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  • *Biological Evolution  (1,390)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (1,390)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (1,390)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (327)
  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hulme, Philip E -- Le Roux, Johannes J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):422. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.422-b. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand. philip.hulme@lincoln.ac.nz. ; The Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand. Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102471" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Humans
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maxmen, Amy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1378-80. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6280.1378.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013707" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anal Canal/*anatomy & histology ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Ctenophora/*anatomy & histology/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):214-5. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6270.214. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816357" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anatomy, Comparative ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Colubridae/anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Copulation ; Female ; Genitalia, Female/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Male
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ball, Steven G -- Bhattacharya, Debashish -- Weber, Andreas P M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):659-60. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Universite de Lille CNRS, UMR 8576-UGSF-Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. debash.bhattacharya@gmail.com. ; Institute for Plant Biochemistry, Center of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitatsstrasse 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alphaproteobacteria/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Animals ; Archaea/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Endocytosis ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Eukaryota/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Plastids/*genetics ; Rickettsia/genetics/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis/*genetics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sarrazin, Francois -- Lecomte, Jane -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):422-3. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.422-c. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, CESCO, UMR 7204, 75005 Paris, France. sarrazin@mnhn.fr. ; Ecologie Systematique Evolution, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Universite Paris-Saclay, 91400 Orsay, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Humans
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dantzer, Ben -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):822-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa6480.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. dantzer@umich.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700499" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Competitive Behavior ; *Ecosystem ; Female ; Male ; *Maternal Behavior ; Songbirds/*physiology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: An important question in ecology is how mechanistic processes occurring among individuals drive large-scale patterns of community formation and change. Here we show that in two species of bluebirds, cycles of replacement of one by the other emerge as an indirect consequence of maternal influence on offspring behavior in response to local resource availability. Sampling across broad temporal and spatial scales, we found that western bluebirds, the more competitive species, bias the birth order of offspring by sex in a way that influences offspring aggression and dispersal, setting the stage for rapid increases in population density that ultimately result in the replacement of their sister species. Our results provide insight into how predictable community dynamics can occur despite the contingency of local behavioral interactions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duckworth, Renee A -- Belloni, Virginia -- Anderson, Samantha R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):875-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1260154.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. rad3@email.arizona.edu. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700519" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androgens/analysis ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Clutch Size ; *Competitive Behavior ; *Ecosystem ; Egg Yolk/chemistry ; Female ; Fires ; Male ; *Maternal Behavior ; Population Density ; Songbirds/*physiology ; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: Hawks et al. argue that our analysis of Australopithecus sediba mandibles is flawed and that specimen LD 350-1 cannot be distinguished from this, or any other, Australopithecus species. Our reexamination of the evidence confirms that LD 350-1 falls outside of the pattern that A. sediba shares with Australopithecus and thus is reasonably assigned to the genus Homo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Villmoare, Brian -- Kimbel, William H -- Seyoum, Chalachew -- Campisano, Christopher J -- DiMaggio, Erin -- Rowan, John -- Braun, David R -- Arrowsmith, J Ramon -- Reed, Kaye E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 19;348(6241):1326. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1122.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Hominin Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1H 0BW, UK. brian.villmoare@unlv.edu wkimbel.iho@asu.edu. ; School of Human Evolution and Social Change and Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. brian.villmoare@unlv.edu wkimbel.iho@asu.edu. ; School of Human Evolution and Social Change and Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; School of Human Evolution and Social Change and Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Center for the Advanced Study of Hominin Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. ; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089506" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology ; Humans
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-06
    Description: Our understanding of the origin of the genus Homo has been hampered by a limited fossil record in eastern Africa between 2.0 and 3.0 million years ago (Ma). Here we report the discovery of a partial hominin mandible with teeth from the Ledi-Geraru research area, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia, that establishes the presence of Homo at 2.80 to 2.75 Ma. This specimen combines primitive traits seen in early Australopithecus with derived morphology observed in later Homo, confirming that dentognathic departures from the australopith pattern occurred early in the Homo lineage. The Ledi-Geraru discovery has implications for hypotheses about the timing and place of origin of the genus Homo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Villmoare, Brian -- Kimbel, William H -- Seyoum, Chalachew -- Campisano, Christopher J -- DiMaggio, Erin N -- Rowan, John -- Braun, David R -- Arrowsmith, J Ramon -- Reed, Kaye E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 20;347(6228):1352-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1343. Epub 2015 Mar 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Hominin Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1H 0BW, UK. brian.villmoare@unlv.edu wkimbel.iho@asu.edu. ; Institute of Human Origins and School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. brian.villmoare@unlv.edu wkimbel.iho@asu.edu. ; Institute of Human Origins and School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Institute of Human Origins and School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Center for the Advanced Study of Hominin Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. ; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25739410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Ethiopia ; Fossils ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Mandible/anatomy & histology ; Tooth/anatomy & histology
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, Robert F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 24;349(6246):372-3. doi: 10.1126/science.349.6246.372.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26206914" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Collagen/chemistry ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fossils ; Humans ; Mammals ; Paleontology/*methods ; Proteomics/*methods ; Sequence Analysis, Protein/*methods ; Skull
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-14
    Description: Mammoths provide a detailed example of species origins and dispersal, but understanding has been impeded by taxonomic confusion, especially in North America. The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi was thought to have evolved in North America from a more primitive Eurasian immigrant. The earliest American mammoths (1.5 million years ago), however, resemble the advanced Eurasian M. trogontherii that crossed the Bering land bridge around that time, giving rise directly to M. columbi. Woolly mammoth M. primigenius later evolved in Beringia and spread into Europe and North America, leading to a diversity of morphologies as it encountered endemic M. trogontherii and M. columbi, respectively. In North America, this included intermediates ("M. jeffersonii"), suggesting introgression of M. primigenius with M. columbi. The lineage illustrates the dynamic interplay of local adaptation, dispersal, and gene flow in the evolution of a widely distributed species complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lister, A M -- Sher, A V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):805-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5660.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. a.lister@nhm.ac.uk. ; Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow 119071, Russia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Europe ; Fossils ; Gene Flow ; Mammoths/anatomy & histology/*classification/genetics ; Molar/anatomy & histology ; North America ; Tooth Wear/pathology
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Miocene small-bodied anthropoid primates from Africa and Eurasia are generally considered to precede the divergence between the two groups of extant catarrhines-hominoids (apes and humans) and Old World monkeys-and are thus viewed as more primitive than the stem ape Proconsul. Here we describe Pliobates cataloniae gen. et sp. nov., a small-bodied (4 to 5 kilograms) primate from the Iberian Miocene (11.6 million years ago) that displays a mosaic of primitive characteristics coupled with multiple cranial and postcranial shared derived features of extant hominoids. Our cladistic analyses show that Pliobates is a stem hominoid that is more derived than previously described small catarrhines and Proconsul. This forces us to reevaluate the role played by small-bodied catarrhines in ape evolution and provides key insight into the last common ancestor of hylobatids (gibbons) and hominids (great apes and humans).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alba, David M -- Almecija, Sergio -- DeMiguel, Daniel -- Fortuny, Josep -- Perez de los Rios, Miriam -- Pina, Marta -- Robles, Josep M -- Moya-Sola, Salvador -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 30;350(6260):aab2625. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2625. Epub 2015 Oct 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (ICP), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes sense numero, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (ICP), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes sense numero, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (ICP), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes sense numero, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. FOSSILIA Serveis Paleontologics i Geologics, Jaume I 87, 5e 1a, 08470 Sant Celoni, Barcelona, Spain. ; Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats at ICP and Unitat d'Antropologia Biologica (Department de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes sense numero, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516285" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Body Weight ; Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology ; Brain/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Dentition ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*classification/growth & development ; Humans ; Hylobates/anatomy & histology/*classification/growth & development ; Phylogeny ; Skull/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Spain
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wagner, Peter J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):736-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA. wagnerpj@si.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564831" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Body Size ; Fishes/*anatomy & histology
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-08-15
    Description: The evolution of sexual reproduction is often explained by Red Queen dynamics: Organisms must continually evolve to maintain fitness relative to interacting organisms, such as parasites. Recombination accompanies sexual reproduction and helps diversify an organism's offspring, so that parasites cannot exploit static host genotypes. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster plastically increases the production of recombinant offspring after infection. The response is consistent across genetic backgrounds, developmental stages, and parasite types but is not induced after sterile wounding. Furthermore, the response appears to be driven by transmission distortion rather than increased recombination. Our study extends the Red Queen model to include the increased production of recombinant offspring and uncovers a remarkable ability of hosts to actively distort their recombination fraction in rapid response to environmental cues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Singh, Nadia D -- Criscoe, Dallas R -- Skolfield, Shelly -- Kohl, Kathryn P -- Keebaugh, Erin S -- Schlenke, Todd A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 14;349(6249):747-50. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1768.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences and Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. ndsingh@ncsu.edu schlenkt@reed.edu. ; Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine Program, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. ; Department of Biology, Reed College, Portland, OR, USA. ; Department of Biology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, USA. ; Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. ; Department of Biology, Reed College, Portland, OR, USA. ndsingh@ncsu.edu schlenkt@reed.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273057" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics/growth & development/*parasitology ; Female ; *Genetic Fitness ; Genetic Variation ; Larva ; Male ; Mutation ; Parasitic Diseases/genetics ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Reproduction/genetics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: Skinner and colleagues (Research Article, 23 January 2015, p. 395), based on metacarpal trabecular bone structure, argue that Australopithecus africanus employed human-like dexterity for stone tool making and use 3 million years ago. However, their evolutionary and biological assumptions are misinformed, failing to refute the previously existing hypothesis that human-like manipulation preceded systematized stone tool manufacture, as indicated by the fossil record.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Almecija, Sergio -- Wallace, Ian J -- Judex, Stefan -- Alba, David M -- Moya-Sola, Salvador -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1101. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8414.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Science and Engineering Hall, 800 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. sergio.almecija@gmail.com. ; Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; ICREA at Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont and Unitat d'Antropologia Biologica (Departament BABVE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-CP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Metacarpal Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Metacarpus/*anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 24;349(6246):362-6. doi: 10.1126/science.349.6246.362.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26206910" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Archaeology ; Asia/ethnology ; *Biological Evolution ; DNA/*genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Russia/ethnology ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Skull
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-07-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 3;349(6243):21-3. doi: 10.1126/science.349.6243.21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138961" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; DNA/genetics ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics ; Gene Dosage ; Genes, Regulator ; Genetic Engineering ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Organ Size/genetics ; Pan troglodytes/anatomy & histology/embryology/genetics ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics ; Species Specificity
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):847. doi: 10.1126/science.348.6237.847.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; DNA/*genetics ; Europe ; *Fossils ; Humans ; *Mandible ; Neanderthals/*genetics
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1056-7. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6226.1056-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745142" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Ethiopia ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*genetics ; Jaw/anatomy & histology
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉MacLean, Evan L -- Hare, Brian -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 17;348(6232):280-1. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1200. Epub 2015 Apr 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Duke Canine Cognition Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. ; Duke Canine Cognition Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. b.hare@duke.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883339" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Domestic/*psychology ; *Biological Evolution ; *Bonding, Human-Pet ; *Communication ; Dogs/*psychology ; Female ; *Fixation, Ocular ; Humans ; Oxytocin/*physiology ; Wolves/*psychology
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 15;348(6236):744. doi: 10.1126/science.348.6236.744.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25977530" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Beak/*anatomy & histology/embryology ; *Biological Evolution ; Birds/*anatomy & histology/embryology/*genetics ; Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology/embryology ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 8/*genetics ; Fossils ; Hedgehog Proteins/*genetics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Description: Obligate parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae germinate after sensing plant hormones, strigolactones, exuded from host roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the alpha/beta-hydrolase D14 acts as a strigolactone receptor that controls shoot branching, whereas its ancestral paralog, KAI2, mediates karrikin-specific germination responses. We observed that KAI2, but not D14, is present at higher copy numbers in parasitic species than in nonparasitic relatives. KAI2 paralogs in parasites are distributed into three phylogenetic clades. The fastest-evolving clade, KAI2d, contains the majority of KAI2 paralogs. Homology models predict that the ligand-binding pockets of KAI2d resemble D14. KAI2d transgenes confer strigolactone-specific germination responses to Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, the KAI2 paralogs D14 and KAI2d underwent convergent evolution of strigolactone recognition, respectively enabling developmental responses to strigolactones in angiosperms and host detection in parasites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Conn, Caitlin E -- Bythell-Douglas, Rohan -- Neumann, Drexel -- Yoshida, Satoko -- Whittington, Bryan -- Westwood, James H -- Shirasu, Ken -- Bond, Charles S -- Dyer, Kelly A -- Nelson, David C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 31;349(6247):540-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1140.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. ; School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26228149" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/*metabolism/*parasitology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*classification/genetics/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Gene Dosage ; Germination ; Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring/*metabolism ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Hydrolases/*classification/genetics/metabolism ; Lactones/*metabolism ; Orobanchaceae/*enzymology/genetics/growth & development ; Phylogeny ; Plant Growth Regulators/*metabolism ; Plant Roots/metabolism/parasitology ; Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics/metabolism
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Many top consumers in today's oceans are marine tetrapods, a collection of lineages independently derived from terrestrial ancestors. The fossil record illuminates their transitions from land to sea, yet these initial invasions account for a small proportion of their evolutionary history. We review the history of marine invasions that drove major changes in anatomy, physiology, and ecology over more than 250 million years. Many innovations evolved convergently in multiple clades, whereas others are unique to individual lineages. The evolutionary arcs of these ecologically important clades are framed against the backdrop of mass extinctions and regime shifts in ocean ecosystems. Past and present human disruptions to marine tetrapods, with cascading impacts on marine ecosystems, underscore the need to link macroecology with evolutionary change.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kelley, Neil P -- Pyenson, Nicholas D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 17;348(6232):aaa3716. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3716.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA. kelleynp@si.edu. ; Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA. Departments of Mammalogy and Paleontology, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883362" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification ; *Biological Evolution ; Ecosystem ; Fossils ; *Introduced Species ; Oceans and Seas ; Vertebrates/*classification
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kay, Richard F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1068-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9217.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. richard.kay@duke.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745147" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Fossils ; Peru ; Phylogeny ; *Platyrrhini/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: Prufer and Meyer raise concerns over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results we reported for the Hoyo Negro individual, citing failure of a portion of these data to conform to their expectations of ancient DNA (aDNA). Because damage patterns in aDNA vary, outright rejection of our findings on this basis is unwarranted, especially in light of our other observations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kemp, Brian M -- Lindo, John -- Bolnick, Deborah A -- Malhi, Ripan S -- Chatters, James C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):835. doi: 10.1126/science.1261188.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. paleosci@gmail.com bmkemp@wsu.edu. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. ; Department of Anthropology and Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. ; Applied Paleoscience and DirectAMS, 10322 Northeast 190th Street, Bothell, WA 98011, USA. paleosci@gmail.com bmkemp@wsu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700511" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Indians, North American/*genetics ; *Skeleton
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):617. doi: 10.1126/science.348.6235.617.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25953986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Birds/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; China ; Feathers/*physiology ; *Flight, Animal ; Fossils
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-11-28
    Description: Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGee, Matthew D -- Borstein, Samuel R -- Neches, Russell Y -- Buescher, Heinz H -- Seehausen, Ole -- Wainwright, Peter C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1077-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aab0800.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolution and Ecology and Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland. Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland. mcgee.matthew@gmail.com. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. ; Department of Evolution and Ecology and Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Zoological Institute, University of Basel, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland. ; Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland. Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Biological ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cichlids/*anatomy & histology ; Eating ; *Extinction, Biological ; Jaw/*anatomy & histology ; Lakes ; Malawi ; Pharynx/*anatomy & histology ; Tanzania
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2015-08-22
    Description: Alternative splicing (AS) generates extensive transcriptomic and proteomic complexity. However, the functions of species- and lineage-specific splice variants are largely unknown. Here we show that mammalian-specific skipping of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) exon 9 alters the splicing regulatory activities of PTBP1 and affects the inclusion levels of numerous exons. During neurogenesis, skipping of exon 9 reduces PTBP1 repressive activity so as to facilitate activation of a brain-specific AS program. Engineered skipping of the orthologous exon in chicken cells induces a large number of mammalian-like AS changes in PTBP1 target exons. These results thus reveal that a single exon-skipping event in an RNA binding regulator directs numerous AS changes between species. Our results further suggest that these changes contributed to evolutionary differences in the formation of vertebrate nervous systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gueroussov, Serge -- Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas -- Irimia, Manuel -- Raj, Bushra -- Lin, Zhen-Yuan -- Gingras, Anne-Claude -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):868-73. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8381.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. EMBL/CRG Systems Biology Research Unit, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. b.blencowe@utoronto.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293963" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/*embryology ; Chickens ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Exons/genetics ; HEK293 Cells ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/*genetics
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zehr, Jonathan P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1163-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9752.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. zehrj@ucsc.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26359387" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cyanobacteria/*physiology ; Diatoms/physiology ; *Nitrogen Fixation ; Organelles/*physiology ; *Symbiosis
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2015-03-06
    Description: Sedimentary basins in eastern Africa preserve a record of continental rifting and contain important fossil assemblages for interpreting hominin evolution. However, the record of hominin evolution between 3 and 2.5 million years ago (Ma) is poorly documented in surface outcrops, particularly in Afar, Ethiopia. Here we present the discovery of a 2.84- to 2.58-million-year-old fossil and hominin-bearing sediments in the Ledi-Geraru research area of Afar, Ethiopia, that have produced the earliest record of the genus Homo. Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probably arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, which is in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time. Geological analyses constrain depositional and structural models of Afar and date the LD 350-1 Homo mandible to 2.80 to 2.75 Ma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DiMaggio, Erin N -- Campisano, Christopher J -- Rowan, John -- Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume -- Deino, Alan L -- Bibi, Faysal -- Lewis, Margaret E -- Souron, Antoine -- Garello, Dominique -- Werdelin, Lars -- Reed, Kaye E -- Arrowsmith, J Ramon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 20;347(6228):1355-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1415. Epub 2015 Mar 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. dimaggio@psu.edu kreed@asu.edu. ; Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; CNRS Geosciences Rennes, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, France. ; Berkeley Geochronology Center, 2455 Ridge Road, Berkeley, CA 94709, USA. ; Museum fur Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Biology Program, Stockton University, 101 Vera King Farris Drive, Galloway, NJ 08205, USA. ; Human Evolution Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3160, USA. ; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Palaeobiology, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25739409" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Ecosystem ; Ethiopia ; Fossils ; *Geologic Sediments ; *Hominidae
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2015-05-23
    Description: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a growing family of immune cells that mirror the phenotypes and functions of T cells. However, in contrast to T cells, ILCs do not express acquired antigen receptors or undergo clonal selection and expansion when stimulated. Instead, ILCs react promptly to signals from infected or injured tissues and produce an array of secreted proteins termed cytokines that direct the developing immune response into one that is adapted to the original insult. The complex cross-talk between microenvironment, ILCs, and adaptive immunity remains to be fully deciphered. Only by understanding these complex regulatory networks can the power of ILCs be controlled or unleashed in order to regulate or enhance immune responses in disease prevention and therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eberl, Gerard -- Colonna, Marco -- Di Santo, James P -- McKenzie, Andrew N J -- 100963/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1U01AI095542/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- MC_U105178805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01DE021255/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R21CA16719/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):aaa6566. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa6566. Epub 2015 May 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut Pasteur, Microenvironment and Immunity Unit, 75724 Paris, France. gerard.eberl@pasteur.fr. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Institut Pasteur, Innate Immunity Unit, INSERM U668, 75724 Paris, France. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity ; Adipose Tissue/immunology ; *Biological Evolution ; Bone Marrow/immunology ; Cytokines/immunology ; Diet ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; Immunotherapy ; Inflammation/immunology ; Liver/embryology/immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Microbiota/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2015-11-14
    Description: Following the end-Devonian mass extinction (359 million years ago), vertebrates experienced persistent reductions in body size for at least 36 million years. Global shrinkage was not related to oxygen or temperature, which suggests that ecological drivers played a key role in determining the length and direction of size trends. Small, fast-breeding ray-finned fishes, sharks, and tetrapods, most under 1 meter in length from snout to tail, radiated to dominate postextinction ecosystems and vertebrae biodiversity. The few large-bodied, slow-breeding survivors failed to diversify, facing extinction despite earlier evolutionary success. Thus, the recovery interval resembled modern ecological successions in terms of active selection on size and related life histories. Disruption of global vertebrate, and particularly fish, biotas may commonly lead to widespread, long-term reduction in body size, structuring future biodiversity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sallan, Lauren -- Galimberti, Andrew K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):812-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7373.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. lsallan@sas.upenn.edu. ; Department of Biology, Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, MI 49006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564854" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biodiversity ; *Biological Evolution ; *Body Size ; Extinction, Biological ; Fishes/*anatomy & histology ; Tail/anatomy & histology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leslie, Mitch -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):615-6. doi: 10.1126/science.348.6235.615.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25953984" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Archaea/enzymology/genetics/ultrastructure ; Bacteria/enzymology/genetics/ultrastructure ; *Biological Evolution ; Chloroplasts ; Eukaryota/*classification/genetics/*ultrastructure ; Mitochondria ; Oceans and Seas ; Seawater/*microbiology
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vermeij, Geerat -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1038. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7032.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. gjvermeij@ucdavis.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612940" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Biological ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cichlids/*anatomy & histology ; *Extinction, Biological ; Jaw/*anatomy & histology ; Pharynx/*anatomy & histology
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lichten, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):913. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5404. Epub 2015 Nov 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. mlichten@helix.nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586748" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Finches/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; *Homologous Recombination ; Meiosis/*genetics ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Repressor Proteins/*genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, Lizzie -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 24;349(6246):370-1. doi: 10.1126/science.349.6246.370. Epub 2015 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26206913" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Analytic Sample Preparation Methods ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; *Biological Evolution ; *Caves ; Cold Temperature ; DNA/chemistry/*genetics/*isolation & purification ; Hot Temperature ; Mexico ; Rodentia/*genetics ; Tooth/chemistry ; *Tropical Climate
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-06-13
    Description: Steffen et al. (Research Articles, 13 February 2015, p. 736) recently assessed current global freshwater use, finding it to be well below a corresponding planetary boundary. However, they ignored recent scientific advances implying that the global consumptive use of freshwater may have already crossed the associated planetary boundary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaramillo, Fernando -- Destouni, Georgia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 12;348(6240):1217. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9629. Epub 2015 Jun 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. fernando.jaramillo@natgeo.su.se. ; Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068843" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; *Climate Change ; *Earth (Planet) ; Humans ; *Ozone Depletion
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):729-30. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6262.729.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564827" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/*growth & development ; *Fossils ; Pandalidae
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):264. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6258.264.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472887" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; *Biological Evolution ; Caves ; China ; *Fossils ; *Human Migration ; Humans ; Tooth
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: A new Late Jurassic docodontan shows specializations for a subterranean lifestyle. It is similar to extant subterranean golden moles in having reduced digit segments as compared to the ancestral phalangeal pattern of mammaliaforms and extant mammals. The reduction of digit segments can occur in mammals by fusion of the proximal and intermediate phalangeal precursors, a developmental process for which a gene and signaling network have been characterized in mouse and human. Docodontans show a positional shift of thoracolumbar ribs, a developmental variation that is controlled by Hox9 and Myf5 genes in extant mammals. We argue that these morphogenetic mechanisms of modern mammals were operating before the rise of modern mammals, driving the morphological disparity in the earliest mammaliaform diversification.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Luo, Zhe-Xi -- Meng, Qing-Jin -- Ji, Qiang -- Liu, Di -- Zhang, Yu-Guang -- Neander, April I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):760-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1260880.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. zxluo@uchicago.edu mengqingjin@bmnh.org.cn. ; Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing 100050, China. zxluo@uchicago.edu mengqingjin@bmnh.org.cn. ; Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China. ; Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing 100050, China. ; Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25678660" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; China ; Finger Phalanges/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development ; Foot/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Humans ; Mammals/*anatomy & histology/genetics/*growth & development ; Mice ; Morphogenesis/genetics/*physiology ; Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5/genetics/physiology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2015-01-24
    Description: The distinctly human ability for forceful precision and power "squeeze" gripping is linked to two key evolutionary transitions in hand use: a reduction in arboreal climbing and the manufacture and use of tools. However, it is unclear when these locomotory and manipulative transitions occurred. Here we show that Australopithecus africanus (~3 to 2 million years ago) and several Pleistocene hominins, traditionally considered not to have engaged in habitual tool manufacture, have a human-like trabecular bone pattern in the metacarpals consistent with forceful opposition of the thumb and fingers typically adopted during tool use. These results support archaeological evidence for stone tool use in australopiths and provide morphological evidence that Pliocene hominins achieved human-like hand postures much earlier and more frequently than previously considered.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Skinner, Matthew M -- Stephens, Nicholas B -- Tsegai, Zewdi J -- Foote, Alexandra C -- Nguyen, N Huynh -- Gross, Thomas -- Pahr, Dieter H -- Hublin, Jean-Jacques -- Kivell, Tracy L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220):395-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1261735.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK. Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1H 0BW, UK. Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig Germany. Evolutionary Studies Institute and Centre for Excellence in PalaeoSciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. m.skinner@kent.ac.uk t.l.kivell@kent.ac.uk. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig Germany. ; Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1H 0BW, UK. ; Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, 1040 Wien, Vienna, Austria. ; School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK. Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig Germany. Evolutionary Studies Institute and Centre for Excellence in PalaeoSciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. m.skinner@kent.ac.uk t.l.kivell@kent.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25613885" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Archaeology ; *Biological Evolution ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Metacarpal Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Metacarpus/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Neanderthals/anatomy & histology ; Posture ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology/physiology
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kiers, E Toby -- West, Stuart A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 24;348(6233):392-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9605.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Ecological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. toby.kiers@vu.nl. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908807" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria ; *Biological Evolution ; Energy Metabolism ; Insects/microbiology ; Platyhelminths ; Symbiosis/*physiology
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: Chatters et al. (Reports, 16 May 2014, p. 750) reported the retrieval of DNA sequences from a 12,000- to 13,000-year-old human tooth discovered in an underwater cave in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. They propose that this ancient human individual's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to haplogroup D1. However, our analysis of postmortem damage patterns finds no evidence for an ancient origin of these sequences.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prufer, Kay -- Meyer, Matthias -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):835. doi: 10.1126/science.1260617.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. pruefer@eva.mpg.de mmeyer@eva.mpg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700510" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Indians, North American/*genetics ; *Skeleton
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2015-07-25
    Description: Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martill, David M -- Tischlinger, Helmut -- Longrich, Nicholas R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 24;349(6246):416-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9208.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3QL, UK. ; Tannenweg 16, 85134 Stammham, Germany. ; Department of Biology and Biochemistry and Milner Centre for Evolution, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26206932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brazil ; Extinction, Biological ; Extremities/*anatomy & histology ; Fossils ; India ; Lizards/*anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Snakes/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; South America ; Spine/anatomy & histology ; Tooth/anatomy & histology
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2015-01-17
    Description: The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries-climate change and biosphere integrity-have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steffen, Will -- Richardson, Katherine -- Rockstrom, Johan -- Cornell, Sarah E -- Fetzer, Ingo -- Bennett, Elena M -- Biggs, Reinette -- Carpenter, Stephen R -- de Vries, Wim -- de Wit, Cynthia A -- Folke, Carl -- Gerten, Dieter -- Heinke, Jens -- Mace, Georgina M -- Persson, Linn M -- Ramanathan, Veerabhadran -- Reyers, Belinda -- Sorlin, Sverker -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):1259855. doi: 10.1126/science.1259855. Epub 2015 Jan 15.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. will.steffen@anu.edu.au. ; Center for Macroecology, Evolution, and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Universitetsparken 15, Building 3, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada. ; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Centre for Studies in Complexity, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa. ; Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, 680 North Park Street, Madison WI 53706 USA. ; Alterra Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen, Netherlands. Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. ; Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Research Domain Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. ; Research Domain Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization), St. Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. ; Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research (CBER), Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Stockholm Environment Institute, Linnegatan 87D, SE-10451 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, 8622 Kennel Way, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA. TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) University, 10 Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, Delhi 110070, India. ; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa. ; Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592418" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere ; *Biological Evolution ; *Climate Change ; *Earth (Planet) ; Fresh Water ; Humans ; *Ozone Depletion
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Benefit, Brenda R -- McCrossin, Monte L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 30;350(6260):515-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0677.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA. bbenefit@nmsu.edu. ; Department of Anthropology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516271" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Hominidae/*classification ; Humans ; Hylobates/*classification
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  • 47
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-12-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Matzke, Nicholas J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):28-30. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4057. Epub 2015 Dec 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Work began at: National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA. nick.matzke@anu.edu.au.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26678877" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Natural History/*education ; *Origin of Life ; Phylogeny ; Public Policy
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires identifying the mechanisms underlying the transition from monoecious plants, where male and female flowers coexist, to unisexual individuals found in dioecious species. We show that in melon and cucumber, the androecy gene controls female flower development and encodes a limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, ACS11. ACS11 is expressed in phloem cells connected to flowers programmed to become female, and ACS11 loss-of-function mutants lead to male plants (androecy). CmACS11 represses the expression of the male promoting gene CmWIP1 to control the development and the coexistence of male and female flowers in monoecious species. Because monoecy can lead to dioecy, we show how a combination of alleles of CmACS11 and CmWIP1 can create artificial dioecy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boualem, Adnane -- Troadec, Christelle -- Camps, Celine -- Lemhemdi, Afef -- Morin, Halima -- Sari, Marie-Agnes -- Fraenkel-Zagouri, Rina -- Kovalski, Irina -- Dogimont, Catherine -- Perl-Treves, Rafael -- Bendahmane, Abdelhafid -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):688-91. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8370.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Universite d'Evry, Universite Paris-Diderot, Batiment 630, 91405, Orsay, France. ; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, CNRS, UMR 8601, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France. ; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. ; INRA, UR 1052, Unite de Genetique et d'Amelioration des Fruits et Legumes, BP 94, F-84143 Montfavet, France. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Universite d'Evry, Universite Paris-Diderot, Batiment 630, 91405, Orsay, France. bendahm@evry.inra.fr.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542573" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Amino Acid Sequence ; *Biological Evolution ; Cucumis sativus/enzymology/genetics/growth & development ; Cucurbitaceae/enzymology/genetics/*growth & development ; Ethylenes/biosynthesis ; Flowers/enzymology/genetics/*growth & development ; Genes, Plant/genetics/physiology ; Lyases/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phloem/enzymology/genetics/growth & development ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Sex Determination Processes/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 49
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mervis, Jeffrey -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1054. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6226.1054.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745139" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; Biology/*education ; Curriculum ; *Faculty ;