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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 245-249 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cycloadditions ; Cage compounds ; Dimerizations ; Steric hindrance ; Photochemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---On irradiation at λ ≥ 270 nm solutions of 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines 1 yield cage dimers 2 as the main products beside small amounts of anti dimers 3. 1H-NMR data and X-ray crystal structure prove centrosymmetrical properties for both dimers with axially orientated 4-aryl substituents. Irradiation with filtered light (λ 〉 313 nm) leads to syn and anti dimers 4 and 3 in nearly equal yields. The poor yields of anti dimers 3 on irradiation with unfiltered light are demonstrated to result from a partial cleavage back to their monomeric starting materials 1.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; NMR spectroscopy ; NOE ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The conformational features of alkylated, benzoylated, and benzylated cyclodextrins in solution were analysed by NOE and proton-selective relaxation methods and were compared to those of native compounds.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclopropanone ; Allene oxide ; Matrix isolation ; Photochemistry ; Flash vacuum thermolysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylpyrazolin-4-one (4) with subsequent trapping of the products in argon at 10 K results in the formation of a complex product mixture with tetramethylcyclopropanone (5) as one of the minor constituents. The 193 nm photochemistry of matrix-isolated 4 is much cleaner, yielding cyclopropanone 5 and allene oxide 9 as the major products. The reaction of tetramethylallene 13 with oxygen atoms yields the same product mixture of 5 and 9 and thus provides an independent route to these species. The experimental IR spectra of 5 and 9 are in good agreement with the results from DFT calculations.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99377_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Amino acids ; Peptides ; Stereoselectivity ; Chirality ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---While geminally disubstituted α-amino acids are helix-inducing residues in α-peptides, gem-disubstituted β-amino acids are predicted not to fit into any of the three major secondary structures of β-peptides recognized to date [the 314 helix, the 12/10/12 helix, and the pleated sheet (Figure 1)]. In order to be able to synthesize and structurally identify β-peptides containing such building blocks, or consisting entirely of them, and in order to establish the chirality of secondary structures they may form, achiral and chiral gem-disubstituted β-amino acids must be readily available. The methods of preparation of 3-amino carboxylic acids with two carbon substituents at the 2- or 3-position (β2,2-/β3,3-amino acids, Figure 2) are reviewed. While there are numerous essentially classical routes to achiral and rac-β-amino acids of this type (Schemes 1-4), their EPC synthesis is currently the subject of investigations. These include the nucleophilic addition to (R)- or (S)-N-sulfinimines (Schemes 6-10) and other Mannich-type transformations (Schemes 19-22), stereoselective alkylations of various chiral hydropyrimidines (Schemes 11, 12, 18), of esters or amides of 2-cyano-alkanoic acids (Schemes 13, 14, 16), and of Li2 derivatives of non-racemic N-protected 3-amino-alkanoates (Scheme 17), as well as sequences of reactions involving enantiopure gem-disubstituted succinic acid derivatives and a Curtius degradation (Schemes 23-26). Oligomers of the achiral gem-disubstituted compounds 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclopropane and -cyclohexane carboxylic acid have already been shown to form 8- and 10-membered hydrogen-bonded rings, respectively (Figure 5), which provide novel motifs for the possible construction of turns, links, or steps in β-peptidic chains.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Binaphthol ; Absolute configuration ; Chiroptical properties ; Enantioselective catalysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---As an extension of our interest in developing new enantioselective reactions based on the binaphthol privileged ligand, we report a simple approach to the synthesis of 7,7′-disubstituted binaphthols. The commercially available 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalene (1) was used as starting material for the preparation of the bromoderivatives 2, which were oxidatively coupled to afford 3, a key intermediate for the preparation of a variety of enantiopure substituted binaphthols (8, 10). The absolute configuration of the new compounds was established by chiroptical analysis and by cholesteric induction. The optically active catalysts derived from the ligands 3, 8, 10, 16 and 17, complexed with Ti(OiPr)2Cl2, Zr(OiPr)4 and ZrCl4(THF)2, were employed for the enantioselective addition of allyltributyltin to aldehydes. Finally, the influence of the substituents of the binaphthyl core on the transmission of the chiral information was also investigated.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 171-180 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Dendrimers ; Fullerenes ; Macromolecular chemistry ; Template synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The synthesis and complete characterization of dendritic hexakisadducts 8-13 of C60 with a mixed (1:5, 2:4, 3:3 and 4:2) Th symmetrical addition pattern is described. Pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris- and bisadducts 4-7 of C60 with diethyl malonate addends arranged in an incomplete octahedral addition pattern served as core building blocks. Completion of the pseudo-octahedral architecture was achieved by exhaustive cyclopropanation with first- to third-generation bromomalonate dendra 1-3 consisting of the corresponding Fréchet-type 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol subunits. This concept allows for the convergent synthesis of globular dendrimers with a variable number of dendritic malonates (1-4) and a high dendron density in good yields. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra reflect the Th symmetrical addition pattern of the products and reveal spatial interactions of inner dendron branches.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Cryptands ; Macrocycles ; Macrocyclic ligands ; Cyclophanes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Novel fluorine-containing macrocyclic molecules have been synthesized in order to clarify the interaction or coordination ability of the C-F unit towards metal ions. The cage compounds 1 and 2 were prepared by direct coupling reactions between the appropriate diamines and dibromides, while bond isomers of the cage compounds were synthesized via fluorinated diaza[3.3]metacyclophanes. Complex formation with alkali metal cations, NH4+, and Ag+ ions has been assessed by picrate extraction experiments. Comparison of the cation affinities of hosts 1, 2, and 4, shows that the spatial arrangement of the fluorine atoms strongly affects the donor ability of the host molecules. The hexafluoro cage compound 1, with six fluorine atoms in an octahedral geometry, exhibits relatively strong coordination ability towards K+, NH4+, and Ag+ ions, while compound 2, with four fluorine atoms in a structure similar to that of 1 shows only poor affinity for these ions. Compound 4, which has six fluorine atoms arranged in a quasi planar fashion, was found to show weak affinity towards NH4+ and Ag+ ions. Thus, octahedrally arranged fluorine atoms evidently provide the best fit for spherical cations. Compound 1 shows characteristic 1H-, 13C-, and 19F-NMR-spectral changes upon complexation. The crystal structure of 1 has been elucidated and compared to that of the K+ complex. The C-F bonds are found to be slightly elongated in the K+ complex, which is clearly indicative of coordination of the fluorine atom to K+.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99243_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbohydrates ; Oligosaccharides ; Glycosylations ; Organic synthetic methods ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The tetrasaccharide 5-aminopentyl glycoside β-D-Manp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-1-O-(CH2)5NH2(22) related to the exopolysaccharide of Arthrobacter sp. CE-17 was synthesized by coupling of the properly protected disaccharide blocks β-D-Manp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-1-S-Ph (11) and α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-1-O-(CH2)5NHZ (20). Building block 11 was obtained by intramolecular β-mannosylation of a malonyl-tethered disaccharide glycoside which was prepared from phenyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and ethyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside (5) in 5 steps. Building block 20 was obtained by coupling N-Z-protected 5-aminopentyl 2-O-benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-β-D-glucopyranoside (14) obtained from the non-benzylated counterpart 12 with ethyl 2,3-di-O-benzoyl-4-O-chloroacetyl-1-thio-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (18) obtained in 3 steps from ethyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-1-thio-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (15).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Hydroxyalkenoic acids ; Hydrogen bonds ; Crystal engineering ; Molecular assemblies ; Scanning force microscopy ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The substituted 6-hydroxy-trans-3-hexenoic acids 2-4 have been prepared by a template coupling reaction between (butadiene)zirconocene, W(CO)6, and cyclobutanone, cyclodecanone, or cyclododecanone, respectively, followed by hydrolytic/oxidative demetallation of the resulting metallacyclic zirconoxycarbene tungsten complexes. The hydroxyalkenoic acids 2-4 have been found to form two novel fundamental types of associated supramolecular structural arrays in the solid state through intermolecular hydrogen bonding, which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyclobutanone-derived compound 2 exhibits an infinitely extending sheet-like structure, which is composed of symmetrically alternating interconnected 12- and 36-membered rings, each being constructed from the functional groups or frameworks of four individual molecules of 2. In contrast, the cyclodecanone-derived compound 3 adopts a ribbon-type structure composed of C2-symmetrically arranged symmetry-equivalent 15-membered rings, each containing the functionalities from three individual molecules of 2. On the basis of scanning force microscopy studies, the cyclododecanone-derived compound 4 would appear to have a similar structure in the solid state. The structural features of the molecular assemblies that are formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding of compounds 2-4 in the solid state are selectively controlled by the size and favoured conformations of the spiro-anellated carbocyclic rings at C6 of the 6-hydroxy-trans-3-hexenoic acid carbon chain.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 193-198 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Nucleophilic substitutions ; Azulenes ; Hydroxylation ; Amination ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Hydroxylation of azulenes with tert-butylhydroperoxide proceeds efficiently at the 6-position when the former contain electron-withdrawing substituents in the five-membered ring. Similarly, VNS amination of azulenes proceeds with 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole; its anion, being an active nucleophile, also reacts with unsubstituted azulene. A variety of transformations of 6-hydroxyazulenes, such as substitution of the corresponding sulfonates with nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon nucleophiles and halogens, and the Claisen rearrangement of allylic ethers, is reported.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Enediynes ; Vanadium ; C-C coupling ; Macrocycles ; Lactams ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A short synthesis of unfunctionalized lactenediyne 3 by closure of the ten-membered ring at the double bond site is reported. After failure of the known methodologies, this closure was eventually successfully achieved thanks to a highly stereoselective, vanadium(II)-mediated pinacol coupling of bis(alk-2-ynal) 7.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99471_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Circular dichroism ; Configuration determination ; Sesterterpenes ; Manoalide ; Marine natural products ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The absolute configuration of antiinflammatory marine sesterterpenes belonging to the manoalide and cacospongionolide structural type has been determined by comparison of the CD spectra of the natural compounds with those of analogues that have been stereoselectively synthesized. In the derived acetates the relative stereochemistry of the stereogenic centres in the pyranofuranone moiety is assigned from 1H-NMR data and the absolute configuration from CD spectra. The absolute configuration of the naturally occurring marine sesterterpenes thorectolide monoacetate, manoalide monoacetate, petrosaspongiolide M and cavernosolide has been determined.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Leishmaniasis ; Pheromones ; Pheromones ; Terpenoids ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Both the enantiomers of 9-methylgermacrene-B (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of methyl 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate (2). The male-produced sex pheromone of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (the vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania chagasi) from Lapinha, Brazil, was identified as (S)-1 by GC comparison.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Indiumallyl compounds ; Vinylcyclopropanes ; α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds ; Diastereoselectivity ; Dibenzylideneacetone ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Allylindium reagents, prepared from excess allylic halide (Br or I) and indium metal, react with α,β-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes to give, after aerobic acidic workup, homoallyl-substituted vinylcyclopropanes. This process was explored and developed after a chance discovery arising from a side reaction in an attempted Pd-catalysed process. The structure of the cyclopropane arising from the reaction of bis(p-chlorobenzylidine)acetone was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Whilst bis-α,β-unsaturated ketones give rise to a single homoallylcyclopropane species, α,β-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes give diastereomeric mixtures whose relative stereochemistry were assigned by NOE experiments. Crotylindium reagents react with good to perfect regioselectivity to afford tetrasubstituted cyclopropanes but prenylindium reagents fail to generate the analogous pentasubstituted rings.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Addition reactions ; Octahydroacridine ; Polypyridines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new octahydroacridine with a tert-butoxypropyl group in the 9-position was prepared and was used in the synthesis of new soluble annelated polypyridines. Quinquepyridine with 11 adjacent rings was prepared in 17-25% yield by condensation of an α-methylene ketone and an enolisable ketone in the presence of ammonium acetate under basic conditions.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Heterocycles ; Rearrangements ; C-C coupling ; C-C coupling ; Cyclizations ; Isoquinolines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -5-Methylbenzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]isoquinolines and 5-methylbenzo[b]seleno[2,3-c]isoquinolines 11b,c have been prepared by Bischler-Napieralski cyclization of 2-acetamido-3-phenylbenzo[b]heteroarenes.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -No Abstract.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Endoperoxides ; Cycloheptatriene ; Dichloroketene ; Singlet oxygen ; Cobalt ; Porphyrins ; Furans ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -CoII-tetraphenylporphyrin-catalyzed decomposition of bicyclic endoperoxides 4 and 5 with a strained double bond moiety has been studied. Compounds 4 and 5 have been synthesized by photooxygenation of 3 which itself was obtained by dichloroketene addition to cycloheptatriene, followed by removal of the chlorine atoms. An unusual decomposition mode of 4 promoted by CoII-TPP resulted in the formation of 8 and 9 which are important building blocks in furofuran systems.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1365-1372 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Atropisomerism ; Transition states ; Enzyme inhibitors ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Transition state mimicry is one of the most powerful concepts in enzyme inhibitor design and has led to the development of catalytic antibodies. Transition state analogs are compounds with a fixed shape that resemble the geometry and charge distribution of the transition state of a given reaction. Stabilization of a transition state like conformation is most often achieved by incorporating a ring system into the analog. We show herein that atropisomerism can be used as a new principle for enforcing a transition state like conformation. Atropisomerism relates to the existence of stereoisomers of structurally constrained molecules due to a frozen rotation about a single bond, as for example in binaphthol. The 1-aminomethylnaphthalene derivative 1 exhibits atropisomerism due to a frozen rotation about the C(1)-C(methylene) single bond, which holds the dihedral angle θ[C(2)-C(1)-C(methylene)-N] close to 90°. Compound 1 mimics the transition state for hydride transfer between 1,4-dihydroquinolines 4 and acetone.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -No Abstract.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1377-1386 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Diallenes ; Solid-state reactions ; Naphthocyclobutenes ; Benzodicyclobutadiene ; Through-bond interactions ; X-ray analysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The title four-membered ring compounds, naphthocyclobutenes and benzodicyclobutadienes, were produced by thermal cyclization reaction of crystalline 1,2-diallenylbenzenes and 1,6-diethynyldiallenes, respectively. These solid-state reactions proceeded efficiently and stereoselectively. The naphthocyclobutenes were shown to have extremely long C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds (1.720-1.733 Å). The benzodicyclobutadienes were also shown to have extremely long C(sp2)-C(sp2) bonds (1.540 Å).
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Natural products ; Epoxidations ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Fluorine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The synthesis of enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure (-)-(1R,2R,5R)- and (-)-(1R,2S,5R)-2-fluoro frontalin (7) starting from (+)-(1S)-menthyl-(R)-toluene-4-sulfinate, methylmagnesium bromide, methyl fluoroacetate, 4-pentenyl bromide and diazomethane is described. The absolute stereochemistry was unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis of (+)-(1S,2R,5S,RS)-5, an intermediate in the synthesis of the enantiomeric (+)-(1S,2R,5S)-2-fluoro frontalin (7).
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Alkaloids ; Alkylations ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Grignard reactions ; Nitrogen heterocycles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Treatment of salts 1a-b with Grignard reagents gives, after reduction of the resulting unstable dihydropyridines 7, the tetrahydropyridines 8a-c, with modest selectivities but in very few steps and under practical conditions. Higher stereo- and regioselectivities are obtained with salt 1c which gives the tetrahydropyridines 15a-e. In addition, the dihydropyridine intermediates 11b cyclize to give the new oxazolidine derivatives 12a-e, which turn out to be good precursors of the 2,6-trans-disubstituted tetrahydropyridines 21a-e. Selective syntheses of (-)-lupetidin, (+)-solenopsin, and indolizidines (-)-5 and (-)-6 are presented as representative examples of applications.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Electron transfer ; Radical ions ; Oxidations ; N-Dealkylation ; Aziridines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Excess N-benzyl aziridine (1) reacts with I2 to afford dimer 2, tetramer 3, benzaldehyde (4), and iodoamine 5. The reaction is interpreted as occurring by both electron transfer (ET) and heterolytic mechanisms. An ET mechanism is substantiated for the oxidation by I2 of dimer 2 and tetramer 3, both being substrates easier to oxidise by electron abstraction than 1. Several auxiliary reactions were performed on 1 in order to firmly establish the boundaries to the competition between the ET and heterolytic mechanisms. For the reaction of 1 with 5 a reaction scheme is proposed; in a particular case, a pseudo-first order kinetic law is followed.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chirality ; Dendrimers ; Fullerenes ; Lipofullerenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The facile synthesis of enantiomerically pure C3-symmetrical fullerene dendrimers all-R-fA-7, all-S-fC-8, all-R-fC-9, and all-S-fA-10, as well as lipofullerenes all-S-fA-11 and all-S-fC-12 involving an octahedral [3:3] addition pattern is described. The C3 symmetrical tris[bis(4-phenyl-2-oxazoline)methano]fullerenes 1, 2, 3, and 4 with known absolute configuration were used as precursors. The completion of the octahedral addition pattern was achieved by a threefold cyclopropanation with the dendritic 3,5-dihydroxybenzylic bromomalonate 5 and the lipophilic dioctadecyl bromomalonate 6. The absolute configurations of the precursor trisadducts were retained in the inherently chiral C3-symmetrical hexakisadducts 7-12. The structure and the isomeric purity of all hexakisadducts 7-12 were unambiguously proven by NMR spectroscopy and other techniques. Preliminary experiments with the dendritic hexakisadducts all-S-fC 8 and all-S-fA 10 revealed that these macromolecular ligands posess catalytic properties with respect to stereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1045-1050 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Hydrolysis ; Nucleophilicity ; α-Effect ; Metal ion complexes ; Oximes ; Biomimetic models ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A kinetic study of the reactivity in the cleavage of p-nitrophenyl acetate of a series of 2-pyridineoximes, 1-4, and their complexes with NiII, ZnII and CuII is reported. Complexation of the oximic ligands leads to a remarkable increase in the acidity of the oximic group, following the order CuII 〉 NiII 〉 ZnII. The oximates of free ligands and their metal complexes, being α-nucleophiles, are quite effective in promoting the cleavage of PNPA. However, the reactivity, as defined by the second-order rate constants, is not predictably related to the acidity of the oximic function. The corresponding Brønsted plot shows a linear behaviour up to a pKa value of ca. 8, above which the reactivity of the uncomplexed oximic functions levels off to a limiting value. In the case of the metal ion complexes, a large effect of the ligand structure on the reactivity was observed. As a consequence, complexes of appropriate ligands and metal ions show a reactivity that exceeds the apparent limiting one of the oximates. The origin of such effects and their possible implications in the development of new reactivators of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase are discussed.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1061-1063 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Matrix isolation ; Density functional calculations ; Isomerizations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Ultraviolet irradiation of matrix-isolated formamide (1) in solid argon with light of wavelength 248 nm leads to the formation of formimidic acid (2). Comparison of the experimental IR spectrum of the photoproduct with the calculated IR spectrum of 2 shows clearly that two rotamers 2a and 2b are formed.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99501_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Atropisomerism ; Conformation analysis ; Liquid chromatography ; Chiral resolution ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A series of bis(oxo/thioxothiazolinyl) aromatic atropisomers with two chiral C(aryl)-N(heterocycle) axes was synthesized. The separation of antiparallel, parallel diastereomers was achieved by chromatography on silica. Conformational assignment for the bis-thione atropisomers 1a,b-4a,b and bis-one atropisomers 9a,b-12a,b was based on polarimetric results in analytical chiral chromatography on microcrystalline cellulose triacetate. The relationship conformation-1H NMR chemical shifts, found for the bis-thiones and bis-ones was successfully applied for the conformational assignment of thione-one atropisomers not assigned by chiral liquid chromatography.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; Phosphazene base ; Pyridyl epoxide ; Furyl epoxide ; Pyridyl alcohol ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---trans-1-(2-Pyridyl)-, trans-1-(3-pyridyl)-, trans-1(2-furyl)-, and trans-1(3-furyl)-2-phenyl epoxides with enantiomeric purities ranging from 96.8 to 99.8% [in favor of the (+, EtOH)-isomer] are obtained in two steps from pure (R,R,R)-oxathiane which is recovered (85-90%) and reused. The chiral bidentate ligand 2-phenyl-(S)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethanol with 99.6% ee was obtained in three steps and 67% overall isolated yield.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; Inclusion compounds ; Carcinine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative 1 that was functionalized in position 6 with Boc-Carcinine was synthesised and its crystal structure was determined. The structure reveals a “sleeping swan”-like shape, the covalently bonded Boc-Carcinine moiety forming a folded structure with the Boc group inserted within the hydrophobic cavity of the β-cyclodextrin. The conformation of the Carcinine moiety is determined by the inclusion of the Boc group and is further stabilised by three intramolecular hydrogen bonds, two between the amide N1-H group, the carbonyl C′1=O1 group and a primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 5, one between the carbonyl C′0=O0 group and the primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 2. The β-CD macrocycle differs only slightly from unmodified β-CDs, maintaining an approximate sevenfold symmetry. The solution structure of the new β-CD derivative was investigated by NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (c.d.) spectroscopy. In addition to a complete (1H and 13C) assignment of the pendant Boc-Carcinine group, the NMR study allowed the assignment of all the proton resonances associated with the β-CD macrocycle. Furthermore, NMR and c.d. results indicated that the self-inclusion of the Boc group within the β-CD cavity is retained in aqueous solution. In order to estimate the strength of this self-inclusion complex a series of competition experiments with the external guest 1-adamantanol was carried out using c.d. spectroscopy.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Polycyclic anions ; Aromaticity ; Annulene anions ; Corannulene ; Fullerene anions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Stable π-conjugated anions are formed in the reaction of π-conjugated systems with alkali metals. Reactivity, aromatic properties and aggregation of the anions are described. Bowl-shaped and fullerene anions, as well as helicene and planar polycyclic anions, are discussed vis-à-vis their aromaticity and charge delocalization pattern.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1113-1120 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Peptidomimetics ; Reverse turn mimetics ; Glycomimetics ; Heterocycles ; Lactams ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -D-Glucurono-3,6-lactone and L-cysteine combine in a highly stereoselective manner to give the 7,5-bicyclic thiazolidinlactam 2. The α-hydroxy group of the D-glucurono-3,6-lactone was exchanged for an amino function (to give 13) and, after condensation with L-cysteine methyl ester, the polyol dipeptide 7 was obtained. Peptide couplings proceed without the need to protect the three secondary hydroxy groups of the seven-membered ring. The amino group of 7 was deprotected and selectively elongated to the pseudo-tripeptide 16. The depsipeptide 17 was obtained by condensation of Boc-Ala-OH with the polyol 2. Elongation at the carboxy terminus yielded 19 and 20. The bicyclic scaffold populates a well-defined solution conformation; the hydroxy groups mimic the side chains of hydrophilic amino acids and can be further functionalized.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Radicals ; EPR spectroscopy ; Quantum mechanical calculations ; Silicon compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Trisilane 7 has been synthesized as a potential photochemical precursor of tetra-tert-butylsilatetrahedrane (5) and/or tetra-tert-butylsilacyclobutadiene (6). Astonishingly, only one Si,Si bond is broken upon irradiation of 7 and the silacyclobutenyl radical 9 can be identified as the reaction product. The structure of radical 9, which in the absence of oxygen is persistent even at room temperature, has been elucidated by comparison of its experimental and calculated ESR spectra.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbonylation ; Wittig reactions ; Rhodium ; Homogeneous catalysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The rhodium(I)-catalysed sequential silylformylation/Wittig olefination of terminal alkynes with hydrosilanes and carbon monoxide in the presence of stabilised P-ylides leads to substituted 2,4-dienoic esters in a one-pot procedure. The α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated esters are generated with high (2E,4Z) stereoselectivity in good to excellent yields. Conversions of the products in [2+1] cycloaddition reactions are presented.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Catenanes ; Cyclophanes ; Electrochemistry ; Electronic spectroscopy ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Catenanes composed of two, three, five, or seven interlocked macrocycles have been synthesized in yields ranging from 1 to 30%. Their template-directed syntheses rely on a series of cooperative noncovalent bonding interactions between π-electron rich 1,5-dioxynaphthalene ring systems and π-electron deficient bipyridinium units which are incorporated within the macrocyclic components. The interlocked structure associated with one of the [3]catenanes was demonstrated unequivocally by single crystal X-ray analysis which also revealed the formation of polar stacks stabilized by intermolecular [π···π] interactions. The number of interlocked components of each catenane was determined by liquid secondary ion, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight, and/or electrospray mass spectrometries. The absorption spectra, emission spectra, and electrochemical properties of the macrocyclic components and of the catenanes have been investigated. Two kinds of charge-transfer absorption bands (intramolecular in the cyclophanes containing electron-donor and electron-acceptor units, intercomponent in the catenanes) have been found. Such charge-transfer excited states are responsible for the quenching of the potentially fluorescence units of the cyclophanes, and of the crown ethers in the catenanes. Charge-transfer electronic interactions are also evidenced by the electrochemical behavior. Correlations among the redox potentials of the various compounds are reported and discussed.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane ; Haloarenes, cross-coupling of ; Propellanes ; Palladium ; Catalysis ; Small-ring systems ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Radical addition reactions of organyl iodides 7a-s onto [1.1.1]propellane (2) followed by halogen-lithium exchange and transmetallation with zinc chloride, as well as additions of Grignard reagents to 2, have furnished a variety of 3-substituted bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl-1-magnesium (14) and -zinc (19) derivatives. The latter have been coupled with various alkenyl, aryl, and biaryl halides and triflates under NiCl2dppe, Pd(PPh3)4, or PdCl2(dppf) catalysis to give a number of 1,3-disubstituted bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl derivatives 17, 20, and 23, several of which exhibit liquid crystalline properties, in moderate to very good yields. The coupling products 20ca, 23ab, 23ae, 23ff, and 23fg have been further transformed to yield bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl derivatives 32, 24ab, 24ae, 27ff, and 27fg, respectively, bearing alkynyl, cyano, and/or alkenyl groups.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Supramolecular chemistry ; Fullerenes ; Crown compounds ; Electrochemistry ; Metal complexation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The synthesis of two novel [60]fullerene derivatives containing the electron donor tetrathiafulvalene and metal-complexing crown ethers is described, and their complexation ability with alkali metal cations is studied by solid-liquid extraction techniques, cyclic voltammetry and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbene complexes ; 1-Metallahexatrienes ; Cyclopentadienes ; Carbene complexes ; Tungsten ; Domino cyclization ; Pentalenes ; Spirocyclopentanes ; Spiro compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -1,3-Dioxytetrahydropentalenes 9 have been generated by base-catalyzed addition of protic oxygen nucleophiles ROH 6a-g (RO = carboxy or phenyloxy) to the [2-(1-cyclopentenyl)ethynyl]carbene tungsten complex 3. Compounds 9 are highly reactive and afford (cyclobutenyl)carbene complexes 12a-g through spontaneous [2+2] cycloaddition to a second molecule of the (1-alkynyl)carbene complex 3. Thermolysis of compounds 12 was found to generate indeno[b]-spiro-tricyclo[5.3.0.0]decadienes 18 through π-cyclization of the 1-tungsta-1,3,5-hexatriene unit involving insertion of carbon monoxide into the W—C bond.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: INOC ; Pyrrolidines ; Piperidines ; Stereoselective synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Intramolecular nitrile oxide olefin cycloaddition (INOC) reactions of oximes 1-3 and of 24-27 derived from L-amino acids have been found to proceed stereoselectively, yielding tricyclic fused pyrrolidines and piperidines. Further manipulation led to chiral hydroxymethyl-substituted fused piperidines 33-35 and to 3-amino-4-(1-hydroxypropyl)-2-mercaptomethyl-N-methylpiperidine (36). The structures and stereochemistries of the fused systems, as well as those of the piperidines, have been established by NMR.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cationic amphiphiles ; Transfection ; Pyridinium salts ; Vesicles ; Lipoplex ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Pyridinium amphiphiles have found practical use for the delivery of DNA into cells. Starting from 4-methylpyridine, a general synthesis has been devised for the production of pyridinium amphiphiles which allows variation in both the hydrophobic part and in the headgroup area of the compounds. By means of differential scanning microcalorimetry, zeta potential, particle size measurements and cryo electron microscopy, some characteristics of the pyridinium amphiphile/DNA complexes have been determined.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photoinduced electron transfer ; Enantioselective syntheses ; Amino acids ; α-Hydroxy acids ; (S)-Prolinol ; Recyclable chiral auxiliary ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---PET activation of 1-(N-benzyl-N-methylglycyl)-(S)-prolinol (1) in dry acetonitrile, utilizing 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene (DCN) as a light-harvesting electron-acceptor and methyl viologen (MV++) as an electron-transfer mediator, leads to the formation of 3-[benzyl(methyl)amino]perhydropyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazin-4-one (3). When this photolysis is carried out in aqueous acetonitrile, exclusively 3-hydroxyperhydropyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazin-4-one (4) is produced. The formation of 3 can be rationalized in terms of intramolecular cyclization of the in situ generated iminium cation intermediate (2) by the OH moiety of (S)-prolinol, while 4 is generated by hydrolysis of 2 followed by acetalization. Nucleophilic alkylation of 3 and 4, using Grignard reagents and allyltrimethylsilane/TiCl4, provides 12a-d & 15 and 17a-c & 21, respectively, in a highly stereoselective manner. Hydrolysis of the resultant amides (12, 15, 17, and 21) provides α-amino acid derivatives (14) and α-hydroxy acids, respectively, in optically active form, along with the recovered (S)-prolinol chiral auxiliary in its recyclable form.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Thiadiazolidinones ; Spiro compounds ; Thiazoles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of 1,2,4-thiadiazolidinones with potential muscarinic receptor binding properties has been performed. During the synthesis of the target compounds, we observed an interesting reductive cleavage of the thiadiazolidinone system which leads to the formation of the novel piperidine spiro triazine heterocycle. The synthesis, structural elucidation (NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) and biological evaluation of the new compounds are described. With the structures unequivocally established, a mechanism for the formation of the spiro compound is proposed.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/099462_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Pauson-Khand reaction ; Cyclopentenones ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---1-Methyl-norbornene ester 9 and 1-methyl-2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene ester 10 were employed in intermolecular Pauson-Khand reactions with various terminal alkynes 11a-f to give the dimethyl 1-methyltricyclo[5.2.1.05,9]dec-7-en-6-one 2,3-dicarboxylates 12 and 13, and diethyl 2,3-diaza-1-methyltricyclo[5.2.1.05,9]dec-7-en-6-one 2,3-dicarboxylates 14 and 15, respectively. Whereas the co-cyclization of norbornene 9 with alkynes 11 bearing small substituents R resulted in the preferred formation of 12 (12:13 ≤ 85:15), regioisomer 13 was obtained as the major product when sterically bulky alkynes were employed (12:13 ≥ 6:94). For 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol 11e a strong temperature dependency of the regioselectivity was found. The ratio of regioisomers (12e:13e) changed from 95:5 at -25 °C to 12:88 at 120 °C in toluene. In contrast, reactions with 2,3-diazanorbornene 10 showed only moderate regioselectivities in favour of 14 (14:15 ≤ 69:31), regardless of the temperature and the size of R. The observed regioselectivities support a mechanism for the Pauson-Khand reaction in which the apical rather than the basal anti oriented carbon monoxide ligand of cobalt alkyne complex 1 is replaced by the alkene.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No Abstract.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Reverse-turn mimics ; γ-Turns ; β-Turns ; β-Hairpins ; Peptides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Conformational analysis of N-acetylated hexapeptide mimics incorporating a bicyclic lactam (1-4) was carried out by a combination of 1H-NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and computer modeling. The nature of the bicyclic lactam determines the turn motifs and the folding patterns of these constrained peptides. The (5,6)-bicyclic lactam derivatives 1 and 2, characterized by a type-II' β-turn (C=O3···H6-N), are very compact intramolecularly H-bonded structures. The (5,7)-bicyclic lactam derivative 3, characterized by an inverse γ-turn (C=O4···H6-N), is a quite flexible “tweezer-like” structure.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric catalysis ; Catalysis ; Addition reactions ; N ligands ; Nickel ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Quaternary stereocenters were constructed with an enantioselectivity of up to 91% ee under aerobic conditions and at ambient temperature in the Michael reaction of β-dicarbonyl compounds and methyl vinyl ketone with Ni(OAc)2·4H2O and optically active trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane as a chiral catalyst.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 707-711 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Radical reactions ; Photolysis ; X-ray scattering ; Rearrangements ; Semiempirical calculations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The previously reported tandem cyclisation of N-aryl α-(2-cyanophenyl)sulfanyl imidoyl radicals affords one quinoxaline derivative arising from exclusive 1,6-cyclisation of the final iminyl radical onto the N-aryl ring. When the imidoyl radicals are generated by addition of photolytically generated (2-cyanophenyl)sulfanyl radicals to isocyanides, the reaction also gives small amounts of a by-product that is formed by an analogous route and whose X-ray crystallographic data are reported here. The formation of this product entails a rare ortho-selective photo-Fries rearrangement of the starting disulfide, followed by addition to the isocyanide and regioselective 1,5-cyclisation of the resulting imidoyl onto only one of the two available radical acceptors, i.e. the cyano group and the sulfide moiety. Semiempirical MNDO-d calculations were performed in order to throw some light on the factors affecting these competitive cyclisations.
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  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 713-721 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Reductive alkylation ; Acenaphthylenes ; Carbanions ; Polycycles ; Single-electron transfer ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Reaction of the 5-hydroacenaphthylene anion with benzyl halides proceeds at carbon atom 1 as well as at carbon atom 2a, in the latter case creating a quaternary centre. The hardness-softness of the electrophiles was shown to play only a minor role in determining the regioselectivity of the reaction of the hydroanion with several benzyl and alkyl halides: the leaving group hardly affects the ratio of 1- and 2a-substituted products. This indicates that the alkylation might proceed by an electron transfer (SET) instead of an SN2 mechanism. Further evidence for SET was obtained by the use of free radical and electron scavengers. The substitution products 1-benzylacenaphthene and 2a-benzyl-2a,5-dihydroacenaphthylene could be isolated and purified.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 729-735 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Rubromycins ; Natural products ; Biosynthesis ; Quinones ; Structure elucidation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The structure of the known secondary metabolite β-rubromycin was corrected, based on spectroscopic and chemical investigations, from o-quinone 1 to p-quinone 6. By feeding [U-13C3]malonic acid to the rubromycin-producing strain, Streptomyces sp. A1, the polyketide origin of the skeleton was verified, but the identity of the starter unit and the folding mechanism of the polyketide chain are still unclear. From the culture broth of the strain A1, in addition to 6, the co-metabolites γ-rubromycin (3), δ-rubromycin (4) and 3′-hydroxy-β-rubromycin (7) were isolated. Their structures were determined or confirmed by detailed spectroscopic analysis. The rubromycins inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and are cytostatically active against different tumor cell lines.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Isotopic labeling ; Isotopic labeling ; Isotopic labeling ; Deuterium ; Carbon-13 ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Three selectively labeled propynes were prepared either with deuterium or carbon-13 at position 3 and doubly labeled with carbon-13 at positions 1 and 2 by an alkylation reaction from the corresponding labeled or unlabeled monolithio acetylides and dimethylsulfates. Their lithiation with nBuLi gave the corresponding propynyllithium derivatives which reacted with dimethyl squarate to afford the corresponding propargylic alcohols. These were thermolysed in p-xylene to furnish [5-D3-methyl]-, [5-13C-methyl]-, and [5,6-13C2-2,5-cyclohexadienyl]ubiquinone. The farnesyl side chain was introduced onto the labeled quinones with farnesyl trimethyltin under BF3 catalysis to provide [5-D3-methyl]-, [5-13C-methyl]-, and [5,6-13C2-2,5-cyclohexadienyl]ubiquinone 3 (6c, 6b, 6a, respectively).
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Tetrathiafulvalenes ; Charge transfer ; UV/Vis spectroscopy ; Cyclic voltammetry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---4-[2-tetrathiafulvalenyl-ethenyl]pyridine (1) has been prepared from a Wittig reaction between formyltetrathiafulvalene and 4-picolyltriphenylphosphonium chloride hydrochloride. Conversion of the pyridine moiety of 1 by reaction with methyl iodide leads to 4-[2-tetrathiafulvalenyl-ethenyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (2a). Neutralization of 1 with a large excess of L-tartaric acid affords 4-[2-tetrathiafulvalenyl-ethenyl]-1-methylpyridinium hydrogen tartrate (3). These TTF-π-spacer-acceptor compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, and IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 2a has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The cation is essentially planar. Examination of the bond lengths in 2a, UV/Vis spectra and CV data, and calculations indicate that an intramolecular charge transfer occurs in the studied compounds, although it is rather limited, and larger in 2a and 3 than in 1.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chromophores ; Photochemistry ; Heterocycles ; Diazenes ; Imines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The chances for intramolecular imine/ene (→ azetidines), diazene/ene (→ 1,2-diazetidines), diazeneoxy/ene (→ 1,2-diazetidine oxides) and diazenedioxiene (→ 1,2-diazetidine dioxides) [2+2]photocycloadditions and for the isolation of the respective photoproducts, have been probed with specifically designed substrates. Upon direct or sensitized excitation, [2+2]cycloaddition was found to be the exclusive or at least dominant chemical process for the C=N/C=C, N=N/C=C and ON=N(O)/C=C systems featuring very small π,π-distances of 2.8-3.0 Å and large π,π-interorbital angles of 160-170° (7 → 51, 17 → 55, 33 → 58 (competing N2 elimination), 22 → 62). This is not the case, however, in ON=NO/C=C (23, where electron transfer is a possibility), or in the more flexible, less “proximate” C=N/C=N (57) and C=NO/C=N (63) systems (π,π-distances of 〉3.8 Å). While the corseted 1,2-diazetidine photoadducts (55, 58) proved to be thermally stable, their N-oxides (62, 65) were thermally too labile to be directly observable above -65 °C. For the latter's only fleeting existence, electronic rather than strain effects are held responsible (B3LYP/6-31G* calculations). Very facile C=NO/C=C (12 → 13) and N=NO/C=C (22 → 24) [3+2]cycloadditions, homoconjugate addition of H2 and of dienophiles ([2+2+2]) to the diazene/ene 17 (→ 39, 41, 45) are manifestations of “proximity” in these bichromophoric skeletons.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 807-811 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Proline analogues ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Schöllkopf's method ; Silicon ; Amino acids ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The asymmetric synthesis of a new proline surrogate, incorporating the dimethylsilyl group at position 4 of proline using Schöllkopf's bis-lactim ether method, is described.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Bisdiazenes ; Homoconjugation ; Photochemistry ; Heterocycles ; Diazenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Rigid N=N/N=N (diazene/diazene) systems (F) consisting of more or less alkylated DBH and DBO chromophoric units (1, 2, X-ray structures), with very short π,π distances [d = 2.849 (1a, av.), 2.822 Å (2)] and almost perfect syn-periplanar π,π alignments [ω = 168.6 (1a), 174.2° (2)] as well as the more flexible, less “proximate” metathesis isomers (3a,c, 27a,c, d 〉4.6 Å, ω = 90-100°) have been synthesized. Homoconjugate π,π interaction (in 1, 2, not in 3, 27) is deduced from UV spectroscopic measurements [π → π* maxima at 239 (234) nm (sh, 260)], while PE analyses furnished only small interaction parameters (1a: 〈0.3 eV). The potential of the novel syn-periplanar N=N/N=N motif in 1 and 2 for the synthesis of somewhat exotic polyheterocycles has been explored by calculation (B3LYP) as well as experimentally: i.a. kinetically stabilized, all-cis-peralkylated tetrazolidines (38, 44) and perhydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazines (41, 47) have become accessible (i.a. via novel azomethine/diazene and azomethine/azomethine cycloadditions). In 1a with its unreactive DBO chromophoric subunits, in the “buttressed” derivatives 1b-d, as well as in the DBH/DBO combination 2, and likewise in more ‘distant’ 27 (differently from the analogous C=C/C=C and N=N/C=C systems), irrespective of the excitation conditions employed (light of λ ≥≥ 280, 254 nm, low temperature matrix irradiation, acetone sensitization) no [2+2]photocycloaddition was observed. Instead exclusively N2-elimination took place. It is argued that unproductive N=N/N=N photocycloaddition would have become observable through metathesis isomerization of the respective tetrazetidines.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Heterocycles ; Diazenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Of two very proximate syn-periplanar bisdiazenes (1,2) mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-N-oxides were prepared, representing six combinations of the individual N=N/N=NO/ON=NO chromophores. According to DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*), [2+2]photocycloaddition to the respective oxidized tetrazetidines is significantly to moderately endothermic. The metathesis isomerization of the oxidized tetrazetidines is generally highly exothermic and kinetically increasingly favorable with increasing oxidation state. In practice, four out of the six bichromophoric combinations undergo selectively, in competition with N2 elimination from a DBH unit (13) still partially, metathesis isomerization upon π → π* excitation (monochromatic 254 nm light). In the case of the syn-N=NO/N=NO combinations (5/6, 14), the photoaddition is thermally reversed. For a ON=NO/N=N combination (30), internal electron transfer is responsible for a complex reaction pattern. The preparative value of the metathesis reactions, though, is limited: The metathesis-derived bis[diazene mono(di)oxides] undergo relatively fast secondary photoreactions, while the tri(tetra)oxides undergo rapid thermal transformations. For the N=N/N=NO systems (12), of three potential pathways for its metathesis isomerization, the one that takes place via σ-symmetric intermediates (63, 64) is excluded by virtue of the retention of optical purity in the photometathesis of a highly enriched enantiomer [(-)-12]. Matrix irradiation experiments (12 K, IR control) with 12 result in the appearance of a kinetically highly labile transient. Supported by DFT calculations it is concluded that in the metathesis reactions, the respective tetrazetidine oxides (increasingly destabilized by interactions between oxygen lone pairs and NNσ* orbitals) function as vibrationally excited transients. That thermal reversion of these transients might be a general, nonproductive competition, is suggested by the experimental verification of a “reversed photometathesis” (51 → 15) and by the generally low rates in product formation upon irradiation. The question remains to be answered why in structurally analogous molecular skeletons, [2+2]photocycloaddition occurs in the C=C/N=N and variously oxidized N=N/N=N, and not, however, in the parent N=N/N=N combinations.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Amphiphiles ; Ketone ; Glycosides ; Electron transfer ; Chiral resolution ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Electroreducible amphiphilic aromatic ketones derived from D-glucose and D-glucofuranurono-6,3-lactone (D-glucurone) have been synthesized by Schmidt condensation and reaction of the unprotected lactone with the appropriate substrates, respectively. The macroscale electrolyses of the glucose derivatives, performed in an aprotic solvent (DMF), yield the pinacols possessing two glycosidic side chains. Under the same conditions of electrolysis with the D-glucurone derivative, the glyosidic carbon-oxygen bond is cleaved. The use of a redox mediator (couple anthracene-•/anthracene) has demonstrated that a glucosidic bond can be reduced by a homogeneous electron transfer. In the presence of a proton donor the expected D-glucuronic pinacol is obtained. The radical-radical coupling involves the formation of two chiral centers. The diastereo- and the enantioselectivity of the reaction have been studied by 1H- and 2H-NMR spectroscopy, respectively.
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 823-828 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine-containing heterocycles ; Methyl trifluoropyruvate ; Fluoride elimination ; Cyclizations ; Hydrazone ; Hydrazine tautomerism ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Methyl 3-methoxy-2-trifluoromethylacrylate 1, readily prepared by Wittig reaction from methyl 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvate, has been treated with a number of aryl- (or hetaryl-) hydrazines. Under mild base-catalysis, the resulting 3-hydrazinoacrylates 6 undergo consecutive hydrogen fluoride elimination and intramolecular nucleophilic addition to afford methyl 1-(het)aryl-5-fluoropyrazole-4-carboxylates 7. 5-Aminopyrazoles 8 have been obtained by direct reaction of the ester 7a with a lithium amide, whereas 5-fluoro-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carboxamides 10 have been formed by condensation of the 5-fluoro-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carboxylic acid 9 with amines.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Astaxanthin ; Carotenoids ; Isotopic labeling ; Isotopic labeling ; Total synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The all-E isomer of (4,4′-13C2)astaxanthin (1a) has been prepared by total synthesis starting from commercially available 99% 13C enriched acetonitrile. The labelled astaxanthin was obtained in high purity and with high isotope incorporation. For this synthesis, the C15 + C10 + C15 strategy was used. The central C10-synthon, 2,7-dimethylocta-2,4,6-triene-1,8-dial (3), was coupled with 13C-enriched C15-phosphonium salt 2a. The new synthetic scheme for the preparation of the C15-phosphonium salt is discussed in this paper; the same scheme can be used to label all positions and combinations of positions of the C15-phosphonium salt.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 837-840 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chiral auxiliaries ; Analytical methods ; Through-space interactions ; Lactic acid ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The enantiomeric purity of a chiral compound is determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis of the diastereomers formed with a chiral derivatizing agent. Fluorinated O-aryllactic acids (FAC) 1 are efficient chiral reporters, whose spectacular remote anisotropic effects allow an easy identification and measurement of diastereomers. The remote effects are attributed to the particular design of FAC esters relative to other CDAs.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Resorcin[4]arenes ; Cation interactions ; Interaction sites ; Configuration determination ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Resorcinarene octamethyl ethers, bearing carboalkyloxy groups in the side chains, have been shown to interact with FeIII in organic media. 1H-NMR studies, carried out using GaIII instead of FeIII, suggest that these systems have two active sites of interaction, the first located at the aromatic moiet and the other in the vicinity of the carbonyl groups. As a confirmation of this, resorcinarenes without carbonyl groups in the side chains have been found to exhibit only one active site. Notably, in the latter case the interaction results in configurational changes.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Marine alkaloids ; Heterocycles ; Natural products ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Ascididemine (9H-quino[4,3,2-de][1,10]phenanthrolin-9-one) (1) and an isomer (9H-quino[4,3,2-de][1,7]phenanthrolin-9-one) (4) have been synthesized starting from 1,4-dimethoxyacridone (7). The acridone was converted into 1,4-dimethoxy-9-ethynylacridine (11) by a triflate coupling. The ethynylacridine was converted in one-pot into 3H-6-methoxypyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridine (15) by reaction with sodium diformylamide; the mechanism of this key transformation is discussed. Conversion into 6H-4-bromopyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridin-6-one (19) and 6H-pyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridin-6-one (17), followed by reaction of each of these under high pressure conditions with acrolein N,N-dimethylhydrazone, gave ascididemine and its isomer, respectively.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: α,α-Dialkylated amino acids ; Isotopic labeling ; Strecker synthesis ; Solvent effects ; Stereoselective hydrolysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---[15N]-D-isovaline was prepared from DL-[α-15N]-α-aminoisovaleramide by enzymatic resolution with Mycobacterium neoaurum. The 15N-isotope was introduced during the Strecker synthesis of its precursor, e.g. aminoisovaleronitrile. Attempts to prepare the amino nitrile precursor of [15N]-α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) led to a poor yield and loss of the label. Significantly, improved results were obtained when a cosolvent is present during formation of aminoisobutyronitrile.
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  • 63