ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (47,569)
  • American Meteorological Society  (6,542)
  • 1995-1999  (54,111)
Collection
Years
Year
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On 24 and 25 October 1995, high-resolution oceanographic measurements were carried out in the Strait of Messina by using a towed conductivity-temperature-depth chain and a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. During the period of investigation the surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea north of the strait sill was heavier than the surface water of the Ionian Sea south of the strait sill. As a consequence, during northward tidal flow surface water of the Ionian Sea spread as a surface jet into the Tyrrhenian Sea, whereas during southward tidal flow heavier surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea spread, after having sunk to a depth of about 100 m, as a subsurface jet into the Ionian Sea. Both jets had the form of an internal bore, which finally developed into trains of internal solitary waves whose amplitudes were larger north than south of the strait sill. These measurements represent a detailed picture of the tidally induced internal dynamics in the Strait of Messina during the period of investigation, which contributes to elucidate several aspects of the general internal dynamics in the area: 1) Associated with the tidal flow are intense water jets whose equilibrium depth strongly depends on the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina; 2) although climatological data show that a large horizontal density gradient in the near-surface layer along the Strait of Messina exists, its reversal can occur; 3) fluctuations in the larger-scale circulation patterns that determine the inflow of the modified Atlantic water into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea can be responsible for this reversal. As the tidally induced internal waves reflect the variability in the horizontal density distribution along the Strait of Messina, it is suggested that from the analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery showing sea surface manifestations of internal waves in this area fluctuations of larger-scale circulation patterns in the Mediterranean Sea can be inferred.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15 . pp. 1051-1059.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: A new optical disdrometer has been developed that is optimized for use in high wind speeds, for example, on board ships. The minimal detectable size of droplets is 0.35 mm. Each drop is measured separately with regard to its size and residence time within the sensitive volume. From the available information, the drop size distribution can be calculated with a resolution of 0.05 mm in diameter either by evaluation of the residence time of drops or by drop counting knowing the local wind. Experience shows that using the residence time leads to better results. Rain rates can be determined from the droplet spectra by assuming terminal fall velocity of the drops according to their size. Numerical modeling of disdrometer measurements has been performed, allowing the study of the effect of multiple occupancy of the sensitive volume and grazing incidences on disdrometer measurements. Based on these studies an iterative procedure has been developed to eliminate the impact of these effects on the calculated drop size distributions. This technique may also be applied to any other kind of disdrometer. Long-term simultaneous measurements of the disdrometer and a conventional rain gauge have been used to validate this procedure.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A new numerical two-layer model is presented, which describes the generation of internal tidal bores and their disintegration into internal solitary waves in the Strait of Messina. This model is used to explain observations made by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the European Remote Sensing satellites ERS 1 and ERS 2. The analysis of available ERS 1/2 SAR data of the Strait of Messina and adjacent sea areas show that 1) northward as well as southward propagating internal waves are generated in the Strait of Messina, 2) southward propagating internal waves are observed more frequently than northward propagating internal waves, 3) sea surface manifestations of southward as well as northward propagating internal waves are stronger during periods where a strong seasonal thermocline is known to be present, 4) southward propagating internal bores are released from the sill between 1 and 5 hours after maximum northward tidal flow and northward propagating internal bores are released between 2 and 6 hours after maximum southward tidal flow, and 5) the spatial separation between the first two internal solitary waves of southward propagating wave trains is smaller in the period from July to September than in the period from October to June. The numerical two-layer model is a composite of two models consisting of 1) a hydrostatic “generation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses in the region close to the strait’s sill, where internal bores are generated, and 2) a weakly nonhydrostatic “propagation model,” which describes the dynamics of the water masses outside of the sill region where internal bores may disintegrate into internal solitary waves. Due to a technique for movable lateral boundaries, the generation model is capable of simulating the dynamics of a lower layer that may intersect the bottom topography. The proposed generation–propagation model depends on one space variable only, but it retains several features of a fully three-dimensional model by including a realistic channel depth and a realistic channel width. It is driven by semidiurnal tidal oscillations of the sea level at the two open boundaries of the model domain. Numerical simulations elucidate several observed characteristics of the internal wave field in the Strait of Messina, such as north–south asymmetry, times of release of the internal bores from the strait’s sill, propagation speeds, and spatial separations between the first two solitary waves of internal wave trains.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1107-1129.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: On the basis of the collection of individual marine observations available from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, major parameters of the sea state were evaluated. Climatological fields of wind waves and swell height and period, as well as significant wave height and resultant period are obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1964 to 1993. Validation of the results against instrumental records from National Data Buoy Center buoys and ocean weather station measurements indicate relatively good agreement for wave height and systematic biases in the visually estimated periods that were corrected. Wave age, which is important for wind stress estimates, was evaluated form wave and wind observations. The climatology of wave age indicates younger waves in winter in the North Atlantic midlatitudes and Tropics. Wave age estimates were applied to the calculations of the wind stress using parameterizations from field experiments. Differences between wave-age-based and traditional estimates are not negligible in wintertime in midlatitudes and Tropics where wave-induced stress contributes from 5% to 15% to the total stress estimates. Importance of the obtained effects for ocean circulation and climate variability is discussed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 . pp. 145-157.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: As a contribution to the WOCE Deep Basin Experiment, an array of current meters with individual record lengths exceeding ii years was set across the southern boundary of the Brazil Basin between early 1991 and early 1996. The array spanned the Santos Plateau, the Vema Channel, and the Hunter Channel, all areas believed to be important for transport of Antarctic Bottom Water between the Argentine and Brazil Basins. From the combination of geostrophic velocities computed from hydrographic stations and those directly measured, the total transport of bottom water (potential temperature below 2 degrees C) is estimated to be about 6.9 Sv (Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) northward, with about 4 Sv coming through the Vema Channel and the remainder through the Hunter Channel. Properties of the eddy field are also discussed. Eddy energy levels and their spatial distribution are similar to comparable regimes in the North Atlantic. Integral timescales vary from a few days to several weeks with distance from the Brazil Current and the western boundary. The eddy heat Bur is in the same direction as the heat advection by the mean flow but considerably smaller.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (10). pp. 2444-2457.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Surface heat and freshwater fluxes from the Comprehensive 0cean-Atmosphere Data Set are revised and used diagnostically to compute air-sea transformation rates on density, temperature, and salinity classes over the domain of the data. Maximum rates occur over the warmest water and over mode waters, which are the dominant result of air-sea interaction. Transformation in different is accordingly distinguished by temperature and salinity, just as water masses in different oceans are so distinguished. Over the entire domain, to about 30°S, approximately 80×106 m3 s−1 of warm cool water are transformed by air-sea fluxes, on annual average. Calculations for several seas in the North Atlantic, where deep water is thought to originate, we also presented.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 381-402.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Parametric representations of oceanic geostrophic eddy transfer of heat and salt are studied ranging fromhorizontal diffusion to the more physically based approaches of Green and Stone (GS) and Gent and McWilliams(GM). The authors argue for a representation that combines the best aspects of GS and GM: transfer coefficientsthat vary in space and time in a manner that depends on the large-scale density fields (GS) and adoption of atransformed Eulerian mean formalism (GM). Recommendations are based upon a two-dimensional (zonally orazimuthally averaged) model with parameterized horizontal and vertical fluxes that is compared to three-dimensional numerical calculations in which the eddy transfer is resolved. Three different scenarios are considered: 1) a convective “chimney” where the baroclinic zone is created by differential surface cooling; 2) spindownof a frontal zone due to baroclinic eddies; and 3) a wind-driven, baroclinically unstable channel. Guided bybaroclinic instability theory and calibrated against eddy-resolving calculations, the authors recommend a formfor the horizontal transfer coefficient given by where Ri = f2N2/M4 is the large-scale Richardson number and f is the Coriolis parameter; M2 and N2 are measuresof the horizontal and vertical stratification of the large-scale flow, l measures the width of the baroclinic zone,and α is a constant of proportionality. In the very different scenarios studied here the authors find α to be a“universal” constant equal to 0.015, not dissimilar to that found by Green for geostrophic eddies in the atmosphere. The magnitude of the implied k, however, varies from 300 m2 s−1 in the chimney to 2000 m2 s−1 inthe wind-driven channel.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16 . pp. 133-145.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: The reliability of the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset (COADS) Release 1a 2° monthly winds is tested by comparing it with instrumental measurements in the northwest Atlantic from 1981 to 1991. The instrumental dataset contains anemometer measurements of a very high homogeneity and quality, which were taken by six research sister ships with known anemometer heights in the northwest Atlantic. Special data processing was made with instrumental samples to provide compatibility with the COADS winds. Comparison shows overestimation of the COADS winds in the low ranges and underestimation of the strong and moderate winds. Application of the alternative equivalent Beaufort scales does not remove this bias and makes it even more pronounced. Thus, the conclusion is made that the disagreement obtained results primarily from the uncertainties of anemometer measurements in COADS, especially from the incorrect evaluation of the true wind. Instrumental data also do not indicate significant long-term interannual changes, which are pronounced in the COADS dataset for the 1980s. Some regional features of the comparison are discussed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79 (10). pp. 2033-2058.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: In the autumn of 1996 the field component of an experiment designed to observe water mass transformation began in the Labrador Sea. Intense observations of ocean convection were taken in the following two winters. The purpose of the experiment was, by a combination of meteorological and oceanographic field observations, laboratory studies, theory, and modeling, to improve understanding of the convective process in the ocean and its representation in models. The dataset that has been gathered far exceeds previous efforts to observe the convective process anywhere in the ocean, both in its scope and range of techniques deployed. Combined with a comprehensive set of meteorological and air-sea flux measurements, it is giving unprecedented insights into the dynamics and thermodynamics of a closely coupled, semienclosed system known to have direct influence on the processes that control global climate.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 . pp. 2743-2763.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Differences between “classical” and “sampling” estimates of mean climatological heat fluxes and their seasonal and interannual variability are considered on the basis of individual marine observations from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set. Calculations of fluxes were done for intramonthly averaging and for 1°–5° spatial averaging. Sampling estimates give in general 10% to 60% higher values of fluxes than do classical estimates. Spatial averaging has a larger effect than temporal averaging in the Tropics and subtropics, and temporal averaging is more effective than spatial averaging in midlatitudes. The largest absolute differences between sampling and classical estimates of fluxes are observed in middle latitudes, where they are 15 to 20 W m−2 for sensible heat flux and 50 to 70 W m−2 for latent heat flux. Differences between sampling and classical estimates can change the annual cycle of sea–air fluxes. There is a secular tendency of increasing “sampling- to-classical” ratios of 1% to 5% decade−1 over the North Atlantic. Relationships between sampling-to-classical ratios and parameters of the sea–air interface, the number of observations, and the spatial arrangement of samples are considered. Climatologically significant differences between sampling and classical estimates are analyzed in terms of the contribution from different covariances between individual variables. The influence of different parameterizations of the transfer coefficients on sampling minus classical differences is considered. Parameterizations that indicate growing transfer coefficients with wind speed give the larger sampling minus classical differences in comparison with those based on either constant or decreasing with wind coefficients. Nevertheless, over the North Atlantic midlatitudes, all parameterizations indicate significant sampling minus classical differences of about several tens of watts per square meter. The importance of differences between sampling and classical estimates for the evaluation of meridional heat transport shows that differences between sampling and classical estimates can lead to 0.5–1-PW differences in meridional heat transport estimates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27 . pp. 1894-1902.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The relative importance of the formation of different North Atlantic Deep Water masses on the meridional overturning is examined with a non-eddy-resolving version of the CME model. In contrast to a frequently held belief, convective deep-water formation south of the North Atlantic sill does not significantly force the large-scale overturning if an adequate overflow across the sill can be represented by the model. The sensitivity of the meridional transport to the surface thermohaline forcing is increased under alternate climatic conditions such as increased surface cooling or reduced overflow compared to the present-day situation. The results indicate that climate models may be too sensitive to decadal timescale variability of the surface forcing in subpolar regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 12 (8). pp. 2607-2624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The predictability of the coupled ocean–atmosphere climate system on interannual to decadal timescales has been studied by means of ensemble forecast experiments with a global coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Over most parts of the globe the model’s predictability can be sufficiently explained by damped persistence as expected from the stochastic climate model concept with damping times of considerably less than a year. Nevertheless, the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic Ocean exhibit oscillatory coupled ocean–atmosphere modes, which lead to longer predictability timescales. While the tropical mode shares many similarities with the observed ENSO phenomenon, the coupled mode within the North Atlantic region exhibits a typical period of about 30 yr and relies on an interaction of the oceanic thermohaline circulation and the atmospheric North Atlantic oscillation. The model’s ENSO-like oscillation is predictable up to one-third to one-half (2–3 yr) of the oscillation period both in the ocean and the atmosphere. The North Atlantic yields considerably longer predictability timescales (of the order of a decade) only for quantities describing the model’s thermohaline circulation. For surface quantities and atmospheric variables only marginal predictability (of the order of a year) was obtained. The predictability of the coupled signal at the surface is destroyed by the large amount of internally generated (weather) noise. This is illustrated by means of a simple conceptual model for coupled ocean–atmosphere variability and predictability.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The role of anomalous Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) in forcing east African rainfall anomalies during December–January 1997/98 has been investigated by means of atmospheric model response experiments. It is shown that the strong precipitation anomalies that led to severe flooding over eastern equatorial Africa can be directly related to the contemporaneous changes in the Indian Ocean’s SST. The authors’ set of ensemble experiments prescribing SST anomalies in different ocean basins indicates further that the El Niño–related SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific did not directly drive the changes in the climate over eastern Africa.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (4). pp. 602-624.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The interdecadal variability as simulated by coupled ocean–atmosphere models is reviewed. Emphasis is given to that class of interdecadal variability that arises from ocean–atmosphere interactions. The interdecadal variability simulated can be classified roughly into four classes: tropical interdecadal variability, interdecadal variability that involves both the Tropics and the extratropics as active regions, midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the wind-driven ocean gyres, and midlatitudinal interdecadal variability involving the thermohaline circulation. Several coupled models predict the existence of different interdecadal climate cycles, with periods ranging from approximately 10–50 yr. This implies some inherent predictability at decadal timescales, provided that these interdecadal cycles exist in the real climate system.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 11 (5). pp. 831-847.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: In this paper a decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic that was derived from an extended-range integration with a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model is described. The decadal mode shares many features with the observed decadal variability in the North Atlantic. The period of the simulated oscillation, however, is somewhat longer than that estimated from observations. While the observations indicate a period of about 12 yr, the coupled model simulation yields a period of about 17 yr. The cyclic nature of the decadal variability implies some inherent predictability at these timescales. The decadal mode is based on unstable air–sea interactions and must be therefore regarded as an inherently coupled mode. It involves the subtropical gyre and the North Atlantic oscillation. The memory of the coupled system, however, resides in the ocean and is related to horizontal advection and to the oceanic adjustment to low-frequency wind stress curl variations. In particular, it is found that variations in the intensity of the Gulf Stream and its extension are crucial to the oscillation. Although differing in details, the North Atlantic decadal mode and the North Pacific mode described by M. Latif and T. P. Barnett are based on the same fundamental mechanism: a feedback loop between the wind driven subtropical gyre and the extratropical atmospheric circulation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (9). pp. 2221-2239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) in the region 30°S–60°N. Additionally, observed tropical surface wind stress fields were investigated. Further tropical atmospheric information was derived from a multidecadal run with an atmospheric general circulation model that was forced by the same SSTs. The tropical SST variability can be characterized by three modes: an interannual mode [the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)], a decadal mode, and a trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. The dominant mode of SST variability is the ENSO mode. It is strongest in the eastern equatorial Pacific, but influences also the SSTs in other regions through atmospheric teleconnections, such as the Indian and North Pacific Oceans. The ENSO mode was strong during the 1980s, but it existed with very weak amplitude and short period after 1991. The second most energetic mode is characterized by considerable decadal variability. This decadal mode is connected with SST anomalies of the same sign in all three tropical oceans. The tropical Pacific signature of the decadal mode resembles closely that observed during the last few years and can be characterized by a horseshoe pattern, with strongest SST anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific, extending to the northeast and southeast into the subtropics. It is distinct from the ENSO mode, since it is not connected with any significant SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific, which is the ENSO key region. However, the impact of the decadal mode on the tropical climate resembles in many respects that of ENSO. In particular, the decadal mode is strongly linked to decadal rainfall fluctuations over northeastern Australia in the observations. It is shown that the anomalous 1990s were dominated by the decadal mode. Considerable SST variability can be attributed also to a linear trend or unresolved ultra-low-frequency variability. This trend that might be related to greenhouse warming is rather strong and positive in the Indian Ocean and western equatorial Pacific where it accounts for up to 30% of the total SST variability. Consistent with the increase of SST in the warm pool region, the trends over the tropical Pacific derived from both the observations and the model indicate a strengthening of the trade winds. This is inconsistent with the conditions observed during the 1990s. If the wind trends reflect greenhouse warming, it must be concluded that the anomalous 1990s are not caused by greenhouse warming. Finally, hybrid coupled ocean–atmosphere model experiments were conducted in order to investigate the sensistivity of ENSO to the low-frequency changes induced by the decadal mode and the trend. The results indicate that ENSO is rather sensitive to these changes in the background conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 10 (7). pp. 1488-1504.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is modeled as a stochastically driven dynamical system. This was accomplished by adding to a Hybrid Coupled Model (HCM) of the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere system a stochastic wind stress anomaly field that was derived from observations. The model exhibits irregular interannual fluctuations, whose space–time characteristics resemble those of the observed interannual climate variability in this region. To investigate the predictability of the model, the authors performed ensemble integrations with different realizations of the stochastic wind stress forcing. The ensembles were initialized at various phases of the model’s ENSO cycle simulated in a 120-yr integration with a particular noise realization. The numerical experiments indicate that the ENSO predictability is severely limited by the stochastic wind stress forcing. Linear stochastic processes were fitted to the restart ensembles in a reduced state space. A predictability measure based on a comparison of the stationary and the time-dependent probability distributions of the fitted linear models reveals an ENSO predictability limit of considerably less than an average cycle length.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (10). pp. 2407-2423.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The dynamics and predictability of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America are investigated by analyzing various observational datasets and the output of a state of the art coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model that was integrated for 125 years. Both the observations and model results support the picture that the decadal variability in the region of interest is based on a cycle involving unstable ocean–atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific. The period of this cycle is of the order of a few decades. The cycle involves the two major circulation regimes in the North Pacific climate system, the subtropical ocean gyre, and the Aleutian low. When, for instance, the subtropical ocean gyre is anomalously strong, more warm tropical waters are transported poleward by the Kuroshio and its extension, leading to a positive SST anomaly in the North Pacific. The atmospheric response to this SST anomaly involves a weakened Aleutian low, and the associated fluxes at the air–sea interface reinforce the initial SST anomaly, so that ocean and atmosphere act as a positive feedback system. The anomalous heat flux, reduced ocean mixing in response to a weakened storm track, and anonmalous Ekman heat transport contribute to this positive feedback. The atmospheric response, however, consists also of a wind stress curl anomaly that spins down the subtropical ocean gyre, thereby reducing the poleward heat transport and the initial SST anomaly. The ocean adjusts with some time lag to the change in the wind stress curl, and it is this transient ocean response that allows continuous oscillations. The transient response can be expressed in terms of baroclinic planetary waves, and the decadal timescale of the oscillation is therefore determined to first order by wave timescales. Advection by the mean currents, however, is not negligible. The existence of such a cycle provides the basis of long-range climate forecasting over North America at decadal timescales. At a minimum, knowledge of the present phase of the decadal mode should allow a “now-cast” of expected climate “bias” over North America, which is equivalent to a climate forecast several years ahead.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (1). pp. 219-239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The physics of the Indo–Pacific warm pool are investigated using a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. The model, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fair Meteorologic, Hamburg, does not employ a flux correction and is used with atmospheres at T42 and T21 resolution. The simulations are compared with observations, and the model's mean and seasonal heat budgets and physics in the Indo–Pacific warm pool region are explored for the T42 resolution run. Despite the simulation of a split intertropical convergence zone, and of a cold tongue that extends too far to the west, simulated warm pool temperatures are consistent with observations at T42 resolution, while the T21 resolution yields a cold bias of 1K. At T42 resolution the seasonal migration of the warm pool is reproduced reasonably well, as are the surface heat fluxes, winds, and clouds. However, simulated precipitation is too small compared to observations, implying that the surface density flux is dominated by fluxes of heat. In the Pacific portion of the warm pool, the average net heat gain of the ocean amounts to 30–40 W m−2. In the northern branch, this heat gain is balanced by vertical advection, while in the southern branch, zonal, meridional, and vertical advection cool the ocean at approximately equal rates. At the equator, the surface heat flux is balanced by zonal and vertical advection and vertical mixing. The Indonesian and Indian Ocean portions of the warm pool receive from the atmosphere 30 and 50 W m−2, respectively, and this flux is balanced by vertical advection. The cooling due to vertical advection stems from numerical diffusion associated with the upstream scheme, the coarse vertical resolution of the ocean model, and near-inertial oscillations forced by high-frequency atmospheric variability. The seasonal migration of the warm pool is largely a result of the seasonal variability of the net surface heat flux, horizontal and vertical advections are of secondary importance and increase the seasonal range of surface temperature slightly everywhere in the warm pool, with the exception of its southern branch. There, advection reduces the effect of the surface flux. The seasonal variability of the surface heat flux in turn is mainly determined by the shortwave radiation, but evaporation modifies the signal significantly. The annual cycles of reduction of solar radiation due to clouds and SST evolve independently from each other in the Pacific portion of the warm pool; that is, clouds have little impact on SST. In the Indian Ocean, however, clouds limit the maximum SST attained during the annual cycle. In the western Pacific and Indonesian portion of the warm pool, penetrative shortwave radiation leads to convective mixing by heating deeper levels at a greater rate than the surface, which experiences heat losses due to turbulent and longwave heat fluxes. In the deeper levels, there is no mechanism to balance the heating due to penetrative radiation, except convection and its attendant mixing. In the Indian Ocean, however. the resulting vertical heating profile due to the surface fluxes decreases monotonically with depth and does not support convective mixing. Concurrently, the warm pool is shallower in the Indian Ocean compared with the western Pacific, indicating that convective mixing due to penetrative radiation is important in maintaining the vertical structure of the Pacific portion of the warm pool.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 8 (4). pp. 952-964.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The authors have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual timescales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid-coupled model simulations. The results illustrate the key role of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon in generating interannual variability in all three tropical ocean basins. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific force SST anomalies of the same sign in the Indian Ocean and SST anomalies of the opposite sign in the Atlantic via a changed atmospheric circulation. However, although air-sea interactions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans are much weaker than those in the Pacific, they contribute significantly to the variability in these two regions. The role of these air-sea interactions is mainly that of an amplifier by which the ENSO-induced signals are enhanced in the ocean and atmosphere. This process is particularly important in the tropical Atlantic region. The authors investigated, also, whether ENSO is part of a zonally propagating “wave,” which travels around the globe with a timescale of several years. Consistent with observations, the upper-ocean heat content in the various numerical simulators seems to propagate slowly around the globe. SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean introduce a global atmospheric response, which in turn forces variations in the other tropical oceans. Since the different oceans exhibit different response characteristics to low-frequency wind changes, the individual tropical ocean responses can add up coincidentally to look like a global wave, and that appears to be the situation. In particular, no evidence is found that the Indian Ocean can significantly affect the ENSO cycle in the Pacific. Finally, the potential for climate forecasts in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans appears to be enhanced if one includes, in a coupled way, remote influences from the Pacific.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 95-97 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 103-105 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 98-102 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; mutants ; in vitro motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydomonas flagella contain as many as 11 different dynein heavy chains, three in the outer arm and eight in the inner. Several lines of evidence suggest that these different dyneins are functionally diverse. This diversity may be important for the generation of axonemal undulating movement.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; cilia and flagella ; protein kinase and phosphatase ; dynein-driven microtubule sliding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The following is a summary of physiological and pharmacological studies of the regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding in Chlamydomonas flagella. The experimental basis for the study is described, and data indicating that an axonemal cAMP-dependent protein kinase can regulate inner arm dynein activity are reviewed. In addition, preliminary data are summarized indicating that an axonemal type 1 phosphatase can also regulate dynein-drive microtubule sliding velocity. It is predicted that the protein kinase, phosphatase, and an inner dynein arm component form a regulatory complex in the axoneme.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 110-113 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 121-124 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 129-132 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 125-128 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 114-120 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cilia ; dynein arm activity ; axonemal structure ; hydrodynamics ; computer modelling ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dominance of viscous forces in the generation of propulsive thrust by cilia is emphasised. Fourier analysis indicates that ciliary bends consist of circular arcs joined by linear segments; this arc-line shape appears to be a property associated with the molecular mechanism responsible for bending the cilium and is unchanged by variations in the external viscous loading on the organelle. The flexibility of a computer-generated model of axonemal structure is demonstrated by the incorporation of recent data concerning the surface lattice of the microtubules. Computer simulations using the model show that predictions based on stochastic, rather than co-ordinated, dynein arm activity provide a qualitative match to experimental observations of microtubules gliding over fields of dynein molecules.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 187-204 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: neuronal growth cone migration ; filopodial dynamics ; simulation model ; computer graphics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The neuronal growth cone plays a fundamental role in nerve development and regeneration. A sensory-motile structure, it determines the path of axonal extension through its interactions with the extracellular environment, ultimately directing the formation of functional connections in the nervous system. Though several mechanisms of interaction have been proposed, these have been difficult to describe quantitatively due to the complexity of growth cone behavior, as manifested in the randomly and rapidly changing shape of the growth cone. The application of mathematical techniques to model growth cone shape and motility in terms of underlying processes represents a promising approach with untapped potential for helping to unravel this complexity while revealing new insights into axonal pathfinding events. This paper presents a simulation model for filopodial dynamics, a primary feature of the motile growth cone. The model produces realizations of dynamic filopodial structure on representative growth cones for a given set of model parameters, which include the rates of filopodial initiation, extension, and retraction, filopodial length at maximum extension, and angular orientation. These parameters are based on recent experimental characterization of filopodial dynamics [Buettner et al., 1994: Dev. Biol. 163:407-422]. The mathematical relationship between the model parameters and average filopodial number and length per growth cone is described, and the contribution of individual parameters to overall filopodial morphology is illustrated both visually and numerically. In addition, the model is used to simulate filopodial encounter with a target for various conditions of filopodial dynamics. The result is characterized in terms of a mean encounter time for a population of growth cones and provides an indication of the effect of individual parameters of filopodial dynamics on the encounter process. Future experimental testing will be required to develop the model further. However, in its current form, the model enables a first approximation analysis of many hypotheses of growth cone migration and pathfinding and offers insight into the the underlying mechanismes of nerve growth and regeneration. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 173-186 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule dynamics ; microinjection ; centripetal transport ; pinocytotic vesicles ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Study of microtubule (MT) dynamics in cells has largely been restricted to events occurring over relatively short periods in nonmotile or stationary cell in culture. By using the antioxidant, Oxyrase, we have reduced the sensitivity of fluorescent MTs to photodamage and this has allowed us to image fluorescent MTs with good temporal resolution over much longer periods of time. We have used our enhanced imaging capabilities to examine MT dynamics in fibroblasts moving directionally into a wound. We found that MTs in these cells exhibited dynamic instability similar to that reported for other cells. More interestingly, we found a novel dynamic behavior of the MTs in wihch entire MTs were moved inward from the leading edge toward the cell nucleus. This centripetal transport (CT) of MTs only occurred to those MTs that were oriented with their long axis parallel to the leading edge; radially oriented MTs were not transported centripetally. Both small bundles of MTs and individual MTs were observed to undergo CT at a rate of 0.63 × 0.37 μm/min. This rate was similar to the rate of CT of latex beads applied to the cell surface and of endogenous pinocytotic vesicles in the cytoplasm. When we imaged both MTs and pinocytotic vesicles, we found that the pinocytotic vesicles were ensheathed by a small group of parallel MTs that moved centripetally in concert with the vesicles. Conversely, we found many instances of MTs moving centripetally without associated vesicles. When cells were treated with nocodazole to depolymerize MTs rapidly, the rate of pinocytotic vesicle CT was inhibited by 75%. This suggests that centripetal transport of MTs may be involved in the movement of pinocytotic vesicles in cells. In conclusion, our results show that MTs in motile cells are redistributed by a novel mechanism, CT, that does not require changes in polymer length. The centripetally transported MTs may play a role in transporting pinocytotic vesicles in the cell. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 205-225 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibrillogenesis ; sarcomere structure ; Z-line ; protein ruler ; actin-binding protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A 107-kD protein has been identified in primary cultures of chicken embryonic cardiomyocytes by immunoprecipitations with certain anti-nebulin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs, prepared against a fragment of human skeletal muscle nebulin located near the carboxyl terminus, detect a 107-kD protein in extracts of adult chicken heart, adult mouse heart, and adult rabbit heart by immunoblot analysis. A partial cDNA corresponding to this protein has been isolated by immunological screening of a chicken heart cDNA expression vector library. The partial cDNA encodes a 380-amino acid open reading frame composed entirely of nebulin-like 35-residue modules marked by the highly conserved sequence motifs: SXXXYK and TPD. The open reading frame exhibits 60-85% homology with skeletal muscle nebulins from a variety of species. This cDNA recognizes an ˜8-kb transcript in cardiac RNA and does not hybridize to skeletal muscle RNAs by northern analysis. Immunofluorescence localization of this nebulin-like protein in primary cultures of chicken cardiomyocytes and embryonic chicken cardiac myofibrils indicates that the protein is localized to the I-Z-I complex of the myofibrils, extending approximately 25% of the thin filament length. Comparisons of the distribution of this protein relative to actin, myosin, and titin in spreading cardiomyocytes suggest that the cardiac nebulin-like protein becomes aligned with the nascent myofibrils early during myofibrillogenesis. To distinguish this petite nebulin-like protein from the 600-900 kD skeletal muscle nebulin, we have named it nebulette. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Z-line interconnections ; honey-bee flight muscle ; transverse cytoskeletal network ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Located at the level of the Z-line, the transverse cytoskeletal network of insectflight muscle interconnects adjacent myofibrils with one another, and interconnects peripheral myofibrils with the cell membrane. This network has been presumed to keep myofibrils in register, or to distribute tension laterally among myofibrils. In this study, we used scanning-electron microscopy to reveal details of the three-dimensional arrangement of this network. The network is seen to interconnect longitudinal elements of the cytoskeletal network which surround each myofibril. The arrangement is not unlike that seen in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Interestingly, the transverse network makes contact with cell components such as dense bodies and mitochondria. Such contacts imply potential roles over and above those noted above. The network may be involved not only in mechanical function, but possibly also in intracellular communication. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 273-288 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; γ-tubulin ; polarized epithelia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubules oriented in the apicobasal axis of columnar epithelial cells arranged with a uniform polarity with minus ends toward the apical surface, suggesting that these cytoskeletal filaments might serve as a substrate for polarized movement of membrane vesicles within the cell. It is not known whether hepatocytes, a cuboidal epithelium in which transcellular transport is a requisite step in normal apical membrane biogenesis, contain microtubules arranged with a similar polarity. In the present study, we explore the question of microtubule polarity and possible mechanisms for nucleation in the epithelial cell lines WIF-B (hepatocyte), Caco-2 (intestine), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). Caco-2 microtubules in the apicobasal axis had uniform polarity with minus ends nearest the apical surface. After cold and nocodazole-induced depolymerization, microtubule regrowth initiated in the apical region in all three cell types. The apex of WIF-B and Caco-2 cells contained two pools of γ-tubulin: one associated with centrosomes and the other delocalized under the apical membrane. Non-centrosomal γ-tubulin was present in complexes that sedimented between 10S and 29S; both forms could bind microtubules. The presence of both centrosomal and noncentrosomal γ-tubulin in apical cytoplasm suggests multiple mechanisms by which microtubule nucleation might occur in epithelial cells. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: adhering junctions ; desmosome ; assembly ; phosphorylation ; protein interaction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have analyzed the kinetics of synthesis, phosphorylation, and stability of the soluble and insoluble plakoglobin (PG) and their interactions with Dsg1 and E-cadherin in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells in the absence of cell adhesion and after the induction of cell-cell contact. Using a combination of biochemical and morphological approaches, we show that newly synthesized PG enters a soluble:insoluble pool of proteins in a 60:40 ratio regardles of cell-cell contact. Following synthesis, PG is increasingly found in the insoluble pool. Although cell-cell contact does not effect either the size of each pool or the rate or efficiency of the transfer from the soluble into the insoluble pool, it results in a significant increase in the metabolic stability of the newly synthesized insoluble PG. The soluble PG initially forms separate complexes with E-cadherin and Dsg1. PG-Dsg1 complexes become insoluble and localize to the desmosome. PG-E-cadherin complexes remain soluble and are distributed intracellularly. The insoluble PG and E-cadherin detected at the cell periphery remain distinctly separate, as demonstrated previously [Hinck et al., 1994: J. Cell Biol. 125:1327-1340; Nathke et al., 1994: J. Cell Biol. 125:1341-1352]. In addition, we detected a separate pool of PG which is not associated with either Dsg1 or E-cadherin and after the induction of cell-cell contact becomes primarily insoluble and is distributed along the lateral membrane. Phoshorylation analysis showed that there is a significantly greater amount of phosphorylated PG in the soluble pool than in the insoluble pool. In addition the soluble pool is both serine and theronine phosphorylated, whereas the insoluble PG is primarily phosphorylated on serine residues. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; intermediate filaments ; vimentin ; microtubules ; myoepithelial cells ; immunofluorescence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Salivary gland neoplastic myoepithelial cells in culture form very thin cytoplasmic processes in which the vimentin network is well dispersed. These vimentin filaments can be individually visualized by immunofluorescence. In this study, we have analyzed the role of microtubules in the distension and organization of the vimentin filament network found in these cells. We find that vimentin filaments colocalize along microtubules; however, a significant number of filaments can also be found in microtubule-free domains. Additionally, vimentin filaments are absent from large domains of microtubule inhibitor nocodazole did not cause any retraction of the distended vimentin network. This observation suggests that the structural integrity of microtubules is not important for the stability of the vimentin network. Combining procedures for transient disruption of vimentin filaments and microtubules we observed that, in the absence of microtubules, the vimentin network could reassemble in the perinuclear region but was unable to extend toward the cell periphery. The dispersion of vimentin filaments to the peripheral regions of the cytoplasm could only be observed upon microtubule reassembly. This indicates that microtubules are not required for the stability of the vimentin network, but the dispersion of vimentin filaments to the peripheral cytoplasm depends on active interactions with microtubules. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 32 (1995), S. 299-304 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: 3T3 cells ; CV1 cells ; cell motility ; infrared ; photobiology ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: 3T3 mouse fibroblasts responded differently to specific near-infered signals than epithelial CV1 cell. Furthermore, signals with the same wavelength and energy changed the percentages of attracted and repelled 3T3 cells if their intensity modulation was altered. I found this result in a 22 month long study which established a spectrum of motile responses of 781 individual 3T3 cells and 148 CV1 cells to the near-infrared emissions of microscopic, pulsating light sources using the infrared spot-irradiation phase-contrast (IRSIP) microscopic [Albrecht-Buehler, 1991: J. Cell Biol. 114:493-502]. Thus the response of cultured, mammalian cells to near-infrared light signals is not merely a matter of total energy absorption by cirtain cytoplasmic componets. Since it seems to depend on the cell type and the temporal pattern in which the light energy is emitted, it appears to imply the existence of a new kind of cellular information. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: organelle transport ; cytoskeleton ; amoeba ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using video-enhanced differential interference microscopy and digital image processing, we have observed organelle motility in Acanthamoeba castellanii. In amoebae taken from cultures in rapid growth phase, mitochondria and small particles moved over distances of several microns and at an average velocity of ∼2 μ/s. Mitochondrial motility was verified by intensified fluorescence microscopy of cells that were labeled in vivo with the DNA-binding dye DAPI or the mitochondria-specific dye Mito Tracker. We further studied the role of microtubules (MTs) in the translocation of cell organelles. Double-labelling of fixed cells bules with mitochondrial markers (anti-F1β antibody, Mito Tracker) and cytoskeletal markers (anti-tubulin antibody, rhodamine-phalloidin) demonstrate that the mitochondria colocalize with MTs in the subcortical cell area and are excluded from the F-actin-rich cell cortex. Colchicine treatment resluted in an almost complete depolymerization of MTs and an inhibition of organelle motility. Moreover, we have directly visualized MTs in vivo in flattened amoebae. Mitochondria and small particles moved along the MTs in a bidirectional mode at an average velocity of ∼1 μm/s. We conclude that the observed movement of mitochondria and small particles in Acanthamoeba castellanii mainly occurs via microtubules and associated motor proteins. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; cyclic AMP ; vinculin ; E-cadherin ; ZO-1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In epithelial cells interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions regulate paracellular permeability and partcipate in morphogenesis. We have studied the relationship between supracellular morphology and actin-junction interactions using primary cultures of porcine thyroid cells grown either as three-dimensional follicles or as open monolayers. Regardless of morphology, thyroid cells assembled occluding and adhesive junctions containing ZO-1 and E-cadherin, respectively, and showed F-actin staining in apical microvilli and a perijunctional ring. In monolayers, actin stress fibers were also observed in the apical and basal poles of cells, where they terminated in the vinculin-rich zonula adherens and in cell-substrate focal adhesions, respectively. Surprisingly, we were unable to detect vinculin localization in follicular cells, which also did not form stress fibers. Immunoblotting confirmed significantly greater vinculin in triton-insoluble fractions from monolayer cells compared with follicular cells. Incubation of monolayers with 8 chloro(phenylthio)-cyclic AMP decreased the level of immunodetectable vinculin in the zonula adherens, indicating that junctional incorporation of vinculin was regulated by cyclic AMP. In monolayer cultures, cytochalasin D (1 μM) caused actin filaments to aggregate associated with retraction of cells from one another and the disruption of cell junctions. Despite morphologically similar perturbations of actin organization in follicular cultures treated with cytochalasin D, junctional staining of ZO-1 and E-cadherin was preserved and cells remained adherent to one another. We conclude that in cultured thyroid cells structural and functional associations between actin filaments and cellular junctions differ depending upon the supracellular morphology in which cells are grown. One important underlying mechanism appears to be regulation of vinculin incorporation into adhesive junctions by cyclic AMP. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Deconvolution algorithms ; Instrumental analysis ; Spectrometry ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Deconvolution algorithms for measurand reconstruction are considered. Their metrological and numerical properties are briefly characterized. Six algorithms most frequently used for instrumental applications are selected for closer analysis. Their comparative study is based on the use of spectrometric-type synthetic data, calorimetric-type synthetic data and spectrometric real-world data. Conclusions concerning computational complexity and accuracy of the compared algorithms as well as their metrological applicability are drawn.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 69-89 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: chemometrics ; pattern recognition ; class modeling ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Different estimators of the Mahalanobis distance (such as that based on the Defrise - Gussenhoven correction) are studied and compared with respect to the bias on the distance and the characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) of the class model.Results obtained using estimators with critical values from χ2-statistics are compared with those obtained using estimators with critical values from β-statistics (training set) and Hotelling statistics (evaluation set).Tables are reported for D-statistics (useful for simulating populations of two categories with selectable theoretical sensitivity and specificity) and for critical values of the Mahalanobis distance obtained from β-statistics.For objects of the training set the estimator of the Mahalanobis distance based on the estimate of the covariance matrix produces models with the optimum sensitivity. The same model has too low a sensitivity for objects of the model category in the evaluation set, but good specificity for objects of outer categories.The estimator with the Defrise-Gussenhoven correction produces enlarged models with too high a sensitivity for objects in the training set, good sensitivity for objects of the model category in the evaluation set and low specificity for objects of outer categories.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 139-141 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 125-135 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Procrustean analysis ; FT-IR spectroscopy ; NIR spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Procrustean methods allow the fitting of a given matrix to another given matrix observed on the same objects. In the traditional approach orthogonal constraints are imposed upon the transformation matrix, whereas in the alternative approach Procrustean analysis may be performed without such constraints. The two methods (with and without constraints) were compared on data dealing with mid- and near-infrared spectra of oil. The aim was to reconstruct the mid-infrared spectral information using data from the near-infrared spectra. Unconstrained Procrustean analysis proved to be the more efficient for both the calibration and verification sets. Furthermore, the analysis of the transformation matrix between the two infrared ranges made it possible to indicate wavelengths and wave numbers corresponding to the same chemical groups.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: pattern recognition ; infrared spectra ; factor analysis ; maximum likelihood method ; entropy of information ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The spectral region from 700 to 3600 cm-1 is subdivided into several wave number intervals. The peaks in each interval are summarized by means of three encoding algorithms. Using a factor model of kcommon factors, the total extractable variacnce (com) of a given set of intervals is calculated and correlated with the redundancy of information in all these intervals. The value of com is verified by analysis of the factor loadings aik (factor pattern). Finally, the information content of some chosen sets of intervals coded by the three selected feature algorithms will be correlated to the probability of information flow through a serial-parallel network. The encoding using only wave numbers was found to be the most effective.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 223-225 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 230-231 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 239-262 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: industrial experimentation ; parameter design ; quality by design ; robust design ; Taguchi method ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The aim of this paper is to present a simple structured review of the different approaches to robust process design to clarify their similarities and dissimilarities. It is primarily written for practitioners who wish to understand and compare the main ideas of each approach and to apply them to their work. Two examples are used to illustrate the different approaches and their corresponding data analysis strategies: the first one is a constructed example on a pigment kneading process and the second one is real example dealing with the validation of an HPLC method. A comparison of the different approaches is provided and some practical recommendations are formulated.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 9 (1995), S. 329-330 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(1-ethynylcyclohexene) ; conjugated polymer ; transition metal catalysts ; organoaluminum compounds ; thermal property ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1-Ethynylcyclohexene, an acetylene derivative having cyclohexenyl substituent, was polymerized by various W- and Mo-based catalysts. WCl6-EtAlCl2 catalyst system was found to be very effective for this polymerization. The effects of the monomer-to-catalyst mol ratio, the initial monomer concentration, the temperature, and the cocatalysts for the polymerization of 1-ethynylcyclohexene by WCl6 were investigated. The catalytic activity of Mo-based catalysts was found to be similar to that of W-based catalysts. The polymer structure was identified to have a conjugated polymer backbone carrying a cyclohexenyl substituent. The resulting polymers were light-brown powder and completely soluble in aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents such as chlorobenzene, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, etc. Studies of the thermal properties and morphology of poly(1-ethynylcyclohexene) were also carried out. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: bipolar amphiphiles ; bolaamphiphiles ; vesicles ; oligomeric phosphates ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Certain phosphate bipolar amphiphiles, both monomeric (I and II) and polymeric or rather oligomeric (poly-I and poly-II), were used as basic materials for the preparation of simple and mixed vesicles. Specifically, it was found that oligomeric phosphate bipolar amphiphiles form stable vesicles in aqueous media. The same oligomeric bolaamphiphiles in mixture with their monomeric counterparts also form stable mixed vesicles with sonication; they are relatively less stable with the “thin film method.” Furthermore, it was shown that the method of spanning the membrane of didodecylphosphate vesicels with the dipolar amphiphile II is not effective for enhancing stability. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: naphthalimide ; naphthalisoimide ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of model compounds from 4-benzoyl-1,8-naphthalene anhydride and aromatic amines and diamines has been synthesized. The influence of the reaction conditions on the structure of the compounds obtained has been investigated to explain the high-temperature polycondensation reaction mechanism. It was found that at high-temperature polycondensation of 1,8-naphthalene-type anhydrides with aromatic amines, isoimides with cis and and trans structures are formed instead of amic acids. The only trans isoimides may isomerize to imide structure. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: maleic anhydride ; free radical grafting ; hydrocarbons ; polyethylene ; graft size ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Maleic anhydride has been grafted to eicosane and squalane at 60-80°C using 1,2-dichlorobenzene as solvent and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. These hydrocarbons are low molecular weight models for hydrocarbon polymers containing secondary and tertiary hydrogen atoms. In the absence of the hydrocarbon and with monomer concentrations of the order of 1M, low molecular weight poly(maleic anhydride) is formed. On addition of the hydrocarbon, the main product is grafted material and very little homopolymer is formed. The grafts consist primarily of single succinic anhydride units but some of them are short poly(maleic anhydride) chains. Ceiling temperature considerations control the formation of homopolymer in the absence of hydrocarbon substrate. In the presence of eicosane or squalane, initiation of grafting proceeds by hydrogen abstraction from the hydrocarbon. The main factor controlling graft length is then the ratio of the rates of intramolecular hydrogen abstraction and of monomer addition to succinic anhydride radicals © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: vanadium ; 51V-NMR ; polymerization ; catalysts ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Several VOCL3-based ethylene polymerization catalyst precursors were prepared on silica and studied by solid-state 51V-NMR. The structure of the vanadium species in these samples, as determined by 51V-NMR, did not have any significant effect on the resultant polyethylene MI or MWD. This result is significant since conventional wisdom says the attachment of the transition metal to the silica plays a key role in polymer properties. VOCl3 reacted with hexamethyldisilazane-treated silica and with 250°C dried silica results in double attachment of the vanadium to the silica, yet the catalysts which formed had different reactivities and produced polyethylene with different HLMIs. On the other hand, VOCl3 reacted with 600°C dried silica results in single attachment of the vanadium to the silica, yet this catalyst had a similar reactivity and produced polymer properties similar to the doubly attached vanadium on 250°C dried silica. Two theories are offered to explain the lack of correlation between catalyst precursor structure and catalyst performance. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 2-phenyl-4-methylene-1,d-dioxolane ; methylene-1,3-dioxolanes ; cationic photopolymerization ; poly(keto-ether)s ; poly(alkylene-ether-ketone)s ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: propagating polymerization fronts ; frontal polymerization ; traveling waves ; conversion ; adiabatic polymerization ; temperature profiles ; ceiling temperature ; molecular weight distribution ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Several properties of propagating fronts of addition polymerization were studied. A power function could be fit to the velocity dependence on initiator concentration, but not with the exponents predicted by current models or in agreement with other published work. Bubbles from the volatile by-products of initiator decomposition were found to affect the front velocity and curvature. The front velocity for triethylene glycol dimethacrylate polymerization was found to depend linearly on temperature over a moderate range. The conversion of methacrylic acid in fronts varied greatly with initiator type and concentration. Benzoyl peroxide produced much lower conversion than t-butyl peroxide, but fronts with tBPO propagated slower. A dual initiator system of BPO and tBPO produced rapidly propagating fronts with good conversion but the contribution of each initiator to the velocity was not additive. The possibility of chain branching was considered. The apparent molecular weight distributions were very broad, often trimodal, and found to depend on initiator type and concentration as well as the tube diameter. The temperature profiles were measured and found to be very sharp for BPO and broader for tBPO but both had front temperatures in excess of 200°C, indicating a high ceiling temperature. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: isotactic poly(acrylonitrile) ; UV-irradiation canal polymerization ; acrylonitrile/urea canal complex ; statistical analysis ; structure-properties relationships ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Isotactic poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) has been prepared by means of a conventional ultraviolet (UV) irradiation apparatus without γ-ray sources; an acrylonitrile-urea canal complex was directly formed at the surface of the UV (Hg) emission tube at low temperatures (∼ -78°C). When the complex was UV-irradiated at this temperature, a stereoregular polymer was formed in the canal. The 13C-NMR analyses indicate that (1) these PAN are rich in isotactic configuration, (2) the extent of the isotactic triad is in the range of 56-71%, and (3) the penultimate unit effect, 4 (mm) (rr)/(mr)2, is linearly correlated with the ultimate unit effect, (mm)/(rr). From the plots of log{4(mm)(rr)/(mr)2} vs log{(mm)/(rr)}, the anomaly in the polymerization of AN is discussed. The molecular characteristics of the UV canal PAN such as molecular weight, etc., were briefly noted. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: chain coupling reactions ; bisoxazoline ; bisoxazine ; carboxy end groups ; polyester ; polyamide ; bulk reaction ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 2,2′-Bis(2-oxazoline) and 2,2′-bis[5,6-dihydro-(4H)-1,3-oxazine] have been used as chain coupling reagents (CC) and reacted in the bulk with α,ω-dicarboxy-poly(2,2′-oxydiethylene adipate) (PS) or with α,ω-dicarboxy-polyamide 12 (PA). The reactions have been followed by viscosimetry, titration of COOH groups and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Either with the PS/CC or PA/CC systems, or with the model system dodecanoic acid (DA)/CC, the reactions were fast, since in most cases 80% conversion was reached after 15 min reaction. The expected DA dimer or high molar mass PA or PS polymers were obtained. No significant side reaction has been detected. The thermal stability of the resulting polymers is higher than that of starting oligomers. Due to the introduction of CC units in the chains, the crystallinity of PA/CC is slower than that of starting PA. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polycarbonate ; polycondensation ; oligomer ; molecular weight ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The molecular weight of polycarbonate formed by the carbonate-ester interchange reaction of bisphenol-A diacetate (BPAC2) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was found to depend on the composition of the oligomer formed in its first stage. At a [DMC] : [BPAC2] ratio of 2, an oligomer with relatively higher acetate end group concentration was formed. This upon further polycondensation yielded a polycarbonate of inherent viscosity, 0.2-0.25 dL/g. Upon addition of DMC at a later stage in the oligomer-forming reaction, an oligomer containing relatively higher carbonate end groups could be obtained. These oligomers gave polycarbonates higher inherent viscosity, 0.4-0.5 dL/g. It is therefore proposed that oligomers having carbonate end groups are more reactive in self-polycondensation than those containing acetate end groups. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: epoxy/amine mechanism ; crosslinking ; rate law ; diffusion limit ; kinetics ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The bulk phase kinetics of an epoxy (DGEBA) /amine (DDS) thermoset have been studied using DSC, FTIR, and 13C-NMR. In the absence of catalyst, the reaction was found to involve a main exothermic reaction between epoxide and amine hydrogen and a side reaction between tertiary amine formed in the main reaction and epoxide. The main reaction was exothermic while the side reaction had no discernable exotherm. Etherification did not occur to any significant extent. Since only the main reaction is exothermic, DSC was very useful for studying the main reaction kinetics. FTIR was used for determining whether epoxide and amine hydrogen were consumed at different rates as a way of following the side reaction. An IR band previously unused by other investigators was used to monitor the amine hydrogen concentration. NMR confirmed the above mechanism by identifying the formation of a quaternary ammonium ion/alkoxide ion pair as a reaction product of tertiary amine and epoxide. This mechanism has been successfully fit to a rate law valid over the entire extent of reaction. The rate constant for the epoxy/amine addition reaction was found to depend on hydroxide concentration (extent), reaction temperature, and glass transition temperature and included contributions from uncatalyzed and autocatalyzed parts. The side reaction (quaternary ammonium ion formation) formed weak bonds which did not affect the overall system Tg. Both reactions were second order. The rate constants for the main reaction first increase with increasing extent due to autocatalysis by hydroxide before decreasing due to the diffusion limit caused by gelation and vitrification. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: benzocyclobutene ; o-quinodimethane ; radical polymerization ; Diels-Alder reaction ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 4-Vinylbenzocyclobutene (1) was prepared by the nickel-catalyzed coupling reaction of 4-bromobenzocyclobutene with vinylbromide in 70% yield. Radical homopolymerization of 1 at 60°C for 24 h afforded poly(4 vinylbenzocyclobutene) [poly(1)] in 89% yield and radical copolymerizations of 1 with styrene (St) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) were carried out to obtain the corresponding copolymers. The Q = 1.07, e = 0.046. As a model reaction of the polymer reaction of the polymer reaction of poly(1) and poly(4-vinylbenzocyclobutene-co-styrene) [copoly(1-St)] with dienophiles, the Diels-Alder reaction of benzocyclobutene with N-phenylmaleimide (MI) or maleic anhydride (MANH) was carried out to determine the optimum reaction conditions. Under the optimum condition, the Diels-Alder reaction of poly(1) and copoly(1-St) with MI and MANH in the presence of 4-tert-butyl-catechol as an inhibitor were carried out to yield the corresponding polymers in good yields. The properties (solubilities, Tg, and temperature of 10% weight loss) of the products obtained from the polymer reaction were different from these of poly(1). © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: biodegradable polymers ; polyanhydride ; fatty acid ester ; ricinoleic acid ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new class of polyanhydrides synthesized from nonlinear hydrophobic fatty acid esters, based on ricinoleic, maleic acid, and sebacic acid, possessed desired physico-chemical and mechanical properties for use as drug carriers. The polymers were synthesized by melt condensation to yield film-forming polymers with molecular weights exceeding 100,000. Their rate of elimination from rats in the course of about 2 months was faster than that found for similar polyanhydrides previously tested. In vitro studies showed that these polymers underwent rapid degradation in the first 10 days. The drug release followed first-order kinetics, showing a rapid drug release rate in the first 10 days which correlated with the degradation of the polymers. The fatty acid ester monomers underwent in vitro enzymatic degradation to the natural starting acids. Tests in rats demonstrated their toxicological inertness and biodegradability. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: methyltrimethoxysilane ; hydrolytic polycondensation ; polysiloxane ; thin films ; structure ; tensile strength ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: EPDM rubbers ; hydroperoxide ; singlet oxygen ; anthracene ; dimethyl sulfide ; nitric oxide ; Chemistry ;