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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (471,856)
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Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-09-21
    Description: Streams and rivers are important components of the carbon cycle as they transport and transform dissolved organic matter (DOM). Using high‐resolution Fourier‐transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we studied the spatial distribution of DOM at the molecular level at more than 100 sites across a stream network during summer and winter baseflow. We developed a model approximating the time DOM spent in the fluvial network, a key constraint on the biogeochemical processing of DOM. Discharge‐weighted travel time explained the compositional changes of DOM, which differed markedly in summer and winter. We attribute these seasonal differences to variation in source material, putatively reflecting the dynamics of freshly produced DOM in summer and DOM with an imprint of leaf litter in winter. Hydrological mixing was an important driver of the spatial dynamics of DOM. From the convergence rate of DOM compound intensities to the network‐wide average, we inferred the spatial distribution of sources within the catchment. Finally, we estimated network‐wide apparent mass transfer coefficients (vf app) of individual DOM compounds, which describe the vertical velocity at which DOM compounds are removed by biotic and abiotic processes. We identified the oxidative state of carbon as an important factor explaining vf app, which we consequently attribute to biological uptake of thermodynamically favorable DOM compounds. This work contributes to our understanding of the spatial processes, temporal constraints, and chemical properties of DOM that regulate the transformation and diagenesis of DOM at the fluvial network scale.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: Aim: The interdependencies between trophic interactions, environmental factors and anthropogenic forcing determine how species distributions change over time. Large changes in species distributions have occurred as a result of climate change. The objective of this study was to analyse how the spatial distribution of cod and flounder has changed in the Baltic Sea during the past four decades characterized by large hydrological changes. Location: Baltic Sea. Taxon: Cod (Gadus morhua) and flounder (Platichthys flesus). Methods: Catch per unit of effort (CPUE) data for adult and juvenile cod and for adult flounder were modelled using Delta-Generalized additive models including environmental and geographical variables between 1979 and 2016. From the annual CPUE predictions for each species, yearly distribution maps and depth distribution curves were obtained. Mean depth and the depth range were estimated to provide an indication on preferred depth and habitat occupancy. Results: Adult and juvenile cod showed a contraction in their distribution in the southern areas of the Baltic Sea. Flounder, instead, showed an expansion in its distribution with an increase in abundance in the northern areas. The depth distributions showed a progressive shift of the mean depth of occurrence towards shallower waters for adult cod and flounder and towards deeper waters for juvenile cod, as well as a contraction of the species depth ranges, evident mainly from the late 1980s. Main conclusions: Our study illustrates large changes in the spatial distribution of cod and flounder in the Baltic Sea. The changes in depth distribution occurred from the late 1980s are probably due to a combination of expanded areas of hypoxia in deep waters and an increase in predation risk in shallow waters. The net effect of these changes is an increased spatial overlap between life stages and species, which may amplify cod cannibalism and the interaction strength between cod and flounder
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: Unique marine sediment cores retrieved from the southwestern slope of the Iceland‐Faroe Ridge (IFR), close to the main axis of the Iceland‐Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) revealed prominent sedimentary cycles reflecting near‐bottom current dynamics, sediment transport and deposition, coincident with Dansgaard‐Oeschger cycles and deglacial perturbations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The transition between Greenland Stadials (GSs) and Greenland Interstadials (GIs) follows a distinct, recurring sedimentation pattern. Basaltic (Ti‐rich) silts were transported from local volcanic sources by strong bottom currents and deposited during GIs comparable to modern ocean circulation. Finer‐grained felsic (K‐rich) sediments were deposited during GSs, when ISOW was weak. Possible felsic source areas include British‐Ireland and/or Fennoscandian shelf areas. A cyclic saw‐tooth pattern of bottom current strength is characterized by gradual intensification during GIs followed by a sharp decline towards GSs as is documented at core sites along the flank of Reykjanes Ridge. The cores north of Faroe Channel instead document the opposite pattern. This suggests that the near‐bottom currents along the Reykjanes Ridge are strongly controlled by the flow cascading over the IFR. Heinrich (like) Stadials (HSs) especially HS‐1 and HS‐2 are characterized by the deposition of very fine felsic sediments pointing to weakened bottom currents. Distinct coarse‐grained intervals of ice rafted debris (IRD) are absent from the sediment records, although pebble and gravel sized IRD is irregularly distributed throughout the fine sediment matrix. Near bottom currents are considered to have a major control on the lithogenic sediment deposition southwest of the Iceland‐Faroe Ridge and further down‐stream.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: A new olivine reference material – MongOL Sh11‐2 – for in situ analysis has been prepared from a central portion of a large (20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm) mantle peridotite xenolith from a ~ 0.5 Ma old basaltic breccia at Shavaryn‐Tsaram, Tariat region, central Mongolia. The xenolith is a fertile mantle lherzolite with minimal signs of alteration. Approximately 10 g of 0.5 to 2 mm gem quality olivine fragments were separated under binocular microscope and analysed by EPMA, LA‐ICP‐MS, SIMS and bulk analytical methods (ID ICP‐MS for Mg and Fe, XRF, ICP‐MS) for major, minor and trace elements at six institutions worldwide. The results show that the olivine fragments are sufficiently homogeneous with respect to major (Mg, Fe, Si) and minor and trace elements. Significant inhomogeneity was revealed only for phosphorus (homogeneity index of 12.4), whereas Li, Na, Al, Sc, Ti and Cr show minor inhomogeneity (homogeneity index of 1–2). The presence of some mineral and fluid‐melt micro‐inclusions may be responsible for the inconsistency in mass fractions obtained by in situ and bulk analytical methods for Al, Cu, Sr, Zr, Ga, Dy and Ho. Here we report reference and information values for twenty‐seven major, minor and trace elements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The genus Alexandrium (Halim) is perhaps the most intensively studied among toxic marine dinoflagellates. This is largely attributable to the devastating consequences of toxigenic blooms of this genus, with human poisonings from contaminated seafood, primarily from shellfish and more rarely from finfish; socio–economic losses to the aquaculture and fisheries industries; marine faunal mortalities; and food web disruptions common in coastal waters throughout the world. Members of this genus are globally distributed from the Arctic to the tropics, and in both hemispheres from sub–polar through temperate to sub–tropical to tropicalwaters. At least four distinct groups of marine phycotoxins are associated with various Alexandrium species, along with poorly characterized bioactive compounds (allelochemicals) that may affect species interactions among the plankton. According to the most recent iteration of the IOC–UNESCO reference list of toxic microalgae, there are now more than 30 recognized morphological species of Alexandrium, posing a daunting challenge for risk assessment and accurate identification in toxic phytoplankton monitoring programs.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: Our study area is a ~50 km long section of the central-southern Apennines tectonic belt that includes the Pergola-Melandro basin and the Agri valley. This region is located between the areas interested by the 1980 Ms=6.9 Irpinia and the 1857 M=7.0 Val d’Agri earthquakes and is characterized by rare historical events and very low and sparse background seismicity. In this study we provide new seismological and geophysical information to identify the characteristics of the seismotectonics in the area, as the prevailing faulting mechanism and the fit of local to regional stress field. These data concern focal mechanisms from waveform modeling and P-wave polarities, analyses of borehole breakouts and detailed investigation of two seismic sequences. All the data cover a significantly broad range of magnitudes and depths and suggest that no important local variation in stress orientation seems to affect this area, which shows a NE-SW direction of extension consistent with that regionally observed in Southern Italy. Such local homogeneity in the stress field pattern is peculiar of the study area; the variations of orientation and/or type of stress observed in the northern Apennines or only less than 100 km toward the northwest within the same tectonic belt are absent here. Furthermore, there is a suggestion for a northeastward sense of dip of the seismogenic faults in the region, an interesting constraint to the characterization of seismic sources
    Description: Published
    Description: 575-583
    Description: 2T. Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: faulting ; seismicity ; 04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.05. Stress
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: Mass fractions of Sn and In were determined in sixteen geological reference materials including basaltic/mafic (BCR‐2, BE‐N, BHVO‐1, BHVO‐2, BIR‐1, OKUM, W‐2, WS‐E), ultramafic (DTS‐2b, MUH‐1, PCC‐1, UB‐N) and felsic/sedimentary reference materials (AGV‐2, JA‐1, SdAR‐M2, SdAR‐H1). Extensive digestion and ion exchange separation tests were carried out in order to provide high yields (〉 90% for Sn, 〉 85% for In), low total procedural blanks (~ 1 ng for Sn, 〈 3 pg for In) and low analytical uncertainties for the elements of interest in a variety of silicate sample matrices. Replicate analyses (n = 2–13) of Sn‐In mass fractions give a combined measurement uncertainty of 2u that are generally 〈 3% and in agreement with literature data, where available. We present the first high precision In data for reference materials OKUM (32.1 ± 1.5 ng g−1), DTS‐2b (2.03 ± 0.25 ng g−1), MUH‐1 (6.44 ± 0.30 ng g−1), and PCC‐1 (3.55 ± 0.35 ng g−1) as well as the first Sn data for MUH‐1 (0.057 ± 0.010 μg g−1) and DTS‐2b (0.623 ± 0.018 μg g−1).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: Sediment core PS1904 reveals continuous records of planktic and benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ18O/δ13C) from the north-eastern Greenland continental margin. The data show good comparability with other records from the Nordic Seas, allowing the stratigraphic range of PS1904 to be dated to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Focusing on MIS 5 reveals light δ18O values during MIS 5a compared to the last interglacial peak (MIS 5e) which indicates that surface and bottom water layers were strongly affected by freshwater during the former event. We present two possible scenarios explaining the origin and routing of the freshwater: (i) drainage of a Eurasian proglacial lake coupled with the collapse of the Kara Sea Ice Sheet at the MIS 5b/a boundary, and (ii) destabilization and melting of the nearby Greenland Ice Sheet. Although both scenarios could have acted simultaneously, sediment records from the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean hint at the proglacial lake system in north-western Siberia as the largest freshwater source. Regardless of the actual source, the freshwater lowered the surface ocean salinity causing water column stratification and sea ice expansion. Increased sea-ice abundance led to a higher albedo and probably contributed to the cooling and global ice sheet growth that occurred subsequently during MIS 4.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-02-08
    Description: To enable quality control of measurement procedures for determinations of Mg isotope amount ratios, expressed as δ26Mg and δ25Mg values, in Earth-surface studies, the δ26Mg and δ25Mg values of eight reference materials (RMs) were determined by inter-laboratory comparison between five laboratories and considering published data, if available. These matrix RMs, including river water SLRS-5, spring water NIST SRM 1640a, Dead Sea brine DSW-1, dolomites JDo-1 and CRM 512, limestone CRM 513, soil NIST SRM 2709a and vegetation NIST SRM 1515 apple leaves, are representative for a wide range of Earth-surface materials from low-temperature environments. The inter-laboratory variability, 2s (twice the standard deviation), of all eight RMs ranges from 0.05 to 0.17‰ in δ26Mg. Thus, it is suggested that all these materials are suitable for validation of δ26Mg and δ25Mg determinations of Earth-surface geochemical studies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-10-09
    Description: Exploitation of Southern Ocean marine resources began more than 200 years ago with the massive hunt for seals and whales. In the 1960s/70s, fisheries for finfish and krill entered Southern Ocean waters. Within a few years many fish populations were heavily overfished and dramatically depleted, and some of these stocks still did not recover. Today, fish stocks and fisheries activities are managed and monitored by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) which was established in 1982 to ensure sustainable exploitation and protection of the delicate marine ecosystem. Current target species include Mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari), Patagonian as well as Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides and D. mawsoni) and Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Most of these species are vulnerable to overfishing due to slow growth, late age at maturity, and rather low fecundity. This vulnerability might increase, as Southern Ocean living communities are currently also faced with alterations of their environment due to climate change, such as increasing water temperatures and decreasing sea ice. Species, including the ones targetted by fisheries, are well-adapted to their particular environmental conditions and are believed to be highly sensitive to changes because of their cold-adapted physiology, their life history traits, and their direct or indirect dependence on sea ice. The species will be exposed to several stressors at the same time, and fishing pressure, direct abiotic forcing and changes mediated via the food web might act synergistically and result in significant population declines. In particular the strongly sea ice-dependent Antarctic krill, a key species in the food web, might be adversely affected. Fish species seems to have low tolerance towards higher water temperatures and may thus, in the long run, be replaced by lower latitude species.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery-independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 48 (2). pp. 353-359.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an economically important marine fish species in Asia. A suite of 18 microsatellite markers chosen from published genetic linkage maps was used to carry out parentage assignments of 188 hatchery-reared juveniles from a small number of breeders. The probabilities of exclusion for the 18 microsatellite markers were 0.604–0.913, and the effectiveness of combined probability of exclusion reached 100% when using the eight microsatellite markers with higher Excl 1 probabilities. The cultured and wild stocks (WSs) were differentiated in a release-recapture population based on these markers. Of the 321 recaptured offspring, 28.34% were assigned to their parental pairs in our broodstock, whereas the remaining offspring could not be traced back to a possible sire or dam. Significant reduction in genetic diversity of the cultured stock (CS) had not been found compared with that of the WS. The results suggest that CSs released into the wild will not adversely affect the genetic structure of natural populations. Our results demonstrate that these markers provide an efficient tool for parentage assignments and genetic analysis of Japanese flounder.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-12-11
    Description: In this study we applied a multidisciplinary approach, coupling geophysical and geochemical measurements, to unveil the provenance of 170 obsidian flakes, collected on the volcanic island of Ustica (Sicily). On this island there are some prehistoric settlements dated from the Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age. Despite not having geological outcrops of obsidian rocks, the countryside of Ustica is rich in fragments of this volcanic glass, imported from other source areas. The study of obsidian findings was carried out first through visual observations and density measurements. At least two different obsidian families have been distinguished, probably imported from Lipari and Pantelleria islands. Analysing the magnetic properties of the samples, these two main sources were confirmed, but the possibility of other provenances was inferred. Finally, we characterized the geochemical signature of the Ustica obsidians by performing microchemical analyses through electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation (LA–ICP–MS). The results were compared with literature data, confirming the presence of the Lipari and Pantelleria sources (Sicily) and indicating for the first time in this part of Italy a third provenance from Palmarola island (Latium). Our results shed new light on the commercial exchanges in the peri-Tyrrhenian area during the prehistoric age.
    Description: Published
    Description: 435–454
    Description: 1SR. TERREMOTI - Servizi e ricerca per la Società
    Description: 2SR. VULCANI - Servizi e ricerca per la Società
    Description: 3SR. AMBIENTE - Servizi e ricerca per la Società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: obsdian provenance ; LA-ICPMS ; 05. General::05.04. Instrumentation and techniques of general interest::05.04.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2017-04-28
    Description: Continuous GPS (CGPS) data, collected at Mt. Etna between April 2012 and October 2013, clearly define inflation/deflation processes typically observed before/after an eruption onset. During the inflationary process from May to October 2013, a particular deformation pattern localised in the upper North Eastern sector of the volcano suggests that a magma intrusion had occurred a few km away from the axis of the summit craters, beneath the NE Rift system. This is the first time that this pattern has been recorded by CGPS data at Mt. Etna. We believe that this inflation process might have taken place periodically at Mt. Etna and might be associated with the intrusion of batches of magma that are separate from the main feeding system. We provide a model to explain this unusual behaviour and the eruptive regime of this rift zone, which is characterised by long periods of quiescence followed by often dangerous eruptions in which vents can open at low elevation and thus threaten the villages in this sector of the volcano.
    Description: Published
    Description: 356-363
    Description: 2V. Dinamiche di unrest e scenari pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Shallow intrusion beneath NE Rift system ; Mt. Etna volcano ; CGPS data ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-10-26
    Description: Climatic warming is a primary driver of change in ecosystems worldwide. Here, we synthesize responses of species richness and evenness from 187 experimental warming studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. We asked 1) whether effects of warming on diversity were detectable and consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, 2) if effects on diversity correlated with intensity, duration, and experimental unit size of temperature change manipulations, and 3) whether these experimental effects on diversity interacted with ecosystem types. Using multilevel mixed linear models and model averaging, we also tested the relative importance of variables that described uncontrolled environmental variation and attributes of experimental units. Overall, experimental warming reduced richness across ecosystems (mean log-response ratio = –0.091, 95% bootstrapped CI: –0.13, –0.05) representing an 8.9% decline relative to ambient temperature treatments. Richness did not change in response to warming in freshwater systems, but was more strongly negative in terrestrial (–11.8%) and marine (–10.5%) experiments. In contrast, warming impacts on evenness were neutral overall and in aquatic systems, but weakly negative on land (7.6%). Intensity and duration of experimental warming did not explain variation in diversity responses, but negative effects on richness were stronger in smaller experimental units, particularly in marine systems. Model-averaged parameter estimation confirmed these main effects while accounting for variation in latitude, ambient temperature at the sites of manipulations, venue (field versus lab), community trophic type, and whether experiments were open or closed to colonization. These analyses synthesize extensive experimental evidence showing declines in local richness with increased temperature, particularly in terrestrial and marine communities. However, the more variable effects of warming on evenness were better explained by the random effect of site identity, suggesting that effects on species’ relative abundances were contingent on local species composition.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 8 (1). e441.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: To estimate the anthropogenic contribution to climate signals in the recent past and future decades implies a certain degree of confidence in both understanding and simulating natural internal variability at interdecadal time scales. If we are to embark on the challenge of decadal prediction, we must be able to mechanistically attribute events to known processes and phenomena, and reproduce their features and statistics within our models. To date, models have succeeded in reproducing only partially spatial patterns, statistics and climatic impacts of interdecadal modes of variability. Reasons for the partial success and agreement among models are to be attributed to the short observational record, the different and complex flavours of coupling between the many subcomponents of the climate system, and the present inability to resolve all climate processes. At an even more fundamental level, this difficulty is aggravated by the limited understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. Here, we review the proposed mechanisms giving rise to interdecadal climate variability, we discuss the hypotheses explaining the main interdecadal modes of variability, and present an overview on the ability and level of agreement in their simulation by the latest generation of coupled climate models. To achieve any progress, the modeling community should focus on both improving the representation and parameterization of key ocean physical processes and obtaining a firmer grasp on the physical mechanisms generating the variability. Both goals can benefit from process studies, intercomparisons with perturbation experiments to study model's sensitivities, and the use of a hierarchy of climate models.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Despite considerable progress in the production of alternative diets, small concentrations of antinutrients remain common in aquaculture nutrition, resulting in a perpetual limitation with regard to the inclusion of plant ingredients in aquafeeds. These compounds are known to impair the general performance of fish when fed for a prolonged period of time, potentially affecting the animal's susceptibility to stress, too. Therefore, a 12-week feeding trial was conducted to examine the chronic effects of purified rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC), containing low concentrations of glucosinolates and phytic acid, on the relative expression of multiple target genes in the liver of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima, L.). Our results revealed divergent patterns of gene expression, suggesting different coping strategies dependent on the grade of RPC substitution. Data implies increased metabolic rate of turbot fed a 33% RPC-substituted diet due to an upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase mRNA, accompanied by minor adjustments in metabolic pathways. While no signs of reduced welfare were found, data adumbrate a beneficial hormetic reaction. In the highest treatment level (66% RPC), diminished fish condition and reduced growth performance coincided with a downregulation of insulin-like growth factor I, further indicating a potential impaired resistance to stress. An additional downregulation of transferrin hints towards an increased liability to bacterial infections.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-11-25
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery-independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
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  • 21
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Fish and Fisheries, 18 (2). pp. 199-211.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly challenging when managers have to consider opposing objectives from different stakeholders. An alternative to weighing incomparable and conflicting objectives is to focus on win–wins until Pareto efficiency is achieved: a state from which it is impossible to improve with respect to any objective without regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North Sea, Barents Sea and Benguela Current) are nearly efficient with respect to long-term yield and ecosystem impact and that efficiency has improved over the last 30 years. In two LMEs (Baltic Sea and North East US Continental Shelf), fishing is inefficient and win–wins remain available. We additionally examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem-scale win–wins, especially with respect to conservation and profits, may still be common; and (iii) single-species assessment approaches may overestimate the availability of win–wins by failing to account for trade-offs across interacting species.
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Fish and Fisheries, 18 (4). pp. 656-667.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Fisheries advice is based on demographic calculations, which assume that density-dependent processes regulating recruitment occur only in early life. This assumption is challenged by laboratory and lake studies and some recent indications from marine systems that demonstrate density-dependent regulation late in life. By accounting for spatial dynamics of a population, something that has previously been ignored in models of fish, we show that density-dependent regulation is determined by the size of the habitat: in small habitats, for example small lakes, regulation occurs late in life, while it can occur early in large habitats. When regulation happens late in life, fisheries yield is maximized by exploitation of mainly juvenile fish, while exploiting mature fish maximizes yield if regulation happens early. We review and interpret observations of density dependence in the light of the theory. Our results challenge the current assumption that density dependence always occurs early in life and highlights the need for an increased understanding of density-dependent processes. This can only come about by a change of focus from determining stock-recruitment relationships towards understanding when and how density-dependent regulation occurs in nature.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery‐independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
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  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Journal of Metamorphic Geology .
    Publication Date: 2020-07-23
    Description: We report U–Pb zircon ages of c. 700–550 Ma, 262–220 Ma, 47–38 Ma and 15–14 Ma from amphibolites on Naxos Island in the Aegean extensional province of Greece. The zircon has complex internal structures. Based on cathodoluminescence response, zoning and crosscutting relationships a minimum of four zircon growth stages are identified: inherited core, magmatic core, inner metamorphic (?) rim and an outer metamorphic rim. Trace element compositions of the amphibolites suggest igneous differentiation and crustal assimilation. Zircon solubility as a function of saturation temperatures, Zr content and melt composition indicates that the zircon did not originally crystallize in the mafic bodies but was inherited from felsic precursor rocks, and subsequently assimilated into the mafic intrusives during emplacement. Zircon inheritance is corroborated by the complex, xenocrystic nature of the zircon in one sample. Ages of c. 700–550 Ma and 262–220 Ma are assigned to inherited zircon. Available geochemical data suggest that the 15–14 Ma metamorphic rims grew in situ in the amphibolites, corresponding to a high-grade metamorphic event at this time. However, the geochemical data cannot conclusively establish if the c. 40 Ma zircon rims also grew in situ, or whether they were inherited along with the xenocrystic cores. Two scenarios for emplacement of the mafic intrusives are discussed: (i) Intrusion during late-Triassic to Jurassic ocean basin development of the Aegean realm, in which case the 40 Ma zircon rims would have grown in situ, and (ii) emplacement in the Miocene as a result mafic underplating during large-scale extension. In this case, only the 15–14 Ma metamorphic outer rims would have formed in situ in the amphibolitic host rocks.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-07-30
    Description: The advent of genomic-, transcriptomic- and proteomic-based approaches has revolutionized our ability to describe marine microbial communities, including biogeography, metabolic potential and diversity, mechanisms of adaptation, and phylogeny and evolutionary history. New interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from this descriptive level to improved quantitative, process-level understanding of the roles of marine microbes in biogeochemical cycles and of the impact of environmental change on the marine microbial ecosystem. Linking studies at levels from the genome to the organism, to ecological strategies and organism and ecosystem response, requires new modelling approaches. Key to this will be a fundamental shift in modelling scale that represents micro-organisms from the level of their macromolecular components. This will enable contact with omics data sets and allow acclimation and adaptive response at the phenotype level (i.e. traits) to be simulated as a combination of fitness maximization and evolutionary constraints. This way forward will build on ecological approaches that identify key organism traits and systems biology approaches that integrate traditional physiological measurements with new insights from omics. It will rely on developing an improved understanding of ecophysiology to understand quantitatively environmental controls on microbial growth strategies. It will also incorporate results from experimental evolution studies in the representation of adaptation. The resulting ecosystem-level models can then evaluate our level of understanding of controls on ecosystem structure and function, highlight major gaps in understanding and help prioritize areas for future research programs. Ultimately, this grand synthesis should improve predictive capability of the ecosystem response to multiple environmental drivers.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Pico, the youngest island of the Azores Archipelago (Portugal), is characterized by a central volcano and a 30-km-long fissure zone. Its eruption rate is the highest of the Azores islands, with more than 35 eruptions in the last 2000 years. Here, we estimate the lava-flow hazard for Pico Island by combining the vent opening probability derived from the spatial distribution of eruptive fissures, the classes of expected eruptions inferred from the physical and chemical characteristics of historical eruptions, and the lava-flow paths simulated by the MAGFLOW model. The most likely area to host new eruptions is along a WNW–ESE trend centred on the central volcano, with the highest hazard affecting the two main residential zones of Lajes do Pico and Madalena. Our analysis is the first attempt to assess the lava-flow hazard for Pico Island, and may have important implications for decision-making in territorial management and future land-use planning.
    Description: Published
    Description: 156-161
    Description: 3V. Dinamiche e scenari eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: lava flow hazard ; 05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-02-05
    Description: In this paper, we present a method for handling uncertainties in the determination of the source parameters of earthquakes from spectral data. We propose a robust framework for estimating earthquake source parameters and relative uncertainties, which are propagated down to the estimation of basic seismic parameters of interest such as the seismic moment, the moment magnitude, the source size and the static stress drop. In practice, we put together a Bayesian approach for model parameter estimation and a weighted statistical mixing of multiple solutions obtained from a network of instruments, providing a useful framework for extracting meaningful data from intrinsically uncertain data sets. The Bayesian approach used to estimate the source spectra parameters is a simple but powerful mechanism for non-linear model fitting, providing also the opportunity to naturally propagate uncertainties and to assess the quality and uniqueness of the solution. Another important added value of such an approach is the possibility of integrating information from the expertise of seismologists. Such data can be encoded in a prior state of information that is then updated with the information provided by seismological data. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated analysing data from the 1909 April 23 earthquake occurred near Benavente (Portugal).
    Description: Published
    Description: 691-701
    Description: 2T. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: Fourier analysis ; Probability distributions ; Earthquake source observations ; Seismicity and tectonics ; 04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.06. Seismic methods
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: This study is focused on the (micro)biogeochemical features of two close geothermal sites (FAV1 and FAV2), both selected at the main exhalative area of Pantelleria Island, Italy. A previous biogeochemical survey revealed high CH4 consumption and the presence of a diverse community of methanotrophs at FAV2 site, whereas the close site FAV1 was apparently devoid of methanotrophs and recorded no CH4 consumption. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to describe the bacterial and archaeal communities which have been linked to the physicochemical conditions and the geothermal sources of energy available at the two sites. Both sites are dominated by Bacteria and host a negligible component of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (phylum Thaumarchaeota). The FAV2 bacterial community is characterized by an extraordinary diversity of methanotrophs, with 40% of the sequences assigned to Methylocaldum, Methylobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bejerickia (Alphaproteobacteria); conversely, a community of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs (Acidithiobacillus, Nitrosococcus) or putative chemolithotrophs (Ktedonobacter) dominates the FAV1 community, in the absence of methanotrophs. Since physical andchemical factors of FAV1, such as temperature and pH, cannot be considered limiting for methanotrophy, it is hypothesized that the main limiting factor for methanotrophs could be high NH4+ concentration. At the same time, abundant availability of NH4+ and other high energy electron donors and acceptors determined by the hydrothermal flux in this site create more energetically favourable conditions for chemolithotrophs that outcompete methanotrophs in non-nitrogen-limited soils.
    Description: Published
    Description: 150–162
    Description: 4V. Vulcani e ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: geothermal soils ; geomicrobiology ; chemolithotrophs ; methanotrophs ; Pantelleria ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We present a strategy to thoroughly investigate the effects of prominent topography on the surface tilt due to a spherical pressure source. We use Etna's topography as a case of study and, for different source positions, we compare the tilt fields calculated through (i) a 3-D boundary element method and (ii) analytical half-space solutions. We systematically determine (i) the source positions leading to the strongest tilt misfits when numerical and analytical results are compared and (ii) the surface areas where the strongest distortions in the tilt field are most likely to be observed. We also demonstrate that, under critical circumstances, in terms of respective positions of pressure source and observation points, results of inversion procedures aimed at retrieving the source parameters can be misleading, if tilt data are analysed using models that do not account for topography.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1471–1481
    Description: 2V. Dinamiche di unrest e scenari pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Numerical approximations and analysis ; Transient deformation ; Volcano monitoring ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Stable isotopes were measured in the carbonate and organic matter of palaeosols in the Somma–Vesuvius area, southern Italy in order to test whether they are suitable proxy records for climatic and ecological changes in this area during the past 18000 yr. The ages of the soils span from ca. 18 to ca. 3 kyr BP. Surprisingly, the Last Glacial to Holocene climate transition was not accompanied by significant change in d18O of pedogenic carbonate. This could be explained by changes in evaporation rate and in isotope fractionation between water and precipitated carbonate with temperature, which counterbalanced the expected change in isotope composition of meteoric water. Because of the rise in temperature and humidity and the progressive increase in tree cover during the Holocene, the Holocene soil carbonates closely reflect the isotopic composition of meteoric water. A cooling of about 2°C after the Avellino eruption (3.8 ka) accounts for a sudden decrease of about 1‰ in d18O of pedogenic carbonate recorded after this eruption. The d13C values of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate covary, indicating an effective isotope equilibrium between the organic matter, as the source of CO2, and the pedogenic carbonate. Carbon isotopes suggest prevailing C3 vegetation and negligible mixing with volcanogenic or atmospheric CO2.
    Description: Published
    Description: 813-824
    Description: 1V. Storia e struttura dei sistemi vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: stable isotope ; palaeosols ; Somma–Vesuvius ; palaeoclimate ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-10-26
    Description: Ecological studies based on time-series often investigate community changes centered on species abundance or biomass but rarely expose the consequential functional aspects underlying such changes. Functional diversity measures have proven to be more accurate predictors for ecosystem functioning than traditional taxonomic approaches and hence gained much attention. There are only limited studies available that analyse the functional implications behind decadal changes of entire communities. We studied zoobenthic communities of two habitats, sheltered and exposed, of a coastal system subject to contrasting changes in community composition over the past four decades. Besides eutrophication and climate-related impacts, the system has been invaded by a non-native polycheate Marenzelleria spp., adding altered functional properties to the communities. The functional dispersion (FDis) metric was used as a measure for comparing the functional diversity of the contrasting habitats, with special focus on the role of Marenzelleria for the entire communities. We highlight changes in the functional identity of the communities, expressed as community-weighted means of trait expression (CWM), using multivariate techniques, and investigate the relationship between taxonomic and functional changes. Despite contrasting community developments in the two habitats, with characteristics traditionally suggesting different environmental quality, we found that the FDis in both habitats remained similar and increased with the introduction of Marenzelleria. Although showing maintained functional diversity across time and space, the functional identity (CWM) of communities changed irrespective of taxonomical differences. Examples include inter alia alterations in palatability proxies, feeding position and sediment transportation types, indicating changed functionality of zoobenthos in coastal systems. We show, when focussing on qualitative functional changes of communities, it is important to evaluate the underlying functional identity, and not only rely on measures of the diversity of functions per se, as the quality indication of expressed functional traits can be concealed when using multi-functionality approaches.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-12-15
    Description: This study investigates in detail the deformation events that have affected the sedimentary successions forming the substrate of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Based on the geometric reconstruction of a buried sedimentary marker, we have been able to identify and quantify the effects of three different mechanisms of deformation that have affected the area in the last 600 ka. Numerical results from Finite Element Method (FEM) applied to model viscoelastic deformation suggest the occurrence of a crustal doming process originating at the mantle-crust transition (~16 km). We propose that the source of deformation is related to the diapiric uprise of hydrothermal material originating in altered ocean-like crust and its emplacement at a shallower level in the crust. This process has great relevance in the volcanic system and should be considered for the full assessment of its origin and evolution.
    Description: Published
    Description: 338 – 345
    Description: 4V. Vulcani e ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: volcanic doming ; viscoelastic modeling ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  (In Press / Accepted) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society .
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-07-15
    Description: The herbal remedy, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used in traditional medicine for various liver, kidney, and gall bladder ailments. For over a decade, our research group has been investigating the flavonolignans obtained from this medicinal herb for cancer chemoprevention and hepatoprotection.[1–6] Recently, we extended our studies toward examining the diversity as well as distribution patterns of fungal endophytes in leaves, stem, and roots of milk thistle.[7] These fungi inhabit the internal living tissues of the host plants asymptomatically, though they may also cause disease over time.[8] In addition to the phylogenetic profiling of these endophytes, a series of fungal extracts were also examined for chemical composition. Although the plant–endophyte relationship may ormay not be mutualistic, the compounds produced by some endophytes could play a role in the growth and survival of the host. In a previous study, Penicillium restrictum, isolated from milk thistle, yielded promising secondary metabolites.[9] Hence, in pursuit of interesting chemistry, a related monoverticillate endophytic Penicillium sp. was explored.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Geology Today, 31 (4). pp. 153-159.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-30
    Description: The geological development of the Fogo island volcano commenced in the early Quaternary, and much later during the Last Glacial stage this involved a mega-scale lateral collapse of the former edifice. This later event created a large caldera-like landform open to the east, the floor of which is known as the Chã, and subsequently within this a strato-volcanic cone has grown. The last phase of volcanic activity started in late 2014 and persisted for 77 days. It had a devastating impact on the lives of the 1000 plus people who were living within the ‘caldera’, since two large villages and a smaller one were each totally destroyed in a matter of days by the advancing lavas. In addition, large areas of cultivated land, upon which the inhabitants were dependent for their livelihood, were enveloped by lava. The eruption proved to be of a greater magnitude than the immediately preceding one of 1995, when a mass evacuation was necessary but as only a few buildings were affected, resettlement followed. Unfortunately the much greater devastation to the human environment makes it doubtful whether any significant resettlement will be possible after the 2014–2015 event.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In this study,we use Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) and multiaperture interferometry (MAI) to constrain the sources of the three largest events of the 2008 Baluchistan (western Pakistan) seismic sequence, namely two Mw 6.4 events only 12 hr apart and an Mw 5.7 event that occurred 40 d later. The sequence took place in the Quetta Syntaxis, the most seismically active region of Baluchistan, tectonically located between the colliding Indian Plate and the Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate. Surface displacements estimated from ascending and descending ENVISAT ASAR acquisitions were used to derive elastic dislocation models for the sources of the two main events. The estimated slip distributions have peak values of 120 and 130 cm on a pair of almost parallel and near-vertical faults striking NW–SE, and of 50 cm and 60 cm on two high-angle faults striking NE–SW. Values up to 50 cm were found for the largest aftershock on an NE–SW fault located between the sources of the main shocks. The MAI measurements, with their high sensitivity to the north–south motion component, are crucial in this area to accurately describe the coseismic displacement field. Our results provide insight into the deformation style of the Quetta Syntaxis, suggesting that right-lateral slip released at shallow depths on large NW fault planes is compatible with left-lateral activation on smaller NE–SW faults.
    Description: Published
    Description: 25-39
    Description: 2T. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Radar interferometry ; Satellite geodesy ; Seismicity and Tectonics ; Continental margins: convergent ; Earthquake interaction, forecasting and prediction ; Earthquake source observation ; 04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Earthquake source inversions based on space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) are used extensively. Typically, however, only the line-of-sight (LoS) surface displacement component is measured, which is mainly sensitive to the vertical and E–W deformations, although well-established methods also exist to estimate the flight-path component, which is highly sensitive to the N–S displacement. With high-resolution sensors, these techniques are particularly appealing, because accuracies in the order of 3 cm can be achieved, while retaining spatial resolutions between 45 m and a few km, depending on the required level of filtering. We discuss the application to COSMO-SkyMed SAR imagery of the Spectral Diversity or Multi Aperture Interferometry technique, presenting the first SAR flight-path displacement field associated with the Mw 6.3, 2009 L’Aquila event (central Apennines). Finally, we observe and characterize a previously unknown misregistration pattern.
    Description: Published
    Description: 28-35
    Description: 2T. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Crustal Deformation ; Multi Aperture Interferometry MAI ; InSAR ; L'Aquila Earthquake ; Satellite geodesy ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Macroseismic intensities are the only available data for most historical earthquakes and often represent the unique source of information for crucial events in the definition of seismic hazard. In this paper, we attempt at getting insight into source characteristics by reproducing the observed intensity field. As a test case, we study the source of 1908 Messina Straits earthquake ( M W = 7.1), by testing three distinct fault models deduced from the analysis of geodeticdata.Startingfromthestaticslipdistribution,wedevelop kinematicsourcemodelsfor the investigated fault and compute full waveform synthetic seismograms in a 1-D structural model, also accounting for anelastic attenuation. Then, we convert both computed peak- ground acceleration (PGA) and peak-ground velocity (PGV) to macroseismic intensity at 100 selected sites, by means of specific empirical relations for the Italian region. By comparing the original data separately with PGA- and PGV-based intensity fields, we discriminate among the tested faults and determine the best values for the investigated kinematic parameters of the source. We also perform a misfit analysis for the best source model, in order to investigate the dependence of the results on the selected parametrization. The results of the analysis indicate that among the tested models, the one characterized by an east-dipping fault, with strike- oriented NS slightly rotated clockwise, better explains the observed macroseismic field of the 1908 Messina Straits earthquake. Besides, the fracture nucleated at the southern end of the fault and ruptured northward, producing considerable directivity effects. This is in agreement with the published results obtained from the investigation of the historical seismograms. We alsodeterminerealisticvalues fortherupturevelocityand therise-time.Ourstudyconfirms the greatpotentialofthemacroseismicdata,demonstratingthattheycontainenoughinformationto constrain important characteristics of the fault, which can be retrieved by using complex source models and computing complete wavefield. Moreover, we also show that the simultaneous comparison of both PGA- and PGV-based synthetic macroseismic fields with the original intensities provides tighter constraints for discriminating among different source models, with respect to what attainable from each of them
    Description: Published
    Description: 164-173
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake ground motions; Earthquake source observations. ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Our improved capability to adapt to future changes in discharge is linked to our capability to predict the magnitude or at least the direction of these changes. For the agricultural U.S. Midwest, too much or too little water has severe socio-economic impacts. Here we focus on the Raccoon River at Van Meter, Iowa, and use a statistical approach to examine projected changes in discharge. We build on statistical models using rainfall and harvested corn and soybean acreage to explain the observed discharge variability. We then use projections of these two predictors to examine the projected discharge response. Results are based on seven global climate models part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5). There is not a strong signal of change in the discharge projections under the RCP 4.5. However the results for the RCP 8.5 point to a stronger changing signal related to larger projected increases in rainfall, resulting in increasing trends in particular in the upper part of the discharge distribution (i.e., 60th percentile and above). Examination of two hypothetical agricultural scenarios indicates that these increasing trends could be alleviated by decreasing the extent of the agricultural production. We also discuss how the methodology presented in this study represents a viable approach to move forward with the concept of return period for engineering design and management in a non-stationary world.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1361–1371
    Description: 4A. Clima e Oceani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: river discharge ; rainfall ; statistical model ; 01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.02. Climate
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We analysed the conversion problem between teleseismic magnitudes (Ms and mb) provided by the Seismological Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre and moment magni- tudes (Mw) provided by online moment tensor (MT) catalogues using the chi-square general orthogonal regression method (CSQ) that, differently from the ordinary least-square regres- sion method (OLS), accounts for the measurement errors of both the predictor and response variables. To account for the non-linearity of the relationships, we used two types of curvilin- ear models: (i) the exponential model (EXP), recently proposed by the authors of the Global Catalogue sponsored by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation and (ii) a connected bilinear (CBL) model, similar to that proposed by Ekstro ̈m & Dziewonski, where two different linear trends at low and high magnitudes are connected by an arc of circle that preserves the continuity of the function and of its first derivative at the connecting points. For Ms, we found that the regression curves computed for a global data set (GBL) are likely to be biased by the incompleteness of global MT catalogues for Mw 〈5.0–5.5. In fact, the GBL curves deviate significantly from a similar regression curve computed for a Euro-Mediterranean data set (MED) integrated with the data provided by two regional MT catalogues including many more events with Mw 〈 5.0–5.5. The GLB regression curves overestimate the Mw proxies computed from Ms up to 0.5 magnitude units. Hence for computing Mw proxies at the global scale of Ms ≤ 5.5, we suggest to adopt the coefficients obtained from the MED regression. The analysis of the frequency–magnitude relationship of the resulting Mw proxy catalogues confirms the validity of this choice as the behaviour of b-value as a function of cut-off magnitude of the GBL data set is much more stable using such approach. The incompleteness of Mw’s provided from MT global catalogues also affects the mb GBL data set but in this case the use of the CSQ regression method, in place of the OLS, mitigates the bias and then, at low magnitudes, the EXP regression curve computed from the more complete MED data set almost coincides with that computed from the GBL data set. Our results also indicate that the slope at low magnitudes of the Mw–Ms relationship is substantially consistent with the hypothesized theoretical value of 2/3 for Ms 〈 5.0 while the slope of the Mw–mb relationship at high magnitudes probably reaches the theoretically expected value of 2 only in the proximity of the upper limit of mb determinations in our data set (mb = 7.2).
    Description: Published
    Description: 805–828
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake source observations ; Statistical seismology ; 05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.02. Seismological data
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In this study we have investigated the forward directivity associated with the initial up-dip rupture propagation during the April 6th 2009 (MW 6.1) L’Aquila normal-faulting earthquake. The objective is the understanding of how the peculiar initial behavior of rupture history during the main shock has affected the near-source recorded ground motions in the L’Aquila town and surrounding areas. We have modeled the observed ground velocities at the closest near-source recording sites by computing synthetic seismograms using a discrete wavenumbers and finite difference approach in the low frequency bandwidth (0.02-0.4 Hz) to avoid site effects contaminations. We use both the rupture model retrieved by inverting ground motion waveforms and continuous high sampling-rate GPS time series as well as uniform-slip constant-rupture speed models. Our results demonstrate that the initial up-dip rupture propagation, characterizing the first three seconds of the rupture history during the L’Aquila main shock and releasing only ∼25% of total seismic moment, controls the observed ground motions in the near-source. This initial stage of the rupture is characterized by the generation of clear ground velocity pulses, which we interpret as a forward directivity effect. Our modeling results confirm a heterogeneous distribution of rupture velocity during the initial up-dip rupture propagation, since uniform rupture speed models overestimate up-dip directivity effects in the footwall of the causative fault. The up-dip directivity observed in the near field during the 2009 L’Aquila main shock is that predicted for a normal faulting earthquake by Somerville’s directivity model, but it differs from that inferred from far-field observations that conversely provide evidence of along-strike directivity. This calls for a careful analysis as well as for the realistic inclusion of rupture directivity to predict ground motions in the near source.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1618-1631
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: earthquake ground motion, earthquake source observations, computational seismology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Real-time seismology has made significant improvements in recent years, with source parameters now available within a few tens of minutes after an earthquake. It is likely that this time will be further reduced, in the near future, by means of increased efficiency in real-time transmission,increasingdatacoverageandimprovementofthemethodologies.Inthiscontext, together with the development of new ground motion predictive equations (GMPEs) that are abletoaccountforsourcecomplexity,thegenerationofstronggroundmotionshakingmapsin quasi-real time has become ever more feasible after the occurrence of a damaging earthquake. However, GMPEs may not reproduce reliably the ground motion in the near-source region where the finite fault parameters have a strong influence on the shaking. Inthispaperwetestwhetheraccountingforsource-relatedeffectsiseffectiveinbettercharacterizingthegroundmotion.WeintroduceamodificationoftheGMPEswithintheShakeMap softwarepackage,andsubsequentlytesttheaccuracyofthenewlygeneratedshakemapsinpredictingthegroundmotion.ThetestisconductedbycontrollingtheperformanceofShakeMap as we decrease the amount of the available information. We then update ShakeMap with the GMPE modified with a corrective factor accounting for source effects, in order to better constrain these effects that likely influence the level of (near-source) ground shaking. Weinvestigatetwowell-recordedearthquakesfromJapan(the2000Tottori, Mw 6.6,andthe 2008 Iwate-Miyagi, Mw7.0, events) where the instrumental coverage is as dense as needed to ensure an objective appraisal of the results. The results demonstrate that the corrected GMPE can capture only some aspects of the ground shaking in the near-source area, neglecting other multidimensional effects, such as propagation effects and local site amplification.
    Description: Italian Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Dipartimento della Protezione Civile(DPC)under the contract 2007–2009 DPC-INGVS3project
    Description: Published
    Description: 1836-1848
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake ground motions ; Earthquake source observation ; Computational seismology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.10. Instruments and techniques ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.11. Seismic risk
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-05-27
    Description: Patagonia Argentina is a key area for the study of sea level changes in the southern hemisphere, but the availability of reliable sea level markers in this area is still problematic. In fact the storm deposits (beach ridge) commonly used here to reconstruct past sea level oscillations introduce a wide error. Along the Puerto Deseado coast (Santa Cruz), morphometric analyses of 11 features were carried out using traditional measurement tools and a digital software-based method (tested on one selected feature) with the aim to investigate the possibility of their use as sea level markers. By undertaking accurate topographic profiles we identified the relationship between notches and current sea level. In detail, we identified two clusters of notch retreat point elevations, with a very low internal variability. The lower was located a little below the mean high tide level (mHT) and the upper located at least 0.5m above the maximum high tide level (MHT). Field observations of tidal levels and the position of notches suggest that the lower notches are active and the upper are inactive. This study on the abrasive notches attests their quality as sea level markers and opens up the use of fossil abrasive notches as palaeo sea level markers because the error linked to these features is substantially smaller than that introduced by beach ridges commonly used in the study area
    Description: Published
    Description: 1550 – 1558
    Description: 4A. Clima e Oceani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: notch; rocky coast; sea level marker; Patagonia; Argentina ; 01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.02. Climate
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We present an up-to-date high resolution picture of the ongoing crustal deformation field of Italy, based on an extensive combination of permanent and non-permanent GPS observations carried out since 1994. In addition, we present an updated map of contemporary SHmax orientations computed by a multidisciplinary data set of well-constrained stress indicators, including both published results and novel analyses. The comparison of stress and geodetic strain-rates directions reveals that both patterns are near-parallel over a large part of the investigated area, highlighting that crustal stress and surface deformation are driven by the same mechanism. The comparison of the azimuthal patterns of surface strain and mantle deformation shows a modest correlation on the Alps and a low correlation along the Apennines chain and the Calabro-Peloritan Arc. Along the Apennines chain, this feature suggests the occurrence of significant strain partitioning and crust–mantle mechanical decoupling. Along the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, the apparent low correlation reflects a different mantle–crust mechanism of deformation to the ongoing subduction and rollback of the Ionian slab. In addition, the superposition of regional/local effects related to second-order sources (crustal lateral density changes, strength contrasts), which at regional/local scale modulate the crustal stress/strain-rate pattern, cannot be ruled out.
    Description: Published
    Description: 969-985
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Plate motions ; Seismic anisotropy ; Kinematics of crustal and mantle deformation ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Gravity and height changes, reflecting magma accumulation in subsurface chambers, are evaluated using Finite Element models in order to resolve controversial relationships observed in some volcanic areas. When significant gravity changes occur without any significant deformation, or vice versa, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to jointly explain the observations using the popular Mogi model. Here we explore whether these discrepancies can be explained by magma compressibility and source geometry effects. Compression of resident magma and expansion of the chamber wall act concurrently to accommodate newly added magma. Gravity-height ratios are found to mainly depend on: (i) geometry of the sources, which control the volume expansion of the chamber, (ii) magma compressibility, which affects the contraction of the magma resident in the chamber, and (iii) depth of the sources. Our numerical results show that, when magma compressibility and non-spherical sources are taken into account, significant gravity variations can, indeed, be successfully reconciled with negligible height changes. This may be the case at Etna volcano, where gravity changes (about 40 miuGal) without any significant deformation (below 5 cm) were observed during the 1994-1995 inflation period. The numerical results point to the accumulation of a 1.4x10^10 kg mass into an elongated source simulating a shallow storage region supplying the summit craters.
    Description: Published
    Description: 164-173
    Description: 4V. Vulcani e ambiente
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: numerical modeling, gravity and height changes ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.05. Gravity variations
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Seismological, geological and geodetic data have been integrated to characterize the seismogenic structure of the late 2013-early 2014 moderate energy (maximum local magnitude MLmax = 4.9) seismic sequence that struck the interior of the Matese Massif, part of the Southern Apennines active extensional belt. The sequence, heralded by a ML = 2.7 foreshock, was characterized by two main shocks with ML = 4.9 and ML = 4.2, respectively, which occurred at a depth of ∼17–18 km. The sequence was confined in the 10–20 km depth range, significantly deeper than the 1997–1998 sequence which occurred few km away on the northeastern side of the massif above ∼15 km depth. The depth distribution of the 2013–14 sequence is almost continuous, albeit a deeper (16–19 km) and a shallower (11–15 km) group of events can be distinguished, the former including the main shocks and the foreshock. The epicentral distribution formed a ∼10 km long NNW–SSE trending alignment, which almost parallels the surface trace of late Pliocene–Quaternary southwest-dipping normal faults with a poor evidence of current geological and geodetic deformation. We built an upper crustal model profile for the eastern Matese massif through integration of geological data, oil exploration well logs and seismic tomographic images. Projection of hypocentres on the profile suggests that the seismogenic volume falls mostly within the crystalline crust and subordinately within the Mesozoic sedimentary cover of Apulia, the underthrust foreland of the Southern Apennines fold and thrust belt. Geological data and the regional macroseismic field of the sequence suggest that the southwest-dipping nodal plane of the main shocks represents the rupture surface that we refer to here as the Matese fault. The major lithological discontinuity between crystalline and sedimentary rocks of Apulia likely confined upward the rupture extent of the Matese fault. Repeated coseismic failure represented by the deeper group of events in the sequence, activated in a passive fashion the overlying ∼11–15 km deep section of the upper crustal normal faults. We consider the southwest-dipping Matese fault representative of a poorly known type of seismogenic structures in the Southern Apennines, where extensional seismogenesis and geodetic strain accumulation occur more frequently on NE-dipping, shallower-rooted faults. This is the case of the Boiano Basin fault located on the northern side of the massif, to which the 1997–1998 sequence is related. The close proximity of the two types of seismogenic faults at the Matese Massif is related to the complex crustal architecture generated by the Pliocene–early Pleistocene contractional and transpressional tectonics.
    Description: Published
    Description: 823-837
    Description: 2T. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: partially_open
    Keywords: Seismicity and tectonics ; Continental tectonics: extensional ; Crustal structure ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The relative seismic velocity variations possibly associated to large earthquakes can be readily monitored via cross-correlation of seismic noise. In a recently published study, more than 2 yr of continuous seismic records have been analysed from three stations surrounding the epicentre of the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.1 L’Aquila earthquake, observing a clear decrease of seismic velocities likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. Here, we extend the analysis in space, including seismic stations within a radius of 60 km from the main shock epicentre, and in time, collecting 5 yr of data for the six stations within 40 km of it. Our aim is to investigate how far the crustal damage is visible through this technique, and to detect a potential post-seismic recovery of velocity variations. We find that the co-seismic drop in velocity variations extends up to 40 km from the epicentre, with spatial distribution (maximum around the fault and in the north– east direction from it) in agreement with the horizontal co-seismic displacement detected by global positioning system (GPS). In the first few months after L’Aquila earthquake, the crust’s perturbation in terms of velocity variations displays a very unstable behaviour, followed by a slow linear recovery towards pre-earthquake conditions; by almost 4 yr after the event, the co-seismic drop of seismic velocity is not yet fully recovered. The strong oscillations of the velocity changes in the first months after the earthquake prevent to detect the fast exponential recovery seen by GPS data. A test of differently parametrized fitting curves demonstrate that the post-seismic recovery is best explained by a sum of a logarithmic and a linear term, suggesting that processes like viscoelastic relaxation, frictional afterlip and poroelastic rebound may be acting concurrently.
    Description: Published
    Description: 604-6011
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Time-series analysis; Interferometry; Computational seismology; Europe ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We present the results of palaeomagnetic analysis on Late Bronge Age pottery from Santorini carried out in order to estimate the thermal effect of the Minoan eruption on the pre-Minoan habitation level. A total of 170 specimens from 108 ceramic fragments have been studied. The ceramics were collected from the surface of the pre-Minoan palaeosol at six different sites, including also samples from the Akrotiri archaeological site. The deposition temperatures of the first pyroclastic products have been estimated by the maximum overlap of the re-heating temperature intervals given by the individual fragments at site level. A new statistical elaboration of the temperature data has also been proposed, calculating at 95 per cent of probability the re-heating temperatures at each site. The obtained results show that the precursor tephra layer and the first pumice fall of the eruption were hot enough to re-heat the underlying ceramics at temperatures 160–230 ◦C in the non-inhabited sites while the temperatures recorded inside the Akrotiri village are slightly lower, varying from 130 to 200 ◦C. The decrease of the temperatures registered in the human settlements suggests that there was some interaction between the buildings and the pumice fallout deposits while probably the buildings debris layer caused by the preceding and syn-eruption earthquakes has also contributed to the decrease of the recorded re-heating temperatures.
    Description: Published
    Description: 33-47
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Archaeomagnetism ; Rock and mineral magnetism ; Volcaniclastic deposits ; 04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.06. Paleomagnetism ; 04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.07. Rock magnetism ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk ; 05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Metal-catalysed CO2 hydrogenation is considered a source of methane in serpentinized (hydrated) igneous rocks and a fundamental abiotic process germane to the origin of life. Iron, nickel, chromium and cobalt are the catalysts typically employed in hydrothermal simulation experiments to obtain methane at temperatures 〉200°C. However, land-based present-day serpentinization and abiotic gas apparently develop below 100°C, down to approximately 40–50°C. Here, we document considerable methane production in thirteen CO2 hydrogenation experiments performed in a closed dry system, from 20 to 90°C and atmospheric pressure, over 0.9–122 days, using concentrations of non-pretreated ruthenium equivalent to those occurring in chromitites in ophiolites or igneous complexes (from 0.4 to 76 mg of Ru, equivalent to the amount occurring approximately in 0.4–760 kg of chromitite). Methane production increased with time and temperature, reaching approximately 87 mg CH4 per gram of Ru after 30 days (2.9 mgCH4/gru/day) at 90°C. At room temperature, CH4 production rate was approximately three orders of magnitude lower (0.003 mgCH4/gru/day). We report the first stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of abiotic CH4 generated below 100°C. Using initial d13CCO2 of -40&, we obtained room temperature d13CCH4 values as 13C depleted as 142&. With time and temperature, the C-isotope separation between CO2 and CH4 decreased significantly and the final d13CCH4 values approached that of initial d13CCO2. The presence of minor amounts of C2-C6 hydrocarbons is consistent with observations in natural settings. Comparative experiments at the same temperatures with iron and nichel catalysts did not generate CH4. Ru-enriched chromitites could potentially generate methane at low temperatures on Earth and on other planets.
    Description: Published
    Description: 438–452
    Description: 7A. Geofisica di esplorazione
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: abiotic methane, Sabatier reaction ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-05-27
    Description: We propose an innovative approach to mapping CMB topography from seismic P-wave trav- eltime inversions: instead of treating mantle velocity and CMB topography as independent parameters, as has been done so far, we account for their coupling by mantle flow, as formulated by Forte & Peltier. This approach rests on the assumption that P data are sufficiently sensitive to thermal heterogeneity, and that compositional heterogeneity, albeit important in localized regions of the mantle (e.g. within the D′′ region), is not sufficiently strong to govern the pattern of mantle-wide convection and hence the CMB topography. The resulting tomographic maps of CMB topography are physically sound, and they resolve the known discrepancy between images obtained from classic tomography on the basis of core-reflected and core-refracted seismic phases. Since the coefficients of mantle velocity structure are the only free parameters of the inversion, this joint tomography–geodynamics approach reduces the number of param- eters; nevertheless the corresponding mantle models fit the seismic data as well as the purely seismic ones.
    Description: Published
    Description: 730-746
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Seismic tomography ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.03. Mantle and Core dynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 51
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Magnitude conversion problem using general orthogonal regression’ by H. R. Wason, Ranjit Das and M. L. Sharma, (Geophys. J. Int., 190, 1091–1096)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The argument proposed by Wason et al. that the conversion of magnitudes from a scale (e.g. Ms or mb) to another (e.g. Mw), using the coefficients computed by the general orthogonal regression method (Fuller) is biased if the observed values of the predictor (independent) variable are used in the equation as well as the methodology they suggest to estimate the supposedly true values of the predictor variable are wrong for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. Hence, we advise against the use of such methodology for magnitude conversions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 626-627
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake source observations ; Statistical seismology ; Computational seismology ; 05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.04. Statistical analysis
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion measurements from local and regional earthquakes are used to interpret the lithospheric structure in the Gulf of California region. We compute group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves from 10 to 150 s using earthquakes recorded by broadband stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs in Baja California and Mexico mainland, UNM in Mexico, BOR, DPP and GOR in southern California and TUC in Arizona. The study area is gridded in 120 longitude cells by 180 latitude cells, with an equal spacing of 10 × 10 km. Assuming that each gridpoint is laterally homogeneous, for each period the tomographic maps are inverted to produce a 3-D lithospheric shear wave velocity model for the region. Near the Gulf of California rift axis, we found three prominent low shear wave velocity regions, which are associated with mantle upwelling near the Cerro Prieto volcanic field, the Ballenas Transform Fault and the East Pacific Rise. Upwelling of the mantle at lithospheric and asthenospheric depths characterizes most of the Gulf. This more detailed finding is new when compared to previous surface wave studies in the region. A low-velocity zone in northcentral Baja at ∼28oN which extends east–south–eastwards is interpreted as an asthenospheric window. In addition, we also identify a well-defined high-velocity zone in the upper mantle beneath central-western Baja California, which correlates with the previously interpreted location of the stalled Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. We interpret locations of the fossil slab and slab window in light of the distribution of unique post-subduction volcanic rocks in the Gulf of California and Baja California.We also observe a high-velocity anomaly at 50-km depth extending down to ∼130 km near the southwestern Baja coastline and beneath Baja, which may represent another remnant of the Farallon slab.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1861-1877
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: surface waves ; seismic tomography ; dynamics of lithosphere and mantle ; crustal structure ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In the Umbria Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper we separately estimate intrinsic- and scattering- Q −1 parameters, using the classical MLTWA approach in the assumption of a half space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi −1 and Qs −1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the Energy Transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different PGA decay with distance relationships, using the well known and well proven Boore’s method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1370-1382
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: Seismic attenuation ; scattering ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The Sulmona plain (central Italy) is an intramontane basin of the Abruzzi Apennines that is known in the literature for its high seismic hazard. We use extensive measurements of ambient noise to map the fundamental frequency and to detect the presence of geological heterogeneities in the basin. We perform noise measurements along two basin-scale orthogonal transects, in conjunction with 2-D array experiments in specific key areas. The key areas are located in different positions with respect to the basin margins: one at the eastern boundary (fault-controlled basin margin) and one in the deepest part of the basin. We also collect independent data by using active seismic experiments (MASW), down-hole and geological surveys to characterize the near-surface geology of the investigated sites. In detail, the H/V noise spectral ratios and 2-D array techniques indicate a fundamental resonance (f0) in the low-frequency range (0.35–0.4 Hz) in the Sulmona Basin. Additionally, our results highlight the important role that is played by the alluvial fans near the edge-sectors of the basin, which are responsible for a velocity inversion in the uppermost layering of the soil profile. The H/V ratios and the dispersion curves of adjacent measurements strongly vary over a few dozens of meters in the alluvial fan area. Furthermore, we perform 1-D numerical simulations that are based on a linear-equivalent approach to estimate the site response in the key areas, using realistic seismic inputs. Finally, we perform a 2-D simulation that is based on the spectral element method to propagate surface waves in a simple model with an uppermost stiff layer, which is responsible for the velocity inversion. The results from the 2-D modelling agree with the experimental curves, showing deamplified H/V curves and typical shapes of dispersion curves of a not normally dispersive site.
    Description: Published
    Description: 418-439
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Fourier analysis, Earthquake ground motions, Site effects ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: A recent study of the Matuyama–Brunhes (M-B) geomagnetic field reversal recorded in exposed lacustrine sediments from the Sulmona Basin (Italy) provided a continuous, highresolution record indicating that the reversal of the field direction at the terminus of the M-B boundary (MBB) occurred in less than a century, about 786 ka ago. In the sediment, thin (4–6 cm) remagnetized horizons were recognized above two distinct tephra layers—SUL2- 19 and SUL2-20—that occur ∼25 and ∼35 cm below the MBB, respectively. Also, a faint, millimetre-thick tephra (SUL2-18) occurs 2–3 cm above the MBB.With the aim of improving the temporal resolution of the previous Sulmona MBB record and understanding the possible influence of cryptotephra on the M-B record in the Sulmona Basin,we performed more detailed sampling and analyses of overlapping standard and smaller samples from a 50 cm-long block that spans the MBB. The new data indicate that (i) the MBB is even sharper than previously reported and occurs ∼2.5 cm below tephra SUL2-18, in agreement with the previous study; (ii) the MBB coincides with the rise of an intensity peak of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, which extends across SUL2-18; (iii) except for a 2-cm-thick interval just above tephra SUL2-18, the rock magnetic parameters (k, ARM, Mr, Ms, Bc, Bcr) indicate exactly the same magnetic mineralogy throughout the sampled sequence. We conclude that either SUL2-18 resulted in the remagnetization of an interval of about 6 cm (i.e. during the NRM intensity peak spanning ∼260 ± 110 yr, according to the estimated local sedimentation rate), and thus the detailed MBB record is lost because it is overprinted, or the MBB is well recorded, occurred abruptly about 2.5 cm below SUL2-18 and lasted less than 13 ± 6 yr. Both hypotheses challenge our understanding of the geomagnetic field behaviour during a polarity transition and/or of the NRM acquisition process in the Sulmona lacustrine sediment.
    Description: Published
    Description: 798-812
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Palaeomagnetic secular variation; Rapid time variations; Reversals: process, time scale, magnetostratigraphy; Rock and mineral magnetism ; 04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.06. Paleomagnetism
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-12-09
    Description: Secondary microseismic noise is generated by non-linear interactions between ocean waves at the ocean surface. We present here the theory for computing the site effect of the ocean layer upon body waves generated by noise sources distributed along the ocean surface. By defining the wavefield as the superposition of plane waves, we show that the ocean site effect can be described as the constructive interference of multiply reflected P waves in the ocean that are then converted to either P or SV waves at the ocean–crust interface. We observe that the site effect varies strongly with period and ocean depth, although in a different way for body waves than for Rayleigh waves. We also show that the ocean site effect is stronger for P waves than for S waves. We validate our computation by comparing the theoretical noise body wave sources with the sources inferred from beamforming analysis of the three seismogram components recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. We use rotated traces for the beamforming analysis, and we show that we clearly detect P waves generated by ocean gravity wave interactions along the track of typhoon Ioke (2006 September). We do not detect the corresponding SV waves, and we demonstrate that this is because their amplitude is too weak.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1096-1106
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Body waves ; Site effects ; Theoretical Seismology ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-12-05
    Description: On 2012 May 20 and 29, two damaging earthquakes with magnitudes Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, struck the Emilia-Romagna region in the sedimentary Po Plain, Northern Italy, causing 26 fatalities, significant damage to historical buildings and substantial impact to the economy of the region. The earthquake sequence included four more aftershocks with Mw ? 5.0, all at shallow depths (about 7–9 km), with similar WNW–ESE striking reverse mechanism. The timeline of the sequence suggests significant static stress interaction between the largest events. We perform here a detailed source inversion, first adopting a point source approximation and considering pure double couple and full moment tensor source models. We compare different extended source inversion approaches for the two largest events, and find that the rupture occurred in both cases along a subhorizontal plane, dipping towards SSW. Directivity is well detected for the May 20 main shock, indicating that the rupture propagated unilaterally towards SE. Based on the focal mechanism solution, we further estimate the co-seismic static stress change induced by the May 20 event. By using the rate-and-state model and a Poissonian earthquake occurrence, we infer that the second largest event of May 29 was induced with a probability in the range 0.2–0.4. This suggests that the segment of fault was already prone to rupture. Finally, we estimate peak ground accelerations for the two main events as occurred separately or simultaneously. For the scenario involving hypothetical rupture areas of both main events, we estimate Mw = 6.3 and an increase of ground acceleration by 50 per cent. The approach we propose may help to quantify rapidly which regions are invested by a significant increase of the hazard, bearing the potential for large aftershocks or even a second main shock.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1658-1672
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake dynamics ; Earthquake source observations ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-12-13
    Description: Downtown L'Aquila suffered severe damage (VIII-IX EMS98 intensity) during the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.3 earthquake. The city is settled on a top flat hill, with a shear-wave velocity profile characterized by a reversal of velocity at a depth of the order of 50–100 m, corresponding to the contact between calcareous breccia and lacustrine deposits. In the southern sector of downtown, a thin unit of superficial red soils causes a further shallow impedance contrast that may have influenced the damage distribution during the 2009 earthquake. In this paper, the main features of ambient seismic vibrations have been studied in the entire city centre by using array measurements. We deployed six 2-D arrays of seismic stations and 1-D array of vertical geophones. The 2-D arrays recorded ambient noise, whereas the 1-D array recorded signals produced by active sources. Surface-wave dispersion curves have been measured by array methods and have been inverted through a neighbourhood algorithm, jointly with the H/V ambient noise spectral ratios related to Rayleigh waves ellipticity. We obtained shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles representative of the southern and northern sectors of downtown L'Aquila. The theoretical 1-D transfer functions for the estimated Vs profiles have been compared to the available empirical transfer functions computed from aftershock data analysis, revealing a general good agreement. Then, the Vs profiles have been used as input for a deconvolution analysis aimed at deriving the ground motion at bedrock level. The deconvolution has been performed by means of EERA and STRATA codes, two tools commonly employed in the geotechnical engineering community to perform equivalent-linear site response studies. The waveform at the bedrock level has been obtained deconvolving the 2009 main shock recorded at a strong motion station installed in downtown. Finally, this deconvolved waveform has been used as seismic input for evaluating synthetic time-histories in a strong-motion target site located in the middle Aterno river valley. As a target site, we selected the strong-motion station of AQV 5 km away from downtown L'Aquila. For this site, the record of the 2009 L'Aquila main shock is available and its surface stratigraphy is adequately known making possible to propagate the deconvolved bedrock motion back to the surface, and to compare recorded and synthetic waveforms.
    Description: Published
    Description: 848–866
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Fourier analysis, Earthquake ground motions , Site effects ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Secondary microseisms recorded by seismic stations are generated in the ocean by the interaction of ocean gravity waves.We present here the theory for modelling secondary microseismic noise by normal mode summation.We show that the noise sources can be modelled by vertical forces and how to derive them from a realistic ocean wave model. We then show how to compute bathymetry excitation effect in a realistic earth model by using normal modes and a comparison with Longuet–Higgins approach. The strongest excitation areas in the oceans depends on the bathymetry and period and are different for each seismic mode. Seismic noise is then modelled by normal mode summation considering varying bathymetry. We derive an attenuation model that enables to fit well the vertical component spectra whatever the station location. We show that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is the dominant signal in seismic noise. There is a discrepancy between real and synthetic spectra on the horizontal components that enables to estimate the amount of Love waves for which a different source mechanism is needed. Finally, we investigate noise generated in all the oceans around Africa and show that most of noise recorded in Algeria (TAM station) is generated in the Northern Atlantic and that there is a seasonal variability of the contribution of each ocean and sea.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1732-1745
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Surface waves and free oscillations ; Seismic attenuation ; Theoretical seismology ; Wave propagation ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-05-28
    Description: Close relationships between deformation and volcanism are well documented in relatively late evolutionary stages of con- tinental rifting, whereas these are poorly constrained in less mature rifting stages. To investigate the control of inherited structures on faulting and volcanism, we present a statistical analysis of volcanic features, faults and pre-rift fabric in the Tanzania Divergence, where volcanic features occur exten- sively in in-rift and off-rift areas. Our results show that in mature rift sectors (Natron), magma uprising is mostly con- trolled by fractures/faults responding to the far-field stress, whereas the distribution of volcanism during initial rifting (Eyasi) is controlled by inherited structures oblique to the regional extension direction. Off-rift sectors show a marked control of pre-rift structures on magma emplacement, which may not respond to the regional stress field. Thus, the use of off-rift magmatic features as stress indicators should take into account the role of pre-existing structures.
    Description: Published
    Description: 461-468
    Description: 1T. Geodinamica e interno della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: East Africa Rift System, Tanzania-Kenia, structures and volcanism ; 04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.02. Geodynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The elevation of the Capo Vaticano coastal terraces (Tyrrhenian coast, central Calabria) is the result of a combination of regional uplift and repeated coseismic displacement. We subtract the regional uplift from the total uplift (maximum average uplift rates: 0.81–0.97 mm a)1 since c. 0.7 Ma) and obtain the residual fault-related displacement. Then, we model the residual displacement to provide constraints on the location and geometry of the seismogenic source of the 1905 M7 earthquake, the strongest – and still poorly understood – earthquake of the instrumental era in this area. We try four different potential sources for the dislocation modelling and find that (1) three sources are not compatible with the displacement observed along the terraces and (2) the only source consistent with the local deformation is the 100 - striking Coccorino Fault. We calculate average long-term vertical slip rates of 0.2–0.3 mm a)1 on the Coccorino Fault and estimate an average recurrence time of one millennium for a 1905-type earthquake.
    Description: Published
    Description: 378-389
    Description: 2T. Tettonica attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: 1905 earthquake ; marine terraces ; coseismic displacement ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Fluids—essentially meteoric water—are present everywhere in the Earth’s crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in formof solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝t [1/(n − 1) − 1] with n 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1281–1285
    Description: 6T. Sismicità indotta e caratterizzazione sismica dei sistemi naturali
    Description: N/A or not JCR
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: forecasting and prediction ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The Pernicana Fault (PF) is the main structural element of Mt Etna and the northern boundary of a section sliding to the southeast. Observed ground motion records in the damage zone of the PF show strong variations of directional resonance in the horizontal plane. The observed resonance directions exhibit an abrupt rotation of azimuth by about 30◦ across the fault, varying from N166◦ on the north side to N139◦ on the south. We interpret the directional resonance observations in terms of changes in the kinematics and deformation fields on the opposite sides of the fault. The northern side is affected primarily by the left-lateral strike-slip movement, whereas the southern side, that is subjected also to sliding, is under a dominant extensional stress regime. Brittle deformation models based on the observed kinematic field predict different sets of fractures on the opposite sides of the fault: synthetic cleavages and extensional fractures are expected to dominate in the northern and southern sides, respectively. These two fracture fields have different orientations (N74◦ and N42◦, respectively) and both show a near-orthogonal relation (∼88◦ in the northern sector and ∼83◦ to the south) with the azimuth of the observed directional resonance. We conclude that the direction of the largest resonance motions is sensitive to and has transversal relationship with the dominant fracture orientation. The directional amplification is inferred to be produced by stiffness anisotropy of the fault damage zone, with larger seismic motions normal to the fractures.
    Description: Published
    Description: 986–996
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: Earthquake ground motions; Site effects; Wave propagation ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Operative seismic aftershock risk forecasting can be particularly useful for rapid decision-making in the presence of an ongoing sequence. In such a context, limit state first-excursion probabilities (risk) for the forecasting interval (a day) can represent the potential for progressive state of damage in a structure. This work lays out a performance-based framework for adaptive aftershock risk assessment in the immediate post-mainshock environment. A time-dependent structural performance variable is adopted in order to measure the cumulative damage in a structure. A set of event-dependent fragility curves as a function of the first-mode spectral acceleration for a prescribed limit state is calculated by employing back-to-back non- linear dynamic analyses. An epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is employed for estimating the spatio-temporal evolution of aftershocks. The event-dependent fragility curves for a given limit state are then integrated together with the probability distribution of aftershock spectral acceleration based on the epidemic-type aftershock sequence aftershock hazard. The daily probability of limit state first-excursion is finally calculated as a weighted combination of the sequence of limit state probabilities conditioned on the num- ber of aftershocks. As a numerical example, daily aftershock risk is calculated for the L’Aquila 2009 aftershock sequence (central Italy). A representative three-story reinforced concrete frame with infill panels, which has cyclic strength and stiffness degradation, is used in order to evaluate the progressive damage. It is observed that the proposed framework leads to a sound forecasting of limit state first-excursion in the structure for two limit states of significant damage and near collapse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2179–2197
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: aftershock ; time-dependent reliability ; seismic risk ; etas modeling ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.11. Seismic risk
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Temporal variations in the elastic behaviour of the Earth’s crust can be monitored through the analysis of the Earth’s seismic response and its evolution with time. This kind of analysis is particularly interesting when combined with the reconstruction of seismic Green’s functions from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise, which circumvents the limitations imposed by a dependence on the occurrence of seismic events. In fact, because seismic noise is recorded continuously and does not depend on earthquake sources, these cross-correlation functions can be considered analogously to records from continuously repeating doublet sources placed at each station, and can be used to extract observations of variations in seismic velocities. These variations, however, are typically very small: of the order of 0.1 per cent. Such accuracy can be only achieved through the analysis of the full reconstructed waveforms, including later scattered arrivals. We focus on the method known as Moving-Window Cross-Spectral Analysis that has the advantage of operating in the frequency domain, where the bandwidth of coherent signal in the correlation function can be clearly defined. We investigate the sensitivity of this method by applying it to microseismic noise cross-correlations which have been perturbed by small synthetic velocity variations and which have been randomly contaminated. We propose threshold signal-to-noise ratios above which these perturbations can be reliably observed. Such values are a proxy for cross-correlation convergence, and so can be used as a guideline when determining the length of microseismic noise records that are required before they can be used for monitoring with the moving-window cross-spectral technique.
    Description: Published