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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (472,256)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,953)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-18
    Description: Aim: The interdependencies between trophic interactions, environmental factors and anthropogenic forcing determine how species distributions change over time. Large changes in species distributions have occurred as a result of climate change. The objective of this study was to analyse how the spatial distribution of cod and flounder has changed in the Baltic Sea during the past four decades characterized by large hydrological changes. Location: Baltic Sea. Taxon: Cod (Gadus morhua) and flounder (Platichthys flesus). Methods: Catch per unit of effort (CPUE) data for adult and juvenile cod and for adult flounder were modelled using Delta-Generalized additive models including environmental and geographical variables between 1979 and 2016. From the annual CPUE predictions for each species, yearly distribution maps and depth distribution curves were obtained. Mean depth and the depth range were estimated to provide an indication on preferred depth and habitat occupancy. Results: Adult and juvenile cod showed a contraction in their distribution in the southern areas of the Baltic Sea. Flounder, instead, showed an expansion in its distribution with an increase in abundance in the northern areas. The depth distributions showed a progressive shift of the mean depth of occurrence towards shallower waters for adult cod and flounder and towards deeper waters for juvenile cod, as well as a contraction of the species depth ranges, evident mainly from the late 1980s. Main conclusions: Our study illustrates large changes in the spatial distribution of cod and flounder in the Baltic Sea. The changes in depth distribution occurred from the late 1980s are probably due to a combination of expanded areas of hypoxia in deep waters and an increase in predation risk in shallow waters. The net effect of these changes is an increased spatial overlap between life stages and species, which may amplify cod cannibalism and the interaction strength between cod and flounder
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-05-20
    Description: Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement stand as milestone diplomatic achievements. However, immense discrepancies between political commitments and governmental action remain. Combined national climate commitments fall far short of the Paris Agreement's 1.5/2?C targets. Similar political ambition gaps persist across various areas of sustainable development. Many therefore argue that actions by nonstate actors, such as businesses and investors, cities and regions, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), are crucial. These voices have resonated across the United Nations (UN) system, leading to growing recognition, promotion, and mobilization of such actions in ever greater numbers. This article investigates optimistic arguments about nonstate engagement, namely: (a) ?the more the better?; (b) ?everybody wins?; (c) ?everyone does their part?; and (d) ?more brings more.? However, these optimistic arguments may not be matched in practice due to governance risks. The current emphasis on quantifiable impacts may lead to the under?appreciation of variegated social, economic, and environmental impacts. Claims that everybody stands to benefit may easily be contradicted by outcomes that are not in line with priorities and needs in developing countries. Despite the seeming depoliticization of the role of nonstate actors in implementation, actions may still lead to politically contentious outcomes. Finally, nonstate climate and sustainability actions may not be self?reinforcing but may heavily depend on supporting mechanisms. The article concludes with governance risk?reduction strategies that can be combined to maximize nonstate potential in sustainable and climate?resilient transformations.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: A new olivine reference material – MongOL Sh11‐2 – for in situ analysis has been prepared from a central portion of a large (20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm) mantle peridotite xenolith from a ~ 0.5 Ma old basaltic breccia at Shavaryn‐Tsaram, Tariat region, central Mongolia. The xenolith is a fertile mantle lherzolite with minimal signs of alteration. Approximately 10 g of 0.5 to 2 mm gem quality olivine fragments were separated under binocular microscope and analysed by EPMA, LA‐ICP‐MS, SIMS and bulk analytical methods (ID ICP‐MS for Mg and Fe, XRF, ICP‐MS) for major, minor and trace elements at six institutions worldwide. The results show that the olivine fragments are sufficiently homogeneous with respect to major (Mg, Fe, Si) and minor and trace elements. Significant inhomogeneity was revealed only for phosphorus (homogeneity index of 12.4), whereas Li, Na, Al, Sc, Ti and Cr show minor inhomogeneity (homogeneity index of 1–2). The presence of some mineral and fluid‐melt micro‐inclusions may be responsible for the inconsistency in mass fractions obtained by in situ and bulk analytical methods for Al, Cu, Sr, Zr, Ga, Dy and Ho. Here we report reference and information values for twenty‐seven major, minor and trace elements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Sediment core PS1904 reveals continuous records of planktic and benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ18O/δ13C) from the north-eastern Greenland continental margin. The data show good comparability with other records from the Nordic Seas, allowing the stratigraphic range of PS1904 to be dated to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Focusing on MIS 5 reveals light δ18O values during MIS 5a compared to the last interglacial peak (MIS 5e) which indicates that surface and bottom water layers were strongly affected by freshwater during the former event. We present two possible scenarios explaining the origin and routing of the freshwater: (i) drainage of a Eurasian proglacial lake coupled with the collapse of the Kara Sea Ice Sheet at the MIS 5b/a boundary, and (ii) destabilization and melting of the nearby Greenland Ice Sheet. Although both scenarios could have acted simultaneously, sediment records from the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean hint at the proglacial lake system in north-western Siberia as the largest freshwater source. Regardless of the actual source, the freshwater lowered the surface ocean salinity causing water column stratification and sea ice expansion. Increased sea-ice abundance led to a higher albedo and probably contributed to the cooling and global ice sheet growth that occurred subsequently during MIS 4.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The genus Alexandrium (Halim) is perhaps the most intensively studied among toxic marine dinoflagellates. This is largely attributable to the devastating consequences of toxigenic blooms of this genus, with human poisonings from contaminated seafood, primarily from shellfish and more rarely from finfish; socio–economic losses to the aquaculture and fisheries industries; marine faunal mortalities; and food web disruptions common in coastal waters throughout the world. Members of this genus are globally distributed from the Arctic to the tropics, and in both hemispheres from sub–polar through temperate to sub–tropical to tropicalwaters. At least four distinct groups of marine phycotoxins are associated with various Alexandrium species, along with poorly characterized bioactive compounds (allelochemicals) that may affect species interactions among the plankton. According to the most recent iteration of the IOC–UNESCO reference list of toxic microalgae, there are now more than 30 recognized morphological species of Alexandrium, posing a daunting challenge for risk assessment and accurate identification in toxic phytoplankton monitoring programs.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Mass fractions of Sn and In were determined in sixteen geological reference materials including basaltic/mafic (BCR‐2, BE‐N, BHVO‐1, BHVO‐2, BIR‐1, OKUM, W‐2, WS‐E), ultramafic (DTS‐2b, MUH‐1, PCC‐1, UB‐N) and felsic/sedimentary reference materials (AGV‐2, JA‐1, SdAR‐M2, SdAR‐H1). Extensive digestion and ion exchange separation tests were carried out in order to provide high yields (〉 90% for Sn, 〉 85% for In), low total procedural blanks (~ 1 ng for Sn, 〈 3 pg for In) and low analytical uncertainties for the elements of interest in a variety of silicate sample matrices. Replicate analyses (n = 2–13) of Sn‐In mass fractions give a combined measurement uncertainty of 2u that are generally 〈 3% and in agreement with literature data, where available. We present the first high precision In data for reference materials OKUM (32.1 ± 1.5 ng g−1), DTS‐2b (2.03 ± 0.25 ng g−1), MUH‐1 (6.44 ± 0.30 ng g−1), and PCC‐1 (3.55 ± 0.35 ng g−1) as well as the first Sn data for MUH‐1 (0.057 ± 0.010 μg g−1) and DTS‐2b (0.623 ± 0.018 μg g−1).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: To enable quality control of measurement procedures for determinations of Mg isotope amount ratios, expressed as δ26Mg and δ25Mg values, in Earth-surface studies, the δ26Mg and δ25Mg values of eight reference materials (RMs) were determined by inter-laboratory comparison between five laboratories and considering published data, if available. These matrix RMs, including river water SLRS-5, spring water NIST SRM 1640a, Dead Sea brine DSW-1, dolomites JDo-1 and CRM 512, limestone CRM 513, soil NIST SRM 2709a and vegetation NIST SRM 1515 apple leaves, are representative for a wide range of Earth-surface materials from low-temperature environments. The inter-laboratory variability, 2s (twice the standard deviation), of all eight RMs ranges from 0.05 to 0.17‰ in δ26Mg. Thus, it is suggested that all these materials are suitable for validation of δ26Mg and δ25Mg determinations of Earth-surface geochemical studies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-10-09
    Description: Exploitation of Southern Ocean marine resources began more than 200 years ago with the massive hunt for seals and whales. In the 1960s/70s, fisheries for finfish and krill entered Southern Ocean waters. Within a few years many fish populations were heavily overfished and dramatically depleted, and some of these stocks still did not recover. Today, fish stocks and fisheries activities are managed and monitored by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) which was established in 1982 to ensure sustainable exploitation and protection of the delicate marine ecosystem. Current target species include Mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari), Patagonian as well as Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides and D. mawsoni) and Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Most of these species are vulnerable to overfishing due to slow growth, late age at maturity, and rather low fecundity. This vulnerability might increase, as Southern Ocean living communities are currently also faced with alterations of their environment due to climate change, such as increasing water temperatures and decreasing sea ice. Species, including the ones targetted by fisheries, are well-adapted to their particular environmental conditions and are believed to be highly sensitive to changes because of their cold-adapted physiology, their life history traits, and their direct or indirect dependence on sea ice. The species will be exposed to several stressors at the same time, and fishing pressure, direct abiotic forcing and changes mediated via the food web might act synergistically and result in significant population declines. In particular the strongly sea ice-dependent Antarctic krill, a key species in the food web, might be adversely affected. Fish species seems to have low tolerance towards higher water temperatures and may thus, in the long run, be replaced by lower latitude species.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery-independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Climatic warming is a primary driver of change in ecosystems worldwide. Here, we synthesize responses of species richness and evenness from 187 experimental warming studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. We asked 1) whether effects of warming on diversity were detectable and consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, 2) if effects on diversity correlated with intensity, duration, and experimental unit size of temperature change manipulations, and 3) whether these experimental effects on diversity interacted with ecosystem types. Using multilevel mixed linear models and model averaging, we also tested the relative importance of variables that described uncontrolled environmental variation and attributes of experimental units. Overall, experimental warming reduced richness across ecosystems (mean log-response ratio = –0.091, 95% bootstrapped CI: –0.13, –0.05) representing an 8.9% decline relative to ambient temperature treatments. Richness did not change in response to warming in freshwater systems, but was more strongly negative in terrestrial (–11.8%) and marine (–10.5%) experiments. In contrast, warming impacts on evenness were neutral overall and in aquatic systems, but weakly negative on land (7.6%). Intensity and duration of experimental warming did not explain variation in diversity responses, but negative effects on richness were stronger in smaller experimental units, particularly in marine systems. Model-averaged parameter estimation confirmed these main effects while accounting for variation in latitude, ambient temperature at the sites of manipulations, venue (field versus lab), community trophic type, and whether experiments were open or closed to colonization. These analyses synthesize extensive experimental evidence showing declines in local richness with increased temperature, particularly in terrestrial and marine communities. However, the more variable effects of warming on evenness were better explained by the random effect of site identity, suggesting that effects on species’ relative abundances were contingent on local species composition.
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 8 (1). e441.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: To estimate the anthropogenic contribution to climate signals in the recent past and future decades implies a certain degree of confidence in both understanding and simulating natural internal variability at interdecadal time scales. If we are to embark on the challenge of decadal prediction, we must be able to mechanistically attribute events to known processes and phenomena, and reproduce their features and statistics within our models. To date, models have succeeded in reproducing only partially spatial patterns, statistics and climatic impacts of interdecadal modes of variability. Reasons for the partial success and agreement among models are to be attributed to the short observational record, the different and complex flavours of coupling between the many subcomponents of the climate system, and the present inability to resolve all climate processes. At an even more fundamental level, this difficulty is aggravated by the limited understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. Here, we review the proposed mechanisms giving rise to interdecadal climate variability, we discuss the hypotheses explaining the main interdecadal modes of variability, and present an overview on the ability and level of agreement in their simulation by the latest generation of coupled climate models. To achieve any progress, the modeling community should focus on both improving the representation and parameterization of key ocean physical processes and obtaining a firmer grasp on the physical mechanisms generating the variability. Both goals can benefit from process studies, intercomparisons with perturbation experiments to study model's sensitivities, and the use of a hierarchy of climate models.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Despite considerable progress in the production of alternative diets, small concentrations of antinutrients remain common in aquaculture nutrition, resulting in a perpetual limitation with regard to the inclusion of plant ingredients in aquafeeds. These compounds are known to impair the general performance of fish when fed for a prolonged period of time, potentially affecting the animal's susceptibility to stress, too. Therefore, a 12-week feeding trial was conducted to examine the chronic effects of purified rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC), containing low concentrations of glucosinolates and phytic acid, on the relative expression of multiple target genes in the liver of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima, L.). Our results revealed divergent patterns of gene expression, suggesting different coping strategies dependent on the grade of RPC substitution. Data implies increased metabolic rate of turbot fed a 33% RPC-substituted diet due to an upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase mRNA, accompanied by minor adjustments in metabolic pathways. While no signs of reduced welfare were found, data adumbrate a beneficial hormetic reaction. In the highest treatment level (66% RPC), diminished fish condition and reduced growth performance coincided with a downregulation of insulin-like growth factor I, further indicating a potential impaired resistance to stress. An additional downregulation of transferrin hints towards an increased liability to bacterial infections.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Ecological studies based on time-series often investigate community changes centered on species abundance or biomass but rarely expose the consequential functional aspects underlying such changes. Functional diversity measures have proven to be more accurate predictors for ecosystem functioning than traditional taxonomic approaches and hence gained much attention. There are only limited studies available that analyse the functional implications behind decadal changes of entire communities. We studied zoobenthic communities of two habitats, sheltered and exposed, of a coastal system subject to contrasting changes in community composition over the past four decades. Besides eutrophication and climate-related impacts, the system has been invaded by a non-native polycheate Marenzelleria spp., adding altered functional properties to the communities. The functional dispersion (FDis) metric was used as a measure for comparing the functional diversity of the contrasting habitats, with special focus on the role of Marenzelleria for the entire communities. We highlight changes in the functional identity of the communities, expressed as community-weighted means of trait expression (CWM), using multivariate techniques, and investigate the relationship between taxonomic and functional changes. Despite contrasting community developments in the two habitats, with characteristics traditionally suggesting different environmental quality, we found that the FDis in both habitats remained similar and increased with the introduction of Marenzelleria. Although showing maintained functional diversity across time and space, the functional identity (CWM) of communities changed irrespective of taxonomical differences. Examples include inter alia alterations in palatability proxies, feeding position and sediment transportation types, indicating changed functionality of zoobenthos in coastal systems. We show, when focussing on qualitative functional changes of communities, it is important to evaluate the underlying functional identity, and not only rely on measures of the diversity of functions per se, as the quality indication of expressed functional traits can be concealed when using multi-functionality approaches.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-11-25
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery-independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
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  • 17
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Fish and Fisheries, 18 (2). pp. 199-211.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly challenging when managers have to consider opposing objectives from different stakeholders. An alternative to weighing incomparable and conflicting objectives is to focus on win–wins until Pareto efficiency is achieved: a state from which it is impossible to improve with respect to any objective without regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North Sea, Barents Sea and Benguela Current) are nearly efficient with respect to long-term yield and ecosystem impact and that efficiency has improved over the last 30 years. In two LMEs (Baltic Sea and North East US Continental Shelf), fishing is inefficient and win–wins remain available. We additionally examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem-scale win–wins, especially with respect to conservation and profits, may still be common; and (iii) single-species assessment approaches may overestimate the availability of win–wins by failing to account for trade-offs across interacting species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Fish and Fisheries, 18 (4). pp. 656-667.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Fisheries advice is based on demographic calculations, which assume that density-dependent processes regulating recruitment occur only in early life. This assumption is challenged by laboratory and lake studies and some recent indications from marine systems that demonstrate density-dependent regulation late in life. By accounting for spatial dynamics of a population, something that has previously been ignored in models of fish, we show that density-dependent regulation is determined by the size of the habitat: in small habitats, for example small lakes, regulation occurs late in life, while it can occur early in large habitats. When regulation happens late in life, fisheries yield is maximized by exploitation of mainly juvenile fish, while exploiting mature fish maximizes yield if regulation happens early. We review and interpret observations of density dependence in the light of the theory. Our results challenge the current assumption that density dependence always occurs early in life and highlights the need for an increased understanding of density-dependent processes. This can only come about by a change of focus from determining stock-recruitment relationships towards understanding when and how density-dependent regulation occurs in nature.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The spatial structure of species is important for their dynamics and evolution, but also for management and conservation. There are numerous ways of inferring spatial structures, and information from multiple methods is becoming more common to examine how different processes shape the spatial structures of species to improve fish management. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of a suite of Baltic Sea fish species based on the following: (i) spatial (presumably neutral) genetic differentiation, reviewed from the literature, and (ii) spatial synchrony in abundance changes from time series of fishery‐independent surveys, which we currently find to be underused given the amount of data available. For each of these two methods, species were classified as having a distinct, continuous or no/weak spatial structure. In addition, based on each source of information, we estimated the spatial scale of management units for species. The results show that only among species confined to the coastal zone the two sources of information yielded a congruence of the spatial structure (displaying a continuous spatial structure). In contrast, offshore species show weak spatial genetic structure but stronger spatial structure of synchrony in abundance. Based on this, we suggest that population genetic structure and synchrony in abundance should be used as complementary information as they reflect different spatial processes and suggest that management actions should differ with respect to scale depending on the management targets applied. We propose similar analysis should be applied to areas outside the Baltic Sea, and other stock identification methods, to improve management of fish resources.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: A novel, simple, and readily usable method is proposed for measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of a plasma. The method is based on the interaction of the test plasma with a pulsed magnetic field. The electric signals induced by the magnetic field in the circuits of two probes (miniature solenoids), one immersed in the test plasma and the other placed outside the plasma, provide data for estimating the plasma parameters. The method was verified experimentally by determining the parameters of the plasma flows generated in the cathode spots high-current pulsed vacuum arcs that were used to form cylindrical shells of bismuth Z-pinch plasma.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: This paper carries out the spatial confinement effect on laser-induced Cu breakdown spectroscopy in a cylindrical cavity via a nanosecond pulsed Q-switch Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The temporal evolution of the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy is used to investigate the characteristics of spectral persistence. The atomic spectral persistence in plasma generated from Cu with spatial confinement is experimentally demonstrated, where the results indicate that the diameter of the confinement cavity plays a very important role in the persistence of an excited neutral Cu emission line, while the depth of the confinement cavity is almost independent of Cu (I) line persistence. As the diameter of the confinement cavity increases, the persistence of the Cu (I) line in the plasma grows longer under a certain limit. The likely reason for this phenomenon is that under spatial confinement, the reflected shockwave compresses the plasma and leads to an increase in the plasma temperature and density at a certain delay time, which causes further excitation of atomic population to higher excited levels. Finally, the collision rate between particles in the plasma plume is increased.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: In recent years, lifetime measurements by means of the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique have led to a significant breakthrough in medical and biological fields. Unfortunately, the many advantages of TCSPC-based approaches come along with the major drawback of a relatively long acquisition time. The exploitation of multiple channels in parallel could in principle mitigate this issue, and at the same time it opens the way to a multi-parameter analysis of the optical signals, e.g., as a function of wavelength or spatial coordinates. The TCSPC multichannel solutions proposed so far, though, suffer from a tradeoff between number of channels and performance, and the overall measurement speed has not been increased according to the number of channels, thus reducing the advantages of having a multichannel system. In this paper, we present a novel readout architecture for bi-dimensional, high-density Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) arrays, specifically designed to maximize the throughput of the whole system and able to guarantee an efficient use of resources. The core of the system is a routing logic that can provide a dynamic connection between a large number of SPAD detectors and a much lower number of high-performance acquisition channels. A key feature of our smart router is its ability to guarantee high efficiency under any operating condition.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopies are used to investigate the formation and role of defects in GaAs/GaN x As 1-x core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. Gallium vacancies, which act as non-radiative recombination (NRR) centers, are identified by ODMR. It is shown that the defects are formed in bulk regions, i.e., not on the surface, of the GaNAs shell and that their concentration increases with increasing nitrogen content. Temperature dependent photoluminescence experiments reveal, on the other hand, suppressed thermal quenching of the near-band-edge emission with increasing [N]. This leads to the conclusion that the dominant NRR processes in the studied NWs are governed by surface defects, whereas the role of gallium vacancies in the observed thermally activated NRR is minor.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Metal oxide devices that exhibit resistive switching are leading candidates for non-volatile memory applications due to their potential for fast switching, low-power operation, and high device density. It is widely accepted in many systems that two-state resistive behavior arises from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments spanning the oxide layer. However, means for controlling the filament geometry, which critically influences conduction, have largely been unexamined. Here, we explore the connection between filament geometry and conductance in a model resistive switching system based on the junction of two nickel/nickel oxide core/shell nanowires. Variable temperature current-voltage measurements indicate that either wide metallic filaments or narrow semiconducting filaments can be preferentially formed by varying the current compliance during electroformation. Metallic filaments behave as a conventional metallic resistance in series with a small barrier, while semiconducting filaments behave as quantum point contacts. The ability to tune filament geometry and behavior through the electroforming process may open avenues for enhanced functionality in nanoscale memristive systems.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: We report that epitaxial Sr 2 IrO 4 thin-films can be selectively grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Due to the competition between the Ruddlesden-Popper phases of strontium iridates (Sr n+1 Ir n O 3n+1 ), conventional PLD methods often result in mixed phases of Sr 2 IrO 4 (n = 1), Sr 3 Ir 2 O 7 (n = 2), and SrIrO 3 (n = ∞). We have discovered that reduced PLD plume dimensions and slow deposition rates are the key for stabilizing pure Sr 2 IrO 4 phase thin-films, identified by real-time in-situ monitoring of their optical spectra. The slow film deposition results in a thermodynamically stable TiO 2 \\SrO\IrO 2 \SrO\SrO configuration at an interface rather than TiO 2 \\SrO\SrO\IrO 2 \SrO between a TiO 2 -terminated SrTiO 3 substrate and a Sr 2 IrO 4 thin film, which is consistent with other layered oxides grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Our approach provides an effective method for using PLD to achieve pure phase thin-films of layered materials that are susceptible to several energetically competing phases.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: We report a significant off-state current reduction by an order of magnitude in the NbO 2 -based selector devices by inserting an ultrathin TiO 2 (∼2 nm) tunneling barrier. Moreover, the ultrathin TiO 2 layer improves the reliability and uniformity of voltage-induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) in the NbO 2 selector devices by thermodynamically suppressing the formation of a surface Nb 2 O 5 layer. Our study suggests that the suitable combination of tunneling barrier and IMT materials can minimize the “off” current of IMT selector devices and improve their applicability in high-density three dimensional cross point array memory devices.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Contemporary research into diagonal active region terahertz quantum cascade lasers for high temperature operation has yielded little success. We present evidence that the failure of high diagonality alone as a design strategy is due to a fundamental trade-off between large optical oscillator strength and long upper-level lifetime. We hypothesize that diagonality needs to be paired with increased doping in order to succeed, and present evidence that highly diagonal designs can benefit from much higher doping than normally found in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. In assuming the benefits of high diagonality paired with high doping, we also highlight important challenges that need to be overcome, specifically the increased importance of carrier induced band-bending and impurity scattering.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Material architectures that balance optical transparency and electrical conductivity are highly sought after for thin-film device applications. However, these are competing properties, since the electronic structure that gives rise to conductivity typically also leads to optical opacity. Nanostructured metal films that exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, while at the same time being electrically continuous, offer considerable flexibility in the design of their transparency and resistivity. Here, we present design guidelines for metal films perforated with arrays of nanometer-scale holes, discussing the consequences of the choice of nanostructure dimensions, of the type of metal, and of the underlying substrate on their electrical, optical, and interfacial properties. We experimentally demonstrate that such films can be designed to have broad-band optical transparency while being an order of magnitude more conductive than indium tin oxide. Prototypical photovoltaic devices constructed with perforated metal contacts convert ∼18% of the incident photons, compared to
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Vapor-deposited, porous, amorphous, water-ice films, also called amorphous solid water (ASW), crack spontaneously during growth when the film thickness exceeds a critical value ( L c ). We measured the L c during growth of ASW films as a function of growth temperature ( T g  = 10 K, 30 K, and 50 K) and deposition angle ( θ  = 0°, 45°, and 55°) using a quartz crystal microbalance, an optical interferometer, and an infrared spectrometer. The critical thickness, 1–5  μ m under our experimental conditions, increases with T g and θ , an indication of film porosity. We suggest that ASW films undergo tensile stress due to the mismatch between substrate adhesion and contracting forces derived from the incompletely coordinated molecules on the surfaces of the pores. We provide a model to explain the observed dependences of L c on the T g and θ in the context of Griffith theory and estimate the tensile strength of low-temperature ASW to be ∼25–40 MPa. Our model can be applied more generally to describe fracture of other solids with microporous structures, such as metallic or ceramic materials with voids.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Submonolayer quantum dots promise to combine the beneficial features of zero- and two-dimensional carrier confinement. To explore their potential with respect to all-optical signal processing, we investigate the amplitude-phase coupling ( α -parameter) in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum dots in ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Lateral coupling provides an efficient carrier reservoir and gives rise to a large α -parameter. Combined with a high modal gain and an ultrafast gain recovery, this makes the submonolayer quantum dots an attractive gain medium for nonlinear optical signal processing.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: We introduce a double metal terahertz quantum cascade laser meant for astrophysical heterodyne measurements. The laser ridge is embedded in benzocyclobutene, and the device exhibits single mode, continuous wave operation around 4.745 THz with a peak power of almost 1.8 mW at 10 K and a power consumption of ≈1.6 W. Moreover, thanks to the integration of a top metal contact with a patch array antenna for light out-coupling the beam of the emitted light has a low-divergence single-lobe profile and an FWHM of ≈30°.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: Unintentionally doped (UID) AlGaN epilayers graded over Al compositions of 80%–90% and 80%–100% were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and were electrically characterized using contactless sheet resistance ( R sh ) and capacitance-voltage ( C–V ) measurements. Strong electrical conductivity in the UID graded AlGaN epilayers resulted from polarization-induced doping and was verified by the low resistivity of 0.04 Ω cm for the AlGaN epilayer graded over 80%–100% Al mole fraction. A free electron concentration ( n ) of 4.8 × 10 17  cm −3 was measured by C–V for Al compositions of 80%–100%. Average electron mobility ( μ ¯ ) was calculated from R sh and n data for three ranges of Al composition grading, and it was found that UID AlGaN graded from 88%–96% had μ ¯  = 509 cm 2 /V s. The combination of very large band gap energy, high μ ¯ , and high n for UID graded AlGaN epilayers make them attractive as a building block for high voltage power electronic devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: This article describes the generation of elastic shear waves in a soft medium using a laser beam. Our experiments show two different regimes depending on laser energy. Physical modeling of the underlying phenomena reveals a thermoelastic regime caused by a local dilatation resulting from temperature increase and an ablative regime caused by a partial vaporization of the medium by the laser. The computed theoretical displacements are close to the experimental measurements. A numerical study based on the physical modeling gives propagation patterns comparable to those generated experimentally. These results provide a physical basis for the feasibility of a shear wave elastography technique (a technique that measures a soft solid stiffness from shear wave propagation) by using a laser beam.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: This paper is concerned with the asymptotical stabilization for a class of unstable delay differential equations. Continuous-time delayed feedback controller (C-TDFC) and discrete-time delayed feedback controller (D-TDFC) are presented and studied, respectively. To our best knowledge, applying Hopf bifurcation theory to delay differential equations with D-TDFC is original and meaningful. The difficulty brought by the introduction of sampling period has been overcome. An effective control range which ensures the asymptotical stability of equilibrium for the system with C-TDFC is obtained. Sequently, another effective control range for the system with D-TDFC is gotten, which approximates the one of C-TDFCS provided that the sampling period is sufficiently small. Meanwhile, efforts are paid to estimate a bound on sampling period. Finally, the theoretical results are applied to a physiological system to illustrate the effectiveness of the two control ranges.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: We have investigated the temperature-dependent oxygen behavior in the lithium battery cathode Li x Ni 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) materials in the temperature range 30-1000 °C. As the temperature increases, oxygen release occurs and the change of crystal structures from the face centered cubic spinel at 30 °C to other phases follows. The amount of released oxygen and the changed crystalline phases are dependent on Li content and temperature. These phenomena are reversible against temperature in air, but not in vacuum and argon gas environments. This study illustrates the important role of temperature and atmospheric environments in synthesizing the LNMO battery materials.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: We devised a single-step mechanochemical synthesis/densification procedure for Cu 2 X (X = S, Se) thermoelectric materials via applying a pressure of 3 GPa to a stoichiometric admixture of elemental Cu and X for 3 min at room temperature. The obtained bulk materials were single-phase, nearly stoichiometric structures with a relative packing density of 97% or higher. The structures contained high concentration of atomic scale defects and pores of 20-200 nm diameter. The above attributes gave rise to a high thermoelectric performance: at 873 K, the ZT value of Cu 2 S reached 1.07, about 2.1 times the value typical of samples grown from the melt. The ZT value of Cu 2 Se samples reached in excess of 1.2, close to the state-of-the-art value.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: Two-dimensional MoS 2 attracts much attention because of its potential application in electronic and optoelectronic devices at present. However, the preparation of large and uniform single crystal MoS 2 nanosheets is still a challenge, which restricts its further application. Herein, monolayer single crystal MoS 2 nanosheets with large and uniform grain size have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a double-tube system. Within the main growth area, the grain size reaches 146  μ m on the substrate of SiO 2 /Si, and the portion of MoS 2 nanosheets with grain size between 50  μ m and 100  μ m is up to 78%. Meanwhile, the grain size keeps constant in the direction perpendicular to the tubes and changes slightly in the parallel direction. This is attributed to the concentration distribution of intermediate product MoO 3−x in the one-side sealed inner tube set in a quartz tube, i.e., the double-tube system, which provides a way to the controllable and uniform synthesis of large monolayer single crystal MoS 2 nanosheets.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: We report the fabrication of a set of new rare-earth-free magnetic compounds, which form the Fe 3 Co 3 Ti 2 -type hexagonal structure with P -6 m 2 symmetry. Neutron powder diffraction shows a significant Fe/Co anti-site mixing in the Fe 3 Co 3 Ti 2 structure, which has a strong effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy as revealed by first-principle calculations. Increasing substitution of Fe atoms for Co in the Fe 3 Co 3 Ti 2 lattice leads to the formation of Fe 4 Co 2 Ti 2 , Fe 5 CoTi, and Fe 6 Ti 2 with significantly improved permanent-magnet properties. A high magnetic anisotropy (13.0 Mergs/cm 3 ) and saturation magnetic polarization (11.4 kG) are achieved at 10 K by altering the atomic arrangements and decreasing Fe/Co occupancy disorder.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: The linewidth enhancement (α factor) due to fluctuations in the refractive index induced by carrier fluctuations of intersubband lasers was initially expected to be zero. However, values ranging from −0.5 to 3 have been found experimentally. This paper resolves this controversy showing that counter rotating terms, usually ignored in simulations, are the actual fundamental origin of nonzero α at peak gain even without the inclusion of nonparabolicity and manybody effects, which are however needed to explain negative values. For laser without inversion conditions, significant as a potential out of the box solution for the elusive room temperature operation of terahertz lasers, α is found to be larger, but still at the same order of magnitude of conventional inverted medium lasers, thus ensuring their applicability to a huge number of spectroscopic applications that require sharp laser linewidths.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: As important members of nonclassical states of light, squeezed states and entangled states are basic resources for realizing quantum measurements and constructing quantum information networks. We experimentally demonstrate that the two types of nonclassical optical states can be generated from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) involving a periodically poled KTiOPO 4 crystal with a domain-inversion period of 51.7  μ m, by changing the polarization of the pump laser. When a vertically polarized 671 nm laser is used to pump the OPO, the intra-cavity frequency-down-conversion with type-0 quasi-phase matching is realized and the output optical beam is a quadrature amplitude squeezed state of light at the wavelength of 1342 nm with the fluctuation of quadrature component of 3.17 dB below the quantum noise limit (QNL). If the pump laser is horizontally polarized, the condition of the type-II quasi-phase matching is satisfied and the output optical beam becomes Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state of light with correlation variances of both quadrature amplitude-sum and quadrature phase-difference of 2.2 dB below the corresponding QNL.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: We report a simple and efficient electrical sensing scheme that can be used to overcome the “diffusion limit” of affinity-based biosensors by incorporating the structural advantage of a concentric electrode biosensor platform and the microstirring effect of AC electrothermal flow (ACEF). To prove the effect of ACEF on the biosensor performance, we performed both simulations and experiments for the detection of cardiac troponin-I, which is a biomarker for acute myocardial infarction. The finite element simulation results indicate that AC bias to the electrode (which has a concentric structure in our device) can induce fast convection flow, which facilitates the transport of the target molecules to the binding region located between the two electrodes. In our device, the channel region made of a carbon nanotube network decorated with gold nanoparticles, which act as the attaching sites of the probe molecules, is used as a highly sensitive electrical channel. We find that the electrical sensing method exhibited extremely fast sensing speeds compared with those under no bias (diffusion-limited) conditions.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: Experiments in the T-10 tokamak [Alikaev et al. , Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 , 381 (1988)] have demonstrated the possibility of control of the plasma current and prevention of formation of the non-thermal (E γ  〉 150 keV) electron beams after an energy quench at the density limit disruption using electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) and controlled operation of the Ohmic power supply system. Quasi-stable plasma operation with repetitive sawtooth oscillations can be restored after an energy quench using high auxiliary power P ec  〉 2–5 P oh . Optimal conditions of the plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench using auxiliary heating are identified. At high auxiliary power, restoration of the plasma discharge can be provided with the location of the EC resonance zone within the whole plasma cross section. The auxiliary power required for discharge restoration is minimal when the power is deposited around the m = 2, n = 1 magnetic island (here m and n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The threshold ECRH power increases linearly with plasma current. Prevention of the non-thermal electron beams during density limit disruption is associated with stabilization of bursts of the magnetohydrodynamic modes, creation of the saturated magnetic islands, and heating of the background plasma using ECRH. Plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench in a tokamak reactor using auxiliary heating and controllable reduction of the plasma current is discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: The main objective of this research is to investigate the degree to which variations in mechanical properties of constitutive composite materials can influence the aeroelastic behavior of a wind turbine blade. First, structural behavior of a full-scale wind turbine blade is evaluated from different aspects of bending, torsional and axial rigidities. For this purpose, simplified model of the blade is constructed and it is validated with experimental data of the full-scale blade. Then, a parametric study is performed to determine the most dominant mechanical properties which have a severe impact on the structural behavior of the blade. Identified dominant properties are varied randomly and independently. Thus, stochastic analysis is performed to investigate the variations in natural frequencies of the blade as the governing parameter in defining aeroelastic behavior. Finally, susceptibility of the blade to dynamics instability is also examined. Aeroelastic effects are found to have a stronger effect on the blade with lower material properties that lead to more power reduction.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Defect engineering is an effective and powerful tool to control the existing material properties and produce completely new ones, which are symmetry-forbidden in a defect-free crystal. For example, the application of a static electric field to a single crystal of SrTiO 3 forms a strained near-surface layer through the migration of oxygen vacancies out of the area beneath the positively charged electrode. While it was previously shown that this near-surface phase holds pyroelectric properties, which are symmetry-forbidden in centrosymmetric bulk SrTiO 3 , this paper reports that the same phase is strongly piezoelectric. We demonstrate the piezoelectricity of this phase through stroboscopic time-resolved X-ray diffraction under alternating electric field and show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient d 33 ranges between 60 and 100 pC/N. The possible atomistic origins of the piezoelectric activity are discussed as a coupling between the electrostrictive effect and spontaneous polarization of this near-surface phase.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: The metastable nature of metallic glasses (MGs) limits their applications. We report the formation of a stable Pd 40.16 Ni 9.64 Cu 30.12 P 20.08 MG with bulk size under high pressure at room temperature. The stable MG shows remarkably enhanced thermal and kinetic stability with substantially increased glass transition temperature T g , crystallization temperature T x , density and mechanical properties. The unique stability can be further reinforced by higher pressure and maintained even above T g . This result can advance the glass design and the understanding of the fundamental issues in MGs.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb 5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm 2 /Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 10 8 , and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: The enhancement in electrical conductivity and optical transparency induced by a phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline in lightly silicon-doped indium oxide (InSiO) thin films is studied. The phase transition caused by simple thermal annealing transforms the InSiO thin films from semiconductors to conductors. Silicon atoms form SiO 4 tetrahedra in InSiO, which enhances the overlap of In 5 s orbitals as a result of the distortion of InO 6 octahedral networks. Desorption of weakly bonded oxygen releases electrons from deep subgap states and enhances the electrical conductivity and optical transparency of the films. Optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that the phase transition causes a Fermi energy shift of ∼0.2 eV.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Quantum communications have garnered an increasing amount of interest over the last several years. One of the key components, a deterministic single photon source, requires both high quantum efficiency and suitable emission wavelengths, particularly for ubiquitous fiber-based systems. Solid state single photon sources, comprised of a crystal with isolated, optically active defects, are particularly advantageous in terms of their potential for fine control, reproducibility, ease of operation, and scalability. However, random orientation of single defects presents challenges in terms of scalable manufacturing of such sources. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate Mie resonant core–shell structures that are to a large degree insensitive to random impurity dipole orientations and at the same time decouple spurious decay channels by enhancing both absorption and emission rates. Applying the simple core-shell design to Xenon-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals enhances emission rates into the main zero phonon line by a factor of 23 relative to the bulk diamond. Addition of a Bragg-mirror shell to the Mie core-shell permits a great deal of further increase in the enhancement factor: e.g., a factor of 1273 for a two-bilayer Bragg mirror. A great deal of insensitivity to both the emitting dipole orientation and positioning within the nanocrystal was demonstrated.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Quasiperiodic chaos (QC), which is a combination of quasiperiodic sets and a chaotic set, is uncovered in the six dimensional Poincaré map of a symmetric three-degree of freedom vibro-impact system. Accompanied by symmetry restoring bifurcation, this QC is the consequence of a novel intermittency that occurs between two conjugate quasiperiodic sets and a chaotic set. The six dimensional Poincaré map P is the 2-fold composition of another virtual implicit map Q , yielding the symmetry of the system. Map Q can capture two conjugate attractors, which is at the core of the dynamics of the vibro-impact system. Three types of symmetry restoring bifurcations are analyzed in detail. First, if two conjugate chaotic attractors join together, the chaos-chaos intermittency induced by attractor-merging crisis takes place. Second, if two conjugate quasiperiodic sets are suddenly embedded in a chaotic one, QC is induced by a new intermittency between the three attractors. Third, if two conjugate quasiperiodic attractors connect with each other directly, they merge to form a single symmetric quasiperiodic one. For the second case, the new intermittency is caused by the collision of two conjugate quasiperiodic attractors with an unstable symmetric limit set. As the iteration number is increased, the largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent of the QC does not converge to a constant, but fluctuates in the positive region.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Dynamics of many multi-agent systems is influenced by communication/activation delays τ . In the presence of delays, there exists a certain margin called the delay margin τ * , less than which system stability holds. This margin depends strongly on agents' dynamics and the agent network. In this article, three key elements, namely, the delay margin, network graph, and a distance threshold conditioning two agents' connectivity are considered in a multi-agent consensus dynamics under delay τ . We report that when the dynamics is unstable under this delay, its states can be naturally bounded, even for arbitrarily large threshold values, preventing agents to disperse indefinitely. This mechanism can also make the system recover stability in a self-regulating manner, mainly induced by network separation and enhanced delay margin. Under certain conditions, unstable consensus dynamics can keep separating into smaller stable subnetwork dynamics until all agents stabilize in their respective subnetworks. Results are then demonstrated on a previously validated robot coordination model, where specifically robustness of τ * is studied against the delay τ inh inherently present in the orientation measurements of the robots. To this end, a mathematical framework to compute τ * with respect to τ inh in quasi-state is developed, demonstrating that τ * can be sensitive to τ inh , yet robot regrouping and stabilization of subnetworks is still possible.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity. We find that when perfectly aligned individuals in a group are startled, there is a rapid escape by individuals that directly detect the threat, as well as by individuals responding to their neighbors. However, individuals that are not startled do not head away from the threat. In startled groups that are randomly oriented, there is a rapid, accurate response by individuals that directly detect the threat, followed by less accurate responses by individuals responding to neighbor cues. Over the simulation duration, however, even unstartled individuals head away from the threat. This study illustrates a potential speed-accuracy trade-off in the startle response of animal groups, in agreement with several previous experimental studies. Additionally, the model can be applied to a variety of group decision-making processes, including those involving higher-dimensional motion.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is “loosened.” Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: The effect of coupling between the extensional bulk mode and the flexural mode of a cantilever beam resonator has been experimentally studied by exciting the two modes simultaneously. The modal frequency shift of linear extensional bulk mode shows a quadratic relationship with the square of flexural mode's amplitude displacement, and a frequency shift up to 1492 Hz is observed when the flexural mode is driven by a AC signal V ac of 3 V and a DC bias of 30 V. The flexural mode shows a Duffing-like behavior with a softening nonlinearity and its frequency shift is influenced not only by its own nonlinear amplitude-frequency effect but also the extensional mode's amplitude as predicted. The nonlinear coupling coefficient is found to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the softening nonlinearity.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p -type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized. It is found that Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range 77–300 K. The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes. In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness. These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: Nanoscale metal oxide memristors have potential in the development of brain-inspired computing systems that are scalable and efficient. In such systems, memristors represent the native electronic analogues of the biological synapses. In this work, we show cerium oxide based bilayer memristors that are forming-free, low-voltage (∼|0.8 V|), energy-efficient (full on/off switching at ∼8 pJ with 20 ns pulses, intermediate states switching at ∼fJ), and reliable. Furthermore, pulse measurements reveal the analog nature of the memristive device; that is, it can directly be programmed to intermediate resistance states. Leveraging this finding, we demonstrate spike-timing-dependent plasticity, a spike-based Hebbian learning rule. In those experiments, the memristor exhibits a marked change in the normalized synaptic strength (〉30 times), when the pre- and post-synaptic neural spikes overlap. This demonstration is an important step towards the physical construction of high density and high connectivity neural networks.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: We report on a comparative study of high performance isotropic cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) powder processed by dry and surfactant assisted (wet) ball milling. Milling times as short as 1.5 min (dry) and 6 min (wet) have resulted in a 4-fold increase in coercivity, with a maximum achieved value above 318 kA/m (4 kOe). The use of surfactant is shown to be advantageous in the formation of a more homogeneous structure constituted by non-agglomerated and strained nanoparticles. A record ( BH )   max value of 18.6 kJ m   − 3 (2.34 MGOe) has been obtained for isotropic powder after post-processing annealing. This magnetic performance combined with the required short processing times and the unnecessary requirement of oxygen avoidance in the milling process, makes this CoFe 2 O 4 powder a good candidate for permanent magnet applications.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: We propose a detection scheme for charged molecules or particles based on optically excited semiconductor nanopores. By means of numerical simulations, we show that the band gap of the semiconductor nanopore can be tuned allowing actuation by light. Molecules translocating through the semiconductor nanopore modulate the fluorescence from the nanopore enabling molecule detection. Our approach will enable us to perform a parallel readout of a translocating molecule without the need of chemical modification of the translocating molecules.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: In this paper, we demonstrated a floating-gate organic thin film transistor based nonvolatile memory, in which the core architecture was processed by a sequential three-step solution spin-coating method. The molecular semiconductor 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pen) distributing in the matrix of polymer poly(styrene) (PS), acting as the floating-gate and tunneling layer, respectively, was processed by one-step spin-coating from their blending solution. The effect of the proportion of TIPS-Pen in the matrix of PS on the memory performances of devices was researched. As a result, a good nonvolatile memory was achieved, with a memory window larger than 25 V, stable memory endurance property over 500 cycles and retention time longer than 5000 s with a high memory ratio larger than 10 2 , at an optimal proportion of TIPS-Pen in the matrix of PS.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: We report on the fabrication of nano-contact spin-torque oscillators based on single layers of the epitaxially grown half-metal NiMnSb with ultralow spin wave damping. We demonstrate magnetization auto-oscillations at microwave frequencies in the 1–3 GHz range in out-of-plane magnetic fields. Threshold current densities as low as 3 × 10 11 A m −2 are observed as well as minimum oscillation linewidths of 200 kHz, both of which are much lower than the values achieved in conventional metallic spin-valve-based devices of comparable dimensions. These results enable the fabrication of spin transfer torque driven magnonic devices with low current density requirements, improved signal linewidths, and in a simplified single-layer geometry.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: By means of angle- and spin-resolved photoemission, we demonstrate a possibility of the out-of-plane spin polarization of topological surface states and corresponding lifting of the Kramers degeneracy at the Dirac point induced in magnetically-doped topological insulator Bi 1.37 V 0.03 Sb 0.6 Te 2 Se by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation (SR) at room temperature. It has been shown that the induced out-of-plane polarization is created due to an “optically”-generated uncompensated spin accumulation with transferring the induced torque to the diluted V 3 d ions. We have found theoretically a relation between the imbalance in depopulation of the Dirac cone states under photoexcitation, the generation of steady-state uncompensated spin accumulation and the induced magnetization that can be managed by the polarization of SR.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of 10 −29 e ⋅ cm by using polarized “magic” momentum 0.7 GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model at the scale of 3000 TeV.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: We have designed and installed a new Langmuir-probe (LP) array diagnostic to determine basic three-dimensional (3D) features of plasmas in TORPEX. The diagnostic consists of two identical LP arrays, placed on opposite sides of the apparatus, which provide comprehensive coverage of the poloidal cross section at the two different toroidal locations. Cross correlation studies of signals from the arrays provide a basic way to extract 3D information from the plasmas, as experiments show. Moreover, the remarkable signal-to-noise performance of the front-end electronics allows us to follow a different approach in which we combine information from all probes in both arrays to reconstruct elementary 3D plasma structures at each acquisition time step. Then, through data analysis, we track the structures as they evolve in time. The LP arrays include a linear-motion mechanism that can displace radially the probes located on the low field side for experiments that require fine-tuning of the probe locations, and for operational compatibility with the recently installed in-vessel toroidal conductor.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: We have developed a new instrument combining a scanning probe microscope (SPM) and an X-ray scattering platform for ambient-pressure catalysis studies. The two instruments are integrated with a flow reactor and an ultra-high vacuum system that can be mounted easily on the diffractometer at a synchrotron end station. This makes it possible to perform SPM and X-ray scattering experiments in the same instrument under identical conditions that are relevant for catalysis.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators’ light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators’ light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument’s performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: A systematic study of pressure ionization is carried out in the chemical picture by the example of fluid helium. By comparing the variants of the chemical model, it is demonstrated that the behavior of pressure ionization depends on the construction of the free energy function. In the chemical model with the Coulomb free energy described by the Padé interpolation formula, thermodynamical instability induced by pressure ionization is found to be manifested by a discontinuous drop or a continuous fall and rise along the pressure-density curve as well as the pressure-temperature curve, which is very much like the first order liquid-liquid phase transition of fluid hydrogen from the first principles simulations. In contrast, in the variant chemical model with the Coulomb free energy term empirically weakened, no thermodynamical instability is induced when pressure ionization occurs, and the resulting equation of state achieves a good agreement with the first principles simulations of fluid helium.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
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  • 68
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    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma rings have been created experimentally. Longitudinal (acoustic) and transverse (optical) dispersion relations for the one-ring are measured and found to be in excellent agreement with the theory for an unbounded straight chain of particles interacting through a Yukawa (i.e., screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) potential. These rings provide a new experimental system to directly study one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional linear and nonlinear phenomena.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2016-12-01
    Description: Numerical study of electromagnetic (EM) wave transmission through the magnetized plasma layer is presented in this paper. The plasma parameters are derived from computational fluid dynamics simulation of the flow field around a blunt body flying at supersonic speed and serve as the background plasma condition in the numerical modeling for EM wave transmission. The EM wave is generated by our newly designed coaxial feed GPS patch antenna. The external magnetic field is applied and assumed to vary linearly as a function of wall distance. The effects of the external applied magnetic field and the plasma parameters on wave transmission are studied, and the results show that EM wave propagation in the non-uniformly magnetized plasma is a matter of impedance matching, and the EM wave transmission can be adjusted only when the proper strength of the magnetic field is applied.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: A method is proposed that enables the imaging of the photocurrent collected by a solar cell under arbitrary operating conditions. The method uses a series of luminescence images under varying illumination to derive the total photocurrent collection efficiency at a given voltage bias. The resulting total photocurrent collection image directly relates to the difference between the dark and illuminated current-voltage characteristics of the cell. A crystalline silicon solar cell is used to test the method, and the images of the total photocurrent collection efficiency are used to quantify the influence of a crack on the total collected photocurrent of the solar cell.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on dielectric disk resonators made of colossal permittivity ( ε  = 1000) and low loss (tan  δ  = 2.5 × 10 –4 ) microwave ceramic is experimentally investigated. The system operates at the magnetic dipole mode excited in the resonators providing maximal power transfer efficiency of 90% at the frequency 232 MHz. By applying an impedance matching technique, the efficiency of 50% is achieved within the separation between the resonators d  = 16 cm (3.8 radii of the resonator). The separation, misalignment and rotation dependencies of wireless power transfer efficiency are experimentally studied.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: A selective electrothermal magnetic annealing technique is introduced that provides programming capabilities for mechanical micro-resonators. In the proposed approach, the magnetic properties of resonators can be locally tuned in a post-fabrication batch-compatible process step. A prototype is implemented in a standard microfabrication process, where resonating ferromagnetic elements are suspended on top of a polysilicon resistive heater. The ferromagnetic elements consist of electroplated Nickel (Ni) with minor Iron (Fe) impurities. The electro-thermo-mechanical heating phenomenon is simulated for design purposes. The magnetization of micro-resonators with and without magnetic annealing is measured. The resulting magnetic property enhancement is illustrated by hysteresis (M-H) loop variations.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: Microcrystals of LiNbO 3 (size ∼200 nm) can be selectively precipitated in a glass matrix which can assist in the photocatalytic activity through ferroelectricity. Glass with the composition 30SiO 2 -35Li 2 CO 3 -35Nb 2 O 5 was utilized for the process. A remarkably high Estriol (E3) degradation rate of 232.54 min −1  m −2 was obtained. The degradation was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy with a detection limit in nanomolar (nM) range. From the fitting of fluorescence intensity versus time, it was observed that degradation of estriol follows a pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The results indicate that LiNbO 3 based glass-ceramics have a great potential to be employed as a well embedded photocatalyst.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: Floating gate memory operations are demonstrated in a single-electron transistor (SET) fabricated by a chemical assembly using the Au nanogap electrodes and the chemisorbed Au nanoparticles. By applying pulse voltages to the control gate, phase shifts were clearly and stably observed both in the Coulomb oscillations and in the Coulomb diamonds. Writing and erasing operations on the floating gate memory were reproducibly observed, and the charges on the floating gate electrodes were maintained for at least 12 h. By considering the capacitance of the floating gate electrode, the number of electrons in the floating gate electrode was estimated as 260. Owing to the stability of the fabricated SET, these writing and erasing operations on the floating gate memory can be applied to reconfigurable SET circuits fabricated by a chemically assembled technique.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: Ferroelectrets are non-polar polymer foams or polymer systems with internally charged cavities. They are charged through a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that are caused by the electrical breakdown of the gas inside the cavities. Thus, the breakdown strength of the gas strongly influences the charging process of ferroelectrets. A gas with a lower breakdown strength has a lower threshold voltage, thus decreasing the onset voltage for DBD charging. However, a lower threshold voltage also leads to a lower value for the remanent polarization, as back discharges that are caused by the electric field of the internally deposited charges can take place already at lower charge levels. On this basis, a charging strategy is proposed where the DBDs start in a gas with a lower breakdown strength (in the present example, helium) and are completed at a higher breakdown strength (e.g., nitrogen or atmospheric air). Thus, the exchange of the gas in the cavities during charging can significantly enhance the charging efficiency, i.e., yield much higher piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrets at significantly lower charging voltages.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: The obscure nature of glass physics has led to develop various correlations between different parameters and properties of metallic glasses. Despite these correlations, the clear picture of plastic deformation is still lacking. We have measured elastic recovery in metallic glasses by indentation, and found the elastic recovery correlate with different properties and parameters of metallic glasses. All these observations can be quite well explained with flow unit model which could provide clearer picture on the plastic deformations and nature of the metallic glasses.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study non-adhesive contact at the atomic scale. Starting from the case of Hertzian contact, it was found that the reduced Young's modulus E * for shallow indentations scales as a function of, both, the indentation depth and the contact radius. Furthermore, the contact of two representative rough surfaces was investigated: one multi-asperity, Greenwood-Williamson-type (GW-type) rough surface — where asperities were approximated as spherical caps — and a comparable randomly rough one. The results of the MD simulations were in agreement for both representations and showed that the relative projected contact areas A r p c were linear functions of nominal applied pressures, even after the initiation of plastic deformation. When comparing the MD simulation results with the corresponding continuum GW and Persson models, both continuum models were found to overestimate the values of A r p c relative to the MD simulation results.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: A new concept, Phase Segregation Annealing (PSA), was investigated for implementing simultaneous ohmic contacts (SOCs) to p - and n -type 4H-SiC. Test structures with selected ratio compositions of co-sputtered Pt:Ti contacts were fabricated in p -type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers having aluminum acceptor concentrations, N a  = 2 × 10 19 , 7 × 10 19 , and 2.5 × 10 20  cm −3 , and a nitrogen doped n -type epitaxial layer having donor concentration, N d  = 7 × 10 18  cm −3 . The ratios of the co-sputtered Pt-Ti metallization were 80:20, 50:50, and 30:70 at. %. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) ranging between 800 and 1200 °C in vacuum and confirming SOCs by linear current-voltage (I-V) measurement, the specific contact resistance ( ρ c ) values were extracted using the Transfer Length Measurement method. SOCs were realized with the Pt80:Ti20 composition starting from 1000 °C, and the Pt30:Ti70 composition from 1100 °C, with both exhibiting eutectic and segregated phases. The Pt50:Ti50 composition produced no SOC and eutectic and segregated phases were absent. The Pt80:Ti20 composition had the lowest pair of average ρ c values of 7 × 10 −5 Ω cm 2 and 7.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm 2 on the highest doped p -type and the n -type samples after RTA at 1000 °C, respectively. Auger electron spectroscopy and focused ion beam field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicated distinct phase segregation via the eutectic-liquidus-eutectic transitions, the coalescence of likely Pt 3 Si and Pt 2 Si binary phases, and solid phases of Ti 3 Si, Ti 5 Si 3 , and TiC, with all the active phases maintaining intimate contact to both the p - and n -type 4H-SiC surfaces. The SOC formation was attributed to the disparate work functions of these phases, which was in good agreement with the proposed PSA model.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Description: In this paper, the electrical properties of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell have been analyzed and an optimized structure is proposed. In addition, the planar PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell is also modeled for comparison. We first developed a simulation software which is capable of modeling organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including Gaussian shape density of states into Poisson and drift-diffusion solver to present the tail states and trap states in the organic material. Therefor