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  • AERODYNAMICS  (2,092)
  • 1980-1984  (2,091)
  • 1925-1929  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact linear acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous pressure information along the span at the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DGLR Seventh European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum; 20 p
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Wind-tunnel/flight correlation activities are reviewed to assure maximum effectiveness of the early experimental programs of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Topics included a status report of the NTF, the role of tunnel-to-tunnel correlation, a review of past flight correlation research and the resulting data base, the correlation potential of future flight vehicles, and an assessment of the role of computational fluid dynamics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CP-2225 , L-15368 , NAS 1.55:2225
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The design and goals of experimental investigations of supercritical LFC airfoils conducted in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel beginning in March 1982 are reviewed. Topics addressed include laminarization aspects; flow-quality requirements; simulation of flight parameters; the setup of screens, honeycomb, and sonic throat; the design cycle; theoretical pressure distributions and shock-free limits; drag divergence and stability analysis; and the LFC suction system. Consideration is given to the LFC airfoil model, the air-flow control system, airfoil-surface instrumentation, liner design and hardware, and test options. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: For a flow over an airfoil with laminar separation, a feedback cycle may exist whereby a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability wave emanating from the separation point on the airfoil surface grows along the shear layer and is diffracted as it interacts with the sharp trailing edge of the airfoil, causing acoustic radiation which , in turn, propagates upstream and regenerates the initial instability wave. The analysis is restricted to the high frequency limit. Solutions to the boundary-value problem are obtained using the slowly varying approximation and the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Resonant solutions exist for certain discrete values of the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The results are discussed and compared with available data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2297
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2402
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An efficient grid-interfacing zonal algorithm has been developed for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow field about wing/nacelle multicomponent configurations. The algorithm uses the full-potential formulation and the AF2 fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme. The flow field position is computed using a component-adaptive grid approach in which separate grids are employed for the individual components in the multicomponent configuration, where each component grid is optimized for a particular geometry such as the wing or nacelle. The wing and nacelle component grids are allowed to overlap, and flow field information is transmitted from one grid to another through the overlap region using trivariate interpolation. This paper presents a discussion of the computational methods used to generate both the wing and nacelle component grids, the technique used to interface the component grids, and the method used to obtain the inviscid multicomponent flow field solution. Computed results and correlations with experiment are presented to illustrate application of the analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2430
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The present model for fan rotor/support strut airfoil interaction uses a time-marching code for the rotor flow, coupled with a potential flow model for the stator-strut region. Study of the effect of strut design variables indicates that rotor flow disturbance is increased by the primary variables of larger strut thickness and circumferential spacing, while decreasing exponentially with increased rotor-strut separation. The time-marching code predicts local rotor pressure and flow perturbations in response to an unsteady downstream boundary condition.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2282
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: One of the most significant uses of flow energizers, which are small highly swept strakes mounted immediately above a lifting surface, is in flow control over regions where a lifting surface is joined to another body, such as a fuselage or nacelle. In the presently reported systematic wind tunnel test study of flow energizers, 14 different geometric configurations using a 75-deg sweep flow energizer were tested on a light twin-engine general aviation aircraft model. It is found that cambered flow energizers perform better than their flat counterparts. All but two of the energizer installations developed lower L/D at cruise angles of attack, lower maximum lift coefficients, and lower stall angles of attack than the baseline model.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2499
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The potential of the propulsive wing in developing very high lift coefficients for STOL operation has been investigated with several nozzle aspect ratios. The use of the propulsive wing/canard appears to offer an approach to managing the large negative pitching moments associated with trailing-edge blowing. A full-span model of a wing/canard concept representing a fighter configuration has been tested at STOL conditions in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. The results of this test are presented, and comparisons are made to previous tests of the same configuration tested as a semispan model (Stewrt, 1983). Also presented are data showing the effects of large flap deflection and the effect of nozzle span. Comparisons of the test results with jet-flap theory are made and indicate good agreement.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2396
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A knowledge of the acoustic energy emission of each blade row of a turbomachine is useful for estimating the overall noise level of the machine and for determining its discrete frequency noise content. Because of the close spacing between the rotor and stator of a compressor stage, the strong aerodynamic interactions between them have to be included in obtaining the resultant flow field. This paper outlines a three-dimensional theory for determining the discrete frequency noise content of an axial compressor consisting of a rotor and a stator each with a finite number of blades. The lifting surface theory and the linearized equation of an ideal, nonsteady compressible fluid motion are used for thin blades of arbitrary cross section. The combined pressure field at a point of the fluid is constructed by linear addition of the rotor and stator solutions together with an interference factor obtained by matching them for net zero vorticity behind the stage.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2325
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Blade-vortex interaction occurs when a rotor blade encounters the tip vortex from a previous rotor blade. To obtain details of the close encounter process, the results from a flow visualization study of an airfoil representing a rotor blade in the wake of an oscillating airfoil serving as a vortex generator are described. A distinguishing feature of this study is that the vortex filament is oriented parallel to the blade span, orthogonal to the test section free stream velocity. This orientation simulates the case of two-dimensional blade-vortex interaction, which is known to produce the most impulsive and most intensive BVI noise. Photographic data are examined to deduce qualitative and quantitative details of the close encounter interaction process with emphasis on structural changes in the vortex filament and its trajectory.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2307
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Trailing edge data for boundary layer-near wake thickness parameters are given for airfoils and flat plates. Reynolds number effects are examined as a function of model size, velocity and boundary layer tripping. These data expand that presented previously by the authors particularly for airfoil non-zero angles of attack. Comparisons are made here with boundary layer calculations using potential flow modeling and a well documented two-dimensional finite-difference method for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Open wind tunnel corrections to angle of attack and camber are developed and are incorporated in the potential flow modeling to assure correct comparisons for non-zero angles of attack. It was found that although the open tunnel flow turbulence affected boundary layer transition for the higher velocities the theory successfully 'brackets' the data. Comparisons demonstrate the degree of accuracy one might expect for the prediction of boundary layer thickness parameters when given only geometry and nominal flow conditions as input to boundary layer codes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2266
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow field through a low aspect ratio, transonic, axial flow fan rotor has been conducted, using an advanced laser anemometer (LA) system. Laser velocimeter measurements of the rotor flow field at the design operating speed and over a range of throughflow conditions are compared to analytical solutions. The numerical technique used herein yields the solution to the full, three-dimensional, unsteady Euler equations using an explicit time-marching, finite volume approach. The numerical analysis, when coupled with a simplified boundary layer calculation, generally yields good agreement with the experimental data. The test rotor has an aspect ratio of 1.56, a design total pressure ratio of 1.629 and a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The high spatial resolution of the LA data matrix (9 radial x 30 axial x 50 blade-to-blade) permits details of the transonic flow field such as shock location, turning distribution, and blade loading levels to be investigated and compared to analytical results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-GT-200
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer developing on a rotor blade of an axial flow compressor was measured using a miniature 'x' configuration hot-wire probe. The measurements were carried out at nine radial locations on both surfaces of the blade at various chordwise locations. The data derived includes streamwise and radial mean velocities and turbulence intensities. The validity of conventional velocity profiles such as the 'power law profile' for the streamwise profile, and Mager and Eichelbrenner's for the radial profile, is examined. A modification to Mager's crossflow profile is proposed. Away from the blade tip, the streamwise component of the blade boundary layer seems to be mainly influenced by the streamwise pressure gradient. Near the tip of the blade, the behavior of the blade boundary layer is affected by the tip leakage flow and the annulus wall boundary layer. The 'tangential blockage' due to the blade boundary layer is derived from the data. The profile losses are found to be less than that of an equivalent cascade, except in the tip region of the blade.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-GT-193
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A systematic procedure for reducing losses in axial-flow compressors is presented. In this procedure, a large, low-speed, aerodynamic model of a high-speed core compressor is designed and fabricated based on aerodynamic similarity principles. This model is then tested at low speed where high-loss regions associated with three-dimensional endwall boundary layers flow separation, leakage, and secondary flows can be located, detailed measurements made, and loss mechanisms determined with much greater accuracy and much lower cost and risk than is possible in small, high-speed compressors. Design modifications are made by using custom-tailored airfoils and vector diagrams, airfoil endbends, and modified wall geometries in the high-loss regions. The design improvements resulting in reduced loss or increased stall margin are then scaled to high speed. This paper describes the procedure and presents experimental results to show that in some cases endwall loss has been reduced by as much as 10 percent, flow separation has been reduced or eliminated, and stall margin has been substantially improved by using these techniques.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-GT-184
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents results of an experimental aerodynamic study conducted in the rotating frame of reference downstream of an isolated compressor rotor with both thick and thin inlet endwall boundary layers. The paper focuses on those aspects of the data having particular significance to the assumptions and application of throughflow theory. These aspects include the spanwise distributions of static pressure and blockage, and the radial redistribution of fluid as it passes through the blade row. It is demonstrated that the main contributions to total pressure loss, blockage, and the distortion of the static pressure field were due to the hub corner stall and tip leakage. This is a significant departure from previous conclusions which looked to the endwall boundary layer and to secondary flow as major loss and blockage producing mechanisms.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-GT-85
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper discusses experimental data measured on the blading and downstream of an isolated compressor rotor with thick inlet endwall boundary layers. The objective of the study was to compare these results with data acquired previously with thin inlet boundary layers and to assess the impact of inlet boundary layer thickness on the secondary flow. Flow visualization results showed the powerful impact of the hub corner stall and how at the same near stall flow coefficient where with thin inlet boundary layers the blade was separated at midspan, with thick inlet boundary layers it was attached. It was also shown that while secondary flow was very weak, it did produce sufficient radial redistribution to cause an apparent negative loss at the blade root.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-GT-84
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Viscous real gas and ideal gas supersonic flowfields over the forebody of a aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle are determined using a unsteady factored implicit algorithm. Air in chemical equilibrium is considered and its local thermodynamic properties are computed by an equilibrium composition method. Numerical solutions are obtained for both real and ideal gases at a Mach number of 30 and at angles of attack up to 20 degrees. Shock stand-off distances and surface pressure distributions are presented for the gas models with and without viscous effects. For the freestream conditions considered, viscous effects dominate the flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1697
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The steady and unsteady wake profiles of an airfoil with an oscillating flap were measured at nominal free stream Mach number of 0.8 in the NASA Ames 11 x 11-foot wind tunnel. The instantaneous wake velocity and pressure profiles at four axial locations are presented up to one chord length from the trailing edge. Both fundamental harmonic frequency and typical time history data are presented to observe the effects of airfoil incidence and flap angle. The drag coefficient obtained from the wake pressure measurements is compared with that obtained from the airfoil pressure distribution.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1563
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental study has been conducted of a transonic, turbulent, high-Reynolds-number blunt trailing-edge flow. The model shape and the surface pressure distribution are characteristics of a modern supercritical airfoil under shock-free conditions. Reynolds number and pressure gradient scaling of the boundary layer are relevant to airfoil applications. The data set is exceptionally accurate and consistent, with the momentum balance accounting for the flux of momentum to within 1 percent, except in the immediate vicinity of the blunt trailing edge. The experimental flow exhibits strong viscous-inviscid interaction and higher-order boundary-layer effects including strong adverse streamwise pressure gradient, significant normal pressure gradients associated with surface and streamline curvature, and significant wake curvature. Navier-Stokes calculations with a two-equation K-epsilon turbulence model predict the correct pressure distribution which demonstrates the utility of these engineering tools. The experiment approaches separation at the strailing edge. However, in comparison to the experiment, the calculations predict too high skin friction and insufficient displacement thickness growth. An analysis of the turbulent and mean flow fields reveals the turbulence model defects are likely in modeling the dissipation source and sink terms, and in the eddy viscosity relation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2187
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results from the application of VSAERO, a low-order panel method, to three practical aircraft configurations are presented. The Grumman 698-411 tilt-nacelle V/STOL model is analyzed with particular emphasis on the inlet pressures and the nacelle/fuselage interference effects. Excellent correlation with experiment is reported for the inlet pressure ratio and the inlet operational boundaries. Analysis of an inlet designed for a tilt-rotor/nacelle aircraft is presented. The code was used in a design environment for this configuration to determine an inlet geometry that maintained attached flow for three design flight conditions: hover, hover-transition and cruise. VSAERO is also used to examine the prop-slipstream induced loading for the Langley prop-fan configuration. The versatility and economy of the aerodynamic modeling program, VSAERO, is demonstrated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2178
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Transonic two-dimensional cascade flows have been analyzed using viscous/inviscid coupling concepts. A full potential cascade code is coupled with an inverse integral boundary layer/wake method that permits calculation of separated laminar or turbulent flow. The semi-inverse coupling method of Wigton converges slowly in the case of a strong shock in the region between the shock and the trailing edge. The location of a strong shock is not well predicted by the coupling method, which indicates the need for an entropy correction in the potential code or the inclusion of a shock-boundary layer interaction module.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2159
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional transonic-wing design algorithm for vector computers is developed, and the results of sample computations are presented graphically. The method incorporates the direct/inverse scheme of Carlson (1975), a Cartesian grid system with boundary conditions applied at a mean plane, and a potential-flow solver based on the conservative form of the full potential equation and using the ZEBRA II vectorizable solution algorithm of South et al. (1980). The accuracy and consistency of the method with regard to direct and inverse analysis and trailing-edge closure are verified in the test computations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2156
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  • 24
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Turbomachinery blade designs are becoming more aggressive in order to achieve higher loading and greater range. New analysis tools are required to cope with these heavily loaded blades that may operate with a thin separated region near the trailing edge on the suction surface. An existing, viscous airfoil code was adapted to cascade conditions in an attempt to provide this capability. Comparisons with recently obtained data show that calculated and experimental surface Mach numbers were in good agreement but loss coefficients and outlet air angles were not. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24539
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1301
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A compact finite-difference approximation to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in velocity-vorticity variables is used to numerically simulate a number of flows. These include two-dimensional laminar flow of a vortex evolving over a flat plate with an embedded cavity, the unsteady flow over an elliptic cylinder, and aspects of the transient dynamics of the flow over a rearward facing step. The methodology required to extend the two-dimensional formulation to three-dimensions is presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents thermal protection system (TPS) requirements for a potential Titan aerocapture vehicle. Shock-layer solutions are obtained for a nominal trajectory through the current Titan model atmosphere. Fully laminar and fully turbulent solutions are presented along the blunted fore-cone in the windward symmetry plane of a bent-biconic vehicle. Using these solutions to define the aerothermodynamic environment, transient material-response solutions are obtained for a Galileo-type TPS with a carbon-phenolic ablator heat shield. Shock-layer results indicate that turbulent flow is the more realistic flow condition. They also show that the lengthy aerocapture heating pulse is dominated by convective heating. The TPS results show that the required insulation thickness is uniformly about 4 cm along the fore-cone because of the long heat-soak period. The total heat-shield thickness is 6.4 cm at the stagnation point, and 4.7 cm near the end of the fore-cone. These TPS requirements are greater than those presented in a previous Titan aerocapture study.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1714
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The dissociating and ionizing nonequilibrium flows behind a normal shock wave are calculated for the density and vehicle regimes appropriate for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles; the departure of vibrational and electron temperatures from the gas temperature as well as viscous transport phenomena are accounted for. From the thermodynamic properties so determined, radiative power emission is calculated using an existing code. The resulting radiation characteristics are compared with the available experimental data. Chemical parameters are varied to investigate their effect on the radiation characteristics. It is concluded that the current knowledge of rate chemistry leads to a factor-of-4 uncertainty in nonequilibrium radiation intensities. The chemical parameters that must be studied to improve the accuracy are identified.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1730
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The hypersonic, laminar flow around the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been computed for both an ideal gas (gamma = 1.2) and equilibrium air using a real-gas, parabolized Navier-Stokes code. This code employs a generalized coordinate transformation; hence, it places no restrictions on the orientation of the solution surfaces. The initial solution in the nose region was computed using a 3-D, real-gas, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code. The thermodynamic and transport properties of equilibrium air were obtained from either approximate curve fits or a table look-up procedure. Numerical results are presented for flight conditions corresponding to the STS-3 trajectory. The computed surface pressures and convective heating rates are compared with data from the STS-3 flight.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1747
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Crossflow instabilities dominate disturbance growth in the leading-edge region of swept wings. It is well known that streamwise vortices in a boundary layer strongly influence the behavior of other disturbances. Amplification of crossflow vortices near the leading edge produces a residual spanwise nonuniformity in the mid-chord regions where Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves are strongly amplified. Should the T-S wave undergo double-exponential growth because of this effect, the usual transition prediction methods would fail. Thus, it is important to study interactions of this sort and to develop more realistic criteria for transition prediction.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1678
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A wind tunnel experiment was performed to study the characteristics of supersonic airflow (M(infinity) = 2.5-3.86) through an open channel with a contoured floor. The measured static pressures along the centerline of the channel floor exhibited an unexpected rise at the end of the channel. Complex three-dimensional interactions of compression and expansion waves within the channel coupled with external flow perturbations caused by model/tunnel wall interference were the suspected sources of this flow behavior. Three-dimensional inviscid flow analysis procedures were used to investigate and explain this phenomenon. The results of the computations and the experiment are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1179
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The results of experimental and theoretical investigations into the effect of fuselage upwash on fighter aircraft wing performance are reported. Wind tunnel trials were performed on 4 percent scale models of two supersonic fighters. The trials were run at Mach 1.6-2.0, an Re of 2,000,000 and at angles of attack (AOA) of -4 to 20 deg. Measurements were made of lift, drag and pitching moments. Two linearized theory supersonic aerodynamic prediction codes, PAN AIR and the SDAS lift analysis, were used to predict the same aerodynamic coefficients. The fuselage AOA augmented the lift and pitching moment at 0, 2 and 5 deg. The contribution mainly arose from the fuselage-induced upwash. The PAN AIR code gave superior data for the fuselage aerodynamics and effects, although both codes accurately predicted the overall lift and moment increments due to the fuselage AOA.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2193
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Flight test experiments have been conducted to measure the extent and nature of laminar flow on a smoothed test region of a swept-wing business jet. Surface hot film anemometers and sublimating chemicals were used for transition detection. Surface pressure distributions were measured using pressure belts. Instrumentation techniques and problems are presented. Correlation was obtained between the hot film and sublimating chemicals for transition detection. Taylor-Goertler vortices were observed for some flight conditions. Boundary layer stability analysis is being conducted using measured pressure distributions to determine the correlation possible for transition prediction on swept wings.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2189
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A quasi-three-dimensional boundary layer method for conical inviscid flows is presented. The model was developed to characterize the flow fields over slender delta wings, particularly the shed vortex sheet. A steady, incompressible, laminar boundary layer is assumed and a solution is obtained with the Smith (1966) finite difference code. Predictions are compared with oil flow patterns and surface pressure measurements for 74 and 80 deg delta wings at 0-20 deg angles of attack. The model is capable of accurately predicting the secondary separation lines. Inviscid velocities derived from panel methods lead, however, to inaccurate pressure distributions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2175
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A velocity-splitting method of solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, originally designed for afterbody flows, is examined for its applicability for predicting fighter forebody flows. Results from the AFTEND Code are compared with wind tunnel data for two fighter configurations at a Mach number of 0.9 and angles-of-attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. Results compare well with data, and in areas where data do not exist, the viscous AFTEND results show realistic effects of viscosity compared to inviscid predictions. The inviscid results themselves are in general superior to results obtained from a small-disturbance transonic potential code.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2160
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of possible transatmospheric vehicles (TAV). A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry, atmospheric flight, and landing. Some of the features of these concepts that permit flight in or out of the atmosphere with maneuver capability should be useful in the mission requirements of TAV's. The concepts illustrated include some hypersonic-body shapes with and without variable geometry surfaces, and a blunt lifting-body configuration. The merits of these concepts relative to the aerodynamic behavior of a TAV are discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2146
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection has a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1761
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The strongly interactive flow field about aircraft afterbodies is investigated using computational techniques by which the thin-shear-layer formulation of the compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is solved. A time-dependent implicit numerical algorithm is used to obtain solutions for a variety of afterbody and nozzle geometries, within the class of bodies of revolution, for both subsonic and supersonic external flow, and for sonic and supersonic underexpanded jets. Only centered nozzles with either a sharp lip or a blunt base are considered. In all cases, computed results are compared with experimental data taken at flight Reynolds numbers for like-flow conditions. Turbulence closure is realized using algebraic eddy-viscosity concepts. A new and unique adaptive-grid technique is used to resolve flow regimes with large gradients and to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the computational scheme. Special singular point boundary conditions are used for similar purposes, and are especially effective for highly under-expanded jets. For all cases considered, except one with a very large base-to-nozzle-exit-diameter ratio, the agreement with experimental measurements is excellent. For geometries with large base regions, enhancements in the turbulence transport model are necessary to support improvements in the flow-field simulation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1524
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An experimental study of the Lissaman 7769 and Miley MO6-13-128 airfoils at low chord Reynolds numbers is presented. Although both airfoils perform well near their design Reynolds number of about 600,000, they each produce a different type of hysteresis loop in the lift and drag forces when operated below chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000. The type of hysteresis loop was found to depend upon the relative location of laminar separation and transition. The influence of disturbance environment and experimental procedure on the low Reynolds number airfoil boundary layer behavior is also presented. The use of potential flow solutions to help predict how a given airfoil will behave at low Reynolds numbers is also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1617
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Attention is given to hypersonic laminar flow over a quilted surface configuration that simulates an array of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System panels bowed in a spherical shape as a result of thermal gradients through the panel thickness. Pressure and heating loads to the surface are determined. The flow field over the configuration was mathematically modeled by means of time-dependent, three-dimensional conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations. A boundary mapping technique was then used to obtain a rectangular, parallelepiped computational domain, and an explicit MacCormack (1972) explicit time-split predictor-corrector finite difference algorithm was used to obtain steady state solutions. Total integrated heating loads vary linearly with bowed height when this value does not exceed the local boundary layer thickness.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1630
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A previously developed local inviscid-viscous interaction technique for the analysis of airfoil transitional separation bubbles, ALESEP (Airfoil Leading Edge Separation), has been modified to utilize a more accurate windward finite difference procedure in the reversed flow region, and a natural transition turbulence model has been incorporated for the prediction of transition within the separation bubble. Numerous calculations and experimental comparisons are presented to demonstrate the effects of the windward differencing scheme and the natural transition turbulence model. Grid sensitivity and convergence capabilities of this inviscid-viscous interaction technique are briefly addressed. A major conclusion of this paper is that a second, counter-rotating eddy has been found to exist in the wall layer of the primary separation bubble with the use of windward differencing.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1613
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The unsteady flow of a two-dimensional ramjet inlet is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. Unsteadiness is introduced by prescribing the pressure disturbance at the inlet exit plane. The case with a sinusoidal exit plane pressure fluctuation of 20 percent of the steady exit pressure is considered. The resulting flow field exhibits a complicated interaction between the terminal shock, separation pockets and core flow. The exit plane properties feature a non-linear response to the imposed sinusoidal pressure variation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1363
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A NASA Langley investigation was conducted in the 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a Supersonic cruise fighter configuration. In this investigation, a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration formerly utilized in afterbody-nozzle performance investigations was surveyed with a single, multiholed probe to determine local values of angle of attack, side flow, and Mach number. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack from 0 to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a data base of experimental data for use in verification of theoretical methods, and to compare the experimental data with predictions from currently available theoretical techniques. Results from this investigation show that local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream above the wing and generally less than free stream below the wing. Also there were large spanwise gradients above the wing at the higher angles of attack. The comparisons of experimental data with theoretical predictions show that the theoretical techniques give a qualitative estimate of the flow-field but will require much work to give good quantitative results.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1331
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0028
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Pseudo compressibility is used for numerically solving incompressible flows to achieve computational efficiency. The use of pseudo compressibility results in a system of hyperbolic-type equations of motion that introduce waves of finite speed. The interactions of the wave propagation and the vorticity spreading are analyzed. A criterion governing the dependence of the pseudo compressiblity on the Reynolds number and the characteristic length of the flow geometry is obtained that allows for a proper convergence. It is demonstrated that the solution does tend to the incompressible limit. External and internal viscous flow test problems are presented to verify the theory.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0252
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions of the supersonic shear flow past a circular cylinder are obtained. These solutions are used to study the basic flow structure around the cylinder. Both the inviscid and viscous calculations show the formation of a large recirculating flow region around the front stagnation point. The calculations further show that the overall size of the recirculating region is approximately the same for the Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions but the inside structure is quite different. The inviscid flow shows only one vortex whereas the viscous flow shows two vortices inside the recirculating flow region. The inner vortex in the Navier-Stokes solution is formed primarily due to the viscous effects near the body surface and its size depends upon the Reynolds number. It is found that with increasing Reynolds number, the inner vortex diminishes in size and the Navier-Stokes solution asymptotically approaches the Euler solution. These results indicate that the Euler equations may correctly predict certain high Reynolds number separation phenomenon in flows with natural inviscid vorticity source.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0339
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An approximate inviscid flowfield method has been extended to include heat-transfer predictions using a technique to account for variable-entropy edge conditions. The engineering code computes the flowfield over hyperboloids, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and sphere cones at 0 deg angle of attack (AOA). For angle-of-attack applications, an approximation to sphere-cone streamline-spreading effects on the heat transfer along the windward and leeward rays and an empirical circumferential heating technique have been incorporated also in the method. The present engineering calculations yield good comparisons with existing pressure and heating data over sphere cones even at high incidence values with the restriction that the sonic-line location remain on the spherical cap.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0303
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A computational method developed to provide a transonic analysis for upper/lower surface wing-tip mounted winglets is described. Winglets with arbitrary planform, cant and toe angle, and airfoil section can be modeled. The embedded grid approach provides high flow field resolution and the required geometric flexibility. In particular, coupled Cartesian/cylindrical grid systems are used to model the complex geometry presented by canted upper/lower surface winglets. A new rotated difference scheme is introduced in order to maintain the stability of the small-disturbance formulation in the presence of large spanwise velocities. Wing and winglet viscous effects are modeled using a two-dimensional 'strip' boundary layer analysis. Correlations with wind tunnel and flight test data for three transport configurations are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0302
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Transonic flow solutions are obtained over a multielement airfoil (augmentor-wing) using the full-potential equation. Solutions obtained for a subcritical case and a strong shock case show good quantitative agreement with experiment in regions not dominated by viscous effects. In those regions where viscous effects are dominant, the results are still in good qualitative agreement. For the strong shock case, Mach number and angle-of-attack corrections were necessary to match experimental coefficient of lift. Typical results from the transonic augmentor-wing Potential Code on the Cray-1S computer require about 10 sec of CPU time for a three-order-of-magnitude drop in the maximum residual. The speed with which solutions can be generated, and the associated low cost, will make this code a practical tool for the design aerodynamicist.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0300
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Flight-derived aerodynamic heat-transfer data for the orbiter wing lower surface, from STS-2, -3, and -5, are presented and compared with both ground-based experimental results and state-of-the-art computational flowfield results for a nominal angle of attack of 40 degrees. The flight data clearly show the development of the interference heat-transfer region on the wing lower surface resulting from the downstream effects of the bow-shock/wing-shock interaction. The location of the interference heating region is well correlated with a region of minimum static enthalpy near the boundary-layer edge as predicted by a 3-dimensional, inviscid flowfield computation. The magnitude of the interference heat transfer is no greater than the undisturbed laminar heat transfer which occurs during the 'peak aerodynamic heating' portion of entry.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0227
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Comparison of STS-2 Shuttle flight heating data along the windward centerline has been made with two-dimensional nonequilibrium viscous shock-layer solutions obtained with shock and wall-slip conditions at an altitude range of 90 to 110 km. The shock slip condition used is the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations of Cheng as used by Davis, and the wall-slip conditions are based on the first order consideration derived from kinetic theory as given by Scott and Hendricks. The results indicate that the calculated heating distributions with slip boundary conditions agree better with the flight data than those without slip conditions. The agreement improves when the accommodation coefficient or freestream density is decreased to one-half, suggesting the possibility of less than full accommodation for the tile surface and (or) an overestimate of freestream density using the Jacchia-Roberts model. Heating reduction due to the slip effect becomes very pronounced as the flow becomes more rarefied, and the effect is more significant for the stagnation region than the aft region of the vehicle.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0226
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Riblet surfaces have been tested in boundary layers having different upstream histories and at higher Reynolds numbers than previously reported. The drag reduction for the riblet surfaces was found to be dependent on the height and spacing of the riblets in law-of-the-wall variables regardless of the free-stream Reynolds number or upstream boundary-layer history. Micro-photographs of the actual riblet geometries are examined to determine the effect of rib details on the riblet drag-reduction performances. To further increase drag-reduction performance, riblet surfaces are combined with another drag-reduction concept, the large-eddy breakup device (LEBU). In addition, the yaw sensitivity of riblets is evaluated, as well as the characteristics of riblet surfaces manufactured out of a thin vinyl sheet.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0347
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A large-scale ground-effects test of a single jet in hover was conducted as a first-case study for future tests to provide the V/STOL community with an improved data base. The objectives for this single-jet hover test were to (1) document the jet characteristics and then (2) gather the associated force data. These data are then compared with results obtained from existing prediction methods. A conically convergent nozzle was mounted to a turbojet engine, and an 8-ft-diam suckdown-plate model measured the lift-loss forces in ground effect. Jet-exit characteristics (pressure profile, temperature, turbulence, etc.) are documented for several nozzle pressure ratios. Characteristics that may give rise to scale effects are discussed. Results from this first study indicate that small-scale tests, and current prediction methods, will lead to significant errors in the lift-loss estimation of a single-jet configured aircraft, hovering in ground effect.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0336
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Surface pressure measurements have been made at Mach 10 in air on an instrumented 0.006-scale model of an advanced (control configured) winged entry vehicle. The tests were conducted in the Langley Continuous Flow Hypersonic Tunnel. Data were obtained at 83 surface pressure stations, which include locations on the lower and upper surface centerlines, spanwise positions along the lower and upper surfaces of the wing, the lower surface of the body flap, and radial locations on the fuselage. Data were obtained for angles of attack ranging from zero to 40 deg, sideslip angles of -2 deg to +5 deg, Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 million per foot, and body-flap deflections of zero, 10, and 20 deg. Test conditions and orifice locations were chosen to correspond directly with those for the heat transfer measurements previously reported on the same configuration. Comparison of windward symmetry plane data with predictions based upon an approximate engineering method was found to yield reasonable agreement for angles of attack from 20 to 40 deg. The leeward surface pressure data were observed to be roughly an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding windward data. At low angles of attack, regions of high pressure were noted on the windward wing surface. The result is attributed to vortical action or shock impingement. High pressures were also measured on the deflected body flap, a critical region for this type of vehicle. Reynolds number effects were found to be insignificant.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0308
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:176640 , NASA-CR-176640 , CRINC-FRL-516-1
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Approximate nonlinear inviscid theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds were developed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to conceptual configuration design level of effort. Second order small disturbance and full potential theory was utilized to meet this objective. Numerical codes were developed for relatively general three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:172299 , NASA-CR-172299
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind-tunnel tests to measure unsteady aerodynamic data in the transonic region have been completed on an aspect ratio 2.0 rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil. The geometric and structural properties of the wing are presented. (Other references contain the measured aerodynamic data.) Both measured and design airfoil coordinates are presented and compared. In addition, measured wing bending and torsional stiffness distributions and some trailing-edge flexibility influence coefficients are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85673 , NASA-TM-85673
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivatives for the X-29A aircraft were calculated for altitudes ranging from sea level to 50,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.5, and angles of attack from -5 deg to 25 deg. Several other parameters were also calculated, including aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, control face position, normal acceleration, static margin, and reference angle of attack.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: H-1203 , NAS 1.26:84919 , NASA-TM-84919
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program NASCRIN has been developed for analyzing two-dimensional flow fields in high-speed inlets. It solves the two-dimensional Euler or Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form by an explicit, two-step finite-difference method. An explicit-implicit method can also be used at the user's discretion for viscous flow calculations. For turbulent flow, an algebraic, two-layer eddy-viscosity model is used. The code is operational on the CDC CYBER 203 computer system and is highly vectorized to take full advantage of the vector-processing capability of the system. It is highly user oriented and is structured in such a way that for most supersonic flow problems, the user has to make only a few changes. Although the code is primarily written for supersonic internal flow, it can be used with suitable changes in the boundary conditions for a variety of other problems.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15678 , NASA-TM-85708 , NAS 1.15:85708
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The proper design of engine nacelle installations for supersonic aircraft depends on a sophisticated understanding of the interactions between the boundary layers and the bounding external flows. The successful operation of mixed external-internal compression inlets depends significantly on the ability to closely control the operation of the internal compression portion of the inlet. This portion of the inlet is one where compression is achieved by multiple reflection of oblique shock waves and weak compression waves in a converging internal flow passage. However weak these shocks and waves may seem gas-dynamically, they are of sufficient strength to separate a laminar boundary layer and generally even strong enough for separation or incipient separation of the turbulent boundary layers. An understanding was developed of the viscous-inviscid interactions and of the shock wave boundary layer interactions and reflections.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:186581 , NASA-CR-186581
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An improvement is presented for the 2-D strategies for adjustment of the flexible top and bottom walls of an Adaptive (Wind Tunnel) Wall Test Section (AWTS). This adjustment is part of the wall adaptation process to eliminate top and bottom wall interference at the source. The improvements to account for second order effects are described in mathematical detail. It is intended that these improvements should further minimize the necessary iterations in the wall adaptation process. An associated computer program written in BASIC is presented and several test cases run with this program are discussed. The strategy performs well for a theoretical test case but when applied to experimental AWTS data some discrepancies in the adapted wall shapes are found.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:181662 , NASA-CR-181662
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:172137 , NASA-CR-172137
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hover and forward flight tests were conducted to investigate the mutual aerodynamic interaction between the main motor and fuselage of a conventional helicopter configuration. A 0.15-scale Model 222 two-bladed teetering rotor was combined with a 0.15-scale model of the NASA Ames 40x80-foot wind tunnel 1500 horsepower test stand fairing. Configuration effects were studied by modifying the fairing to simulate a typical helicopter forebody. Separation distance between rotor and body were also investigated. Rotor and fuselage force and moment as well as pressure data are presented in graphical and tabular format. Data was taken over a range of thrust coefficients from 0.002 to 0.007. In forward flight speed ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.3 with shaft angle varying from +4 to -12 deg. The data show that the rotors effect on the fuselage may be considerably more important to total aircraft performance than the effect of the fuselage on the rotor.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166577 , NASA-CR-166577
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Approximate nonlinear inviscid theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds were developed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to conceptual configuration design level of effort. Second order small disturbance theory was utilized to meet this objective. Numerical codes were developed for analysis and design of relatively general three dimensional geometries. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes. Case computational time of one minute on a CDC 176 are typical for practical aircraft arrangement.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:172342 , NASA-CR-172342
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The rotational aerodynamic characteristics are discussed for a 1/8 scale model of the X-29A airplane. The effects of rotation on the aerodynamics of the basic model were determined, as well as the influence of airplane components, various control deflections, and several forebody modifications. These data were measured using a rotary balance, over an angle of attack range of 0 to 90 deg, for clockwise and counter clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.4.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3747 , NAS 1.26:3747
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An analysis technique for simulation of supersonic mixed compression inlets with large flow field perturbations is presented. The approach is based upon a quasi-one-dimensional inviscid unsteady formulation which includes engineering models of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and geometry effects. Numerical solution of the governing time dependent equations of motion is accomplished through a shock capturing finite difference algorithm, of which five separate approaches are evaluated. Comparison with experimental supersonic wind tunnel data is presented to verify the present approach for a wide range of transient inlet flow conditions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174676 , NASA-CR-174676
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of tail span and empennage arrangement on drag of a single engine nozzle/afterbody model. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 1.20, nozzle pressures frm 1.0 (jet off) to 8.0, and angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg, depending upon Mach numbers. Three empennage arrangements (aft, staggered, and forward) were investigated with several different tail spans. The results of the investigation indicate that tail span and position have a significant effect on the drag at transonic speeds. Unfavorable tail interference was largely due to the outer portion of the tail surfaces. The inner portion near the nozzle and afterbody did little to increase drag other than surface skin friction. Tail positions forward of the nozzle generally had lower tail interference.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2352 , L-15742 , NASA-TP-2352
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of the experimental validation are presented for the three dimensional cambered wing which was designed to achieve attached supercritical cross flow for lifting conditions typical of supersonic maneuver. The design point was a lift coefficient of 0.4 at Mach 1.62 and 12 deg angle of attack. Results from the nonlinear full potential method are presented to show the validity of the design process along with results from linear theory codes. Longitudinal force and moment data and static pressure data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.58, 1.62, 1.66, 1.70, and 2.00 over an angle of attack range of 0 to 14 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Oil flow photographs of the upper surface were obtained at M = 1.62 for alpha approx. = 8, 10, 12, and 14 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2336 , L-15787 , NASA-TP-2336
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A spin-tunnel investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/25-scale model to the General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was conducted in the Langley Spin Tunnel. Tests included erect and inverted spins at various symmetric and asymmetric loading conditions. The required size of an emergency spin-recovery parachute was determined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15616 , NASA-TM-85660 , NAS 1.15:85660
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. Stainless steel mesh, laser drilled titanium, and composite panels were tested on two general aviation wing sections. Two different glycol-water solutions were evaluated. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing were obtained as a function of angle of attack, liquid water content, volume median drop diameter, temperature, and velocity. Ice accretions formed after five minutes of icing were shed in three minutes or less using a glycol fluid flow equal to the anti-ice flow rate. Two methods of predicting anti-ice flow rates are presented and compared with a large experimental data base of anti-ice flow rates over a wide range of icing conditions. The first method presented in the ADS-4 document typically predicts flow rates lower than the experimental flow rates. The second method, originally published in 1983, typically predicts flow rates up to 25 percent higher than the experimental flow rates. This method proved to be more consistent between wing-panel configurations. Significant correlation coefficients between the predicted flow rates and the experimental flow rates ranged from .867 to .947.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174758 , NASA-CR-174758
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A program called FLEXWAL for calculating wall modifications for solid, adaptive-wall wind tunnels is presented. The method used is the iterative technique of NASA TP-2081 and is applicable to subsonic and transonic test conditions. The program usage, program listing, and a sample case are given.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84648 , NAS 1.15:84648
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84666 , NASA-TM-84666
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-ratio, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support system and on the Langley sting support system to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15484 , NASA-TP-2097 , NAS 1.60:2097
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174849 , NAS 1.26:174849
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Unsteady interactions of strong concentrated vortices, distributed gusts, and sharp-edged gusts with stationary airfoils were analyzed in two-dimensional transonic flow. A simple and efficient method for introducing such vortical disturbances was implemented in numerical codes that range from inviscid transonic small disturbance to thin-layer Navier Stokes. The numerical results demonstrate the large distortions in the overall flow field and in the surface air loads that are produced by various vortical interactions. The results of the different codes are in excellent qualitative agreement, but, as might expected, the transonic small-disturbance calculations are deficient in the important region near the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: REPT-85075 , NAS 1.15:86658 , NASA-TM-86658 , USAAVSCOM-TM-84-A-10 , AD-A152417
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The nature of corrections for flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor was investigated. Corrections for the angle of attack and sideslip, measured by sensors mounted in front of each wing tip of a general aviation airplane, were determined. These flow corrections were obtained from both wind-tunnel and flight tests over a large angle-of-attack range. Both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip flow corrections were found to be substantial. The corrections were a function of the angle of attack and angle of sideslip. The effects of wing configuration changes, small changes in Reynolds number, and spinning rotation on the angle-of-attack flow correction were found to be small. The angle-of-attack flow correction determined from the static wind-tunnel tests agreed reasonably well with the correction determined from flight tests.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174412 , NASA-CR-174412
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83201 , L-14831 , NAS 1.15:83201
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static pressure orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gages for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Results from the present test (the third in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.78, and 0.86 and are presented in tabular form.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84543 , NAS 1.15:84543 , L-15509
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3662 , NAS 1.26:3662
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  • 79
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure to study the local stability of planar shock waves is presented. The procedure is applied to a Rankine-Hugoniot shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, to an isentropic shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, and to Rankine-Hugoniot shocks attached to wedges and cones. It is shown that for each case, the equation governing the shock motion is equivalent to the damped harmonic oscillator equation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-2387 , NAS 1.60:2387 , L-15768
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The mathematical development for the expanded capabilities of the G400 rotor aeroelastic analysis was examined. The G400PA expanded analysis simulates the dynamics of all conventional rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers, and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. The methodology for modeling the unsteady stalled airloads of two dimensional airfoils is discussed. Formulations for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to the higher harmonic blade excitations are outlined. This impedance matrix, and the associated vibratory hub loads, are the rotor dynamic characteristic elements for use in the simplified coupled rotor/fuselage vibration analysis (SIMVIB). Updates to the development of the original G400 theory, program documentation, user instructions and information are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-172455 , NAS 1.26:172455
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A flow visualization study in water was completed on the interaction of a streamwise vortex with a laminar boundary layer on a two-dimensional wing. The vortex was generated at the tip of a finite wing at incidence, mounted perpendicular to the main wing, and having the same chord as the main wing. The Reynolds number based on wing chord was about 5000. Two different visualization techniques were used. One involved the injection of two different colored dyes into the vortex and the boundary layer. The other technique utilized hydrogen bubbles as an indicator. The position of the vortex was varied in a directional normal to the wing. The angle of attack of the main wing was varied from -5 to +12.5 deg. The vortex induced noticeable cross flows in the wing boundary layer from a distance equivalent to 0.75 chords. When very close to the wing, the vortex entrained boundary layer fluid and caused a cross flow separation which resulted in a secondary vortex.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86656 , NASA-TM-86656 , REPT-85013
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Current literature on the three dimensional flow through compressor cascades deals with a row of rotor blades in isolation. Since the distance between the rotor and stator is usually 10 to 20 percent of the blade chord, the aerodynamic interference between them has to be considered for a proper evaluation of the aerothermodynamic performance of the stage. A unified approach to the aerodynamics of the incompressible flow through a stage is presented that uses the lifting surface theory for a compressor cascade of arbitrary camber and thickness distribution. The effects of rotor stator interference are represented as a linear function of the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator blades and the interference factor are determined concurrently through a matrix iteration process.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83767 , E-2258 , NASA-TM-83767
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A steady, three-dimensional average-passage equation system is derived for use in simulating multistage turbomachinery flows. These equations describe a steady, viscous flow that is periodic from blade passage to blade passage. From this system of equations, various reduced forms can be derived for use in simulating the three-dimensional flow field within multistage machinery. It is suggested that a properly scaled form of the average-passage equation system would provide an improved mathematical model for simulating the flow in multistage machines at design and, in particular, at off-design conditions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86869 , NAS 1.15:86869 , E-2291
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86018 , A-9877 , USAAVSCOM-TM-84-A-8 , NAS 1.15:86018
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The low speed lateral/directional characteristics of a generic 74 degree delta wing body configuration employing the latest generation, gothic planform vortex flaps was determined. Longitudinal effects are also presented. The data are compared with theoretical estimates from VORSTAB, an extension of the Quasi vortex lattice Method of Lan which empirically accounts for vortex breakdown effects in the calculation of longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is indicated that leading edge deflections of 30 and 40 degrees reduce the magnitude of the wing effective dihedral relative to the baseline for a specified angle of attack or lift coefficient. For angles of attack greater than 15 degrees, these flap deflections reduce the configuration directional stability despite improved vertical tail effectiveness. It is shown that asymmetric leading edge deflections are inferior to conventional ailerons in generating rolling moments. VORSTAB calculations provide coarse lateral/directional estimates at low to moderate angles of attack. The theory does not account for vortex flow induced, vertical tail effects.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:3848 , NASA-CR-3848
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