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  • AERODYNAMICS  (12,791)
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions; p 88
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact linear acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous pressure information along the span at the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DGLR Seventh European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum; 20 p
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Fluid dynamic principles are applied to airfoil stability and control problems, blood pump studies, and in relativistic kinematics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3334 , A-6140
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effect of a simulated glaze-ice accretion on the flowfield of a 3D wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semispan wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of a subsonic wind tunnel. The model has a NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced-wing geometry. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along three spanwise cuts on the model. Measurements on the centerline of the clean model compared favorably with theory and centerline measurements on the iced model compared well with measurements on a similar 2D model. The flow has the largest separation bubble at the model midspan with the smallest separation bubble occurring near the root and the wing tip.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-4042
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The new free-piston shock tunnel has been partially calibrated, and a range of operating conditions has been found. A large number of difficulties were encountered during the shake-down period, of which the ablation of various parts was the most severe. Solutions to these problems were found. The general principles of high-enthalpy simulation are outlined, and the parameter space covered by T5 is given. Examples of the operating data show that, with care, excellent repeatability may be obtained. The temporal uniformity of the reservoir pressure is very good, even at high enthalpy, because it is possible to operate at tailored-interface and tuned-piston conditions over the whole enthalpy range. Examples of heat transfer and Pitot-pressure measurements are also presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3943
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream has been experimentally characterized using a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center. The presented results include oil-flow and shadowgraph flow visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, boundary layer rake measurements, and Preston-tube skin-friction measurements. The design, construction, and operation of the model was found to be successful. Surface oil-flow patterns show that the jet-plume flow attaches to the afterbody surface at jet pressure ratios between 154 and 234. The oil flow also shows the pattern of lines where the jet flow separates from the ramp, apparently as a result of interaction of the jet-plume internal shock wave with the ramp boundary layer.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3915
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A study of the effect of spanwise variation on leading edge heat transfer is presented. Experimental and numerical results are given for a circular leading edge and for a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. It is demonstrated that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3070
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The nozzle exit flowfield was measured at two axial locations with a miniature five-hole probe. Measurements were taken from hub-to-tip, blade-to-blade at 21 radial locations and at two axial locations downstream of the nozzle trailing edge to resolve the flowfield accurately including the nozzle wake, secondary flow region, horseshoe vortex and losses. All three components of the velocity, stagnation pressure, static pressure, and pitch and yaw angles have been resolved very accurately. The wake data seems to indicate that the decay of the wake is faster than the wake of an isolated nozzle row. The cause of this is attributed to the presence of the rotor downstream. A distinct vortex core has been observed near the tip. The indications are that the horseshoe vortex and the passage vortex have merged to produce a single loss core region. Roughly a third of the blade height passage near the tip and a third of the blade height near the hub is dominated by secondary flow, passage vortex and the horseshoe vortex phenomena. Only the middle third of the nozzle behaves as per design. These and other data are presented, interpreted and synthesized to understand the nozzle flowfield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3326
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An uncoupled boundary layer algorithm was combined with an inviscid core flow algorithm to model flows within supersonic engine inlets. The inviscid flow algorithm that was used was the LArge Perturbation INlet Code (LAPIN). The boundary layer and inviscid core flow algorithms were formulated in different manners. The boundary layer algorithm was two dimensional and solved in nonconservation form, while the core flow algorithm was one dimensional and solved in conservation form. In order to interface the two codes, the following modifications were important. The coordinate system was set up to maintain the parabolic nature of the boundary layer algorithm while approaching the one dimensional core flow solution far from a wall. The pressure gradient used in the boundary layer equation was calculated using the core flow values and the boundary layer equations, so the boundary layer solution smoothly approached the core flow values far from the wall. Flaring was used for the advection terms perpendicular to the core flow to maintain the stability of the algorithm. With these modifications, the combined viscous/inviscid algorithm matched well experimental observations of pressure distributions with a supersonic inlet.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3083
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The unsteady aerodynamic gust response of a high solidity stator vane row is examined in terms of the fundamental gust modeling assumptions with particular attention given to the effects near an acoustic resonance. A series of experiments was performed with gusts generated by rotors comprised of perforated plates and airfoils. It is concluded that, for both the perforated plate and airfoil wake generated gusts, the unsteady pressure responses do not agree with the linear-theory gust predictions near an acoustic resonance. The effects of the acoustic resonance phenomena are clearly evident on the airfoil surface unsteady pressure responses. The transition of the measured lift coefficients across the acoustic resonance from the subresonant regime to the superresonant regime occurs in a simple linear fashion.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3074
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The advantages and design requirements of propulsion/airframe integration for high Mach number flight are studied in terms of the 3D sidewall compression scramjet inlet. The present work addresses in a parametric fashion the inviscid effects of leading edge sweep, sidewall compression, and inflow Mach number on the internal shock structure in terms of inlet compression and mass capture. The source of the Mach number invariance with leading edge sweep for a constant sidewall compression class of inlet is identified, and a previously undocumented spillage phenomenon in a constant effective wedge angle class of inlets is discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3099
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A study of the leeside flow characteristics of the Shuttle Orbiter is presented for a reentry flight condition. The flow is computed using a point-implicit, finite-volume scheme known as the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA). LAURA is a second-order accurate, laminar Navier-Stokes solver, incorporating finite-rate chemistry with a radiative equilibrium wall temperature distribution and finite-rate wall catalysis. The resulting computational solution is analyzed in terms of salient flow features and the surface quantities are compared with flight data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2951
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A solution procedure is presented which considerably improves the computational efficiency of the viscous-shock-layer technique, especially for long slender bodies. The 'predictor-corrector' procedure suggested for obtaining the shock shape beyond the nose region requires only a single global pass. The accuracy of the present method is demonstrated by comparison with globally iterated results over the entire body and with ground- and flight-test data. A good comparison of the results computed with the two methods is shown for different flowfield chemistry models and axisymmetric body shapes. The new procedure results in computer run times 1/3 to 1/2 of the times required for the full-body global iteration procedure. Further, the algebraic expressions used to specify the initial shock shape eliminate the need for a shock shape generated by external means and permit immediate introduction of the full viscous-shock-layer equations. Finally, the present method of solution for the VSL equations provides to the aerothermal designer a very efficient and accurate tool for detailed flowfield as well as future technology studies.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2897
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A broad-spectrum version of the NEQAIR code was modified to account for self-absorption and applied to AFE flowfields calculated by the LAURA code with a variety of kinetic models. The resulting radiative fluxes were obtained in a decoupled fashion from the flowfield solver along the vehicle's stagnation streamline. The radiative flux obtained was broken down by causative process to study the radiative structure of the AFE's flowfield for the various kinetic models. In addition, the radiative fluxes for several points on a typical AFE trajectory were analyzed to examine how the radiative structure changes as the vehicle completes its aeropass. Only two radiative processes dominated the stagnation radiative flux, and the flow field conditions near the wal were found to exert considerable influence over the radiative flux to the wall.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2970
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The linear stability of fully three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers formed over swept-wing configurations is investigated using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Configurations studied include a highly swept leading-edge model to be utilized for transition studies in the LARC Low-disturbance Mach 3.5 Pilot Tunnel. The model is a representation of the leading edge of a laminar flow control wing for the F-16XL aircraft. In addition, the region over a laminar flow control glove fitted on the midportion of an F-16XL wing was studied. For each configuration, estimates of the location of the onset of transition were computed using linear stability theory and the e exp N method. The effectiveness of suction in stabilizing the boundary layer over the F-16XL wing glove was also investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 912116
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Recently, the concept of the application of hybrid laminar flow to modern commercial transport aircraft was successfully flight tested on a Boeing 757 aircraft. In this limited demonstration, in which only part of the upper surface of the swept wing was designed for the attainment of laminar flow, significant local drag reduction was measured. This paper addresses the potential application of this technology to laminarize the external surface of large, modern turbofan engine nacelles which may comprise as much as 5-10 percent of the total wetted area of future commercial transports. A hybrid-laminar-flow-control (HLFC) pressure distribution is specified and the corresponding nacelle geometry is computed utilizing a predictor/corrector design method. Linear stability calculations are conducted to provide predictions of the extent of the laminar boundary layer. Performance studies are presented to determine potential benefits in terms of reduced fuel consumption.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 912114
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A low-speed wind tunnel test was completed in support of ongoing conceptual design studies of the Stopped Rotor/Disk rotorcraft concept. A one-fifth scale model was tested in the NASA Ames Low-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel #1 to evaluate the low-speed cruise performance. The primary test objective was to compare performance characteristics for three possible conceptual designs of the Stopped Rotor/Disk cruise configuration: the large hub fairing (disk) alone, the disk/extended blades configuration, and the disk/conventional wing configuration. Results showed that the disk/extended blades configuration was the most efficient in low-speed cruise. Other test objecives included making parametric changes by varying the geometry of the disk and by varying the extended blade incidence angles. Studies were also conducted to examine the aerodynamic interaction between the disk and a conventional wing. An examination was made into the effects of the disk on static longitudinal stability. The wake generated by the disk impinged on a T-tail of the model and thus degraded longitudinal stability. Alternative tail geometries are required in order to improve the concept's static stability.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-1067
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Hypersonic flows over cones and straight biconic configurations are calculated for a wide range of free stream conditions in which the gas behind the shock is treated as perfect. Effect of angle of attack and nose bluntness on these slender cones in air is studied extensively. The numerical procedures are based on the solution of complete Navier-Stokes equations at the nose section and parabolized Navier-Stokes equations further downstream. The flow field variables and surface quantities show significant differences when the angle of attack and nose bluntness are varied. The complete flow field is thoroughly analyzed with respect to velocity, temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles. The post shock flow field is studied in detail from the contour plots of Mach number, density, pressure, and temperature. The effect of nose bluntness for slender cones persists as far as 200 nose radii downstream.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0755
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A wind tunnel test was conducted on a flat plate at zero angle of attack with a rearward facing 2D cooling film injector nozzle. The freestream Mach number was 8 and the injector Mach number was 3. The freestream Reynolds number varied from 0.43 to 3.3 million per ft during the test, and the injector flow rate was such that the jet exit and freestream static pressures were matched. The analysis reported herein will focus on data obtained at a freestream Reynolds number of 0.85 million per ft. The data consists of heat-transfer measurements obtained upstream and downstream of the injector nozzle and flowfield surveys obtained downstream of the injector nozzle with a pitot, total temperature, hot-film anemometer and hot-wire anemometer probes. The flowfield surveys were made at stations 0.1 to 9 in. downstream of the injector nozzle from near the model surface to approximately 2 in above the model surface. The hot-film anemometer was used to define the fluctuations in the shear layer separating the flows. The hot-film results are integrated with conventional measurement techniques to obtain a more complete description of the complicated shear layer separating hypersonic and supersonic flows.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-5028
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Fluctuating wall-pressure measurements are made in shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions generated by sharp/unswept fins at angles of attack of 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 degrees at Mach 5. The experiment was conducted under approximately adiabatic wall temperature conditions. The mean and rms pressure distributions can be collapsed in conical coordinates. The wall-pressure signal near separation is intermittent for all angles of attack (16-28 deg) and is qualitatively similar to that measured in unswept flows. However, the shock frequencies are higher - about 5 kHz compared to 0.5-1 kHz. Over the range of sweepbacks examined, from 25-55 deg, the spectral content of the fluctuating pressures does not change. Thus, the increase in separation-shock frequency from 1 to 5 kHz occurs at lower interaction sweepback and is not a continuous process with increasing sweepback. Power spectra at the position of maximum rms in the intermittent region for interactions in different incoming boundary layers have the same center frequency. The maximum rms in the intermittent region correlates with interaction sweepback, not with overall inviscid pressure rise.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0748
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  • 21
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The present volume discusses the development history and basic concepts of laminar flow control, laminar flow flight experiments, subsonic laminar-flow airfoils, and a design philosophy for long-range laminar flow-control commercial transports with advanced supercritical airfoils. Also discussed are the relationship of wave-interaction theory to laminar flow control, supersonic laminar flow control, and the NASA-Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ; 417 p.
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  • 22
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In the last two years, effort was concentrated on: (1) surface modeling; (2) surface grid generation; and (3) 3-D flow space grid generation. The surface modeling shares the same objectives as the surface modeling in computer aided design (CAD), so software available in CAD can in principle be used for solid modeling. Unfortunately, however, the CAD software cannot be easily used in practice for grid generation purposes, because they are not designed to provide appropriate data base for grid generation. Therefore, we started developing a generalized surface modeling software from scratch, that provides the data base for the surface grid generation. Generating surface grid is an important step in generating a 3-D space for flow space. To generate a surface grid on a given surface representation, we developed a unique algorithm that works on any non-smooth surfaces. Once the surface grid is generated, a 3-D space can be generated. For this purpose, we also developed a new algorithm, which is a hybrid of the hyperbolic and the elliptic grid generation methods. With this hybrid method, orthogonality of the grid near the solid boundary can be easily achieved without introducing empirical fudge factors. Work to develop 2-D and 3-D grids for turbomachinery blade geometries was performed, and as an extension of this research we are planning to develop an adaptive grid procedure with an interactive grid environment.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Workshop on Grid Generation and Related Areas; p 121
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A two dimensional nonaxisymmetric Euler solution in a geometric representation of a jet engine configuration without blades is presented. The domain, including internal and external flow, is covered with a multiblock grid. To construct the grid, a domain decomposition technique is used to subdivide the domain and smooth grids are dimensioned and placed in each block. The grid contains 44 blocks which cover the external field, the inlet, bypass duct, core duct and nozzle of the nonaxisymmetric engine configuration. The geometry is symmetric about the meanline of the hub, but the grid is not since there is no symmetry condition applied to the grid between the two halves. With a symmetric grid at zero angle of attack, the measures of the solution would cancel exactly. With an asymmetric grid, the solution will not necessarily be symmetric and the lift coefficient will not necessarily be zero. Thus, grid asymmetry can be exploited to verify the resolution of the solution. The solution may be verified on the basis of five theoretical quantities: conservation of mass and energy, deviation of the lift coefficient from zero, deviation of the drag coefficient from zero, deviations from constant entropy, and deviations in the pressure distributions over the symmetric surfaces of the components. This technique is suitable for obtaining numerical solutions in complex geometries and provides a foundation for complete engine throughflow calculations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: CASI, Proceedings of the 3rd Canadian Symposium on Aerodynamics; p 186-193
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  • 24
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Wind-tunnel/flight correlation activities are reviewed to assure maximum effectiveness of the early experimental programs of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Topics included a status report of the NTF, the role of tunnel-to-tunnel correlation, a review of past flight correlation research and the resulting data base, the correlation potential of future flight vehicles, and an assessment of the role of computational fluid dynamics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CP-2225 , L-15368 , NAS 1.55:2225
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-4033
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes the computational work performed on the simulation of a 16-in shock-tunnel facility. The numerical problems encountered during the computation of these flows are discussed along with the validity of some approximations used, notably concerning the reduction of the problem into problems of smaller dimensionality. Quasi-1D simulations can be used to help design experiments, or to better understanding the characteristics of the facility. An application to the design of a nonintrusive diagnostic is shown. The multidimensional flow transients computed include the shock reflection at the end of the driven tube, the shock propagation down the nozzle, and the breaking of the main diaphragm.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-4029
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effect of compressibility on unsteady blade pressures is studied by solving the 3D Euler equations. The operation of the eight-bladed SR7L propfan at 4.75 deg angle of attack was considered. Euler solutions were obtained for three Mach numbers, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 and the predicted blade pressure waveforms were compared with flight data. In general, the effect of Mach number on pressure waveforms are correctly predicted. The change in pressure waveforms are minimal when the Mach number is increased from 0.6 to 0.7. Increasing the Mach number from 0.7 to 0.8 produces significant changes in predicted pressure levels. The predicted amplitudes, however, differ from measurements at some transducer locations. Also the predicted appearance of a shock in the highly loaded portion of the blade revolution is not indicated by the measurements. At all the three Mach numbers, the measured (installed propfan) pressure waveforms show a relative phase lag compared to the computed (propfan alone) waveforms due to installation effects. Measured waveforms in the blade tip region show nonlinear variations which are not captured by the present numerical procedure.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3774
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental research program providing basic knowledge and establishing new data on the heat transfer in swept shock wave/boundary-layer interactions is described. An equilibrium turbulent boundary-layer on a flat plate is subjected to impingement by swept planar shock waves generated by a sharp fin. Five different interactions with fin angles ranging from 10 to 20 deg at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 4.0 produce a variety of interaction strengths from weak to very strong. A foil heater generates a uniform heat flux over the flat plate surface and miniature thin-film-resistance sensors mounted on it are used to measure the local surface temperature. The heat convection equation is then solved for the heat transfer distribution within an interaction, yielding a total uncertainty of about +/- 10 percent. These experimental data are compared with the results of numerical Navier-Stokes solutions which employ a kappa-epsilon turbulence model. Finally, a simplified form of the peak heat transfer correlation for fin interactions is suggested.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3665
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Compressible, subsonic flow through a diffusing S-duct has been experimentally investigated. Benchmark aerodynamic data are presented for flow through a representative S-duct configuration. The collected data would be beneficial to aircraft inlet designers and is suitable for the validation of computational codes. Measurements of the 3D velocity field and total and static pressures were obtained at five cross-sectional planes. Surface static pressures and flow visualization also helped to reveal flowfield characteristics. All reported tests were conducted with an inlet centerline Mach number of 0.6 and a Reynolds number, based on the inlet centerline velocity and duct inlet diameter, of 2.6 x 10 exp 6. The results show that a large region of streamwise flow separation occurred within the duct. Transverse velocity components indicate that the duct curvature induces strong pressure driven secondary flows, which evolve into a large pair of counter-rotating vortices. These vortices convect the low momentum fluid of the boundary layer toward the center of the duct, degrading both the uniformity and magnitude of the total pressure profile.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3622
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This study presents a numerical method for solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady, viscous flow through multiple turbomachinery blade rows. The method solves the fully 3D Navier-Stokes equations with an implicit scheme which is based on a control volume approach. A two-equation turbulence model with a low Reynolds number modification is employed. A third-order accurate upwinding scheme is used to approximate convection terms, while a second order accurate central difference scheme is used for the discretization of viscous terms. A second-order accurate scheme is employed for the temporal discretization. The numerical method is applied to study the unsteady flowfield of the High Pressure Fuel side Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The stage calculation is performed by coupling the stator and the rotor flowfields at each time step through an over-laid grid. Numerical results for the complete geometry with the vane trailing edge cutback are presented and compared with the available experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3211
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results are shown for a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis of both the flow and the surface heat transfer for turbine applications. Heat transfer comparisons are made with the experimental shock-tunnel data of Dunn and Kim, and with the data of Blair for the rotor of the large scale rotating turbine. The analysis was done using the steady-state, three-dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code developed by Chima, which uses a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme with implicit residual smoothing. An algebraic mixing length turbulence model is used to calculate turbulent eddy viscosity. The variation in heat transfer due to variations in grid parameters is examined. The effects of rotation, tip clearance, and inlet boundary layer thickness variation on the predicted blade and endwall heat transfer are examined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3068
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The present analysis of the heat-transfer characteristics of a family of viscous-optimized, 60 m-long waverider hypersonic vehicles gives attention to the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and to how the transition affects aerodynamic heating distributions over the waverider surface. Two different constant-dynamic-pressure flight trajectories are considered, at 0.2 and 1.0 freestream atmospheres. For Mach numbers below 10, it is found that passive radiative cooling of the surface is sufficient. The degree of leading-edge bluntness required by aerodynamic heating constraints does not significantly degrade the aerodynamic performance of these waveriders.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2920
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A full-scale F/A-18 was tested in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center to measure the effectiveness of pneumatic forebody vortex control devices. By altering the forebody vortex flow, yaw control can be maintained to angles of attack greater than 50 deg. Two forebody vortex control devices were tested: a discrete circular jet and a tangential slot. The tests were conducted for angles of attack between 25 and 50 deg, and angles of sideslip from 0 to +/- 15 deg. The Reynolds number based on wing mean aerodynamic chord ranged from 4.5 x 10 exp 6 to 12.0 x 10 exp 6. The time-averaged side forces and yawing moments, along with both time-averaged and time-dependent pressures on the forebody of the aircraft are presented here for various configurations. Of particular interest was the results that the tangential slot blowing had a greater effect on the yawing moment than the discrete circular jet. Additionally, it was found that blowing very close to the radome apex was not as effective as blowing slightly farther aft on the radome, and that a 16-inch slot was more effective than either an 8- or 48-inch long slot.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2674
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effectiveness of several passive control techniques on shock-induced boundary-layer separation at hypersonic speed was investigated. Two approaches for alleviating the turbulent separation losses were examined: porous surface mass transfer and surface grooving. A total of four perforated surfaces with varying porosities were evaluated, and three groove orientations with respect to the freestream direction were studied. A comparison of the results from passive control techniques with those from an 'uncontrolled' shock impingement showed that the porous surface with the greatest porosity provided the greatest reduction in the pressure rise across the oblique shock wave. The grooved surface tested were found to be not effective; each of the grooved configurations examined increased the peak pressure value.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2725
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Rapid prediction of aerodynamic coefficients is necessary in the early design stages of launch vehicles. One way to do this is by using the transonic full potential code, TranAir. This paper discusses the application of TranAir on launch vehicles with boattails at transonic Mach numbers, to determine aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distributions along the body. Other methods are not readily available for determination of the latter for the purpose of preliminary design. The results are presented showing some capabilities and limitations of TranAir for aerodynamic prediction of launch vehicles. The predictions for TranAir are compared with wind tunnel data for two different configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2656
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results of an experimental investigation of a symmetric crossing shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction are presented for a Mach number of 3.44 and deflections angles of 2, 6, 8 and 9 deg. The interaction strengths vary from weak to strong enough to cause a large region of separated flow. Measured quantities include surface static pressure and flowfield Pitot pressures. Pitot profiles in the plane of symmetry through the interaction region are shown for various deflection angles. Oil flow visualization and the results of a trace gas streamline tracking technique are also presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2634
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents an overview of high angle-of-attack tests of a full-scale F/A-18 in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California. A production aircraft was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18 to 50 deg and at wind speeds of up to 100 knots. These tests had three primary test objectives. Pneumatic and mechanical forebody flow control devices were tested at full-scale and shown to produce significant yawing moments for lateral control of the aircraft at high angles of attack. Mass flow requirements for the pneumatic system were found to scale with freestream density and speed rather than freestream dynamic pressure. Detailed measurements of the pressures buffeting the vertical tail were made and spatial variations in the buffeting frequency were found. The LEX fence was found to have a significant effect on the frequency distribution on the outboard surface of the vertical fin. In addition to the above measurements, an extensive set of data was acquired for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes and for comparison with flight test and small-scale wind tunnel test results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2676
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Small surface-mounted vortex generators were investigated as means for the control of a boundary-layer separation on a 2D single-flap three-element high-lift system at near-flight Reynolds numbers and in landing configurations. Wind-tunnel results obtained for small vane-type vortex generators mounted on a multielement airfoil showed that vortex generators as small as 0.18 percent of total chord can effectively reduce or eliminate boundary-layer separation on the flap at approach conditions. It was found that both the outerrotating and the corotating streamwise vortices were effective in reducing flow separation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2636
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes the application of a three-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes code to perform design and analysis of the reengine Boeing 727-100 center engine inlet S duct. This computer code is shown to be cost effective, accurate and easy to use to design the optimal S duct geometries, predict its aerodynamic performance and provide the detailed flowfield information.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-1221
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Secondary instability mechanisms in compressible, axisymmetric boundary layers are analyzed using spectrally-accurate mean-flow and stability codes. Results show that subharmonic disturbances are the most dangerous secondary disturbances in an environment with a low to moderate intensity of the primary disturbance. The relation between spatial and temporal analyses of the secondary disturbance is explored at Mach 1.6 along a flat plate and Mach 6.8 along a cone. Spatial direct numerical simulations are utilized to confirm the quantitative predictions from spatial secondary instability theory.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0743
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Temporal direct numerical simulation of laminar breakdown via subharmonic secondary instability in high-speed axisymmetric boundary layers has been accomplished using a highly accurate, fully explicit algorithm which combines spectral collocation and high-order compact-difference techniques. Numerical test cases confirm that subharmonic secondary instability is confirmed to be a viable path to transition in high-speed boundary-layer flow. Secondary instability is shown to account for peaks in the Reynolds stresses at or near the critical layer which are not possible from the second-mode primary instability alone. Reynolds stresses spatially reconstructed from the temporal model via the Gaster transformation show a 'spreading angle' of about 12 deg, in qualitative agreement with experimental findings. The rate of broadening of the Reynolds stress peak is a strongly nonlinear phenomenon which cannot be reproduced by secondary instability theory.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0742
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Computational predictions of ice accretion on flying aircraft most commonly rely on modeling in 2D. These 2D methods treat an aircraft geometry either as wing-like with infinite span, or as an axisymmetric body. Recently, fully 3D methods have been introduced that model an aircraft's true 3D shape. Because 3D methods are more computationally expensive than 2D methods, 2D methods continue to be widely used. However, a 3D method allows investigation of whether it is valid to continue applying 2D methods to a finite wing. The extent of disagreement between LEWICE, a 2D method, and LEWICE3D, a 3D method, in calculating local collection efficiencies at the leading edge of finite wings is investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0645
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The results of an experimental investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer are presented. Measurements of secondary velocity in the crossplane are used to characterize the vortex array structure. Measurements in the crossplane at two streamwise locations characterize the influence of interactions among the vortices on the array structure when the initial spacing between vortices is varied. Evidence of the merging of counter-rotating cores is found in embedded arrays of closely spaced vortices. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed from the experimental results. This model is based on the structure of the two dimensional Ossen vortex. The decay of vortex circulation due to the merging of the cores is correlated with the crossplane gradient in streamwise vorticity occurring between an embedded vortex and its adjacent counter-rotating neighbors.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0551
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Numerical experiments for the SONIC schemes on 2D inviscid, compressible, steady, and unsteady problems are presented. These schemes belong to a new class of uniformly second-order accurate nonoscillatory schemes introduced by Huynh, with the well known UNO2 scheme of Harten and Osher being the most 'diffusive' in this class. The SONIC schemes can also be considered as uniformly second order accurate extensions of the popular TVD schemes. For simplicity, a MUSCL approach for spatial discretization and a Runge-Kutta method for time integration are used. Test problems include steady oblique shock reflection and the well known unsteady double Mach reflection problem. Results confirm that the SONIC schemes are more accurate than their TVD counterparts.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0421
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper is an attempt to address the impact of a class of unsteady flows on the life and performance of turbomachinery blading. These class of flows to be investigated are those whose characteristic frequency is an integral multiple of rotor shaft speed. Analysis of data recorded downstream of a compressor and turbine rotor will reveal that this class of flows can be highly three-dimensional and may lead to the generation of secondary flows within downstream blading. By explicitly accounting for these unsteady flows in the design of turbomachinery blading for multistage applications, it may be possible to bring about gains in performance and blade life.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0149
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0414
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results are presented of an experimental study aimed at revealing the origin of the asymmetric mean flow that occurs on pointed bodies of revolution at moderate-to-high angles of attack. The placement of a small fixed disturbance (a minute spherical bead) on a very thin wire at various locations in the flow near the tip of the model is shown to provoke the same range of behavior of the asymmetric flow that was produced earlier by use of a controlled retractable wire protuberance, here without touching or altering the tip at all. Results remain consistent with the presence of a convective instability mechanism, and demonstrate the potential for a precise mapping of the body's receptivity to fixed disturbances in the flowfield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0408
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Incompressible viscous turbulent flows over single- and multiple-element airfoils are numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm uses the method of pseudocompressibility with an upwind-differencing scheme for the convective fluxes and an implicit line-relaxation scheme to study high-lift take-off and landing configurations and to compute lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil. The approach used for multiple-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared: a patched system of grids and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface-pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0405
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) experiment underway at NASA Ames Research Center simulates the National Aerospace Plane propulsive jet-plume flow. Recently, limited experimental data has become available from an experiment with a generic nozzle/afterbody model in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The present paper presents full three-dimensional solutions obtained with the implicit Navier-Stokes solver, FL3D, for the baseline model and a version of the model with side extensions. Analysis of the computed flow clearly shows the complex 3-D nature of the flow, critical flow features, and the effect of side extensions on the plume flow development. Flow schematics appropriate for the conditions tested are presented for the baseline model and the model with side extensions. The computed results show excellent agreement with experimental shadowgraph and with surface pressure measurements. The computed and experimental surface oil-flows show the same features but may be improved by appropriate turbulence modeling.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0387
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A new, simple method is described for measuring and visualizing air flows. The method involves projecting a small heated metal pellet through the air at a speed greater than the flow. The pellet burns as it moves through the air and leaves a wake of very fine, visible, metal oxide particles. The position of this visible smoke trail is then photographed at a sequence of times. The displacement of the trail can be used to provide a plot of the normal component of velocity as a function of distance. Examples are given for very low speed thermal convection (less than about 1 m/sec) and low speed flow over airfoils and cylinders (less than about 10 m/sec). Comparisons of the method to pulsed smoke-wire, spark-tracer and laser fluorescence methods, which give similar information, are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0384
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental investigation was conducted in a water tunnel to identify the effects of apex blowing on two delta-wing models undergoing constant pitch-rate motion. One wing was of 60-degree sweep and the other was of 76-degree sweep. Flow visualization methods were utilized to determine vortex burst locations for a wide range of pitch-up (nose up) and plunge (nose down) rates, apex jet strengths, and blowing directions. Results indicate that blowing along the 60-degree wing vortex core or along the 76-degree wing centerline results in a notable improvement in vortex behavior under both static and dynamic conditions. The results are most dramatic during dynamic plunging (nose down) conditions, where blowing resulted in the reformation of vortices with significant length.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0407
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The interaction between a shock wave and a supersonic streamwise vortex is a fundamental fluid-dynamics problem with numerous practical applications. This paper describes an experimental study of this phenomenon. In particular, supersonic streamwise vortices of varying strength and Mach number were generated and measured using five-hole and total-temperature probes. In addition, the interactions between a vortex and either an oblique or a normal shock wave were visualized using schlieren and planar-laser-scattering techniques. The mean-flow measurements show both similarities and differences between the supersonic streamwise vortex and its incompressible counterpart, while the flow-visualization results show that the shock/vortex interaction is always unsteady and that, under certain conditions, the vortex can burst. The conditions necessary for supersonic vortex breakdown are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0315
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code is used to numerically simulate the flow through a translating strut scramjet inlet. The inlet has variable geometry for efficient operation over a wide speed range. Overall flow-field features such as the corner flow, topwall separation, shockwave coalescence, cowl pressure increase, and flow distortion at the throat are investigated. Comparisons are made with experimental results to provide for the assessment of the present analysis. Effects of boundary-layer ingestion on the overall flow features are also investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0270
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The present paper addresses the applicability of the basic concept of waveriding at high altitudes, and the extent to which the large viscous forces degrade the aerodynamic performance of waveriders. The waverider under consideration was designed using a continuum flow methodology. It is shown that the lift-to-drag ratio of high-altitude/high-Knudsen-number waveriders can be expected to be significantly lower than their low altitude/low Knudsen number counterparts. The aerodynamic performance of a representative waverider which was optimized for a 90-km, Mach-25 application is studied for altitudes ranging from 97 km to 145 km and incidence angles of 0 to 30 deg. Typical values of the lift-to-drag ratio were computed to be in the range of 0 to 0.3. Friction forces are mostly responsible for this poor performance. Friction forces account for more than 93 percent of the drag and significantly reduce lift.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0306
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: In the winter of 1989-90, an icing research flight project was conducted to obtain swept wing ice accretion data. Utilizing the NASA Lewis Research Center's DHC-6 DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, research flights were made into known icing conditions in Northeastern Ohio. The icing cloud environment and aircraft flight data were measured and recorded by an onboard data acquisition system. Upon entry into the icing environment, a 24 inch span, 15 inch chord NACA 0012 airfoil was extended from the aircraft and set to the desired sweep angle. After the growth of a well defined ice shape, the airfoil was retracted into the aircraft cabin for ice shape documentation. The ice accretions were recorded by ice tracings and photographs. Ice accretions were mostly of the glaze type and exhibited scalloping. The ice was accreted at sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees. A 3-D ice accretion prediction code was used to predict ice profiles for five selected flight test runs, which include sweep angle of zero, 30, and 45 degrees. The code's roughness input parameter was adjusted for best agreement. A simple procedure was added to the code to account for 3-D ice scalloping effects. The predicted ice profiles are compared to their respective flight test counterparts. This is the first attempt to predict ice profiles on swept wings with significant scalloped ice formations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0043
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: For single sweep parabolized Navier-Stokes solvers, the streamwise pressure gradient must be modified in the subsonic region to eliminate numerical instabilities. The accuracy of this modification on the solution of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations with Vigneron's technique is shown to depend on how the numerical approximation of the pressure gradient is formed. A simple test case of supersonic laminar flow over a flat plate is computed with two different numerical methods for solving the PNS equations. Significant errors in the temperature profile and skin friction coefficient are demonstrated using a fully conservative differencing treatment of Vigneron's splitting for the pressure gradient typically used in parabolized Navier-Stokes solvers. The physical reason for this error is discussed. An alternate formulation is demonstrated which minimizes these errors.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0189
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A technique for the evaluation of aerodynamic drag from flowfield solutions based on the Euler equations is discussed. The technique is limited to steady attached flows around three-dimensional configurations in the absence of active systems such as surface blowing/suction and propulsion. It allows the decomposition of the total drag into induced drag and wave drag and, consequently, it provides more information on the drag sources than the conventional surface-pressure integration technique. The induced drag is obtained from the integration of the kinetic energy (per unit distance) of the trailing vortex system on a wake plane and the wave drag is obtained from the integration of the entropy production on a plane just downstream of the shocks. The drag-evaluation technique is applied to three-dimensional flowfield solutions for the ONERA M6 wing as well as an aspect-ratio-7 wing with an elliptic spanwise chord distribution and an NACA-0012 section shape. Comparisons between the drag obtained with the present technique and the drag based on the integration of surface pressures are presented for two Euler codes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0169
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A highly efficient numerical method is developed for three-dimensional, periodic, vortical flows around a cascade of loaded airfoils. The method linearizes Euler's equations about the mean flow of the cascade and thus fully accounts for the effects of distortion of the vortical disturbances as they propogate and interact with the cascade mean flow. The numerical scheme is based on splitting the unsteady velocity into vortical and potential parts. The latter is governed by a non-constant coefficient inhomogeneous convective wave equation. A new and computationally suitable out-flow conditions are derived and avoid the difficulties associated with the singular velocity downstream. Solutions were obtained in the frequency domain by using a body-fitted coordinate system. Results are presented to demonstrate the effects of the out-flow boundary conditions, cascade spacing, mean blade loading and gust upstream conditions on the aerodynamics response and unsteady pressure field of a cascade.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0146
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A computational simulation of a transonic wind tunnel test section with longitudinally slotted walls is described. This nonlinear slot model includes dynamic-pressure effects and a plenum pressure constraint. The simulation method developed is found to be a useful tool for analyzing the nature of the flowfield that exists in a longitudinally slotted transonic test section. Results obtained from the discrete-slot model are similar to those of a homogeneous model when a plenum pressure coefficient of zero is utilized, indicating little effect of slot discreteness with the transport aircraft models examined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0032
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The flow around blunt trailing edge airfoils was studied by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure combines a grid around the airfoil with a second grid for the wake so that the time advancement over the domain is fully implicit. This is not only very efficient for the algorithm but also allows implicit solutions of a one equation turbulence model appropriate for both boundary layers and wakes. An algebraic and two one-equation turbulence models are tested for a blunt RAE 2822 airfoil section and detailed comparisons with experimental data are presented in the trailing edge region.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0024
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents a computational investigation of a tangential slot blowing concept for generating lateral control forces on an aircraft fuselage forebody. The effects of varying both the jet width and jet exit velocity for a fixed location slot are analyzed. This work is aimed at aiding researchers in designing future experimental and computational models of tangential slot blowing. The primary influence on the resulting side force of the forebody is seen to be the jet mass flow rate. This influence is sensitive to different combinations of slot widths and jet velocities over the range of variables considered. Both an actuator plane and an overset grid technique are used to model the tangential slot. The overset method successfully resolves the details of the actual slot geometry, extending the generality of the numerical method. The actuator plane concept predicts side forces similar to those produced by resolving the actual slot geometry.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0020
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Tests are performed to determine the effects of impinging oscillating shocks of different frequencies on a 15 deg downstream angled, underexpanded, sonic helium jet injected into a supersonic airflow. Information on mixing, penetration, total pressure loss, and turbulence structure from these tests is employed to estimate mixing control achieved by adding an oscillating shock to the helium injection flow field. The principal result of this study is that impingement of an oscillating shock on a high-speed shear layer can be utilized to control the rate of mixing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-5091
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The results of a numerical investigation to predict the flow field including wakes and mixing in axial-flow compressor rotors are presented. The wake behavior in a moderately loaded compressor rotor is studied numerically using a 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes solver with a high Reynolds number form of a turbulence model. The equations are solved using a time dependent implicit technique. The agreement between the measured data and the predictions is good; including the blade boundary-layer profiles, wake mean-velocity profiles, and decay. The ability of the pseudocompressibility scheme to predict the entire flow field including the near and far wake profiles and its decay characteristics, effect of loading, and the viscous losses of a 3D rotor flow field are demonstrated. The mixing in the downstream regions away from the hub and annulus walls is dominated by wake diffusion. In regions away from the walls the radial mixing is predominantly caused by the transport of mass, momentum, and energy by the radial component of velocity in the wake.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 91-GT-222
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The advancement of high-speed axial-flow multistage compressors is impeded by a lack of detailed flow-field information. Recent development in compressor flow modeling and numerical simulation have the potential to provide needed information in a timely manner. The development of a computer program is described to solve the viscous form of the average-passage equation system for multistage turbomachinery. Programming issues such as in-core versus out-of-core data storage and CPU utilization (parallelization, vectorization, and chaining) are addressed. Code performance is evaluated through the simulation of the first four stages of a five-stage, high-speed, axial-flow compressor. The second part addresses the flow physics which can be obtained from the numerical simulation. In particular, an examination of the endwall flow structure is made, and its impact on blockage distribution assessed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 91-GT-272
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A study demonstrating that flows inside transition ducts with unusual geometry can be analyzed by employing proper selections of a Navier-Stokes code, grid topology, and turbulence modeling is presented. Based on comparison between existing experimental data and the computed results for the same configurations, reasonable agreements were obtained for wall static pressure in the transition duct. Static pressure comparisons in the supersonic nozzle section were excellent, as well as agreement between computed and measured mass flow and thrust performance.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3342
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The estimation and minimization of drag-due-to-lift at supersonic speeds has been examined in this study. Correlations of theory with experimental data are used to assess the applicability and limitations of the linearized theory. The role of leading-edge thrust and the use of twist and camber to develop distributed thrust are also discussed. A semiempirical design and estimation method which takes into account the shortcomings of the linear theory is presented. The use of this method will allow the design of more nearly optimum lifting surfaces and provide an accurate prediction of their level of performance. A preliminary examination is made of the use of an Euler code for estimation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a twisted and cambered wing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3302
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The data show that the HL-20 is longitudinally and laterally stable over the test range from Mach 10 to 0.2. At hypersonic speeds it has a trimmed lift/drag ratio of 1.4. This values gives the vehicle a cross range capability similar to that of the Space Shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed lift/drag ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape, increased the maximum trimmed L/D to 4.3. Preliminary evaluation of configuration modifications (the HL-20A series), indicates that trim at higher values of lift at hypersonic speeds could be achieved with an L/D of about 1.0. In the supersonic range, the lift and directional stability characteristics were improved. The untrimmed subsonic L/D was increased to 5.8 with airfoil fins.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3215
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The paper concentrates on the computational analysis of both the Tollmien-Schlichting and crossflow-type instabilities using the results of a boundary-layer transition flight experiment on a smooth swept test surface. In addition, the effect of nonadiabatic wall conditions is analyzed using the measured surface temperature distribution on the boundary-layer development and stability growth. The computational methods utilized in analyzing the boundary-layer stability characteristics are discussed: one approach analyzes the Tollmien-Schlichting and crossflow instabilities independently with maximum Tollmien-Schlichting n-factors near nine and maximum crossflow n-factors near six at transition onset for separate cases, while the second approach analyzes the instabilities for maximum growth regardless of the type. As much as a 27-percent increase in n-factor is found at transition onset due to an increased Tollmien-Schlichting instability.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3282
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The aerothermodynamic environments of manned spacraft aerobraking in the Martian and earth atmospheres are evaluated. Thermal performance of aerobrake concepts are examined for current cryogenic-aerobrake and advanced propulsion missions entailing three different modes of aerobraking: (1) aerocapture into an orbit about Mars, (2) descent and landing at Mars, and (3) Mars return direct entry at earth. Analyses for these vehicles and modes included both radiative and convective heating, where radiative heating is shown to be a significant portion of the total stagnation point heating induced on the vehicle. A comprehensive parametric study of the effects of ballistic coefficient, nose radius, entry velocity, and L/D on stagnation point heating is described. Optimal nose radii for ranges of ballistic coefficient and entry velocity are determined. The peak heating rates are shown to be 83 W/sq cm and 90 W/sq cm for a low and high L/D Mars transfer vehicle configuration, respectively. Heating profiles for these vehicles using boundary layer techniques show that a high L/D shape will result in a smaller high-temperature region provided the flow is laminar. An examination of a crew return vehicle for a Mars return direct entry trajectory shows that the thermal protection for this aerobrake will require an ablative material for heat rejection due to the large heating rates (about 1 kW/sq cm).
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-2872
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The desire to enhance the controllability of fighter aircraft at high angles of attack, particularly yaw control, has fostered an interest in both vectored thrust and active control of forebody vortices. This paper reviews several methods of forebody vortex control that have been investigated with water and wind tunnel tests of both generic and actual fighter configurations. The methods investigated include pneumatic or blowing techniques using surface-mounted jets and slots, surface suction, variable-height deployable strakes, and rotatable tip strakes. Flow visualization, and force and moment measurements have shown that all of the methods are effective in manipulating the forebody vortices over a wide range of angles of attack and sideslip, primarily through control over flow separation on the surface of the forebody. All are most effective when applied near the forebody tip. The advantages and limitations of the various methods are reviewed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 901851
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effectiveness of two types of hypersonic decelerators are computationally examined: mechanically deployable flares and inflatable ballutes. CFD is used to predict the flowfield around a solid rocket motor (SRM) with a deployed decelerator. The computations are performed with an ideal gas solver using an effective specific heat ratio of 1.15. The surface pressure coefficients, the drag, and the extent of the compression corner separation zone predicted by the ideal gas solver compare well with those predicted by the nonequilibrium solver. The ideal gas solver is computationally inexpensive and is shown to be well suited for preliminary design studies. The computed solutions are used to determine the size and shape of the decelerator that are required to achieve a drag coefficient of 5 in order to assure that the SRM will splash down in the Pacific Ocean. Heat transfer rates to the SRM and the decelerators are predicted to estimate the amount of thermal protection required.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3303
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental and computational study is carried out to investigate the dominant physical factors of 2D parallel blade-vortex interaction (BVI) and its noise generation. A shock tube was used to generate a starting vortex which interacted with a target airfoil. Double-exposed holographic interferometry and airfoil surface pressure measurements were employed to obtain quantitative data during the BVI. As a numerical approach, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, with a multizonal grid, was also used to resolve the phenomena occuring in the BVI, especially in the head-on collision case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-3277
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Steady state measurements have been performed on a propellar and a wing in a tractor configuration, to investigate the consequences of mutual interference on overall performance. For certain geometries wing lift is found to be enhanced, and wing drag to be decreased. The unsteady nature of the propeller-wing aerodynamic interaction has been studied using flow visualization. Results obtained indicate that the tip vortex is severed at the wing leading edge, the severed tip vortex filaments shear in a spanwise direction relative to one another, and these displaced filaments deform to reconnect at the trailing edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SAE PAPER 910998
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The isolated and interdisciplinary problems of unsteady fluid dynamics and rigid-body dynamics and control of delta wings with and without leading-edge flap oscillation are considered. For the fluid dynamics problem, the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which are written relative to a moving frame of reference, are solved along with the unsteady, linearized, Navier-displacement (ND) equations. The NS equations are solved for the flowfield using an implicit finite-volume scheme. The ND equations are solved for the grid deformation, if the leading-edge flaps oscillate, using an ADI scheme. For the dynamics and control problem, the Euler equation of rigid-body rolling motion for a wing and its flaps are solved interactively with the fluid dynamics equations for the wing-rock motion and subsequently for its control. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used to explicitly integrate the dynamics equation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1796
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  • 75
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A compressibility modification is developed for k-omega (Wilcox, 1988) and k-epsilon (Jones and Launder, 1972) models, that is similar to those of Sarkar et al. (1989) and Zeman (1990). Results of the perturbation solution for the compressible wall layer demonstrate why the Sarkar and Zeman terms yield inaccurate skin friction for the flat-plate boundary layer. A new compressibility term is developed which permits accurate predictions of the compressible mixing layer, flat-plate boundary layer, and shock separated flows.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1785
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A second-order differential Reynolds Stress turbulence model has been applied to the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for the study of supersonic flows undergoing hydrogen-air chemical reactions. An assumed Beta Probability Density Function is applied to account for the chemical source terms in the conservation equations. An algebraic Reynolds Flux model is used for the fluctuating density-velocity as well as the species mass fraction-velocity correlations. The variances of temperature and species fluctuations are also modelled using an algebraic flux technique. A seven-species, seven-reaction finite rate chemistry mechanism is used to simulate the combustion processes. The resulting formulation is validated by comparison with experimental data on reacting supersonic axisymmetric jets. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the effect of chemical reaction on the turbulence is significant.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1786
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A sequence of steps that permits prediction of some of the characteristics of the pressure field beneath a fluctuating shock wave from knowledge of the oncoming turbulent boundary layer is presented. The theory first predicts the power spectrum and pdf of the position and velocity of the shock wave, which are then used to obtain the shock frequency distribution, and the pdf of the pressure field, as a function of position within the interaction region. To test the validity of the crucial assumption of linearity, the indicial response of a normal shock is calculated from numerical simulation. This indicial response, after being fit by a simple relaxation model, is used to predict the shock position and velocity spectra, along with the shock passage frequency distribution. The low frequency portion of the shock spectra, where most of the energy is concentrated, is satisfactorily predicted by this method.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1777
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  • 78
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Temporal linear stability of a compressible swirling axisymmetric jet is considered. It is found that with the addition of a modest amount of swirl, instability growth rates are substantially increased. Additionally, rotating jets are found to be highly unstable for disturbances with high aximuthal wave numbers. Such disturbances are absent for the case of non-swirling jets. Most importantly, it is found that the stabilizing influence of increasing Mach number is diminished with the introduction of swirl to the jet flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1770
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The possible profiles of high subsonic speed airfoils with extensive regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) are explored, on the bases of calculations which suggest that high subsonic Mach number NLFs are obtainable for both swept and unswept wing applications at certain Reynolds numbers. Attention is given to the transonic pressure distributions of airfoils for unswept wings at freestream Mach numbers of 0.65-0.80 and chord Reynolds numbers of up to 50 million. The case of 10-30 deg swept-wing NLF airfoils is also investigated for chord Reynolds numbers of 15-50 million.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1773
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A parametric study of a Mach 8 fin-induced shock interaction with a turbulent boundary layer was performed in a shock tunnel using surface oil-dot visualization and surface pressure measurements. The study showed that the interaction was separated and secondary separation was detected for the strongest cases studied. Although the inviscid shock wave was close to the fin, the interaction was spread over large angular extents. The interaction showed inception to conical symmetry at the highest shock strengths. Additionally, the surface pressure distribution showed an extensive plateau region, with no distinct dip associated with strongly separated interactions. Between the fin and the inviscid shock, the surface pressure rose rapidly but did not approach the downstream inviscid shock, the surface pressure rose rapidly but did not approach the downstream inviscid value.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1769
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Experimental studies are conducted to examine the utilization of transpiration cooling to reduce the peak-heating loads in areas of shock/shock interaction. Smooth and transpiration-cooled nosetip models, 12 inches in diameter, were employed in these studies, which focused on defining the pressure distributions and heat transfer in type III and IV interaction areas. Transpiration cooling was determined to significantly increase the size of the shock layer and to move the peak-heating point around the body. A transpiration-cooling rate of more than 30 percent of the freestream maximum flux did not lower the peak-heating level more than 10 percent, but the integrated heating loads were reduced.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1765
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The swept oblique shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction generated by a 20-deg sharp fin at Mach 4 and Reynolds number 21,000 is investigated via a series of computations using both conical and three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence incorporated through the algebraic turbulent eddy viscosity model of Baldwin-Lomax. Results are compared with known experimental data, and it is concluded that the computed three-dimensional flowfield is quasi-conical (in agreement with the experimental data), the computed three-dimensional and conical surface pressure and surface flow direction are in good agreement with the experiment, and the three-dimensional and conical flows significantly underpredict the peak experimental skin friction. It is pointed out that most of the features of the conical flowfield model in the experiment are observed in the conical computation which also describes the complete conical streamline pattern not included in the model of the experiment.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1759
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An upwind-biased implicit scheme is used to investigate steady-state and unsteady Navier-Stokes solutions of the vortical flow over a double-delta wing configuration. The governing equations are solved numerically with a fully upwind, implicit, iterative, and factorized numerical scheme. Steady-state solutions for fixed angles of attack and unsteady solutions for a sinusoidal oscillatory motion are obtained. The steady-state solutions on the baseline grid are in agreement with the experiment, and grid refinements show some improvements of the predictions. The higher-order accuracy of the present scheme yields equivalent solutions on smaller grid densities compared to solutions obtained with a second-order accurate method on larger grids. As the angle of attack increases, the grid resolution requirements for adequate resolution of the leeward-side vortical flowfield become very severe. The unsteady solutions are in general agreement with the measurements and show a qualitative correlation with the experiment.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1624
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effect of nonequilibrium flow chemistry on the surface temperature distribution over the forebody heat shield on the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle was investigated using a reacting boundary-layer code. Computations were performed by using boundary-layer-edge properties determined from global iterations between the boundary-layer code and flow field solutions from a viscous shock layer (VSL) and a full Navier-Stokes solution. Surface temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield was calculated for two flight conditions during a nominal AFE trajectory. This study indicates that the surface temperature distribution is sensitive to the nonequilibrium chemistry in the shock layer. Heating distributions over the AFE forebody calculated using nonequilibrium edge properties were similar to values calculated using the VSL program.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1373
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Simulations of the near wake flowfield behind three aerobrakes have been implemented with Program LAURA, an algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for three-dimensional, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conditons which are likely to cause the shear layer to impinge on a payload positioned behind the aerobrake. A linear relationship between shear layer deflection angle and angle of attack (or lift-to-drag ratio) has been identified in several ground based tests. A similar relation appears in the numerical simulations, though there is some evidence that deflection angels may increase somewhat due to the effects of gas chemistry. Shear layer impingement can raise local heating levels a factor of 10 higher than levels present without impingement. Payload heating levels near impingement points are a larger percentage of stagnation point heating levels at higher altitudes and peak payload heating levels are likely to occur earlier in the trajectory than peak heating on the forebody stagnation point.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1371
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  • 86
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction analysis has been developed to predict the performance of rotors in hover and forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The analysis solves the full-potential and boundary-layer equations by finite-difference numerical procedures. Calculations were made for several different model rotor configurations in hover and forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The results were compared with predictions from a two-dimensional integral method and with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreement between test data and predictions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 87
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A numerical study of the steady, viscous flow prediction capabilities of the three-dimensional turbine stage code ROTOR3 is presented. Computations were performed with RAI3DC, a cascade version of ROTOR3 capable of being run in a planar or annular mode. Computed results are compared with experimental data obtained for Hodson's cascade, Kopper's cascade, and United Technologies Research Center's Large Scale Rotating Rig (LSRR) first-stage stator. The code's predictive capability is assessed in terms of the accuracy of predicted airfoil loadings, performance (including secondary flows in the LSRR case), boundary layers, and heat transfer. A grid refinement study was conducted in the LSRR case in an effort to more accurately model the boundary layers on the airfoil and endwall surfaces. The effects of the inlet total pressure profile in secondary flow prediction were also assessed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 90-GT-227
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  • 88
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Computational results are presented for three issues pertinent to hypersonic, airbreathing vehicles employing scramjet exhaust flow simulation. The first issue consists of a comparison of schlieren photographs obtained on the aftbody of a cruise missile configuration under powered conditions with two-dimensional computational solutions. The second issue presents the powered aftbody effects of modeling the inlet with a fairing to divert the external flow as compared to an operating flow-through inlet on a generic hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a comparison of solutions examining the potential of testing powered configurations in a wind-off, instead of a wind-on, environment, indicate that, depending on the extent of the three-dimensional plume, it may be possible to test aftbody powered hypersonic, airbreathing configurations in a wind-off environment.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1709
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