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  • AERODYNAMICS  (479)
  • 1980-1984  (479)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind-tunnel tests to measure unsteady aerodynamic data in the transonic region have been completed on an aspect ratio 2.0 rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil. The geometric and structural properties of the wing are presented. (Other references contain the measured aerodynamic data.) Both measured and design airfoil coordinates are presented and compared. In addition, measured wing bending and torsional stiffness distributions and some trailing-edge flexibility influence coefficients are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85673 , NASA-TM-85673
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The proper design of engine nacelle installations for supersonic aircraft depends on a sophisticated understanding of the interactions between the boundary layers and the bounding external flows. The successful operation of mixed external-internal compression inlets depends significantly on the ability to closely control the operation of the internal compression portion of the inlet. This portion of the inlet is one where compression is achieved by multiple reflection of oblique shock waves and weak compression waves in a converging internal flow passage. However weak these shocks and waves may seem gas-dynamically, they are of sufficient strength to separate a laminar boundary layer and generally even strong enough for separation or incipient separation of the turbulent boundary layers. An understanding was developed of the viscous-inviscid interactions and of the shock wave boundary layer interactions and reflections.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:186581 , NASA-CR-186581
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A program called FLEXWAL for calculating wall modifications for solid, adaptive-wall wind tunnels is presented. The method used is the iterative technique of NASA TP-2081 and is applicable to subsonic and transonic test conditions. The program usage, program listing, and a sample case are given.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84648 , NAS 1.15:84648
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84666 , NASA-TM-84666
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-ratio, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support system and on the Langley sting support system to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15484 , NASA-TP-2097 , NAS 1.60:2097
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The nature of corrections for flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor was investigated. Corrections for the angle of attack and sideslip, measured by sensors mounted in front of each wing tip of a general aviation airplane, were determined. These flow corrections were obtained from both wind-tunnel and flight tests over a large angle-of-attack range. Both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip flow corrections were found to be substantial. The corrections were a function of the angle of attack and angle of sideslip. The effects of wing configuration changes, small changes in Reynolds number, and spinning rotation on the angle-of-attack flow correction were found to be small. The angle-of-attack flow correction determined from the static wind-tunnel tests agreed reasonably well with the correction determined from flight tests.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174412 , NASA-CR-174412
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static pressure orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gages for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Results from the present test (the third in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.78, and 0.86 and are presented in tabular form.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84543 , NAS 1.15:84543 , L-15509
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3662 , NAS 1.26:3662
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A previously developed finite-difference procedure for calculating unsteady, incompressible, laminar boundary layers on an oscillating flat plate is applied to a wing section undergoing high-amplitude pitching oscillations about various mean incidences. To start the entire boundary-layer calculation, appropriate initial conditions and outer boundary conditions are specified, using a stagnation-point fixed frame of reference. The breakdown of the numerical calculation procedure in the x,t-domain is interpreted to coincide with unsteady separation. Details of the boundary-layer behavior in the vicinity of separation are investigated, and a close analogy between the present results and those for a three-dimensional steady separation is found.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84319-PT-2 , A-9403 , NASA-TM-84319-PT-2
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Flowfield measurements obtained in several large scale, high speed facilities are presented. Sampling bias and seeding problems are addressed and solutions are outlined. The laser velocimeter systems and data reduction procedures which were used in the experiments are also described. The work demonstrated the potential of the laser velocimeter for applications in other than closely controlled, smallscale laboratory situations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166575 , NAS 1.26:166575
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Full-scale measurement or validation of the various factors of train running resistance is an essential step in decreasing train energy consumption. Such a measurement capability would enable railroads to evaluate the cost benefits of operational and train consistent configuration changes, and new vehicle and truck designs for decreasing aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance. A decrease in the rolling resistance affects more than just a decrease in energy consumption; it also will result in decreased mechanical wear, hence less wheel and rail maintenance and replacement costs. A demonstration of a simple coast-down technique (based on computer-reduction of distance history) was accomplished using specially configured trains on main line rail provided by the Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe Railway Co. This demonstration test shows that this distance-history coast-down technique for trains is easy to execute in the field. The total running resistance history was accurately determined and subsequently separated into rolling resistance (mechanical friction) and aerodynamic drag.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-85 , NASA-CR-173468 , NAS 1.26:173468
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Using the quasi-steady, full potential code, ROT22, pressures were calculated on straight and swept tip model helicopter rotor blades at advance ratios of 0.40 and 0.45, and into the transonic tip speed range. The calculated pressures were compared with values measured in the tip regions of the model blades. Good agreement was found over a wide range of azimuth angles when the shocks on the blade were not too strong. However, strong shocks persisted longer than predicted by ROT22 when the blade was in the second quadrant. Since the unsteady flow effects present at high advance ratios primarily affect shock waves, the underprediction of shock strengths is attributed to the simplifying, quasi-steady, assumption made in ROT22.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85872 , A-9584 , NAS 1.15:85872
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The existence of a large scale structure in a Mach number 0.6, axisymmetric jet of cold air was proven. In order to further characterize the coherent structure, phase averaged measurements of the axial mass velocity, radial velocity, and the product of the two were made. These measurements yield information about the percent of the total fluctuations contained in the coherent structure. These measured values were compared to the total fluctuation levels for each quantity and the result expressed as a percent of the total fluctuation level contained in the organized structure at a given frequency. These measurements were performed for five frequencies (St=0.16, 0.32, 0.474, 0.95, and 1.26). All of the phase averaged measurements required that the jet be artificially excited.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-175359 , NAS 1.26:175359
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Accomplishments of the past year and plans for the coming year are highlighted as they relate to five year plans and the objectives of the following technical areas: aerothermal loads; multidisciplinary analysis and optimization; unsteady aerodynamics; and configuration aeroelasticity. Areas of interest include thermal protection system concepts, active control, nonlinear aeroelastic analysis, aircraft aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aeroelasticity and vibrations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84594 , NAS 1.15:84594
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A highly efficient computer analysis was developed for predicting transonic nacelle/inlet flowfields. This algorithm can compute the three dimensional transonic flowfield about axisymmetric (or asymmetric) nacelle/inlet configurations at zero or nonzero incidence. The flowfield is determined by solving the full-potential equation in conservative form on a body-fitted curvilinear computational mesh. The difference equations are solved using the AF2 approximate factorization scheme. This report presents a discussion of the computational methods used to both generate the body-fitted curvilinear mesh and to obtain the inviscid flow solution. Computed results and correlations with existing methods and experiment are presented. Also presented are discussions on the organization of the grid generation (NGRIDA) computer program and the flow solution (NACELLE) computer program, descriptions of the respective subroutines, definitions of the required input parameters for both algorithms, a brief discussion on interpretation of the output, and sample cases to illustrate application of the analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166528 , LG83ER0163 , NAS 1.26:166528
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced fighter designed for supersonic cruise were determined in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the interactive effects of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on lift and drag and to determine trim characteristics. The wing maneuver devices consisted of a drooped leading edge and a trailing-edge flap. Thrust vectoring was accomplished with two dimensional (nonaxisymmetric) convergent-divergent nozzles located below the wing in two single-engine podded nacelles. A canard was utilized for trim. Thrust vector angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg were tested in combination with a drooped wing leading edge and with wing trailing-edge flap deflections up to 30 deg. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, at angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg, and at nozzle pressure ratios from about 1 (jet off) to 10. Reynolds number based on mean aerodynamic chord varied from 9.24 x 10 to the 6th to 10.56 x 10 to the 6th.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15526 , NASA-TP-2119 , NAS 1.60:2119
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A time-independent convection diffusion equation is studied by means of a compact finite difference scheme and numerical solutions are compared to the analytic inviscid solutions. The correct internal and external boundary layer behavior is observed, due to an inherent feature of the scheme which automatically produces upwind differencing in inviscid regions and the correct viscous behavior in viscous regions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ICASE-83-57 , NAS 1.26:172231 , NASA-CR-172231
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wings, designed for leading edge thrust at supersonic speeds, were investigated in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, 2.16, and 2.36. Experimental data were obtained on a uncambered wing which had three interchangeable leading edges that varied from sharp to blunt. The leading edge thrust concept was evaluated. Results from the investigation showed that leading edge flow separation characteristics of all wings tested agree well with theoretical predictions. The experimental data showed that significant changes in wing leading edge bluntness did not affect the zero lift drag of the uncambered wings.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2204 , L-15620 , NASA-TP-2204
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface static-pressure and drag data obtained from tests of two slightly modified versions of the original NASA Whitcomb airfoil and a model of the NACA 0012 airfoil section are presented. Data for the supercritical airfoil were obtained for a free-stream Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.9, and a chord Reynolds number range of 2 x 10 to the 6th power to 4 x 10 to the 6th power. The NACA 0012 airfoil was tested at a constant chord Reynolds number of 2 x 10 to the 6th power and a free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.8.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-81336-SUPPL , A-8762 , NAS 1.15:81336-SUPPL
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tests have been conducted in a number of NASA wind tunnels to measure disturbance levels and spectra in their respective settling chambers, test sections, and diffusers to determine the sources of their disturbances. The present data supplements previous results in other NASA tunnels and adds to the ongoing acquisition of a disturbance level data base. The present results also serve to explain flow related sources which cause relatively large disturbance amplitudes at discrete frequencies. The installation of honeycomb, screens, and acoustic baffles in or upstream of the settling chamber can significantly reduce the disturbance levels.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85659 , NAS 1.15:85659
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3694 , NAS 1.26:3694
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An improved method for use of optimization techniques in transonic airfoil design is demonstrated. FLO6QNM incorporates a modified quasi-Newton optimization package, and is shown to be more reliable and efficient than the method developed previously at NASA-Ames, which used the COPES/CONMIN optimization program. The design codes are compared on a series of test cases with known solutions, and the effects of problem scaling, proximity of initial point to solution, and objective function precision are studied. In contrast to the older method, well-converged solutions are shown to be attainable in the context of engineering design using computational fluid dynamics tools, a new result. The improvements are due to better performance by the optimization routine and to the use of problem-adaptive finite difference step sizes for gradient evaluation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166497 , TN-11555-307-8 , NAS 1.26:166497
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental wind-tunnel investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 3.50 to obtain the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a circular, cruciform, canard-controlled missile with variations in tail-fin span. In addition, comparisons were made with the experimental aerodynamic characteristics using three missile aeroprediction programs: MISSILE1, MISSILE2, and NSWCDM. The results of the investigation indicate that for the test Mach number range, canard roll control at low angles of attack is feasible on tail-fin configurations with tail-to-canard span ratios of less than or equal to 0.75. The conards are effective pitch and yaw control devices on each tail-fin span configuration tested. Programs MISSILE1 and MISSILE2 provide very good predictions of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and fair predictions of lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics at low angles of attack, with MISSILE2 predictions generally in better agreement with test data. Program NSWCDM provides good longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic predictions that improve with increases in tail-tin span.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2157 , NASA-TP-2157 , L-15586
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: To assist in identifying and quantifying the relevant parameters associated with the complex topic of main rotor/fuselage/tail rotor interference, a model scale hover test was conducted in the Model Rotor Hover Facility. The test was conducted using the basic model test rig, fuselage skins to represent a UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter, 4 sets of rotor blades of varying geometry (i.e., twist, airfoils and solidity) and a model tail rotor that could be relocated to give changes in rotor clearance (axially, laterally, and vertically), can't angle and operating model (pusher or tractor). The description of the models and the tests, data analysis and summary (including plots) are included. The customary system of units gas used for principal measurements and calculations. Expressions in both SI units and customary units are used with the SI units stated first and the customary units afterwords, in parenthesis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: SER-510112-VOL-1 , NAS 1.26:166485 , NASA-CR-166485
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: PWA-5768-29 , NAS 1.26:168051 , NASA-CR-168051
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fuselage, boundary layer, and nozzle pressures were measured in flight for a twin jet fighter over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 2.00 at test altitudes of 6100, 10,700, and 13,700 meters for angles of attack ranging from 0 deg to 7 deg. Test data were analyzed to find the effects of the propulsion system geometry. The flight variables, and flow interference. The aft fuselage flow field was complex and showed the influence of the vertical tail, nacelle contour, and the wing. Changes in the boattail angle of either engine affected upper fuselage and lower fuselage pressure coefficients upstream of the nozzle. Boundary layer profiles at the forward and aft locations on the upper nacelles were relatively insensitive to Mach number and altitude. Boundary layer thickness decreased at both stations as angle of attack increased above 4 deg. Nozzle pressure coefficient was influenced by the vertical tail, horizontal tail boom, and nozzle interfairing; the last two tended to separate flow over the top of the nozzle from flow over the bottom of the nozzle. The left nozzle axial force coefficient was most affected by Mach number and left nozzle boattail angle. At Mach 0.90, the nozzle axial force coefficient was 0.0013.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-2017 , H-1161 , NAS 1.60:2017
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Values of three mean velocity components and six turbulence stresses measured in a turbulent shear layer upstream of a simulated wing-fuselage juncture and immediately downstream of the start of the juncture are presented nd discussed. Two single-sensor hot-wire probes were used in the measurements. The separated region just upstream of the wing contains an area of reversed flow near the fuselage surface where the turbulence level is high. Outside of this area the flow skews as it passes around the body, and in this skewed region the magnitude and distribution of the turbulent normal and shear stresses within the shear layer are modified slightly by the skewing and deceleration of the flow. A short distance downstream of the wing leading edge the secondary flow vortext is tightly rolled up and redistributes both mean flow and turbulence in the juncture. The data acquisition technique employed here allows a hot wire to be used in a reversed flow region to indicate flow direction.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:3695 , NASA-CR-3695
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A passive means of tailoring helicopter rotor blades to improve performance and reduce loads was evaluated. The parameters investigated were blade torsional stiffness, blade section camber, and distance between blade structural elastic axis and blade tip aerodynamic center. This offset was accomplished by sweeping the tip. The investigation was conducted at advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40. Data are presented without analysis; however, cross referencing of performance data and harmonic loads data may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating passive aeroelastic tailoring or rotor blade parameters.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84573 , L-15507 , NASA-TM-84573 , AVRADCOM-TR-82-B-9
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The separated flow method is evaluated. This method was developed for moderately swept wings with multiple, constant strength vortex systems. The flow on the highly swept wing used in this evaluation is characterized by a single vortex system of continuously varying strength.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: D6-51762-1 , NAS 1.26:3640 , NASA-CR-3640
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spanwise blowing over the wing and canard of a 1:35 model of a close-coupled-canard fighter airplane configuration (similar to the Kfir-C2) was investigated experimentally in low-speed flow. Tests were conducted at airspeeds of 30 m/sec (Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 5th power based on mean aerodynamic chord) with angle-of-attack sweeps from -8 to 60 deg, and yaw-angle sweeps from -8 to 36 deg at fixed angles of attack 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg. Significant improvement in lift-curve slope, maximum lift, drag polar and lateral/directional stability was found, enlarging the flight envelope beyond its previous low-speed/maximum-lift limit. In spite of the highly swept (60 deg) leading edge, the efficiency of the lift augmentation by blowing was relatively high and was found to increase with increasing blowing momentum on the close-coupled-canard configuration. Interesting possibilities of obtaining much higher efficiencies with swirling jets were indicated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84330 , A-9243 , NASA-TM-84330
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The analysis of the chordwise load distribution and its sensitivity to the various system parameters represents the next phase of the overall study and is the subject of the present two volume report. The present volume is a compilation of all of the time history response data obtained during the test program previously described. The data have been tabulated in the form of Fourier coefficients for reasons of compactness and for ease by the user to reproduce the unsteady component of the individual pressures and the complete (unsteady plus steady state components) integrated load results. This data volume contains the individual pressure response time histories along the chord followed by the corresponding integrated load results. A further description of these data tables can be found in the text that follows.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:165927 , NASA-CR-165927
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Steady lifting flows over highly swept delta wings at large incidence were studied. After an exhaustive literature review, development of a vortex-lattice method was attempted. To demonstrate the feasibility of using such a method, an existing code was modified. A system of vortex lines to simulate the leading-edge wake was added. The coefficients predicted by the modified code were in good agreement with experimental data.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:169749 , NASA-CR-169749
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hypersonic stability, control, and performance characteristics were determined on a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle based on control-configured stability concepts. The configuration (0.006-scale model) had a large body with a small 50 deg swept wing. Two vertical-fin arrangements were investigated which consisted of a large center-line vertical tail and small wing-tip fins. The wing-tip fins had movable surfaces called controllers which could be deflected outward. Longitudinal and lateral directional characteristics were obtained over an angle-of-attack rage from 0 deg to 40 deg. The effects of tip-fin controller deflection on roll- and yaw-control characteristics at a sideslip angle of 0 deg were obtained. This investigation was conducted in the Langley 20 Inch Mach 6 Tunnel.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84565 , NASA-TM-84565 , L-15504
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aileron effectiveness for a subsonc energy efficient transport (EET) model with a high aspect ratio supercritical wing was determined in the 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. Data are presented for ailerons located at three positions along the wing span. The ailerons were designed as a preliminary active control concept with gust load alleviation, maneuver load alleviation, and flutter suppression systems. A linear variation of rolling moment coefficient with angle of attack for individual and multiple aileron deflections at Mach numbers up to 0.81 is indicated. For Mach numbers greater than 0.81, the rolling moment coefficient data become nonlinear with increasing angle of attack. At Mach numbers near the design value increased aileron effectiveness resulted from aft transition locations, which produced relatively thin boundary layers and greater effective aileron deflections. Individual aileron deflections on the right wing panel produced only small effects on yawing moment and side force coefficients.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85674 , NASA-TM-85674 , L-15646
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design of shockless airfoils that are appropriate for experimental work on a supersonic transport with an oblique wing are examined. A series of computer codes for the design and analysis of airfoils and wings in two dimensional and three dimensional transonic flow are studied. The oblique wing 3-D code was the forerunner of the later swept wing code. Techniques to incorporate the effect of an engine or fuselage in the inverse design code while using a minimum of computer resources are developed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173799 , NAS 1.26:173799
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of pressure loss and turbulence on four tube-bundle configurations representing heat-exchanger geometries with nominally the same heat capacity were measured as a function of Reynolds numbers from about 4000 to 400,000 based on tube hydraulic diameter. Two configurations had elliptical tubes, the other two had round tubes, and all four had plate fins. The elliptical-tube configurations had lower pressure loss and turbulence characteristics than the round-tube configurations over the entire Reynolds number range.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15721 , NAS 1.15:85807 , NASA-TM-85807
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical procedure is presented for computing the unsteady transonic flow field about three dimensional swept wings undergoing general time dependent motion. The outer inviscid portion of the flow is assumed to be governed by the modified unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation which is integrated in the time domain by means of an efficient alternating direction implicit approximate factorization algorithm. Gross dominant effects of the shock boundary layer interaction are accounted for by a simple empirically defined model. Viscous flow regions adjacent to the wing surface and in the trailing wake are described by a set of integral equations appropriate for compressible turbulent shear layers. The two dimensional boundary layer equations are applied quasi-statically stripwise across the span. Coupling with the outer inviscid flow is implemented through use of the displacement thickness concept within the limitations of small disturbance theory. Validity of the assumptions underlying the method is established by comparison with experimental data for the flow about a high aspect ratio transport wing having an advanced airfoil section.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166561 , NASA-CR-166561
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two computer codes useful in the supersonic aerodynamic design of wings, including the supersonic maneuver case are described. The nonlinear full potential equation COREL code performs an analysis of a spanwise section of the wing in the crossflow plane by assuming conical flow over the section. A subsequent approximate correction to the solution can be made in order to account for nonconical effects. In COREL, the flow-field is assumed to be irrotional (Mach numbers normal to shock waves less than about 1.3) and the full potential equation is solved to obtain detailed results for the leading edge expansion, supercritical crossflow, and any crossflow shockwaves. W12SC3 is a linear theory panel method which combines and extends elements of several of Woodward's codes, with emphasis on fighter applications. After a brief review of the aerodynamic theory used by each method, the use of the codes is illustrated with several examples, detailed input instructions and a sample case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3676 , NAS 1.26:3676
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The mean velocity profiles in both the horizontal and vertical planes of symmetry at specific locations throughout the tunnel circuit to identify the most promising means for improving the flow in the 4 by 7 meter wind tunnel were measured. In the base line tunnel flow surveys, the flow patterns near the end of the test section indicate a uniform mean velocity distribution. Downstream of the test section, unsymmetrical flow patterns result in low velocities along the inner walls and in flow separation along the inner wall of the diffuser upstream of the drive fan and along the outer wall of the large diffuser downstream of the drive fan. A set of trailing-edge flaps attached to the five flow-control vanes located just downstream of the first corner were installed. These flaps are successful in making the tunnel flow more symmetrical and in eliminating the regions of separation in the diffusers upstream and downstream of the drive fan.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15631 , NASA-TM-85662 , NAS 1.15:85662
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Isometric and projection view plots, inflow ratio nomographs, undistorted axial displacement nomographs, undistorted longitudinal and lateral coordinates, generalized axial distortion nomographs, blade/vortex passage charts, blade/vortex intersection angle nomographs, and fore and aft wake boundary charts are discussed. Example condition, in flow ratio, undistorted axial location, longitudinal and lateral coordinates, axial coordinates distortions, blade/tip vortex intersections, angle of intersection, and fore and aft wake boundaries are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:3727 , NASA-CR-3727 , R83-912666-58
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166533 , NAS 1.26:166533
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hinge moment of hinged-plate wing spoilers were measured during flight of a twin turboprop airplane modified by the addition of upper and lower wing-surface spoilers. The spoiler-actuating hydraulic cylinders were instrumented to measure the forces required to extend the spoiler panels. Those measurements were converted to moment coefficient form, and are presented as a function of spoiler deployment angle. The hinge-moment data were collected at three flight conditions: with flaps extended at approach speed; with flaps retracted at a low speed; and with flaps retracted at a high speed (C sub L = 1.4, 1.0, and 0.5). In general, the magnitude of measured spoiler hinge moments were lower than predicted. Furthermore, for upper surface spoilers with flaps extended, the hinge moments increased in a discontinuous manner between spoiler deflection 10 and 10.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9282 , NAS 1.15:84343 , NASA-TM-84343
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments were conducted in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center on three models with noncircular cross sections: a cone having a square cross section with rounded corners and a cone and cylinder with triangular cross sections and rounded vertices. The cones were tested with both sharp and blunt noses. Surface pressures and force and moment measurements were obtained over an angle of attack range from 30 deg to 90 deg and selected oil-flow experiments were conducted to visualize surface flow patterns. Unit Reynolds numbers ranged from 0.8x1,000,000/m to 13.0x1,000,000/m at a Mach number of 0.25, except for a few low-Reynolds-number runs at a Mach number of 0.17. Pressure data, as well as force data and oil-flow photographs, reveal that the three dimensional flow structure at angles of attack up to 75 deg is very complex and is highly dependent on nose bluntness and Reynolds number. For angles of attack from 75 deg to 90 deg the sectional aerodynamic characteristics are similar to those of a two dimensional cylinder with the same cross section.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9392 , NAS 1.15:84377 , NASA-TM-84377
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program written in a table ""look-up'' format, is presented which provides a comprehensive data base on NACA 16-series airfoils. The geometry covered is limited to cambers for a design-lift coefficient from 0.0 to 0.7 and thickness ratios from 4 to 21%. The data include Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.6, angles of attack from -4 to 8 degrees, and lift coefficients from 0.0 to 0.8. Extrapolation is used to obtain data from Mach numbers, angles of attack, and lift coefficients beyond those for which data are available. A routine to adjust the lift and drag coefficients beyond stall is included. The uses and limitations of the program are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85696 , NASA-TM-85696
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9500 , USAAVRADCOM-TR-83-A-12 , NAS 1.15:85844 , NASA-TM-85844
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of the NPL 9510 airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel over the following ranges of test conditions: Mach number of 0.35 to 0.82, total temperature of 94 K to 300 K, total pressure of 1.20 to 5.81 atm, Reynolds number based on airfoil chord of 1.34 x 10 to the 6th power to 48.23 x 10 to the 6th power, and angle of attack of 0 deg to 6 deg. The drag creep previously reported by the British National Physics Laboratory at low Reynolds numbers was also found to be present at high Reynolds numbers; the section drag coefficient continued to decrease even at the highest Reynolds number tested. Tests made close to free-stream saturation did not produce altered aerodynamic coefficients due to condensation effects.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15585 , NASA-TM-85663 , NAS 1.15:85663
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental study was conducted to explore possible reductions in installed propulsion system drag due to underwing aft nacelle locations. Both circular (C) and D inlet cross section nacelles were tested. The primary objectives were: to determine the relative installed drag of the C and D nacelle installations; and, to compare the drag of each aft nacelle installation with that of a conventional underwing forward, drag of each aft nacelle installation with that of a conventional underwing forward, pylon mounted (UTW) nacelle installation. The tests were performed in the NASA-Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85, airplane angles of attack from -2.5 to 4.1 degrees, and Reynolds numbers per foot from 3.4 to 4.0 million. The nacelles were installed on the NASA USB full span transonic transport model with horizontal tail on. The D nacelle installation had the smallest drag of those tested. The UTW nacelle installation had the largest drag, at 6.8 percent larger than the D at Mach number 0.80 and lift coefficient (C sub L) 0.45. Each tested configuration still had some interference drag, however. The effect of the aft nacelles on airplane lift was to increase C sub L at a fixed angle of attack relative to the wing body. There was higher lift on the inboard wing sections because of higher pressures on the wing lower surface. The effects of the UTW installation on lift were opposite to those of the aft nacelles.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3743 , NAS 1.26:3743 , LR-30436
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: To be of quantitative value to the designer and analyst, it is necessary to experimentally verify the flow modeling and the numerics inherent in calculation codes being developed to predict the three dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows. This experimental verification requires that predicted flow fields be correlated with three dimensional data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental phenomena existing in the flow passages of modern turbomachines. The Purdue Annular Cascade Facility was designed specifically to provide these required three dimensional data. The overall three dimensional aerodynamic performance of an instrumented classical airfoil cascade was determined over a range of incidence angle values. This was accomplished utilizing a fully automated exit flow data acquisition and analysis system. The mean wake data, acquired at two downstream axial locations, were analyzed to determine the effect of incidence angle, the three dimensionality of the cascade exit flow field, and the similarity of the wake profiles. The hub, mean, and tip chordwise airfoil surface static pressure distributions determined at each incidence angle are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL and TSONIC computer codes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: ME-TSPC-TR-83-02 , NASA-CR-168127 , NAS 1.26:168127
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of a series of cambered forebody models having a systematic variation in nose droop angle were determined from tests in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 and in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.47, 1.80, and 2.16. The models were tested through an angle-of-attack range of about 0 deg to 12 deg in the 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel and -2 deg to 20 deg in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the models were determined for all Mach numbers, and lateral-directional characteristics were determined for Mach numbers of 1.47 to 2.16. The investigation indicated that the principal effect of varying nose droop was on pitching moment, with some secondary effects on lift and drag. The experimental data were also compared with theoretical estimates.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2206 , NASA-TP-2206 , L-15647
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons were made of the performance and blade vibratory loads characteristics for an advanced rotor system as predicted by analysis and as measured in a 1/5 scale model wind tunnel test, a full scale model wind tunnel test and flight test. The accuracy with which the various tools available at the various stages in the design/development process (analysis, model test etc.) could predict final characteristics as measured on the aircraft was determined. The accuracy of the analyses in predicting the effects of systematic tip planform variations investigated in the full scale wind tunnel test was evaluated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:3714 , NASA-CR-3714 , SER-510034
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental study was conducted in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel to determine surface pressures over a 60 deg sweep delta wing with three vortex flap designs. Extensive pressure data was collected to provide a base data set for comparison with computational design codes and to allow a better understanding of the flow over vortex flaps. The results indicated that vortex flaps can be designed which will contain the leading edge vortex with no spillage onto the wing upper surface. However, the tests also showed that flaps designed without accounting for flap thickness will not be optimum and the result can be oversized flaps, early flap vortex reattachment and a second separation and vortex at the wing/flap hinge line.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-172833 , NAS 1.26:172833
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A possible reason is suggested for the induced rolling moments occurring on wraparound-fin configurations in subsonic flight at zero angle of attack. The subsonic potential flow over the configuration at zero incidence is solved numerically. The body is simulated by a distribution of sources along its axis, and the fins are described by a vortex-lattice method. It is shown that rolling moments can be induced on the antisymmetric fins by the radial flow generated at the base of the configuration, either over the converging separated wake, or over the diverging plume of a rocket motor.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9399 , NASA-TM-84381 , NAS 1.15:84381
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical technique to solve the Euler equations for steady, one dimensional flows is presented. The technique is essentially implicit, but is structured as a sequence of explicit solutions for each Riemann variable separately. Each solution is obtained by integrating in the direction prescribed by the propagation of the Riemann variables. The technique is second-order accurate. It requires very few steps for convergence, and each step requires a minimal number of operations. Therefore, it is three orders of magnitude more efficient than a standard time-dependent technique. The technique works very well for transonic flows and provides shock fitting with errors as small as 0.001. Results are presented for subsonic problems. Errors are evaluated by comparison with exact solutions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:3689 , NASA-CR-3689
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A users manual is presented for a computer program that prepares the bulk of the input data set required for the Denton three dimensional turbomachine blade row analysis code. The Denton input is generated from a minimum of geometry and flow variable information by using cubic spline curve fitting procedures. The features of the program are discussed. The input is described and special instructions are included to assist in its preparation. Sample input and output are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:83324 , E-1565 , NASA-TM-83324
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind tunnel investigation of the interference effects of aft reaction control system yaw jet plumes on a 0.0125 scale Space Shuttle orbiter model was conducted at Mach numbers from 2.50 to 4.50. Test variables included model angle of attack, model angle of sideslip, jet to free stream mass flow ratio, and number and position of operating jets. The aft reaction control jet plume creates a blockage above and behind the wing on the side in which the jet exhausts and results in flow separation on the wing upper surface and fuselage side. Positive pitching moment and side force increments and negative yawing moment and rolling moment increments due to the flow separations are incurred for left side firing jets, primarily at angles of attack above 10 deg. The yawing moment interference increments are favorable and result in a small jet thrust amplification. As a result of this investigation, the aft reaction control system was certified for operation at supersonic Mach numbers prior to the first flight of the space transportation system (STS-1).
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84645 , NASA-TM-84645 , L-15576
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer programs were developed to implement the computational scheme arising from Van Holten's asymptotic method for calculating airloads on a helicopter rotor blade in forward flight, and a similar technique which is based on a discretized version of the method. The basic outlines of the two programs are presented, followed by separate descriptions of the input requirements and output format. Two examples illustrating job entry with appropriate input data and corresponding output are included. Appendices contain a sample table of lift coefficient data for the NACA 0012 air foil and listings of the two programs.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166093 , NASA-CR-166093
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-166467 , NAS 1.26:166467
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A wind tunnel investigation of an advanced technology airfoil, the CAST 10-2/DOA 2, was conducted in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3 m TCT). This was the first of a series of tests conducted in a cooperative National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DFVLR) airfoil research program. Test temperature was varied from 280 K to 100 K to pressures from slightly above 1 to 5.8 atmospheres. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80, and the Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) was varied from 4 x 10 to the 8th power to 45 x 10 to the 6th power. This report presents the experimental aerodynamic data obtained for the airfoil and includes descriptions of the airfoil model, the 0.3 m TCT, the test instrumentation, and the testing procedures.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84620 , NAS 1.15:84620
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166477 , NASA-CR-166477
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The primary effects of Reynolds number on two dimensional airfoil characteristics are discussed. Results from an extensive literature search reveal the manner in which the minimum drag and maximum lift are affected by the Reynolds number. C sub d sub min and C sub l sub max are plotted versus Reynolds number for airfoils of various thickness and camber. From the trends observed in the airfoil data, universal scaling laws and easily implemented methods are developed to account for Reynolds number effects in helicopter rotor analyses.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9343 , NASA-TM-84363 , NAS 1.15:84363
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2151 , A-9169 , NASA-TP-2151
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine the use of wing leading-edge devices for improved subsonic and transonic maneuver performance. These devices were tested on a fighter configuration which utilized supercritical-wing technology. The configuration had a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg and an aspect ratio of 3.28. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.85 with angles of attack from -0.5 deg to 22 deg. At both Mach numbers, sharp leading-edge flaps produced vortices which greatly altered the flow pattern on the wing and resulted in substantial reductions in drag at high lift. Underwing or pylon-type vortex generators also reduced drag at high lift. The vortex generators worked better at a Mach number of 0.60. The vortex generators gave the best overall results with zero toe-in angle and when mounted on either the outboard part of the wing or at both an outboard location and halfway out the semispan. Both the flaps and the vortex generators had a minor effect on the pitching moment. Fluorescent minitufts were found to be useful for flow visualization at transonic maneuver conditions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-2125 , NAS 1.60:2125 , L-15539
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new numerical method, based on the Vortex Method, for the simulation of two-dimensional separated flows, was developed and tested on a wide range of gases. The fluid is incompressible and the Reynolds number is high. A rigorous analytical basis for the representation of the Navier-Stokes equation in terms of the vorticity is used. An equation for the control of circulation around each body is included. An inviscid outer flow (computed by the Vortex Method) was coupled with a viscous boundary layer flow (computed by an Eulerian method). This version of the Vortex Method treats bodies of arbitrary shape, and accurately computes the pressure and shear stress at the solid boundary. These two quantities reflect the structure of the boundary layer. Several versions of the method are presented and applied to various problems, most of which have massive separation. Comparison of its results with other results, generally experimental, demonstrates the reliability and the general accuracy of the new method, with little dependence on empirical parameters. Many of the complex features of the flow past a circular cylinder, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, are correctly reproduced.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84328 , NAS 1.15:84328 , A-9232
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified arrow-wing model was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel. This investigation addressed the effectiveness of the leading and trailing edge flap deflections of this model. The arrow wing was tested at a Mach number of 0.02 and at an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 24 deg. The results of the investigation showed that deflecting the leading edge and trailing edge in combination could promote an attached-flow condition at the wing leading edge. Also, the leading edge suction could be maximized over the complete lift-coefficient range by scheduling a combination of leading and trailing edge flap deflections.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84582 , L-15239 , NASA-TM-84582
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pressure distributions on a 60 deg Delta Wing with NASA designed leading edge vortex flaps (LEVF) were found in order to provide more pressure data for LEVF and to help verify NASA computer codes used in designing these flaps. These flaps were intended to be optimized designs based on these computer codes. However, the pressure distributions show that the flaps wre not optimum for the size and deflection specified. A second drag-producing vortex forming over the wing indicated that the flap was too large for the specified deflection. Also, it became apparent that flap thickness has a possible effect on the reattachment location of the vortex. Research is continuing to determine proper flap size and deflection relationships that provide well-behaved flowfields and acceptable hinge-moment characteristics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169984 , NAS 1.26:169984
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configurated with either twin axisymmetric or two dimensional inlets. Three circumferential inlet locations were investigated: 90 deg, 115 deg, and 135 deg from the top center. Two vertical wing locations, as well as wingless configurations, were used. Three tail configurations were formed by locating the tail surfaces either on the inlet fairing or on the inlet fairing or on fairings on the body. The surfaces were used to provide pitch control. Two dimensional inlets with extended compression surfaces, used to improve the angle-of-attack performance of the inlets for wingless configurations, were also investigated. The twin axisymmetric two dimensional inlet types without internal flow are covered, and the boost configuration of an air-breathing missile is simulated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84560 , L-15528 , NAS 1.15:84560
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Five methods to increase the computational efficiency of aerodynamic design using numerical optimization, by reducing the computer time required to perform gradient calculations, are examined. The most promising method consists of drastically reducing the size of the computational domain on which aerodynamic calculations are made during gradient calculations. Since a gradient calculation requires the solution of the flow about an airfoil whose geometry was slightly perturbed from a base airfoil, the flow about the base airfoil is used to determine boundary conditions on the reduced computational domain. This method worked well in subcritical flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169930 , NAS 1.26:169930 , CFDL-TR-83-1
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configured with either a single axisymmetric or a two dimensional inlet located at the bottom of the body. Two tail configurations were investigated: a tri-tail and an X-tail. The tail surfaces could be deflected to provide pitch control. A wing could be located above the inlet on the center line of the model. Tests were made at supersonic Mach numbers with the inlet open and internal flow, and at subsonic-transonic Mach numbers with the internal duct closed and no internal flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84557 , NAS 1.15:84557 , L-15487
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two different singularity methods have been utilized to calculate the potential flow past a three dimensional non-lifting body. Two separate FORTRAN computer programs have been developed to implement these theoretical models, which will in the future allow inclusion of the fuselage effect in a pair of existing subcritical wing design computer programs. The first method uses higher order axial singularity distributions to model axisymmetric bodies of revolution in an either axial or inclined uniform potential flow. Use of inset of the singularity line away from the body for blunt noses, and cosine-type element distributions have been applied to obtain the optimal results. Excellent agreement to five significant figures with the exact solution pressure coefficient value has been found for a series of ellipsoids at different angles of attack. Solutions obtained for other axisymmetric bodies compare well with available experimental data. The second method utilizes distributions of singularities on the body surface, in the form of a discrete vortex lattice. This program is capable of modeling arbitrary three dimensional non-lifting bodies. Much effort has been devoted to finding the optimal method of calculating the tangential velocity on the body surface, extending techniques previously developed by other workers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:166058 , NASA-CR-166058
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Numerical solution techniques for solving transonic flow fields governed by the full potential equation are discussed. In a general sense relaxation schemes suitable for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations are presented and discussed with emphasis on transonic flow applications. The presentation can be divided into two general categories: An introductory treatment of the basic concepts associated with the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations and a more advanced treatment of current procedures used to solve the full potential equation for transonic flow fields. The introductory material is presented for completeness and includes a brief introduction (Chapter 1), governing equations (Chapter 2), classical relaxation schemes (Chapter 3), and early concepts regarding transonic full potential equation algorithms (Chapter 4).
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-84310 , NAS 1.15:84310 , A-9175
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental low speed study of the separating confluent boundary layer on a NASA GAW-1 high lift airfoil is described. The airfoil was tested in a variety of high lift configurations comprised of leading edge slat and trailing edge flap combinations. The primary test instrumentation was a two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) system operating in a backscatter mode. Surface pressures and corresponding LV derived boundary layer profiles are given in terms of velocity components, turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses as characterizing confluent boundary layer behavior up to and beyond stall. LV derived profiles and associated boundary layer parameters and those obtained from more conventional instrumentation such as pitot static transverse, Preston tube measurements and hot-wire surveys are compared.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: LG82ER0184 , NASA-CR-166018 , NAS 1.26:166018
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This paper derives the three dimensional lambda-formulation equations for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and provides various block-explicit and block-implicit methods for solving them, numerically. Three model problems, characterized by subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow conditions, are used to assess the reliability and compare the efficiency of the proposed methods.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: REPT-83-62 , NASA-CR-172264 , NAS 1.26:172264
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  • 73
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theoretical and experimental program in which a wing concept for supersonic maneuvering was developed and then demonstrated experimentally in a series of wind tunnel tests is described. For the typical fighter wing, the problem of obtaining efficient lift at supersonic maneuvering C sub 's occurs due to development of a strong crossflow shock, and boundary layer separation. A natural means of achieving efficient supersonic maneuvering is based on controlling the non-linear inviscid crossflow on the wing in a manner analogous to the supercritical aerodynamic methods developed for transonic speeds. The application of supercritical aerodynamics to supersonic speeds is carried out using Supercritical Conical Camber (SC3). This report provides an aerodynamic analysis of the effort, with emphasis on wing design using non-linear aerodynamics. The substantial experimental data base is described in three separate wind tunnel reports, while two of the computer programs used in the work are also described in a separate report. Based on the development program it appears that a controlled supercritical crossflow can be obtained reliably on fighter-type wing planforms, with an associated drag due to lift reduction of about 20% projected using this concept.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-3763 , NAS 1.26:3763
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel of the thrust induced effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing fighter aircraft. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.14 to 0.17 over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 26 deg. The major model variables were the spanwise blowing nozzle sweep angle and main nozzle vector angle along with trailing edge, flap deflections. The overall thrust coefficient (main and spanwise nozzles) was varied from 0 (jet off) to 2.0. The results indicate that the thrust-induced effects from the main nozzle alone were small and mainly due to boundary-layer control affecting a small area behind the nozzle. When the spanwise blowing nozzles were included, the induced effects were larger than the main nozzle alone and were due to both boundary layer control and induced circulation lift. No leading edge vortex effects were evident.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2228 , L-15629 , NASA-TP-2228
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2235 , L-15675 , NASA-TP-2235
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Positions of the primary vortex flow reattachment line and longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at Mach number 0.3 for a systematic series of vortex flaps on delta wing body configurations with leading edge sweeps of 50, 58, 66, and 74 deg. The investigation was performed to study the parametric effects of wing sweep, vortex flap geometry and deflection, canards, and trailing edge flaps on the location of the primary vortex reattachment line relative to the flap hinge line. The vortex reattachment line was located via surface oil flow photographs taken at selected angles of attack. Force and moment measurements were taken over an angle of attack range of -1 deg to 22 deg at zero sideslip angle for many configurations to further establish the data base and to assess the aforementioned parametric effects on longitudinal aerodynamics. Both the flow reattachment and aerodynamic data are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-15702 , NAS 1.15:84618 , NASA-TM-84618
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An engineering and software specification which was written for a computer program to calculate aeroelastic structural loads including the effects of nonlinear aerodynamics is presented. The procedure used in the program for an iterative aeroelastic solution (PIAS) is to alternately execute two computer codes: one to calculate aerodynamic loads for a specific wing shape, and another to calculate the deflected shape caused by this loading. A significant advantage to the design of PIAS is that the initial aerodynamic module can be replaced with others. The leading edge vortex (LEV) program is used as the aerodynamic module in PIAS. This provides the capability to calculate aeroelastic loads, including the effects of a separation induced leading edge vortex. The finite element method available in ATLAS Integrated structural analysis and design system is used to determine the deflected wing shape for the applied aerodynamics and inertia loads. The data management capabilities in ATLAS are used by the execution control monitor (ECM) of PIAS to control the solution process.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: D6-52134 , NAS 1.26:172200 , NASA-CR-172200
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine installation effects on convergent-divergent nozzles applicable to twin-engine reduced-power supersonic cruise aircraft. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 1.20, angles of attack from -5 deg to 9 deg, and at nozzle pressure ratios from jet off (1.0) to 8.0. The effects of empennage arrangement, nozzle length, and afterbody closure on total and component drag coefficients were investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:2205 , L-15609 , NASA-TP-2205
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A program, XTRAN2L, for solving the general-frequency unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation was developed. It is a modification of the LTRAN2-NLR code. The alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) method of Rizzetta and Chin is used to advance solutions of the potential equation in time Engquist-Osher monotone spatial differencing is used in the ADI solution algorithm. As a result, the XTRAN2L code is more robust and more efficient than similar codes that use Murman-Cole type-dependent spatial differencing. Nonreflecting boundary conditions that are consistent with the general-frequency equation have been developed and implemented at the far-field boundaries. Use of those conditions allow the computational boundaries to be moved closer to the airfoil with no loss of accuracy. This makes the XTRAN2L code more economical to use.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85723 , NAS 1.15:85723
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Chebyshev pseudospectral methods are used to compute two dimensional smooth compressible flows. Grid refinement tests show that spectral accuracy can be obtained. Filtering is not needed if resolution is sufficiently high and if boundary conditions are carefully prescribed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-172230 , ICASE-83-51 , NAS 1.26:172230
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  • 81