boundary layer. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients from the Euler solver with those from linear theory shows that the linear theory estimates of lift and drag are optimistic, which would lead to optimistic estimates of cruise range.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2174
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Two compressible free shear layers with convective Mach numbers of .51 and .86 were studied as baseline configurations to investigate the effects of compressibility on the turbulence characteristics. These shear layers were then disturbed by the placement of an obstruction in the shear layer in an attempt to enhance the shear layer growth rate. These models produced a curved shock in the supersonic side of the shear layer. The results indicate a significant reduction in turbulence levels with increased compressibility. However, there are not any significant changes due to the bow shock interaction with the shear layer.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2460
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A clear understanding of the fluid dynamics associated with rotor/stator configurations can be very helpful when optimizing the performance of turbomachinery. In this study, a two-dimensional, implicit, thin-layer, Navier-Stokes zonal approach has been used to investigate the flow within a 2 1/2-stage compressor. Relative motion between the rotor and stator airfoils is made possible with the use of systems of patched and overlaid grids that move with respect to each other. The treatment of multistage turbomachines with arbitrary numbers of airfoils per row is made possible by the use of a flexible database system. Results in the form of instantaneous pressure and entropy contours and time-averaged pressures are presented for the 2 1/2-stage compressor. Time-averaged pressures and pressure amplitudes for a single-stage turbine configuration are also presented. The numerical results compare well with experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2452
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A modeling technique for predicting the axial and transverse velocity characteristics of rectangular nozzle plumes is developed. In this technique, modeling of the plume cross section is initiated at the nozzle exit plane. The technique is demonstrated for the plume issuing from a rectangular nozzle having an aspect ratio of 6.0 and discharging into quiescent air. Application of the present procedures to a nozzle discharging into a moving airstream (flight effect) are then demonstrated. The effects of plume shear layer structure modification on the velocity flowfield are discussed and modeling procedures are illustrated by example.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-2357
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Exploratory wind-tunnel force measurements are presented for two wing geometries with small-scale planar and nonplanar serrated trailing-edge devices (chord-Reynolds numbers ranged from 1.0 to 3.7 million). The planar serrated trailing-edge extensions reduced the drag at conditions when trailing-edge separation occurred at low angles of attack. The introduction of serrations reduced or eliminated the drag penalty, due to the small (1-2 percent of the chord length) nonplanar trailing-edge flaps, while maintaining the effects of increase in camber. The presence of streamwise vortices immediately downstream of the serrated trailing edges is believed to have favorably affected the boundary-layer flow approaching the trailing edge and the near-wake development, resulting in reduced pressure (form) drag.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The computation method developed for the NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) data book generates a design reference for the AFE's aerothermodynamic environment using an optimized technology for a 4100-lb vehicle. This environment is defined by convective, radiative, and total heating rates, radiation equilibrium temperatures, and local surface pressures along the AFE pitch-plane and associated off-pitch planes. The Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure is the major program code used in this analysis; a partially catalytic wall was assumed on the basis of measured recombination rates.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1734
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Calculations using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird for flow past sharp cones in the near continuum to free molecule flow regime are presented and compared with experiment. It is found that results are sensitive to the grid and the interaction potential. Moreover, the time counter method was found to be as accurate as other methods when the solution is grid independent. Finally, the results show that the effects of the wake on the forebody surface properties are minimal.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1713
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A discrete Particle Simulation method, recently formulated by Baganoff, is discussed in the context of its application to the simulation of the flow field about the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE). As a basis for discussion the current algorithm is first described. Because of the use of a cubic Cartesian mesh, the representation of the geometry is different than that of other particle methods and an algorithm for its generation is discussed. The method is applied to test problems and then to the AFE calculation with the use of 9.52 million particles and 432,000 cells.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1711
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The approximate axisymmetric method presented for accurately calculating the surface and flowfield properties of fully viscous hypersonic flow over blunt-nosed bodies incorporates the turbulence model of Cebeci-Smith (1970) and the equilibrium air tables of Hansen (1959). The method is faster than the parabolized Navier-Stokes or viscous shock layer solvers that it could replace for preliminary design determinations. Surface heat transfer and pressure predictions for the present method are comparable with the more accurate viscous shock layer method as well as flight test and wind tunnel data. A starting solution is not required.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1695
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Several versions of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were compared with regard to general applicability and complexity. Test computations were performed using curve-fit equilibrium air chemistry for an M = 5 high-temperature inviscid flow over a wedge, and an M = 24.5 inviscid flow over a blunt cylinder for test computations; for these cases, little difference in accuracy was found among the versions of the same flux-split algorithm. For flows with nonequilibrium chemistry, the effects of the thermodynamic model on the development of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were investigated using an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Several numerical examples are presented, including nonequilibrium air chemistry in a high-temperature shock tube and nonequilibrium hydrogen-air chemistry in a supersonic diffuser.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1653
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Flight experiments were conducted on a 30 degree swept wing with a perforated leading edge by systematically varying the location and amount of suction over a range of Mach number and Reynolds number. Suction was varied chordwise ahead of the front spar from either the front or rear direction by sealing spanwise perforated strips. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow was due to leading edge turbulence contamination or crossflow disturbance growth and/or Tollmien-Schlichting disturbance growth, depending on the test configuration, flight condition, and suction location. A state-of-the-art linear stability theory which accounts for body and streamline curvature and compressibility was used to study the boundary layer stability as suction location and magnitude varied. N-factor correlations with transition location were made for various suction configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1893
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research for hypersonic flows presents new problems in code validation because of the added complexity of the physical models. This paper surveys code validation procedures applicable to hypersonic flow models that include real gas effects. The current status of hypersonic CFD flow analysis is assessed with the Compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) code as a case study. The methods of code validation discussed to beyond comparison with experimental data to include comparisons with other codes and formulations, component analyses, and estimation of numerical errors. Current results indicate that predicting hypersonic flows of perfect gases and equilibrium air are well in hand. Pressure, shock location, and integrated quantities are relatively easy to predict accurately, while surface quantities such as heat transfer are more sensitive to the solution procedure. Modeling transition to turbulence needs refinement, though preliminary results are promising.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1672
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An efficient particle simulation technique, developed for use on vector architecture based supercomputers for studying hypersonic rarefied gas flows is employed to simulate the complex wake generated by Mach six flow over a 10 deg half-angle wedge for freestream Reynolds numbers of 1780 and 3560. Data obtained are compared against higher Reynolds number experimental results. Simulations utilized as many as 10 to the 5th computational cells and 10 to the 7th simulated particles having power-law interaction potentials. A code performance of 1.8-2.4 microsec of Cray-2 CPU time to process a single particle per timestep is achieved. Diffuse adiabatic and isothermal wedge surface models are used in this investigation. Although the wedge geometry is two-dimensional, the simulation incorporates a width-wise direction, resulting in a three-dimensional computation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1665
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A crossflow vortex experiment on a 45 deg swept wing is currently being conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel. The experimental apparatus is designed to produce crossflow-dominated transition by simulating infinite swept wing flow using contoured end liners in a closed throat wind tunnel. Stationary fixed-wavelength crossflow vortices are observed at several chord Reynolds numbers. The vortex wavelength which is fixed for a given Reynolds number varies with Reynolds number approximately as predicted by linear stability theory, but with the predicted wavelengths about 30 percent larger than the observed wavelengths. Travelling waves are observed both in the frequency range predicted by linear stability theory and at higher frequencies. These higher frequency waves may be harmonics of the primary crossflow waves generated by a nonlinear parametric resonance phenomena.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1892
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The convergence of inviscid and viscous hypersonic flow calculations using a two-dimensional flux-splitting code is accelerated by applying a Richardson-type overrelaxation method. Successful results are presented for various cases; and a 50 percent savings in computer time is usually achieved. An analytical formula for the overrelaxation factor is derived, and the performance of this scheme is confirmed numerically. Moreover, application of this overrelaxation scheme produces a favorable preconditioning for Wynn's epsilon-algorithm. Both techniques have been extended to viscous three-dimensional flows and applied to accelerate the convergence of the compressible Navier-Stokes code. A savings of 40 percent in computer time is achieved in this case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1875
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A computational and experimental method for the evaluation of helicopter rotor tips in high-speed forward flight is presented which uses an unsteady full-potential solver on the advancing side of the rotor disk. Forces and moments measured during angle-of-attack sweeps reveal the soft-stall phenomenon of the double-swept planforms as well as the delayed stall of the single-swept hyperbolic tip. Double-swept planforms are shown to exhibit the most favorable performance, creating counter-rotating vortices that augment the lifting capabilities of the blade at high angles of attack and delay the onset of stall.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1845
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A code validation study has been conducted for four different codes for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Computations for a series of nominally two-dimensional high-speed laminar separated flows were compared with detailed experimental shock-tunnel results. The shock wave-boundary layer interactions considered were induced by a compression ramp in one case and by an externally-generated incident shock in the second case. In general, good agreement was reached between the grid-refined calculations and experiment for the incipient- and small-separation conditions. For the most highly separated flow, three-dimensional calculations which included the finite-span effects of the experiment were required in order to obtain agreement with the data. The finite-span effects were important in determining the extent of separation as well as the time required to establish the steady-flow interaction. The results presented provide a resolution of discrepancies with the experimental data encountered in several recent computational studies.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1838
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The Mach-8 flow past a 60-deg swept fin mounted on a 12-degree ramp has been simulated using a parabolized Navier-Stokes solver employing an upwind algorithm in order to investigate the interference patterns that develop when a bow shock impinges on a wing shock. Good agreement with experimental data is found downstream of the interaction for each of three meshes of varying grid point density and computed surface pressure and heat transfer. In the wedge flow region, some disagreement with experimental data is noted for both pressure and heat transfer.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1826
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A hypersonic flow field over a generic airplane configuration is simulated by solving the Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The finite difference solution of the PNS equations is calculated using a noniterative space marching, explicit, upwind scheme recently developed by the authors. Special gridding techniques are used which allowed the sharp changes in surface geometry of the airplane configuration to be modelled without smoothing of corners. Comparisons of the PNS results to a solution of the Navier-Stokes equations demonstrates a good agreement of the numerical results in approximately 1/6 of the cpu time. This paper demonstrates that the explicit upwind algorithm for solving the PNS equations is an efficient method for simulating hypersonic flow fields about complete airplane configurations and should be considered as an alternative to solving the Navier-Stokes equations for flow fields where the PNS equations are valid.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1829
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A conical Euler/Navier-Stokes algorithm is presented for the computation of vortex-dominated flows. The flow solver involves a multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme which uses a finite-volume spatial discretization on an unstructured grid made up of triangles. The algorithm also employs an adaptive mesh refinement procedure which enriches the mesh locally to more accurately resolve the vortical flow features. Results are presented for several highly-swept delta wing and circular cone cases at high angles of attack and at supersonic freestream flow conditions. Accurate solutions were obtained more efficiently when adaptive mesh refinement was used in contrast with refining the grid globally. The paper presents descriptions of the conical Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver and adaptive mesh refinement procedures along with results which demonstrate the capability.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1816
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The transition behavior of a free-shear layer above a cavity with high and low levels of freestream acoustic disturbances has been studied at Mach 3.5. Optical techniques, mean pitot pressure measurements, and hot-wire measurements were employed to detect transition locations. Transition Reynolds numbers of between 363,000 and 530,000 were found, in agreement with previous results. It is suggested that upstream convected disturbances may be at least partially responsible for the insensitivity of transition Reynolds numbers to the freestream acoustic disturbance field.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1813
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A Mach 1.83 fully developed turbulent boundary layer was separated at a 25.4 mm backward step and formed a free shear layer. The incoming boundary layer thickness, momentum thickness, and Reynolds number were approximately 8 mm, 0.5 mm, and 52x10 to the 6th/m, respectively. A two-component coincident LDV system was used to take velocity measurements of the incoming boundary layer, the free shear layer, and the reattached shear layer. The results confirmed the existence of organized structures in both the free and the reattached shear layer which was reported earlier based on the authors dynamic pressure measurements and Schlieren photographs.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1801
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1083
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle for whose scale model pressure and heat-transfer rate distributions have been measured in air at Mach 10 is a 60-deg elliptic cone, raked off at a 73-percent angle, with an ellipsoid nose and a skirt added to the base of the rake plane to reduce heating. The predictions of both an inviscid flow-field code and a Navier-Stokes solver are compared with measured values. Good agreement is obtained in the case of pressure distributions; the effect of Reynolds number on heat-transfer distributions is noted to be small.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1731
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The direct-simulation Monte Carlo method has been used in a numerical study of the transitional flow about two plate configurations at incidence; one of the two plates, both of which are 12 m long, has zero thickness, while the other has a thickness of 0.5 m and a node radius of 0.5 m. The flow conditions simulated are those of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during 7.5 km/hr reentry, in the 200-100 km altitude range encompassing most of the transitional flow for this vehicle. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that transitional effects are significant even at those altitudes where the flow about a typical space vehicle has been considered free-molecular.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1712
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results of a direct simulation Monte Carlo method for a hypersonic flow about a flat plate at a 40 deg angle of attack have been compared with corresponding results from a theory for fully viscous shock layers (FVSLs). Using the 13-moment equations for a Maxwell gas, it is demonstrated that nonequilibrium and equilibrium FVSL flows can be correlated. With the exception of the pressure density, most of the flow properties along a streamline (including heat flux and shear and normal stresses) are correctly predicted to leading order by the Navier-Stokes model.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1663
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional thermochemical nonequilibrium model has been developed and applied to the study of entry flows surrounding space vehicles. The model accounts for both chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium phenomena behind the bow shock. The thermodynamic state of a real gas is modeled with a translational-rotational temperature and a electron-vibrational temperature. Their internal energies are averaged to determine the temperature used in the reaction rates calculation. In order to establish the validity of the selected models, both one- and two-temperature models with seven and/or eleven species were investigated. Several numerical experiments that include a sphere, the RAMC vehicle and 3D AFE forebody flows were performed. Preliminary results were compared with RAMC-II experimental data. Good agreement was obtained after a two-temperature model with eleven species and thirty reactions was incorporated into the study.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1860
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The unsteady, three-dimensional flow field of a helicopter rotor blade encountering a passing vortex is calculated by solving the Euler/thin layer Navier-Stokes equations by a finite-difference numerical procedure. A prescribed vortex method is adopted to preserve the structure of the interacting vortex. The cases considered for computation correspond to the experimental model rotor test conditions of Caradonna, et al. and consist of parallel and oblique interactions. Comparison of the numerical results with test data show good agreement for both parallel and oblique interactions at subsonic and transonic tip speeds.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1848
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A numerical finite-difference code has been used to predict helicopter blade loads during realistic self-generated three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The velocity field is determined via a nonlinear superposition of the rotor flowfield. Data obtained from a lifting-line helicopter/rotor trim code are used to determine the instantaneous position of the interaction vortex elements with respect to the blade. Data obtained for three rotor advance ratios show a reasonable correlation with wind tunnel data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1847
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: CNS, a new computational fluid dynamics procedure, has been developed to aid in hypersonic vehicle design. The code can be used to model the entire external flow around hypersonic vehicle shapes, from the captured shock at the nose to the beginning of the wake. Unlike space-marching codes, the technique allows axially separated flow regions to be modeled. Validation trials using sphere-cone data reveal good solution accuracy for the surface pressure and flowfield temperature.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1839
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A composite velocity procedure for the three-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations is developed. The velocity components are written as a combined multiplicative and additive composite of viscous like velocities and pseudo-potential or inviscid velocities. The solution procedure is then consistent with both asymptotic inviscid flow and boundary layer theory. For transonic flow cases, the Enquist-Osher flux biasing scheme developed for the full potential equation is used. A quasi-conservation form of the governing equations is used in the shock region to capture the correct rotational behavior. The composite velocity procedure is applied for the solution of three-dimensional afterbody problems.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1837
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A modification of Prandtl's mixing-length model is presented which takes into account the effects of compressibility on turbulence for high speed flows. A parameter is introduced into the turbulent transport formula which acts like an effective turbulent Schmidt number for mixtures of gases or a turbulent Prandtl number for a homogeneous gas. Results presented for such cases as high Mach number turbulent boundary layer flows over a flat surface, tangential slot injection problems, and shock/turbulent shear-layer and boundary-layer interactions agree well with experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1821
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A procedure to couple the Navier-Stokes solutions with modal structural equations of motion is presented for computing aeroelastic responses of swept flexible wings. The Navier-Stokes flow equations are solved by a finite-difference scheme with dynamic grids. The coupled aeroelastic equations of motion are solved using the linear-acceleration method. The configuration-adaptive dynamic grids are time-accurately generated using the aeroelastically deformed shape of the wing. The calculations are compared with the experiment when available. Effects of flexibility, sweep angle, and pitch rate are demonstrated for flows with vortices.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1183
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A composite velocity procedure for the three-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations is developed. In the spirit of matched asymptotic expansions, the velocity components are written as a combination multiplicative and additive composite of viscouslike velocities and pseudopotential or inviscid velocities. The solution procedure is then consistent with both asymptotic inviscid flow and boundary layer theory. For transonic flow cases, the Enquist-Osher flux biasing scheme developed for the full potential equation is used. A quasi-conservation form of the governing equations is used in the shock region to capture the correct rotational shock with the standard nonconservation form of the equations used in nonshock regions. The consistent coupled strongly implicit procedure coupled with a plane relaxation procedure is used to solve the discretized equations.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A new thermochemical nonequilibrium formulation for hypersonic transitional flows of air is presented. Air is assumed to have five chemical species (N2, O2, NO, N, O) and three temperatures corresponding to the translational, rotational, and vibrational modes of energy. In the present study, the no-slip boundary conditions are replaced by slip boundary conditions to extend the range of the Navier-Stokes equations to high-speed low-density flows.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0461
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An implicit two-factor partially flux split solver for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is used to solve the aerodynamic/propulsive interaction between a subsonic jet exhausting perpendicularly through a flat plat plate into a crossflow. The algorithm is applied to flows with a range of jet to crossflow velocity ratios between 4 and 8. The computed velocity field is analyzed and comparisons are made with experimentally determined properties of the contrarotating vortex pair.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0448
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper highlights the influence of computational methods on design of a wind tunnel experiment which generically models the nozzle/afterbody flow field of the proposed National Aerospace Plane. The rectangular slot nozzle plume flow field is computed using a three-dimensional, upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes solver. Freestream Mach numbers of 5.3, 7.3, and 10 are investigated. Two-dimensional parametric studies of various Mach numbers, pressure ratios, and ramp angles are used to help determine model loads and afterbody ramp angle and length. It was found that the center of pressure on the ramp occurs at nearly the same location for all ramp angles and test conditions computed. Also, to prevent air liquefaction, it is suggested that a helium-air mixture be used as the jet gas for the highest Mach number test case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0446
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The direct-simulation Monte Carlo technique is used to analyze the hypersonic rarefied flow about the three-dimensional NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle. Results are given for typical transitional flows encountered during the vehicle's atmospheric entry from altitudes of 200-100 km with an entry velocity of 9.9 km/s. It is found that dissociation is important at altitudes of 110 km and below, and that transitional effects are significant even at an altitude of 200 km.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0245
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The flow field surrounding a delta wing undergoing a transient pitching motion was studied experimentally. Of particular importance was the location of the leading edge vortices over the surface of the wing. The study was conducted on a 70-deg sweep flat-plate delta wing pitched about its one-half chord position. It is found that the maximum pitch rate is the key factor involved in the amount of lag experienced by the vortex breakdown during the transient pitching motion.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0194
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The two-dimensional symmetric TVD scheme proposed by Yee has been extended to and investigated for three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of complex aerodynamic problems. An existing three-dimensional Navier-stokes code based on the beam and warming algorithm is modified to provide an option of using the TVD algorithm and the flow problem considered is a transonic turbulent flow past a projectile with sting at ten-degree angle of attack. Numerical experiments conducted for three flow cases, free-stream Mach numbers of 0.91, 0.96 and 1.20 show that the symmetric TVD algorithm can provide surface pressure distribution in excellent agreement with measured data; moreover, the rate of convergence to attain a steady state solution is about two times faster than the original beam and warming algorithm.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0335
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results from a three-dimensional, time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulation of rotor-stator interaction in an axial turbine stage are presented. The present study uses a fine grid in the spanwise direction to better resolve endwall and tip cllearance effects and complements coarse-grid calculations that were reported earlier. A realistic turbine stage with 22 stator vanes and 28 rotor blades is simulated as a single-stator, single-rotor airfoil combination with the stator geometry modified to properly account for blockage effects. This is in contrast to the earlier coarse-grid calculations where the rotor geometry was modified. The improved grid resolution and the unmodified rotor geometry result in a more accurate simulation of the flow field, particularly in the rotor channel where the interaction effects are more severe. The numerical results are compared to experimental data wherever possible and to earlier calculations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0325
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Six-component airload histories were obtained for models of aspect ratio 1, 1.5, and 2. Examples are given from data obtained over a range of 'reduced frequency' parameters from 0.01 to 0.08. They include the unsteady response of the leading-edge vortices, as evidenced both by the time-dependent airloads and motion pictures of smoke released from the leading edge and illuminated by a thin sheet of laser light.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0295
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Numerical computations of two-dimensional flow past an airfoil at low Mach number, large angle of attack, and low Reynolds number are reported which show a sequence of flow states leading from single-period vortex shedding to chaos via the period-doubling mechanism. Analysis of the flow in terms of phase diagrams, Poincare sections, and flowfield variables are used to substantiate these results. The critical Reynolds number for the period-doubling bifurcations is shown to be sensitive to mesh refinement and the influence of large amounts of numerical dissipation. In extreme cases, large amounts of added dissipation can delay or completely eliminate the chaotic response. The effect of artificial dissipation at these low Reynolds numbers is to produce a new effective Reynolds number for the computations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0123
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An upwind implicit Navier-Stokes code has been used to study hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. It is found that afterbody forces varied linearly with the nozzle exit pressure for moderately underexpanded jets, and that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute up to 25 percent more force than high-gamma exhaust gases. Highly underexpanded jets are shown to create a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody produces a complicated pattern of crossflow separation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0032
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A quasi-three-dimensional analysis was developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing was employed to accelerate the solution of the time accurate computations. The scheme is described and accuracy analyses are given. Results are shown for a supersonic through-flow fan designed for NASA Lewis. The rotor:stator blade ratio was taken as 1:1. Results are also shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Here the blade ratio is 2:3. Implicit residual smoothing was used to increase the time step limit of the unsmoothed scheme by a factor of six with negligible differences in the unsteady results. It is felt that the implicitly smoothed Runge-Kutta scheme is easily competitive with implicit schemes for unsteady flows while retaining the simplicity of an explicit scheme.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0205
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Laminar flow control and drag reduction research requires accurate boundary layer solutions as input to the three-dimensional stability analysis procedures currently under development. In support of these major programs, a fourth-order accurate finite difference scheme for solving the three-dimensional, compressible boundary layer equations has been developed and is presented in this paper. The method employs a two-point scheme in the wall normal direction and second order zigzag scheme in the cross flow direction. Accurate procedures to interface with the inviscid results are also presented. The results of applying the procedure to laminar flow on wings and fuselages are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0130
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Axisymmetric and three-dimensional, multi-nozzle plume flows around generic rocket geometries are investigated with a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver to study the interactive effects between hard body and the plume. Time-asymptotic, laminar, ideal-gas solutions obtained with a two-factor, flux-split scheme and a diagonal, upwind scheme are presented. Computed solutions to three-dimensional, multi-nozzle problems and single-nozzle, axisymmetric problems demonstrate flow field features including three-dimensionality and hard-body effects. Geometry and three-dimensional effects are shown to be significant in multi-nozzle flows.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0129
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Two algorithms for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis of oscillating airfoils. Both algorithms were developed for use on an unstructured grid made up of triangles. The first flow solver involves a Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme with a finite-volume spatial discretization that reduces to central differencing on a rectangular mesh. The second flow solver involves a modified Euler time-integration scheme with an upwind-biased spatial discretization based on the flux-vector splitting of Van Leer. The paper presents descriptions of the Euler solvers and dynamic mesh algorithm along with results which assess the capability.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0115
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A visual and quantitative study of the vortex flow field over a 70-deg delta wing with an external jet blowing parallel to and at the leading edge was conducted. In the experiment, the vortex core was visually marked with TiCl4, and LDA was used to measure the velocity parallel and normal to the wing surface. It is found that jet blowing moved vortex breakdown farther downstream from its natural position and influenced the breakdown characteristics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0084
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The interaction of a supersonic streamwise vortices (of Mach number 2.2, 3.0, and 3.5) with a normal shock wave has been experimentally investigated, and is found to be highly unsteady. Five-hole pressure-probe and temperature measurements ahead of the interaction are used as initial conditions for an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes calculation. The numerical results supports the hypothesis that supersonic vortex breakdown is an important factor in the observed interaction flow pattern.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0082
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Computational analyses have been made of the flow in NASA Langley's Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility's Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 square cross-section contoured nozzles, for comparison with experimental results. The analyses, which were performed using a three-dimensional RANS computer code assuming a single species gas with constant specific heats, were intended to provide insight into the nature of the flow development in this type of nozzle. The computational results showed the exit flow distribution to be affected by counter-rotating vortices along the centerline of each nozzle sidewall. Calculated flow properties show general, but not complete, agreement with experimental measurements in both nozzles.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0045
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Some current studies on transition in boundary layers are briefly reviewed, including work based on the asymptotic transition theory. In particular, attention is given to the appearance of transition, primary instability, transition criterion, nonparallelism and nonlinearity, multistructural approach to transition, and two-dimensional nonlinear interactions. The discussion also covers secondary instability, three-dimensional interactions, Floquet theory of secondary instability, breakdown, and boundary-layer receptivity.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0034
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A numerical analysis procedure useful in the propulsion-airframe integration problem has been established. Flow around a generic hypersonic vehicle forebody is solved using Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations and Thin Layer Navier-Stokes equations. Forebody cross sectional geometry corresponds to a two-ellipse configuration. Effect of forebody geometry on the flow structure, especially at the engine inlet location, is analyzed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0030
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of leading- and trailing-edge flaps on a flat and cambered wing at superconic speeds. Results from the experimental tests showed that highly complex and three-dimensional flow can occur over the wings with leading- and/or trailing-edge flaps deflected. An analysis of the data also showed that flap effectiveness varies significantly between a cambered and flat wing of identical planform and flap geometry. Mach number effects are similar for both flat and cambered wings for all aerodynamic parameters.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0027
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of compressibility on the dynamic stall phenomenon by numerical simulation of the unsteady flow. The full two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for flows over oscillating airfoils and airfoils pitching rapidly to high angles of attack. The free-stream speeds vary from low subsonic with mild compressibility effects, to moderate subsonic where strong compressibility effects appear close to the leading edge at high angles of attack. An Alternating Direction Implicit scheme is implemented for the numerical solution with the viscous terms retained in both directions. The numerical results are compared with available experimental data for a Sikorsky airfoil for compressible high Reynolds number flows. There is good agreement between the computed and measured unsteady lift and pitching moment coefficient time histories. The computed high-speed subsonic unsteady results give a good picture of the entire flow field, and the dynamic stall progression in the compressible flow regime. It was observed that compressibility effects are more severe close to the leading edge at moderate angles of attack, and that the dynamic stall vortex appears at lower angles of attack as the free-stream speed increases.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0024
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 3-D Navier-Stokes code was developed for analysis of turbomachinery blade rows and other internal flows. The Navier-Stokes equations are written in a Cartesian coordinate system rotating about the x-axis, and then mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system. Streamwise viscous terms are neglected using the thin layer assumption, and turbulence effects are modelled using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The equations are discretized using finite differences on stacked C-type grids and are solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Calculations were made of the flow around a supersonic throughflow fan blade. The fan was designed as a key component in a supersonic cruise engine. The 3-D calculations were done on a 129x29x33 grid and took 50 minutes of cpu time. Comparisons with the quasi-3-D results show minor differences in loading due to 3-D effects. Particle traces show nearly 2-D flows near the pressure surface, but large secondary flows within the suction surface boundary layer. The horseshoe vortex ahead of the leading edge is clearly seen.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 259-272
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical study of the aerodynamic and thermal environment associated with axial turbine stages is presented. Computations were performed using a modification of the unsteady NASA Ames viscous code, ROTOR1, and an improved version of the NASA Lewis steady inviscid cascade system MERIDL-TSONIC coupled with boundary layer codes BLAYER and STAN5. Two different turbine stages were analyzed: the first stage of the United Technologies Research Center Large Scale Rotating Rig (LSRR) and the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump turbine. The time-averaged airfoil midspan pressure and heat transfer profiles were predicted for numerous thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic wall, prescribed surface temperature, and prescribed heat flux. Computed solutions are compared with each other and with experimental data in the case of the LSRR calculations. Modified ROTOR1 predictions of unsteady pressure envelopes and instantaneous contour plots are also presented for the SSME geometry. Relative merits of the two computational approaches are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 217-229
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three-dimensional, conjugate (solid/fluid) heat transfer analyses of new designs of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle/case and case field joints are described. The main focus was to predict the consequences of multiple rips (or debonds) in the ambient cure adhesive packed between the nozzle/case joint surfaces and the bond line between the mating field joint surfaces. The models calculate the transient temperature responses of the various materials neighboring postulated flow/leakpaths into, past, and out from the nozzle/case primary O-ring cavity and case field capture O-ring cavity. These results were used to assess if the design was failsafe (i.e., no potential O-ring erosion) and reusable (i.e., no excessive steel temperatures). The models are adaptions and extensions of the general purpose PHOENICS fluid dynamics code. A non-orthogonal coordinate system was employed and 11,592 control cells for the nozzle/case and 20,088 for the case field joints are used with non-uniform distribution. Physical properties of both fluid and solids are temperature dependent. A number of parametric studies were run for both joints with results showing temperature limits for reuse for the steel case on the nozzle joint being exceeded while the steel case temperatures for the field joint were not. O-ring temperatures for the nozzle joint predicted erosion while for the field joint they did not.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 179-191
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analysis of the flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) bearing no. 1 inlet cavity was completed in support of return-to-flight. With the incorporation of several design changes in the Phase 2 turbopump, rotordynamic stability of the pumps was enhanced, but the durability and life of the LOX-cooled bearings has decreased. During the post-Challenger SSME recertification, the causes of limited bearing durability were investigated. One topic addressed was the flow environment upstream of the pump-end bearing and the effect of seal exit swirl and a cavity anti-vortex rib on the bearing environment and life. The objective is to define the hydrodynamic environment upstream of the pump-end bearing and determine the effect of seal exit swirl and the anti-vortex rib on bearing inlet swirl. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric cavity flow with the computational domain extending from the seal exit to the bearing inlet. This domain was discretized with 22800 grid points. Boundary conditions were obtained from a 1-D model of the SSME coolant path. The inlet Mach number was 0.19 and the problem was solved with the CMINT code utilizing the Briley-McDonald/Beam-Warming algorithm with preconditioning to speed convergence at low Mach numbers. Three parametric cases with inlet swirl of 50 percent shaft speed (labyrinth seal), 20 percent shaft speed (damping seal), and no inlet swirl were considered. Computational results indicate large vortical flow structures in the cavity, with the labyrinth, damping, and no-swirl cases yielding bearing inlet swirl rates of 14, 10, and 9 percent of shaft speed, respectively. When these results were used as input to the SHABRETH bearing model, limited durability could not be explained by these small differences in swirl. Also, based on these results, a proposed design change for the cavity anti-vortex rib was not implemented by the SSME chief engineer.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 149-160
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of CFD activities in the Hypersonic Propulsion Branch is given. Elliptic and PNS codes that are being used for the simulation of hydrogen-air combusting flowfields for scramjet applications are discussed. Results of the computer codes are shown in comparison with those of the experiments where applicable. Two classes of experiments will be presented: parallel injection of hydrogen into vitiated supersonic air flow; and normal injection of hydrogen into supersonic crossflow of vitiated air.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 75-89
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The SPARK3D and SPARK3D-PNS computer programs were developed to model 3-D supersonic, chemically reacting flow-fields. The SPARK3D code is a full Navier-Stokes solver, and is suitable for use in scramjet combustors and other regions where recirculation may be present. The SPARK3D-PNS is a parabolized Navier-Stokes solver and provides an efficient means of calculating steady-state combustor far-fields and nozzles. Each code has a generalized chemistry package, making modeling of any chemically reacting flow possible. Research activities by the Langley group range from addressing fundamental theoretical issues to simulating problems of practical importance. Algorithmic development includes work on higher order and upwind spatial difference schemes. Direct numerical simulations employ these algorithms to address the fundamental issues of flow stability and transition, and the chemical reaction of supersonic mixing layers and jets. It is believed that this work will lend greater insight into phenomenological model development for simulating supersonic chemically reacting flows in practical combustors. Currently, the SPARK3D and SPARK3D-PNS codes are used to study problems of engineering interest, including various injector designs and 3-D combustor-nozzle configurations. Examples, which demonstrate the capabilities of each code are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 19-41
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  • 73
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is now known that Batchelor's trailing-line vortex is extremely unstable to small amplitude disturbances for swirl numbers in the neighborhood of 0.83. The results of numerical calculations are presented that show the response of the vortex in this range of swirl numbers to finite amplitude, temporal, helical disturbances. Phenomena observed include: (1) ejection of axial vorticity and momentum from the core resulting in the creation of secondary, separate vortices; (2) a great intensification of core axial vorticity and a weakening of core momentum; and (3) the production of azimuthal vorticity in the form of a tightly wrapped spiral wave. The second phenomenon eventually stablizes the vortex, which then smooths and gradually returns to an axisymmetric state. The calculations are mixed spectral-finite-difference, fourth-order accurate, and have been carried out at Reynolds numbers of 1000 to 2000. Some linearized results are also discussed in an attempt to explain the process of vortex intensification.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 489-494
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The long-term goal is to develop the capability to predict chemically-reacting, multi-stream nozzle and plume flow fields. Two basic Navier-Stokes solvers, including the widely used F-3D code, are upgraded to include several upwind difference schemes and portable chemistry packages. Current computational capabilities for solving equilibrium single-stream and multi-stream, frozen gas, and finite rate chemistry problems are described. A variety of complex nozzle and plume flows were computed. Solutions presented include axisymmetric plume flow for ideal and equilibrium air, 3-D NASP nozzle/afterbody flow, and an internal nozzle calculation comparing various finite-rate chemistry packages.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 2: Sessions 7-12; p 59-74
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The state-of-the-art in rotor blade drag prediction involves the use of two-dimensional airfoil tables to calculate the drag force on the blade. One of the most serious problems with the current methods is that they cannot be used for airfoils that have yet to be tested. Most of the drag prediction methods also do not take the Reynolds number or the rotational effects of the blade into account, raising doubts about the accuracy of the results. These problems are addressed with the development of an analytical method which includes the shape of airfoil, the effects of Reynolds number, and the rotational motion of the blade.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 459-472
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  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective of the research is to develop and validate accurate, user-oriented viscous CFD codes (with inviscid options) for three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic flows about arbitrary rotorcraft configurations. Unsteady, three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes codes are developed, adapted, and extended to rotor-body combinations. Flow solvers are coupled with zonal grid topologies, including rotating and nonrotating blocks. Special grid clustering and wave-fitting techniques were developed to capture low-level radiating acoustic waves. Significant progress was made in computing the propagation of acoustic waves due to the interaction of a concentrated vortex and a helicopter airfoil. The need for higher-order schemes was firmly established in relatively inexpensive two-dimensional calculations. In three dimensions, the number of grid points required to capture the low-level acoustic waves becomes very large, so that large supercomputer memory becomes essential. Good agreement was obtained between the numerical results obtained with a thin-layer Navier-Stokes code and experimental data from a model rotor. In addition, several nonrotating configurations that are sometimes proposed to simulate rotor blade tips in conventional wind tunnels were examined, and the complex flow around the radical tip shape of the world's fastest helicopter is under investigation. These studies demonstrate the flexibility and power of CFD to gain physical insight, study novel ideas, and examine various possibilities that might be difficult or impossible to set up in physical experiments. As a prelude to studies of rotor-body aerodynamic interactions, a preliminary grid topology and moving-interface strategy were developed. A new Euler/Navier-Stokes code using these techniques computes the vortical wake directly, rather than modeling it, as in most previous rotorcraft studies. Several hover cases were run for conventional and advanced-geometry blades. Numerical schemes using multi-zones and/or adaptive grids appear to be necessary to simulate the complex vortical flows in rotor wakes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 431-446
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective is developing CFD capabilities to obtain solutions for viscous flows about generic configurations of internally and externally carried stores. The emphasis is placed on the supersonic flow regime with extensions being made to the transonic regime. The project is broken into four steps: (1) Cavity flows for internal carriage configurations; (2) High angle of attack flows, which may be experienced during the separation of the stores: (3) Flows about a body near a flat plate for external carriage configurations; and (4) Flows about a body inside or in the proximity of a cavity. Three-dimensional unsteady cavity flow solutions are obtained by an explicit, MacCormack algorithm, EMCAV3, for open, close, and transitional cavities. High angle of attack flows past cylinders are solved by an implicit, upwind algorithm. All the results compare favorably with the experimental data. For flows about multiple body configurations, the Chimera embedding scheme is modified for finite-volume and multigrid algorithms, MaGGiE. Then a finite volume, implicit, upwind, multigrid Navier-Stokes solver which uses on overlapped/embedded and zonal grids, VUMXZ3, is developed from the CFL3D code. Supersonic flows past a cylinder near a flat plate are computed using this code. The results are compared with the experimental data. Currently the VUMXZ3 code is being modified to accomplish step 4 of this project. Wind tunnel experiments are also being conducted for validation purposes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 385-410
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Grid generation and Euler flow about fighter aircraft are described. A fighter aircraft geometry is specified by an area ruled fuselage with an internal duct, cranked delta wing or strake/wing combinations, canard and/or horizontal tail surfaces, and vertical tail surfaces. The initial step before grid generation and flow computation is the determination of a suitable grid topology. The external grid topology that has been applied is called a dual-block topology which is a patched C (exp 1) continuous multiple-block system where inner blocks cover the highly-swept part of a cranked wing or strake, rearward inner-part of the wing, and tail components. Outer-blocks cover the remainder of the fuselage, outer-part of the wing, canards and extend to the far field boundaries. The grid generation is based on transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian blending functions. This procedure has been applied to the Langley experimental fighter configuration and a modified F-18 configuration. Supersonic flow between Mach 1.3 and 2.5 and angles of attack between 0 degrees and 10 degrees have been computed with associated Euler solvers based on the finite-volume approach. When coupling geometric details such as boundary layer diverter regions, duct regions with inlets and outlets, or slots with the general external grid, imposing C (exp 1) continuity can be extremely tedious. The approach taken here is to patch blocks together at common interfaces where there is no grid continuity, but enforce conservation in the finite-volume solution. The key to this technique is how to obtain the information required for a conservative interface. The Ramshaw technique which automates the computation of proportional areas of two overlapping grids on a planar surface and is suitable for coding was used. Researchers generated internal duct grids for the Langley experimental fighter configuration independent of the external grid topology, with a conservative interface at the inlet and outlet.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 311-326
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Information on time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on streamfunction equations for unsteady incompressible flow, the streamfunction algorithm for unsteady incompressible flow, and a multigrid solver for the laminar implicit equations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 255-270
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The INS3D family of computational fluid dynamics computer codes is presented. These codes are used to as tools in developing and assessing algorithms for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for steady-state and unsteady flow problems. This work involves applying the codes to real-world problems involving complex three-dimensional geometries. The algorithms utilized include the method of pseudocompressibility including both central and upwind differencing, several types of artificial dissipation schemes, approximate factorization, and an implicit line-relaxation scheme. These codes have been validated using a wide range of problems including flow over a backward-facing step, driven cavity flow, flow through various types of ducts, and steady and unsteady flow over a circular cylinder. Many diverse flow applications have been solved using these codes including parts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, problems in naval hydrodynamics, low-speed aerodynamics, and biomedical fluid flows. The presentation details several of these, including the flow through a Space Shuttle Main Engine inducer, vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder, and flow through an artificial heart.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 223-237
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Presented here are several direct simulations of one 2-D second mode perturbation wave, superimposed upon a prescribed mean flow. Periodicity is assumed in the streamwise direction (Fourier) and the variables are expanded in Chebyshev series in the direction normal to the flat plate. The code is fully explicit and is time advanced with a 3rd order Runge-Kutta scheme. The second mode wave (R delta prime = 8000), interacts with itself to generate higher streamwise harmonics. Physical parameters are chosen to maximize the linear growth rate at the prescribed Reynolds number. Initial results indicate that the nonlinear processes begin in the critical layer region and are the result of the cubic interactions in the momentum equations, rather than due to the higher streamwise harmonics. Analysis of the various terms in the momentum equations combined with numerical experiments in which various modes are artificially suppressed, lead to the conclusion that asymptotic methods will produce the saturated state in one or two order of magnitude less computer time than that required by the direct numerical simulations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 167-181
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Information on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research and applications carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center is given in viewgraph form. The Langley CFD strategy, the five-year plan in CFD and flow physics, 3-block grid topology, the effect of a patching algorithm, F-18 surface flow, entropy and vorticity effects that improve accuracy of unsteady transonic small disturbance theory, and the effects of reduced frequency on first harmonic components of unsteady pressures due to airfoil pitching are among the topics covered.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference. Volume 1: Sessions 1-6; p 35-47
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A preliminary numerical study of transpiration cooling applied to a hypersonic configuration is presented. Air transpiration is applied to the NASA all-body configuration flying at an altitude of 30500 m with a Mach number of 10.3. It was found that the amount of heat disposal by convection is determined primarily by the local geometry of the aircraft for moderate rates of transpiration. This property implies that different areas of the aircraft where transpiration occurs interact weakly with each other. A methodology for quick assessments of the transpiration requirements for a given flight configuration is presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:186435 , NASA-CR-186435 , SU-JIAA-TR-92
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interactions between longitudinal vortices and accompanying waves considered are strongly nonlinear, in the sense that the mean-flow profile throughout the boundary layer is completely altered from its original undisturbed state. Nonlinear interactions between vortex flow and Tollmien-Schlichting waves are addressed first, and some analytical and computational properties are described. These include the possibility in the spatial-development case of a finite-distance break-up, inducing a singularity in the displacement thickness. Second, vortex/Rayleigh wave nonlinear interactions are considered for the compressible boundary-layer, along with certain special cases of interest and some possible solution properties. Both types, vortex/Tollmien-Schlichting and vortex/Rayleigh, are short-scale/long-scale interactions and they have potential applications to many flows at high Reynolds numbers. The strongly nonlinear nature is believed to make them very relevant to fully fledged transition to turbulence.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-181963 , ICASE-89-82 , NAS 1.26:181963
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  • 85
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Possible experimental facilities appropriate to a university environment that could make meaningful contributions to the solution of problems in hypersonic aerodynamics are investigated. Needs for the National Aerospace Plane and interplanetary flights with atmospheric aerobraking are used to scope the problem. Relevant events of the past two decades in universities and at the national laboratories are examined for their implications regarding both problems and prospects. Most striking is the emergence of computational fluid dynamics, which is viewed here as an equal partner with laboratory experimentation and flight test in relating theory with reality. Also significant are major advances in instrumentation and data processing methods, especially optical techniques. The direction of the study was guided by the concept of a companion program, i.e., the university effort should complement a major area of endeavor at NASA-Langley. Through this, both faculty and student participants gain a natural and effective working relationship. Existing and proposed major hypersonic aerodynamic facilities in industry and at the national laboratories are examined by type; hypersonic wind tunnels, arc-heated tunnels, shock tubes and tunnels, and ballistic ranges. Of these, the free piston tunnel and shock tube/tunnel are most appropriate for a university.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:186261 , NASA-CR-186261
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  • 86
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.5. The model had a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. A center fin and two outboard fins were mounted on the aft portion of the upper body. The outboard fins were rolled outboard 40 deg from the vertical. Elevon surfaces made up the trailing edges of the outboard fins, and body flaps were located on the upper and lower aft fuselage. The center fin pivoted about its midchord for yaw control. The model was longitudinally stable about the design center-of-gravity position at 54 percent of the body length. The configuration with undeflected longitudinal controls trimmed near 0 deg angle of attack at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0 where lift and lift-drag ratio were negative. Longitudinal trim was near the maximum lift-drag ratio (1.4) at Mach 4.5. The model was directionally stable over Mach number range except at angles of attack around 4 deg at M = 2.5. Pitch control deflection of more than -10 deg with either elevons or body flaps is needed to trim the model to angles of attack at which lift becomes positive. With increased control deflection, the lifting-body configuration should perform the assured crew return mission through the supersonic speed range.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-16627 , NAS 1.15:4136 , NASA-TM-4136
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  • 87