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  • AERODYNAMICS  (12,791)
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions; p 88
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact linear acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous pressure information along the span at the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DGLR Seventh European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum; 20 p
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Fluid dynamic principles are applied to airfoil stability and control problems, blood pump studies, and in relativistic kinematics.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3334 , A-6140
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The effect of a simulated glaze-ice accretion on the flowfield of a 3D wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semispan wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of a subsonic wind tunnel. The model has a NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced-wing geometry. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along three spanwise cuts on the model. Measurements on the centerline of the clean model compared favorably with theory and centerline measurements on the iced model compared well with measurements on a similar 2D model. The flow has the largest separation bubble at the model midspan with the smallest separation bubble occurring near the root and the wing tip.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-4042
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The new free-piston shock tunnel has been partially calibrated, and a range of operating conditions has been found. A large number of difficulties were encountered during the shake-down period, of which the ablation of various parts was the most severe. Solutions to these problems were found. The general principles of high-enthalpy simulation are outlined, and the parameter space covered by T5 is given. Examples of the operating data show that, with care, excellent repeatability may be obtained. The temporal uniformity of the reservoir pressure is very good, even at high enthalpy, because it is possible to operate at tailored-interface and tuned-piston conditions over the whole enthalpy range. Examples of heat transfer and Pitot-pressure measurements are also presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3943
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream has been experimentally characterized using a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center. The presented results include oil-flow and shadowgraph flow visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, boundary layer rake measurements, and Preston-tube skin-friction measurements. The design, construction, and operation of the model was found to be successful. Surface oil-flow patterns show that the jet-plume flow attaches to the afterbody surface at jet pressure ratios between 154 and 234. The oil flow also shows the pattern of lines where the jet flow separates from the ramp, apparently as a result of interaction of the jet-plume internal shock wave with the ramp boundary layer.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3915
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A study of the effect of spanwise variation on leading edge heat transfer is presented. Experimental and numerical results are given for a circular leading edge and for a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. It is demonstrated that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3070
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The nozzle exit flowfield was measured at two axial locations with a miniature five-hole probe. Measurements were taken from hub-to-tip, blade-to-blade at 21 radial locations and at two axial locations downstream of the nozzle trailing edge to resolve the flowfield accurately including the nozzle wake, secondary flow region, horseshoe vortex and losses. All three components of the velocity, stagnation pressure, static pressure, and pitch and yaw angles have been resolved very accurately. The wake data seems to indicate that the decay of the wake is faster than the wake of an isolated nozzle row. The cause of this is attributed to the presence of the rotor downstream. A distinct vortex core has been observed near the tip. The indications are that the horseshoe vortex and the passage vortex have merged to produce a single loss core region. Roughly a third of the blade height passage near the tip and a third of the blade height near the hub is dominated by secondary flow, passage vortex and the horseshoe vortex phenomena. Only the middle third of the nozzle behaves as per design. These and other data are presented, interpreted and synthesized to understand the nozzle flowfield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3326
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An uncoupled boundary layer algorithm was combined with an inviscid core flow algorithm to model flows within supersonic engine inlets. The inviscid flow algorithm that was used was the LArge Perturbation INlet Code (LAPIN). The boundary layer and inviscid core flow algorithms were formulated in different manners. The boundary layer algorithm was two dimensional and solved in nonconservation form, while the core flow algorithm was one dimensional and solved in conservation form. In order to interface the two codes, the following modifications were important. The coordinate system was set up to maintain the parabolic nature of the boundary layer algorithm while approaching the one dimensional core flow solution far from a wall. The pressure gradient used in the boundary layer equation was calculated using the core flow values and the boundary layer equations, so the boundary layer solution smoothly approached the core flow values far from the wall. Flaring was used for the advection terms perpendicular to the core flow to maintain the stability of the algorithm. With these modifications, the combined viscous/inviscid algorithm matched well experimental observations of pressure distributions with a supersonic inlet.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3083
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The unsteady aerodynamic gust response of a high solidity stator vane row is examined in terms of the fundamental gust modeling assumptions with particular attention given to the effects near an acoustic resonance. A series of experiments was performed with gusts generated by rotors comprised of perforated plates and airfoils. It is concluded that, for both the perforated plate and airfoil wake generated gusts, the unsteady pressure responses do not agree with the linear-theory gust predictions near an acoustic resonance. The effects of the acoustic resonance phenomena are clearly evident on the airfoil surface unsteady pressure responses. The transition of the measured lift coefficients across the acoustic resonance from the subresonant regime to the superresonant regime occurs in a simple linear fashion.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3074
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