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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (3,416)
  • Organic Chemistry  (3,406)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (6,822)
  • 1980-1984  (6,822)
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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (6,822)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: chromosome movement ; meiosis ; spermatocytes ; prophase ; nuclear envelope ; aster ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Association of bivalent chromosomes with the astral centers and nuclear envelope was analyzed in crane-fly spermatocytes during the final hours of diakinesis. In contrast to other systems in which movement of chromosomes during diakinesis correlates with the clustering of bivalents near the astral centers, such clustering is not prevalent in crane-fly spermatocytes. Polarization indices of bivalents calculated 5 to 10 minutes before the end of diakinesis provided evidence for polarization of only a fraction of all bivalents. Similar results were obtained in a large number of fixed cells in which asters and chromosomes were preferentially stained. Ultrastructural analysis of cells in late diakinesis revealed significant contact between bivalents and the nuclear envelope in all 46 cells that were analyzed. The extent of contact in some cells was greater than in others. Sites of contact included the telomeric ends of bivalents, and in some cases the distribution of contact sites suggested the possible involvement of centromeres in chromosome-nuclear envelope association. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a dynamic interaction between chromosomes and nuclear envelope may exist during late prophase, when the movement of chromosomes is known to occur.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; intermediate filaments ; fibroblasts ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol promotes microtubule (MT) assembly in vitro and induces the reorganization of the cytoskeleton into unusual MT arrays in cultured cells. The possibility that taxol also has an indirect effect on intermediate filaments (IF) was investigated. In baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human skin (ENSON) fibroblasts treated with 1-10 μM taxol for 1-24 h, the drug induces changes which are similar to those produced by colchicine. These include a loss of major cellular extensions, a redistribution of organelles to a perinuclear location, and an inhibition of locomotion. Saltatory particle movements are not inhibited, however. Ruffling and filopod formation continue, indicating that cells are viable up to 24 h.Polarized light microscopy of living fibroblasts treated with taxol reveals the presence of perinuclear birefringent material which has been examined by immunofluorescence. In control cells, IF and MT radiate from a juxtanuclear region and extend to the cell periphery. In taxol-treated cells, MT and IF are excluded from cell margins, forming large central bundles.In the epithelial cell lines PtK2 and PAM, the keratin system of IF does not become redistributed; in PtK2, however, a second fibroblastlike system of IF does become redistributed to a perinuclear position during taxol treatment.Ultrastructural analyses show that taxol-treated fibroblasts contain parallel arrays of cross-bridged MT-IF as well as bundles of MT exclusive of IF. Epithelial cells contain a predominance of IF-free MT bundles which are organized into hexagonally packed arrays. In these bundles MT frequently exhibit hooks or other incomplete MT profiles and are linked by filamentous material.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: contact inhibition ; contact guidance ; growth cones ; cell-cell interactions ; neuronal contact behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The outcome of contact interactions involving neurons and nonneurons varies depending on the cell types involved. When neuronal growth cones from either ciliary (motor) or dorsal root (sensory) ganglia directly contact the lamellipodium of an embryonic heart fibroblast, both neurite elongation and fibroblast locomotion are inhibited. This occurs in spite of the fact that cell-surface activity in both cells continues unabated. Such contact inhibition is not observed when homologous ganglionic nonneurons are involved in the interaction. In fact, these cells become intimately associated with growth cones and/or neuritic shafts as a result of the contact. The detailed nature of the respose to contact exhibited by nerves and nonnerves varies not only with cell type but also with the portion of the cell involved in the contact. Growth cone filopodia tend to actively palpate the fibroblast surface, whereas spread regions, termed “veils,” form areas of apposition with fibroblast lamellipodia. This latter situation resembles the “typical” contact inhibition of locomotion that occurs following embryonic heart fibroblast-fibroblast interactions. Growth cones also frequently exhibit contact guidance when interacting with nonruffling lateral surfaces of heart fibroblasts.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoa ; cell motility ; electron microscopy ; cell-substrate contact ; 2-nm filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The locomotion of C. elegans spermatozoa resembles, in many respects, the crawling movements of other eukaryotic cells. However, these sperm contain surprising little actin, which plays no apparent role in this cell's motility. Electron microscopy has revealed that crawling spermatozoa retain a strict morphological polarity so that the organelle-filled cell body is separated from the pseudopod by an array of cytoplasmic laminar membranes. When sperm crawl only the pseudopod contacts the substrate; the cell body is either pulled behind or carried on top of the rear portion of the pseudopod. Fingerlike projections which extend forward from the leading edge of the pseudopod initiate contact with the substrate. The underside of the pseudopod exhibits areas of close (40 nm separation) membrane-substrate association with intervening areas of wide (up to 300 nm) membrane-substrate gaps. The pseudopod cytoplasm contains 2-nm filaments but no filamentous actin has been observed. These 2-nm filaments were detected in thin sections of crawling cells and in negative-stained remnants of spermatozoa disrupted by either hypotonic buffer on Triton X-100. The filaments are found both free in the cytoplasm and closely associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and are usually oriented along the long axis of the cell. Neither the identity nor the function of these filaments has been established although their location and orientation suggest that they may be involved in generating propulsion.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 363-366 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: erythrocyte ; membranes ; spectrin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: focal contacts ; microfilaments ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of structural elements in the organization and maintenance of focal contacts was studied by microinjecting into tissue culture cells specific probes which interfere with filamentous actin or with vinculin: actin interaction. Injection of actin capping proteins from Physarum and brain resulted in breakdown of microfilament bundles starting at their distal ends and in loss of focal contacts. This process was fully reversible. Injection of a high affinity antibody against chicken gizzard vinculin led to partial breakdown of microfilament bundles concomitant with disruption of focal contacts with vinculin remaining at the plasma membrane. This process was irreversible.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 383-390 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: F-actin aggregates ; actin-membrane interactions ; transformed/normal cell coculture ; F-actin/tropomyosin interaction ; temperature-sensitive viral mutant ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Observations on the role of transformation-specific F-aggregates [Carley et al, 1981] in altering morphology, adhesion and intercellular interaction in transformed cells are reported here. The appearance and disappearance of membrane- and substrate-associated F-actin aggregates (MAG and SAG, respectively) are followed in a cell line temperature-sensitive for transformation. Since MAG structures also appear near the membrane in suspension cultures of transformed cells and in transformed cells in coculture with untransformed cells, they appear to function at cell-cell contacts. Unlike microfilament bundles in untransformed cells, MAG and SAG do not contain the F-actin regulatory protein tropomyosin. The lack of tropomyosin in these structures near the membrane is reminiscent of areas of an exceptionally active actin cytoskeleton usually associated with motile processes of the normal cell membrane. Such areas of membrane-cytoskeletal interaction may be involved in the aberrant cell-cell communication as well as the aggressive behavior often seen in transformed cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilament-membrane attachments ; cell-cell contacts ; fascia adherens ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: On the premise that the fascia adherens of cardiac muscle cell intercalated disk membranes is a structure that is closely homologous to the focal adhesions formed by fibroblasts, a fascia adherens preparation was isolated from chicken cardiac muscle, and was analyzed for its protein composition. A prominent 200-kilodalton (kd) protein was purified from the fascia preparation and shown to be antigenically unrelated to several previously characterized cytoskeletal proteins, including cardiac myosin and vinculin. With monospecific antibodies to the 200-kd protein, an identical or closely similar intracellular protein was shown to be associated with the focal adhesion plaques of fibroblasts.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: platelet ; platelet adhesion ; cytoskeleton ; high voltage electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Adhesion of platelets in vitro resulted in rapid polymerization of the amorphous cytoplasmic ground substance into an organized cytoskeletal superstructure. This cytoskeleton, characterized through the use of whole-mount and stereo (3-D), high-voltage microscopy in conjunction with morphometrics and cytochemistry, comprised four major size classes of filaments organized in distinctive zones. The central matrix, or granulomere, at the center of the cell mass, was an ill-defined meshwork of 80-100-Å filaments which enshrouded granules, dense bodies, and elements of the dense tubular system as identified through peroxidase cytochemistry. Demarcasting this central matrix was a trabecular zone containing 30-50, 80-100, and 150-170 Å filaments in an open and rigid-appearing lattice. Circumscribing the trabecular zone and extending to the margins of the hyalomere was the third region, the peripheral web, in which 70-Å filaments were arranged in a tight honeycomb lattice. This organizational pattern was retained in cytoskeletons prepared by Triton x-100 extraction of the adherent cells, and was observed in basally located cells of aggregates which formed subsequent to adhesion. Our observations are consistent with biochemical studies of cytoskeletons prepared from suspended platelets and suggest a contractile protein composition for the superstructure during adhesion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: brain spectrin ; actin ; immunofluorescence ; peptide mapping ; protein phosphorylation ; syndeins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane-associated mouse brain spectrin is a 972,000 Mr, 10.5S, (αβ)2 tetramer containing two ∼ 240,000 Mr subunits and two ∼ 235,000 Mr subunits. Two-dimensional [125I]tryptic peptide mapping indicates that these subunits share only limited and equivalent overlap with the α- and β-subunits of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin. Both the 220,000 Mr β-subunit of RBC spectrin and the 235,000 Mr β-subunit of brain spectrin are phosphorylated in the intact mouse. In vitro analysis suggests that both are phosphorylated by a cAMP-independent protein kinase. Antibodies against pure native mouse red blood cell spectrin cross-react with brain spectrin, and antibodies against pure brain spectrin cross-react with both the α-and β-subunits of mouse RBC spectrin. Both antibodies have been utilized to localize brain spectrin within distinct cellular entities of the mouse cerebellum. Granule cell neurons of the internal granule layer and Purkinje cell neurons demonstrated intense fluorscence of the cortical cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane and unstained nuclei, when either RBC or brain spectrin antibodies were utilized for staining. The molecular layer of the cerebellum stained only lightly, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes appeared to have little fluorescence. Therefore, while brain is a tissue rich in nonerythroid spectrin, the concentration of these immunoreactive analogues is quite variable within distinct cellular entities of the cerebellum.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 657-669 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Hela spectrin ; membrane ; cytoskeleton ; filamin ; actin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: From 30-40 g of Hela-S3 cells grown in suspension, 0.25-0.50 mg of spectrin has been purified by conventional biochemical procedures starting from a low ionic strength extraction at alkaline pH of crude Hela membranes. Hela spectrin consists in its native form of a tetramer α2β2 of two high molecular weight polypeptides (240,000 and 230,000 daltons). Three different populations of Hela membranes depleted of both spectrin and actin have been prepared on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Surprisingly, spectrin will reassociate with only the heavier membrane fraction. This reassociation is specific for Hela spectrin, since three other purified Hela proteins as well as human erythrocyte spectrin do not reassociate under the same conditions. This binding is not due to the presence of traces of actin still present in the membrane fraction since two Hela actin-binding proteins (filamin I and II) do not show any significant binding to this fraction. The nature of the membrane-binding site for Hela spectrin is discussed.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; power output ; muscle ; flagella ; cytokinetic furrow ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular motile systems as diverse as muscle and the mitotic spindle have been compared by their specific power output: the maximum power they develop per unit of engine volume. Striated muscles and flagella have high specific output; their performance is comparable to that of typical automobile engines. The cytokinetic furrow and the mitotic spindle have very much lower specific power output. The furrow's output is 7,000 times lower than muscle and the spindle's is 300,000 times lower. Different macromolecules have been used to generate power in systems with similar output (muscles and flagella) and, conversely, the same macromolecular motor has been used in systems with very different output (muscles and cytokinetic furrows). The common feature amid this diversity is adaptation to a particular biological role, which specific power output reflects very well. High values are found where a powerful, compact engine should be advantageous, while low values are found where precision, not power, matters most.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 41-55 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Leptodiscinae ; Dinoflagellates ; contractility ; non-actin filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Leptodiscinae, a group of marine Dinoflagellates, are good material for the study of contraction though they cannot be collected in abundance. Their cell bodies are flattened anteroposteriorly (Leptodiscus, Leptophyllus, and Leptospathium) and are able to contract suddenly when the surrounding water is disturbed.Electron microscopical observations have shown that the structures responsible for the contraction consist of a layer of parallel filaments located beneath the cell membrane of some specialized parts of the body. These filaments seem to be nonactin (NAF) because of their diameter (2.5-3 nm) and because they are not decorated by heavy meromyosin (HMM). They appear helically coiled and doubly twisted, and form tubular structures when contracted.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fast axonal transport ; mitochondria ; membrane receptors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In living tissue, membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria, move along parallel cytoplasmic pathways. Motion is directed and tends to be confined to a single path. Deviations from this single path motion are rare. When present, however, they tend to occur at points of intersection of cytoskeletal linear elements (LE). Such intersections are relatively uncommon in intact axons and extruded axoplasm. However, we have found that such intersections can be produced in extruded preparations by shear forces directed tangential to the axoplasmic surface.We have studied the detailed behavior of mitochondria in extruded squid axoplasm. Special attention was directed to the relationship between mitochondrial shape changes and orientation of cytoskeletal LE. The most striking of these changes in shape is branching. In this process, the mitochondrion transiently assumes a triradial (three-ended) shape. This appearance may be maintained for seconds to minutes before the normal cylindrical shape is resumed by absorption of either the newly formed end or, more commonly, one of the original ends. The frequency of branching appears to be dependent on the degree of cytoskeletal organization. It becomes more common as the number of apparent intersections between cytoskeletal LE increases. Further, the formation of new ends seems to occur along paths defined by cytoskeletal elements.These observations suggest that the mitochondrial membrane is multivalent. That is, it contains multiple sites capable of interacting with the axonal force generation apparatus. Furthermore, LE in the cytoskeleton may indicate the paths along which these interactions are permissible.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; ATP ; nucleotides ; saltatory movement ; dynein ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a permeabilized axon model, exogenous ATP can reactivate intraaxonal saltatory organelle movements (microscopically visible manifestations of fast axonal transport). We have studied the dependence of the reactivated movements on the ATP concentration and have also examined the nucleotide specificity of the reactivation. Organelle transport was visualized in isolated lobster giant motor axons using Nomarski optics and video microscopy. The axons were permeabilized with saponin, and movement was reactivated with ATP or other nucleotides. Some slight movement was seen with ATP concentrations as low as 10 μM. The velocity and frequency of the reactivated transport increased with increasing ATP concentrations up to about 5 mM. Movement was also reactivated by deoxyadenosine triphosphate, but not by AMP-PNP (a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue), ADP, or AMP. Although other nucleotides (CTP, GTP, UTP, ITP) could reactivate transport, movement equivalent to that produced by 0.1 mM ATP was only seen with tenfold or greater concentrations of the other nucleotides. This pattern of specificity is consistent with the hypothesis that a dynein-like ATPase, rather than a myosin, is involved in fast axonal transport.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; motility ; cell spreading ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Reorganization of intermediate filaments during cell spreading is examined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and time-lapse video microscopy. A juxtanuclear cap, believed to correspond to the intermediate filament distribution center, was observed to be spatially related to the organization of the intermediate filament network as cells spread. A keratin cap was observed, which appeared spontaneously in motile PtK1 cells. Cap formation may be a consequence of retraction of intermediate filaments from the cytoplasm as cells move. The position of this juxtanuclear cap is related to the direction of movement, located on the side of the nucleus near the advancing edge of the cell. As the cell spreads, the cap disappears as the keratin filament network returns to the cytoplasm. Evidence presented here is consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution center mediates keratin filament organization during cell shape change.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; flagellum ; axoneme ; microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iontophoretic application of ATP to the flagellum of the demembranated hamster spermatozoon produced a planar pair of bends at the two ends of the stimulated site. During bend propagation, torsion appeared in the vicinity of the interbend in some responses such that the distal bend was twisted clockwise when viewed from the base of the flagellum. This pattern of propagation is consistent with the instantaneous configurations of free-swimming cells previously described. The technique used here establishes that the three dimensionality arises from propagation per se, and does not depend on forces developed during swimming. The rolling of both free-swimming intact and demembranated spermatozoa was examined by two-color darkground videomicroscopy and the direction of rotation was, as predicted, always anticlockwise. A hypothetical mechanism, involving differential speeds of propagation of active sliding within the active microtubule subset, is proposed to account for the observed waveforms.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; centrosome ; tonofilaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present observations on the relative location of the centriole and keratin filament cap in motile PtK1 cells. Subconfluent cells were double labeled with anticentriole and antikeratin sera. These preparations revealed that the centriole is separate from, but neighboring, the keratin filament cap. Serial ultrathin sections confirm this observation. These observations are consistent with the idea that the microtubule organizing center and intermediate filament distribution center are not identical or concentric in PtK1 cells.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilaments ; microtubules ; contraction ; collagen gel ; fibroblasts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro models have been developed recently to study the ability of fibroblasts to generate tensile force within collagen gels. The present study was initiated to assess the role of the cytoskeleton in the cell shape changes and force generation in one such model system. Porcine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PPLF) were cultured within three-dimensional collagen gels attached to glass coverslips. Fluorescence microscopy, using nitrobenzooxadizole (NBD)-phallacidin labeling for microfilaments and tubulin antibody staining for microtubules, was combined with phase and Nomarski optics to determine the intra- and extracellular architecture of the cells and collagen fibers. Samples were observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours after initiation of cell attachment. During attachment and spreading, NBD-phallacidin staining changed dramatically until large microfilament bundles became prominent. Collagen fiber alignment, compaction, and finally tearing from the coverslip occurred during this time. After release of tension, microfilament bundles were no longer evident. The change in microtubule distribution during these processes was less dramatic, appearing to follow the change in cell shape. These results indicate that microfilaments play an essential role in generating force to align and compact collagen, while microtubules may have a secondary role only.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; flagella ; cell surface ; adhesion ; glycoproteins ; iodination ; lactoperoxidase ; Iodogen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Chlamydomonas flagellar surface exhibits interesting adhesive properties that are associated with flagellar surface motility. This dynamic surface property can be exhibited as the binding and movement of small polystyrene microspheres or as the interaction of the flagellar surface with a solid substrate followed by whole cell locomotion, termed “gliding.” In order to identify flagellar surface proteins that mediate substrate interaction during flagellar surface motility, two immobilized iodination systems were employed that mimic the conditions for flagellar surface motility: small polystyrene microspheres derivatized with lactoperoxidase, and large glass beads derivatized with Iodogen. Use of these iodination conditions resulted in preferential iodination of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein with apparent molecular weight of 300,000-350,000. These results suggest this glycoprotein as a major candidate for the surface-exposed adhesive component that directly interacts with the substrate and couples the substrate to a system of force transduction presumed to be located within the flagellum.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonemal mutants ; Ca++ response ; ciliary reversal ; electrophysiology ; models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Six mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia, which display altered axonemal responses to Ca++, are described. The mutants, designated atalantas, are impaired in their ability to swim backward when stimulated by ions or heat; instead they spin very rapidly in one place. Three mutants, ataA1-3, are completely unable to swim backward. The three lines, however, can be distinguished from one another by their forward swimming velocities. The remaining three mutants are leaky. ataB swims backward briefly when stimulated, then stops and spins in place. ataC and ataD are extremely leaky and only display the spinning phenotype at elevated temperatures. An electrophysiological analysis reveals that all six mutants have normal membrane properties, including the Ca++ inward current under voltage clamp. When the membrane is disrupted so as to allow the axoneme free access to Ca++, wild-type cells swim backward, but the mutants do not. These data indicate the site(s) of lesion in the mutants is in the axoneme or in some step linking Ca++ influx and the axoneme, not within the ciliary membrane. These mutants may be useful in investigating the role of Ca++ in the regulation of axonemal motion.
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  • 29
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 403-404 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 469-503 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytogel ; actomyosin ; Physarum ; oscillations ; mechanics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The contractility of actomyosin gels is the basis for a variety of cellular motility phenomena. We present here a mechanical analysis of contractile gels. By making certain hypotheses on the chemical regulation of cytogel contraction we formulate a model for the rhythmic contractions of plasmodia in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is in accord with a number of experimental observations.
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  • 32
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    Keywords: actin ; cleavage ; fluorescein-labeled phalloidin ; microinjection ; phalloidin ; sand dollar eggs ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Effects of microinjection of phalloidin on fertilization and cleavage of sand dollar (Clypeaster japonicus and Scaphechinus mirabilis) eggs were studied. The drug, previously injected into unfertilized eggs, showed no effect on the elevation of the fertilization membrane upon insemination up to an intracellular concentration of 50 μM. However, the movement of the egg pronucleus to the sperm pronucleus was inhibited and the fusion of pronuclei did not occur. The subsequent development no longer took place. When phalloidin was injected into fertilized eggs, the thickness of the cortical layer increased and the microvilli became conspicuous. Both nuclear division and cleavage were inhibited at the intracellular concentration of more than 20 μM, though the latter seemed to be more sensitive to phalloidin than the former.Fluorescein-labeled phalloidin (FL-phalloidin) was injected into eggs in order to investigate F-actin localization by fluorescence microscopy. In both unfertilized and fertilized eggs, FL-phalloidin was localized in the cortical layer within 1 min after injection. It was also localized in the cortical layer as radially oriented rodlike structures when injected into fertilized eggs before the disappearance of the nuclear membrane. No distinct fluorescence was detected in the mitotic apparatus or in the cleavage furrow. FL-phalloidin redistributed gradually into egg cytoplasm. In unfertilized eggs, fluorescent rods were found especially in the egg pronucleus 30 min after injection.
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  • 33
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    Keywords: higher land plant contractile system ; actin activation of myosin ; S-1 decoration of actin ; polymerization of actin ; calcium sensitivity of actomyosin interaction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper describes the initial isolation of actin- and myosin-like proteins from the cytoplasm of the endocarp tissue cells of the fruit of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. Low ionic strength buffers extracted the 42,000 molecular weight tomato actin in the depolymerized form. Tomato actin can be polymerized in 0.1 M KCl, 2 mM MgCl2 to form 6 nm diameter filaments resembling rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin in their ultrastructure and pattern of decoration with rabbit myosin subfragment-1 (S-1). Tomato F-actin activates the low ionic strength Mg2+ ATPase of rabbit S-1 up to ten-fold. High ionic strength extracts of tomato yield a myosinlike enzyme whose ATPase activity in 0.5 M KCl is maximal in the presence of K+-EDTA and is repressed in the presence of Mg2+. The column-purified enzyme forms a complex with rabbit F-actin, which can be dissociated by Mg2+ ATP. The low ionic strength Mg2+ ATPase of tomato myosin can be activated ten-fold by rabbit actin and up to nineteen-fold by tomato actin. No activation of the tomato myosin by rabbit F-actin occurs in the absence of free calcium ions.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 333-341 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; collagen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The motility of an epithelial cell line NBT-II derived from a rat bladder tumor was examined on glass and on collagen. On glass the cells rotate in groups of 2-8 cells. Rotatory migration ceases as cells enter into mitosis; after mitosis, the daughter cells spread out and participate in the rotatory activity of the group. As the number of cells in a group increases the rate of rotatory migration slows, and groups with ten cells or more do not rotate consistently. On collagen NBT-II cells migrate as single cells in a smooth gliding fashion, with the broad lamellipodia as the leading front. After mitosis, the two daughter cells separate at 180° of each other and migrate away independently. Before totally spreading out on the collagen surface, the pair of daughter cells shows a characteristic twist of about 60° from their original position at telophase. The difference in motility of NBT II cells on glass and on collagen is explained in terms of differences in cell-to-cell cohesion and cell-to-substrate adhesion.
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  • 36
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    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; platelets ; actin-binding protein ; actin ; myosin ; thrombin activation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When human blood platelets were immersed in an ice-cold solution containing 1% Triton ×-1200, 40 mM KCl, 10 mM EGTA, 10 mM imidazole-HCl, and 2 mM NaN3 pH 7.0, a flocculent precipitate appeared immediately in the tube. This precipitate was collected at 3,000g and SDS-polyacrylamide gel analysis showed it to consist mainly of actin, α-actinin, actin-binding protein (ABP), and varying amounts of myosin.Any modifications of this solution used to isolate the platelets' Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton caused profound changes in the nature of the cytoskeleton isolated. Increasing the KCl concentration resulted in a lower yield of cytoskeletal actin and ABP. Inclusion of EDTA in the solution resulted in an increased amount of myosin associated with the cytoskeleton, whereas including MgATP decreased the myosin yield.Experiments with the purified proteins showed that ABP and myosin can each protect the actin from depolymerizing when dialyzed into the Triton solubilization solution. In addition, it was found that when platelets were stimulated with thrombin for 2 min prior to the addition of the Triton solution, 3-4 times more myosin was associated with the cytoskeletal precipitate.The results suggest, therefore, that any variations in solution conditions used for isolating the cytoskeleton from resting platelets, which results in alterations in the amount of ABP, may have profound effects on the state of actin polymerization. Likewise, in thrombin-activated platelets, it is suggested that the increased association of myosin with the cytoskeleton results in a greater stabilization of the F-actin associated with the cytoskeleton. These factors must be considered when interpreting the results regarding the nature of actin transformations in the resting and activated platelet.
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  • 37
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    Keywords: proacrosome migration ; nuclear pore redistribution ; nuclear membrane fluidity ; electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Electron microscopic examination of thin sections and freeze fractures of Locusta spermatids revealed that the proacrosome docks to the nuclear membrane and glides around the nucleus during sperm development. Whereas nuclear pore complexes occur in groups distributed at random over the entire nucleus of the early spermatid, they are found only in a narrow ring closely surrounding the centriolar adjunct in later spermatids. The pores appear to be swept caudally in the nuclear envelope, perhaps by a process like capping; they are not merely excluded by structures adhering to the nucleus. The observations suggest that both proacrosome migration and the deployment of pores are facilitated by the inherent fluidity of the nuclear membranes.
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  • 38
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    Keywords: NBD-phallacidin ; actin ; ocular tissues ; wound repair ; stress fibers ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fluorescent derivative of the actin-binding toxin phallacidin, 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3 diazole phallacidin, has been used to cytologically demonstrate the presence of actin in lens epithelium, corneal endothelium, and retinal pigment epithelium. In these noninjured tissues, no stress fibers are observed and fluorescence is confined mainly to an area at or near the cell membrane, although some diffuse cytoplasmic staining can also be seen. However, following injury to either the lens epithelium or corneal endothelium of rats and frogs, stress fibers are detected, but only in those cells that migrate into the wound area. Cells on the periphery of each tissue do not partake in would repair and thus maintain their normal appearance. After the tissue has regenerated, stress fibers disappear, and those cells involved in the injury response return to their normal morphology.When rabbit corneal endothelium is placed in tissue culture, stress fibers are observed as the cells migrate away from the initial explant. Upon reaching confluency, these cells spread out and each is surrounded by thick actin-containing bands. Furthermore, they exhibit some stress cables within their cytoplasm. This is in contrast to their appearance in vivo where stress fibers are absent and fluorescence is limited to a region near the cell membrane.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 369-383 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; flagella ; cilia ; microtubules ; Gregarines ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The male gametes of the parasitic protozoan, Lecudina tuzetae, have a motile flagellum with a “6 + O” ultrastructure ‘Schrével and Besse, 1975’. These gametes were isolated from the cysts in which they develop and were observed and photographed under a variety of conditions. The flagella beat continuously, without stopping and starting, with a beat period of about 2 sec. They can beat in solutions whose viscosities are greater than 0.5 Nsm-2 (l Nsm-2 = 103 cP). The waveform can be approximated by a series of helical arcs and interconnecting straight regions that travel from the base to the tip. The helical regions have a radius of curvature of 3.2 μm and subtend a final angle of 1.7 radians. The straight portions are 2.0 μm in length. There are two sets of opposing bends, but they do not originate in the same plane. The resulting waveform is an approximately helical coil, with a pitch of 9.8 μm, a pitch angle of 0.6 radian and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.3 μm. The sense of the coil is left handed. The axoneme twists during beating. The main differences between the movement of this flagellum and that of typical 9 + 2 flagella are a low beat frequency and three-dimensional bends that produce relatively little forward movement of the cell. Twisting is discussed as a means of discriminating between some types of models of flagellar motility.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 393-403 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; Ca2+ ; ionophores ; spirulina subsalsa ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Motility of the marine filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa is both Ca2+ and Na+ dependent, and replacement of Na+ by mannitol arrests it. The data presented suggest that Ca2+ interacts with sites on the surface of the cell membrane. The inhibitory effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) hints at the possibility that the role of Ca2+ may be associated with a membrane bound Ca-ATPase. Motility is pH dependent, being nil at pH 〈 6.5 and 〉 10.0, with an optimum at 8.5. Norepinephrine abolishes most of the inhibitory effect of low pH on motility. Ca2+ has an “all-or-none” effect on motility that is triggered at 5 mM. Acetylcholine lowers the threshold of Ca2+ necessary for triggering motility.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: ciliated cell ; basal body apparatus ; microtubules ; microfilaments ; respiratory epithelium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This is a descriptive study showing the three-dimensional interrelationship of cytoskeletal elements at the apex of ciliated cells of rat respiratory epithelium. Tissue specimens were serially thin sectioned in various planes and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Thicker sections were also cut at various angles and analyzed stereoscopically. Other specimens were cleared of soluble molecules by glycerination or Triton-X 100 treatment and sectioned as described above. It was found that C microtubules from the triplets of each basal body diverge from the A and B microtubules, run a short distance, and converge at the basal foot. These microtubules or other microtubules arising anew then dispersed deeper into the cytoplasm. The C fibers also interdigitated with other microtubules running perpendicular to them and parallel to the ciliated surface. Ten-nanometer intermediate filaments were organized in parallel sheets between adjacent basal bodies. Sixnanometer actin filaments were distributed throughout the apical cytoplasm. Neighboring basal bodies were linked to one another by microtubules and microfilaments. Basal bodies from each cell appear to be structured for stability, flexibility, and arranged to operate as a single unit.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: calmodulin ; myosin ; antibody ; immunofluorescence ; amoeba ; Dictyostelium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A rabbit antiserum was raised against calmodulin from the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum. In double immunodiffusion experiments, the antiserum formed an immunoprecipitation line with Dictyostelium calmodulin but not bovine brain calmodulin; competition radioimmunoassays showed no cross reactivity between the antiserum and calmodulins from bovine brain and spinach. The calmodulin content of vegetative Dictyostelium amoebae, determined by competition radioimmunoassay, was 0.5 μg/mg protein; similar levels were found in developing cells. The antiserum was used to visualize the distribution of calmodulin in Dictyostelium amoebae by indirect immunofluorescence. Cells were examined under various conditions: in suspension, attached to a substrate, and while phagocytosing yeast cells. In all cases, anticalmodulin staining was concentrated in the cell cortex. Parallel experiments using a monoclonal antibody against Dictyostelium myosin showed that this protein is also enriched in the cortical region of the cell.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 483-496 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Cilia ; Ca ; motor control ; ciliates ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have studied quantitative aspects of ciliary motor responses to membrane depolarization in the ciliate Stylonychia using voltage clamp and high-speed cinematograhpy techniques and employing computer-processing methods for evaluation. Depolarizations beyond 4 mV activate the cirri (compound cilia) which are at rest in the absence of a stimulus. The power stroke of activiated cirri is oriented toward the cell anterior. The frequency and duration of beating increase with rising depolarization. With very large positive stimuli (≥ 150 mV) activation of the response is delayed until the end of the voltage step (“off-response”). The peak frequecy is essentially unaltered during sustained depolarization. The frequency drops exponentially following repolarization of the membrane. The time constant of the decay in ciliary activity rises with the amplitude, not with the duration of the depolarization. The ciliary motor response is most adequately represented by the number of evoked ciliary cycles (ciliary work), and appears to be related to the amplitude of the depolarization.
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    Keywords: cilia ; electric motor control ; ciliates ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have studied the motor responses to membrane hyperpolarization of the marginal cirri in Stylonychia using voltage-clamp, high-speed cinematography, and computer-processing techniques. The cirri started beating when voltage step amplitudes rose beyond 5 mV. The power stroke was oriented toward the posterior cell and (hyperpolarizing motor activation). The frequency rose slightly during a voltage step, and decreased with similar rates for 100 ms following the step end. Amplitude and duration of the step tended to increase the motor response of the cirri. The late response declined exponentially. The time constant of the decay rose with the step amplitude. Among three response parameters tested (frequency, duration, number of cycles), the number of evoked ciliary cycles was best correlated with the amplitude of the hyperpolarization. Comparisons with the responses to depolarizing voltage steps reveal similarities in the relaxation of ciliary activity which appears to be uncoupled, in part, from the electric membrane events during the voltage stimulus.
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  • 48
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    Keywords: cations ; cilia ; dynein ; ATPase ; microtubule sliding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We recently demonstrated that elevated concentrations (≥ 20 μM) of the dynein substrate MgATP2- inhibit the spontaneous ATP-induced sliding disintegration of isolated, Triton-demembranted Tetrahymena cilia. We have used a turbidimetric assay (ΔA350 nm) and electron microscopy to examine the effect of ATP on sliding disintegration when activated by other divalent cations. Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ are each capable of activating sliding, but only with Mg2+ and Mn2+ is disintegration inhibited by elevated ATP concentrations (≥ 1 mM). The two major ATPase activities obtained by KCI extraction of Tetrahymena axonemes differ in their cation specificities such that Mg2+ and Ca2+ activate the 21S dynein ATPase with equal efficiency, whereas the 13S axonemal ATPase activity is reduced by ∼ 50% when CaATP2- replaces MgATP2- as substrate. With 1 mM MgATP2- as substrate, 10-7 to 10-2M added CaC12 alleviates the ATP-dependent inhibition of disintegration and likewise represses 13S MgATPase activity. In contrast, free Ca2+ has no effect on either the disintegration response or MgATPase activity. In contrast to Triton-treated cilia, glycerinated cilia, which beat in 1 mM MgATP2-, are inhibited from beating by high CaATP2- concentrations. These substrate specificities suggest that concentration-dependent, substrate inhibition of sliding disintegration may be a manifestation of a physiological mechanism that is mediated by the 13S axonemal ATPase and that may function to modulate sliding during bend formation. However, the effects of added CaCl2 probably do not reflect a physiological mechanism for regulating beat parameters, but rather may result from CaATP2- competing for MgATP2- binding sites on the 13S ATPase, thereby blocking expression of the 13S ATPase.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 583-597 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: endocytic vesicles ; microtubules ; 10-nm filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ligand binding to cell surface receptors induces rapid internalization of ligandreceptor complexes by receptor mediated endocytosis. We have examined the intracellular movement of endocytic vesicles, induced by the lectin concanavalin A (Con A), in cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells using fluorescence and electron microscopy. Within 20 minutes of ligand treatment at 37°C, numerous Con A-containing endocytic vesicles form, which migrate to the cell center by 60 minutes. Double label fluorescence microscopy, using fluorescien-Con-A and rhodamine immunofluorescent staining of tubulin or vimentin, indicates that during vesicle migration microtubules and 10-nm filaments are altered in their organization. By 30 minutes, vesicles are associated with microtubule bundles, which subsequently collapse around the nucleus. Similarly, 10-nm filaments accumulate around the nucleus in conjunction with the perinuclear aggregation of endocytic vesicles. Electron microscopy of Con A-horseradish peroxidase-labeled cells demonstrates that endocytic vesicles fuse to form large receptosome-like structures during intracellular migration and these structures are associated with cytoplasmic microtubules and 10-nm filaments. Taxol, a drug that stabilizes microtubules, prevents endocytic vesicle translocation to the Golgi region. Nocodazole, which causes microtubule disassembly, results in the collapse of 10-nm filaments and the central aggregation of endocytic vesicles. The data indicate that the cytoskeleton participates in the directed intracellular movement of endocytic vesicles; the possible subcellular basis for this movement is discussed.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 121-126 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 133-136 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 185-189 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 191-194 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 195-198 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 211-215 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 217-224 
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    ISSN: 0886-1544
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 225-228 
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