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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key mechanism of heat, freshwater, and carbon redistribution in the climate system. The precept that the AMOC has changed abruptly in the past, notably during and at the end of the last ice age, and that it is “very likely” to weaken in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change is a key motivation for sustained observations of the AMOC. This paper reviews the methodology and technology used to observe the AMOC and assesses these ideas and systems for accuracy, shortcomings, potential improvements, and sustainability. We review hydrographic techniques and look at how these traditional techniques can meet modern requirements. Transport mooring arrays (TMAs) provide the “gold standard” for sustained AMOC observing, utilizing dynamic height, current meter, and other instrumentation and techniques to produce continuous observations of the AMOC. We consider the principle of these systems and how they can be sustained and improved into the future. Techniques utilizing indirect measurements, such as satellite altimetry, coupled with in situ measurements, such as the Argo float array, are also discussed. Existing technologies that perhaps have not been fully exploited for estimating AMOC are reviewed and considered for this purpose. Technology is constantly evolving, and we look to the future of technology and how it can be deployed for sustained and expanded AMOC measurements. Finally, all of these methodologies and technologies are considered with a view to a sustained and sustainable future for AMOC observation.
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  • 2
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  (In Press / Accepted) Geophysical Research Letters .
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: It is fundamentally important for many animal ecologists to quantify the costs of animal activities, although it is not straightforward to do so. The recording of triaxial acceleration by animal-attached devices has been proposed as a way forward for this, with the specific suggestion that dynamic body acceleration (DBA) be used as a proxy for movement-based power. Dynamic body acceleration has now been validated frequently, both in the laboratory and in the field, although the literature still shows that some aspects of DBA theory and practice are misunderstood. Here, we examine the theory behind DBA and employ modelling approaches to assess factors that affect the link between DBA and energy expenditure, from the deployment of the tag, through to the calibration of DBA with energy use in laboratory and field settings. Using data from a range of species and movement modes, we illustrate that vectorial and additive DBA metrics are proportional to each other. Either can be used as a proxy for energy and summed to estimate total energy expended over a given period, or divided by time to give a proxy for movement-related metabolic power. Nonetheless, we highlight how the ability of DBA to predict metabolic rate declines as the contribution of non-movement-related factors, such as heat production, increases. Overall, DBA seems to be a substantive proxy for movement-based power but consideration of other movement-related metrics, such as the static body acceleration and the rate of change of body pitch and roll, may enable researchers to refine movement-based metabolic costs, particularly in animals where movement is not characterized by marked changes in body acceleration.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: We report on the geochemistry of hydrocarbons and pore waters down to 62.5 mbsf, collected by drilling with the MARUM‐MeBo70 and by gravity coring at the Lunde pockmark in the Vestnesa Ridge. Our data document the origin and transformations of volatiles feeding gas emissions previously documented in this region. Gas hydrates are present where a fracture network beneath the pockmark focusses migration of thermogenic hydrocarbons characterized by their C1/C2+ and stable isotopic compositions (δ2H‐CH4, δ13C‐CH4). Measured geothermal gradients (~80°C km‐1) and known formation temperatures (〉70°C) suggest that those hydrocarbons are formed at depths 〉800 mbsf. A combined analytical/modeling approach, including concentration and isotopic mass balances, reveals that pockmark sediments experience diffuse migration of thermogenic hydrocarbons. However, at sites without channeled flow this appears to be limited to depths 〉 ~50 mbsf. At all sites we document a contribution of microbial methanogenesis to the overall carbon cycle that includes a component of secondary carbonate reduction (CR) – i.e. reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generated by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in the uppermost methanogenic zone. AOM and CR rates are spatially variable within the pockmark and are highest at high‐flux sites. These reactions are revealed by δ13C‐DIC depletions at the sulfate‐methane interface at all sites. However, δ13C‐CH4 depletions are only observed at the low methane flux sites because changes in the isotopic composition of the overall methane pool are masked at high‐flux sites. 13C‐depletions of TOC suggest that at seeps sites, methane‐derived carbon is incorporated into de novo synthesized biomass.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: The immune system affects senescence (declines in probabilities of survival or reproduction with age), by shaping late age vulnerability to chronic inflammatory diseases and infections. It is also a dynamic interactive system that must balance competing demands across the life course. Thus, immune system function remains an important frontier in understanding the evolution of senescence. Here, we review our expanding mechanistic understanding of immune function over the life course, in the context of theoretical predictions from life-history evolution. We are especially interested in stage- and sex-dependent costs and benefits of investment in the immune system, given differential life-history priorities of the life stages and sexes. We introduce the costs likely to govern immune allocation across the life course. We then discuss theoretical expectations for differences between the sexes and their likely consequences in terms of how the immune system is both modulated by and may modulate senescence, building on information from life-history theory, experimental immunology and demography. We argue that sex differences in immune function provide a potentially powerful probe of selection pressures on the immune system across the life course. In particular, differences in 'competing' and 'caring' between the sexes have evolved across the tree of life, providing repeated instances of divergent selection pressures on immune function occurring within the same overall bauplan. We conclude by detailing an agenda for future research, including development of theoretical predictions of the differences between the sexes under an array of existing models for sex differences in immunity, and empirical tests of such predictions across the tree of life. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non-native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non-native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill-adapted, but also small founding population size should be associated with reduced adaptive potential. As such, biological invasions are considered valuable real-time evolutionary experiments. Here, we investigated the population structure and adaptive potential of the highly invasive topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) across Europe and East Asia. We RAD-sequenced 301 specimens from sixteen populations and three distinct within-catchment invaded regions as well as two locations in the native range. With 13,785 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we provide conclusive evidence for a genome-wide signature of two distinct invasion events, in Slovakia and Turkey, each originating from a specific area in the native range. A third invaded area, in France, appears to be the result of dispersal within the invasive range. Few loci showed signs of selection, the vast majority of which being identified in the Slovakian region. Functional annotation suggests that faster early stage development, resistance to pollution and immunocompetence contribute to the invasion success of the local habitats. By showing that populations in the invasive range have different evolutionary histories, our study reinforces the idea that populations, rather than species, are the units to consider in invasion biology.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: This paper presents the first detailed study of a late Pleistocene marine tephra sequence from the NW Pacific, downwind from the Kamchatka volcanic arc. Sediment core SO201-2-40, located on the Meiji Rise similar to 400 km offshore the peninsula, includes 25 tephras deposited within the last 215 ka. Volcanic glass from the tephras was characterized using single-shard electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The age of tephras was derived from a new age model based on paleomagnetic and paleoclimate studies. Geochemical correlation of distal tephras to Kamchatkan pyroclastic deposits allowed the identification of tephras from the Karymsky, Gorely, Opala and Shiveluch eruptive centers. Three of these tephras were also correlated to other marine and terrestrial sites and hence are identified as the best markers for the north-west Pacific region. These are an early Holocene tephra from the Karymsky caldera (similar to 8.7 ka) and two tephras falling into the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 glacial time: an MIS 6.4 tephra from Shiveluch (similar to 141 ka) and the MIS 6.5 Rauchua tephra (similar to 175 ka) from Karymsky. The data presented in this study can be used in paleovolcanological and paleoceanographic reconstructions.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: Investigation of active faults is crucial for the seismic hazard assessment and, in the case of volcanic belts, it provides a deeper understanding of the interactions between volcanism and tectonic faulting. In this study, we report the results of the first paleoseismological and tephrochronological investigation undertaken on Holocene faulting in Kamchatka's volcanic belts. The studied trenches and additional excavations are located along the axial fault zone of the Eastern Volcanic Front, where the earlier dated tephra layers provide a robust age control of the faulting events. Electron microprobe analysis of glass from 22 tephra samples permitted correlations among the disparate tephra profiles for constructing a summary tephra sequence. The latter, together with published geochronological data, allowed the construction of a Bayesian age model. Detailed examination of the tephra layers deformed by faulting allowed us to reconstruct and date six faulting events with the offsets of 1 to 20 cm indicating paleoearthquakes with magnitudes of Mw 〈 5.4. Holocene crustal seismicity of the Eastern Volcanic Front manifests temporal clustering rather than a uniform flux of events. However, no correlation between dated seismic events and the largest Holocene eruptions of proximal volcanoes was observed.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: Marine heatwaves have been observed worldwide and are expected to increase in both frequency and intensity due to climate change. Such events may cause ecosystem reconfigurations arising from species range contraction or redistribution, with ecological, economic and social implications. Macrophytes such as the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and the seagrass Zostera marina are foundation species in many coastal ecosystems of the temperate northern hemisphere. Hence, their response to extreme events can potentially determine the fate of associated ecosystems. Macrophyte functioning is intimately linked to the maintenance of photosynthesis, growth and reproduction, and resistance against pathogens, epibionts and grazers. We investigated morphological, physiological, pathological and chemical defence responses of western Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus and Z. marina populations to simulated near‐natural marine heatwaves. Along with (a) the control, which constituted no heatwave but natural stochastic temperature variability (0HW), two treatments were applied: (b) two late‐spring heatwaves (June, July) followed by a summer heatwave (August; 3HW) and (c) a summer heatwave only (1HW). The 3HW treatment was applied to test whether preconditioning events can modulate the potential sensitivity to the summer heatwave. Despite the variety of responses measured in both species, only Z. marina growth was impaired by the accumulative heat stress imposed by the 3HW treatment. Photosynthetic rate, however, remained high after the last heatwave indicating potential for recovery. Only epibacterial abundance was significantly affected in F. vesiculosus. Hence both macrophytes, and in particular F. vesiculosus, seem to be fairly tolerant to short‐term marine heatwaves at least at the intensities applied in this experiment (up to 5°C above mean temperature over a period of 9 days). This may partly be due to the fact that F. vesiculosus grows in a highly variable environment, and may have a high phenotypic plasticity.
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  • 10
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125 (3, Article number e2019JD031303).
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Idealized models or emulators of volcanic aerosol forcing have been widely used to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of past volcanic forcing. However, existing models, including the most recently developed Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA; Toohey et al., doi: 10.5194/gmd‐2016‐83), (i) do not account for the height of injection of volcanic SO urn:x-wiley:jgrd:media:jgrd55987:jgrd55987-math-0001; (ii) prescribe a vertical structure for the forcing; and (iii) are often calibrated against a single eruption. We present a new idealized model, EVA_H, that addresses these limitations. Compared to EVA, EVA_H makes predictions of the global mean stratospheric aerosol optical depth that are (i) similar for the 1979–1998 period characterized by the large and high‐altitude tropical SO urn:x-wiley:jgrd:media:jgrd55987:jgrd55987-math-0002 injections of El Chichón (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991); (ii) significantly improved for the 1998–2015 period characterized by smaller eruptions with a large variety of injection latitudes and heights. Compared to EVA, the sensitivity of volcanic forcing to injection latitude and height in EVA_H is much more consistent with results from climate models that include interactive aerosol chemistry and microphysics, even though EVA_H remains less sensitive to eruption latitude than the latter models. We apply EVA_H to investigate potential biases and uncertainties in EVA‐based volcanic forcing data sets from phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). EVA and EVA_H forcing reconstructions do not significantly differ for tropical high‐altitude volcanic injections. However, for high‐latitude or low‐altitude injections, our reconstructed forcing is significantly lower. This suggests that volcanic forcing in CMIP6 last millenium experiments may be overestimated for such eruptions.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: This paper investigates different methods for quantifying thaw subsidence using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds. Thaw subsidence is a slow (millimetre to centimetre per year) vertical displacement of the ground surface common in ice‐rich permafrost‐underlain landscapes. It is difficult to quantify thaw subsidence in tundra areas as they often lack stable reference frames. Also, there is no solid ground surface to serve as a basis for elevation measurements, due to a continuous moss–lichen cover. We investigate how an expert‐driven method improves the accuracy of benchmark measurements at discrete locations within two sites using multitemporal TLS data of a 1‐year period. Our method aggregates multiple experts’ determination of the ground surface in 3D point clouds, collected in a web‐based tool. We then compare this to the performance of a fully automated ground surface determination method. Lastly, we quantify ground surface displacement by directly computing multitemporal point cloud distances, thereby extending thaw subsidence observation to an area‐based assessment. Using the expert‐driven quantification as reference, we validate the other methods, including in‐situ benchmark measurements from a conventional field survey. This study demonstrates that quantifying the ground surface using 3D point clouds is more accurate than the field survey method. The expert‐driven method achieves an accuracy of 0.1 ± 0.1 cm. Compared to this, in‐situ benchmark measurements by single surveyors yield an accuracy of 0.4 ± 1.5 cm. This difference between the two methods is important, considering an observed displacement of 1.4 cm at the sites. Thaw subsidence quantification with the fully automatic benchmark‐based method achieves an accuracy of 0.2 ± 0.5 cm and direct point cloud distance computation an accuracy of 0.2 ± 0.9 cm. The range in accuracy is largely influenced by properties of vegetation structure at locations within the sites. The developed methods enable a link of automated quantification and expert judgement for transparent long‐term monitoring of permafrost subsidence.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 12
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 35 (1). Art.Nr. e2019PA003758.
    Publication Date: 2020-02-25
    Description: The transition from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene was accompanied by major tectonic reorganizations of key oceanic gateways. In particular, the gradual closure of the Panama Gateway and the constriction of the Indonesian Gateway significantly affected the structure of the Pacific thermocline. In the East Pacific, the thermocline shoaled from an early Pliocene El Niño‐like depth to its modern state, which had significant implications for global climate. Here we use Mg/Ca temperature estimates from subsurface and thermocline dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the meridional Plio‐Pleistocene evolution of the Southeast Pacific thermocline, in relation to atmospheric circulation changes. In combination with similar reconstructions from the north‐equatorial Pacific, our data indicate a change in the thermocline, responding to the northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High system between ~3.8 and 3.5 Ma. After 3.5 Ma, we record a second major phase of thermocline shoaling, which points to the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High‐system movement toward its modern position along with the gradual cooling of the Northern Hemisphere and its associated glaciation. These findings highlight that a warming globe may affect equatorial regions more intensively due to the potential temperature‐driven movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High and their associated oceanic systems.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: Over the past decades, coralline algae have increasingly been used as archives of palaeoclimate information due to their seasonal growth bands and their vast distribution from high latitudes to the tropics. Traditionally, these reconstructions have been performed mainly on high latitude species, limiting the geographical area of their potential use. Here we assess the use of temperate crustose fossil coralline algae from shallow water habitats for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction to generate records of past climate change. We determine the potential of three different species of coralline algae, Lithothamnion minervae, Lithophyllum stictaeforme and Mesophyllum philippii, with different growth patterns, as archives for pH (δ11B) and temperature (Mg/Ca) reconstruction in the Mediterranean Sea. Mg concentration is driven by temperature but modulated by growth rate, which is controlled by species‐specific and intraspecific growth patterns. L. minervae is a good temperature recorder, showing a moderate warming trend in specimens from 11.37 cal ka BP (from 14.2 ± 0.4°C to 14.9 ± 0.15°C) to today. In contrast to Mg, all genera showed consistent values of boron isotopes (δ11B) suggesting a common control on boron incorporation. The recorded δ11B in modern and fossil coralline specimens is in agreement with literature data about early Holocene pH, opening new perspectives of coralline‐based, high‐resolution pH reconstructions in deep time.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-03-13
    Description: Considerable uncertainty remains over how increasing atmospheric CO2 and anthropogenic climate changes are affecting open‐ocean marine ecosystems from phytoplankton to top predators. Biological time series data are thus urgently needed for the world's oceans. Here, we use the carbon stable isotope composition of tuna to provide a first insight into the existence of global trends in complex ecosystem dynamics and changes in the oceanic carbon cycle. From 2000 to 2015, considerable declines in δ13C values of 0.8‰–2.5‰ were observed across three tuna species sampled globally, with more substantial changes in the Pacific Ocean compared to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Tuna recorded not only the Suess effect, that is, fossil fuel‐derived and isotopically light carbon being incorporated into marine ecosystems, but also recorded profound changes at the base of marine food webs. We suggest a global shift in phytoplankton community structure, for example, a reduction in 13C‐rich phytoplankton such as diatoms, and/or a change in phytoplankton physiology during this period, although this does not rule out other concomitant changes at higher levels in the food webs. Our study establishes tuna δ13C values as a candidate essential ocean variable to assess complex ecosystem responses to climate change at regional to global scales and over decadal timescales. Finally, this time series will be invaluable in calibrating and validating global earth system models to project changes in marine biota.
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  • 15
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    British Ecological Society | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Applied Ecology, 57 (2). pp. 331-343.
    Publication Date: 2020-03-13
    Description: Ballast water has been identified as a leading vector for introduction of non‐indigenous species. Recently, the International Maritime Organization implemented management standards—D‐2—where all large, commercial ships trading internationally are required to adopt an approved treatment system using technologies such as ultraviolet radiation or chlorination. However, current management regulations are based only on the total abundance of viable taxa transported (i.e. total propagule pressure), largely ignoring species richness (i.e. colonization pressure). To determine the efficacy of chlorine treatment in reducing invasion risks and changes in transported biological communities inside ballast tanks, we used DNA metabarcoding‐based approaches to estimate colonization pressure (here, the number of species/operational taxonomic units [OTUs] introduced) and relative propagule pressure (relative abundance of each species/OTU) of zooplankton communities in control and chlorine treated tanks during four transatlantic voyages. Our study demonstrated that transport itself did not significantly reduce colonization pressure of zooplankton species, nor did chlorine treatment. Chlorine treatment altered community structure by reducing relative propagule pressure of some taxa such as Mollusca and Rotifera, while increasing relative propagule pressure of some Oligohymenophorea and Copepoda species. Synthesis and applications. Chlorine treatment may not reduce invasion risks as much as previously thought. Reduction in total propagule pressure does not mean reduction in abundance of all species equally. While some taxa might experience drastically reduced abundance, others might not change at all or increase due to hatching from dormant stages initiated by chlorine exposure. Therefore, management strategies should consider changes in total propagule pressure and colonization pressure when forecasting risk of new invasions. We therefore recommend adopting new approaches, such as DNA metabarcoding‐based methods, to assess the whole biodiversity discharged from ballast water. As species responses to chlorine treatment are variable and affected by concentration, we also recommend a combination of different technologies to reduce introduction risks of aquatic organisms.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-03-13
    Description: It is widely assumed that the ventilation of the Southern Ocean played a crucial role in driving glacial‐interglacial atmospheric CO2 levels. So far, however, ventilation records from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean are widely missing. Here we present reconstructions of water residence times (depicted as ΔΔ14C and Δδ13C) for the last 32,000 years on sediment records from the Kerguelen Plateau and the Conrad Rise (~570‐ to 2,500‐m water depth), along with simulated changes in ocean stratification from a transient climate model experiment. Our data indicate that Circumpolar Deep Waters in the Indian Ocean were part of the glacial carbon pool. At our sites, close to or bathed by upwelling deep waters, we find two pulses of decreasing ΔΔ14C and δ13C values (~21–17 ka; ~15–12 ka). Both transient pulses precede a similar pattern in downstream intermediate waters in the tropical Indian Ocean as well as rising atmospheric CO2 values. These findings suggest that 14C‐depleted, CO2‐rich Circumpolar Deep Water from the Indian Ocean contributed to the rise in atmospheric CO2 during Heinrich Stadial 1 and also the Younger Dryas and that the southern Indian Ocean acted as a gateway for sequestered carbon to the atmosphere and tropical intermediate waters.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-03-13
    Description: The transition from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene was accompanied by major tectonic reorganizations of key oceanic gateways. In particular, the gradual closure of the Panama Gateway and the constriction of the Indonesian Gateway significantly affected the structure of the Pacific thermocline. In the East Pacific, the thermocline shoaled from an early Pliocene El Niño‐like depth to its modern state, which had significant implications for global climate. Here we use Mg/Ca temperature estimates from subsurface and thermocline dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the meridional Plio‐Pleistocene evolution of the Southeast Pacific thermocline, in relation to atmospheric circulation changes. In combination with similar reconstructions from the north‐equatorial Pacific, our data indicate a change in the thermocline, responding to the northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High system between ~3.8 and 3.5 Ma. After 3.5 Ma, we record a second major phase of thermocline shoaling, which points to the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High‐system movement toward its modern position along with the gradual cooling of the Northern Hemisphere and its associated glaciation. These findings highlight that a warming globe may affect equatorial regions more intensively due to the potential temperature‐driven movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone/South Pacific High and their associated oceanic systems.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-03-23
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 19
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (2). Art.Nr. e2019JC015529.
    Publication Date: 2020-03-23
    Description: The causes of the seasonal cycle of vertical turbulent cooling at the base of the mixed layer are assessed using observations from moored buoys in the tropical Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (4°N, 23°W) and trade wind (15°N, 38°W) regions together with mixing parameterizations and a one-dimensional model. At 4°N the parameterized turbulent cooling rates during 2017–2018 and 2019 agree with indirect estimates from the climatological mooring heat budget residual: both show mean cooling of 25–30 W m (Formula presented.) during November–July, when winds are weakest and the mixed layer is thinnest, and 0–10 W m (Formula presented.) during August–October. Mixing during November–July is driven by variability on multiple time scales, including subdiurnal, near-inertial, and intraseasonal. Shear associated with tropical instability waves (TIWs) is found to generate mixing and monthly mean cooling of 15–30 W m (Formula presented.) during May–July in 2017 and 2019. At 15°N the seasonal cycle of turbulent cooling is out of phase compared to 4°N, with largest cooling of up to 60 W m (Formula presented.) during boreal fall. However, the relationships between wind speed, mixed layer depth, and turbulent mixing are similar: weaker mean winds and a thinner mixed layer in the fall are associated with stronger mixing and turbulent cooling of SST. These results emphasize the importance of seasonal modulations of mixed layer depth at both locations and shear from TIWs at 4°N.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-03-27
    Description: Widespread global declines in shellfish reefs (ecosystem-forming bivalves such as oysters and mussels) have led to growing interest in their restoration and protection. With restoration projects now occurring on four continents and in at least seven countries, global restoration guidelines for these ecosystems have been developed based on experience over the past two decades. The following key elements of the guidelines are outlined: (a) the case for shellfish reef resto- ration and securing financial resources; (b) planning, feasibility, and goal set- ting; (c) biosecurity and permitting; (d) restoration in practice; (e) scaling up from pilot to larger scale restoration, (f) monitoring, (g) restoration beyond oyster reefs (specifically mussels), and (h) successful communication for shell- fish reef restoration projects.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-04-07
    Description: Upwelling ocean currents associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) supply nutrients fuelling intense marine productivity. Perturbations in the extent and intensity of OMZs are projected in the future, but it is currently uncertain how this will impact fluxes of redox‐sensitive trace metal micronutrients to the surface ocean. Here we report seawater concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cd, and Ni alongside the redox indicator iodide/iodate in the Peruvian OMZ during the 2015 El Niño event. The El Niño drove atypical upwelling of oxygen‐enriched water over the Peruvian Shelf, resulting in oxidized iodine and strongly depleted Fe (II), total dissolved Fe, and reactive particulate Fe concentrations relative to non‐El Niño conditions. Observations of Fe were matched by the redox‐sensitive micronutrients Co and Mn, but not by non‐redox‐sensitive Cd and Ni. These observations demonstrate that oxygenation of OMZs significantly reduces water column inventories of redox‐sensitive micronutrients, with potential impacts on ocean productivity. Plain Language Summary Some trace metals, including iron, are essential micronutrients for phytoplankton growth. However, the solubility of iron is very low under oxygenated conditions. Consequently, restricted iron availability in oxygen‐rich seawater can limit phytoplankton growth in the ocean, including in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. Under typical conditions, depleted oxygen on the South American continental shelf is generally thought to enhance iron supply to the ocean, fuelling phytoplankton productivity in overlying waters. However, the impact of changes in oxygenation, which are predicted to occur in the future, are not known. The 2015 El Niño event led to unusually high oxygen on the Peruvian shelf, offering a system‐scale test on how oxygen influences seawater iron concentrations. We show that El Niño‐driven oxygenation resulted in marked decreases in iron and other metals sensitive to oxygen (cobalt and manganese), whilst metals not sensitive to oxygen (cadmium and nickel) were unaffected. The measured reductions in iron may have led to decreased phytoplankton productivity.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-04-16
    Description: A site at the gas hydrate stability limit was investigated offshore northwestern Svalbard to study methane transport in sediment. The site was characterized by chemosynthetic communities (sulfur bacteria mats, tubeworms) and gas venting. Sediments were sampled with in situ porewater collectors and by gravity coring followed by analyses of porewater constituents, sediment and carbonate geochemistry, and microbial activity, taxonomy, and lipid biomarkers. Sulfide and alkalinity concentrations showed concentration maxima in near‐surface sediments at the bacterial mat and deeper maxima at the gas vent site. Sediments at the periphery of the chemosynthetic field were characterized by two sulfate‐methane transition zones (SMTZs) at ~204 and 45 cm depth, where activity maxima of microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate were found. Amplicon sequencing and lipid biomarker indicate that AOM at the SMTZs was mediated by ANME‐1 archaea. A 1D numerical transport reaction model suggests that the deeper SMTZ‐1 formed on centennial scale by vertical advection of methane, while the shallower SMTZ‐2 could only be reproduced by nonvertical methane injections starting on decadal scale. Model results were supported by age distribution of authigenic carbonates, showing youngest carbonates within SMTZ‐2. We propose that nonvertical methane injection was induced by increasing blockage of vertical transport or formation of sediment fractures. Our study further suggests that the methanotrophic response to the nonvertical methane injection was commensurate with new methane supply. This finding provides new information about for the response time and efficiency of the benthic methane filter in environments with fluctuating methane transport.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-04-14
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems XX (2019): Tyne, R. L., Barry, P. H., Hillegonds, D. J., Hunt, A. G., Kulongoski, J. T., Stephens, M. J., Byrne, D. J., & Ballentine, C. J. A novel method for the extraction, purification, and characterization of noble gases in produced fluids. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 20, (2019): 5588-5597, doi: 10.1029/2019GC008552.
    Description: Hydrocarbon systems with declining or viscous oil production are often stimulated using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as the injection of water, steam, and CO2, in order to increase oil and gas production. As EOR and other methods of enhancing production such as hydraulic fracturing have become more prevalent, environmental concerns about the impact of both new and historical hydrocarbon production on overlying shallow aquifers have increased. Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of subsurface fluid provenance and can be used to understand the impact of EOR on hydrocarbon systems and potentially overlying aquifers. In oil systems, produced fluids can consist of a mixture of oil, water and gas. Noble gases are typically measured in the gas phase; however, it is not always possible to collect gases and therefore produced fluids (which are water, oil, and gas mixtures) must be analyzed. We outline a new technique to separate and analyze noble gases in multiphase hydrocarbon‐associated fluid samples. An offline double capillary method has been developed to quantitatively isolate noble gases into a transfer vessel, while effectively removing all water, oil, and less volatile hydrocarbons. The gases are then cleaned and analyzed using standard techniques. Air‐saturated water reference materials (n = 24) were analyzed and results show a method reproducibility of 2.9% for 4He, 3.8% for 20Ne, 4.5% for 36Ar, 5 .3% for 84Kr, and 5.7% for 132Xe. This new technique was used to measure the noble gas isotopic compositions in six produced fluid samples from the Fruitvale Oil Field, Bakersfield, California.
    Description: This work was supported by a Natural Environment Research Council studentship to R. L. Tyne (grant NE/L002612/1) and the USGS (grant 15‐080‐250), as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's, Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program (RMP). Data can be accessed in Tables 1 and 2 and in the data release from Gannon et al. (2018). We thank the owners and operators at the Fruitvale Oil Field for access to wells. We thank Stuart Gilfillan and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive reviews as well as Marie Edmonds for editorial handling. We also thank Matthew Landon and Myles Moor from the USGS who provided helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Any use of trade, firm or product names are for descriptive purposes only and do not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
    Description: 2020-04-14
    Keywords: Noble Gas ; Methods ; Produced Fluids
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-04-14
    Description: Recent evidence shows that wind‐driven ocean currents, like the western boundary currents, are strongly affected by global warming. However, due to insufficient observations both on temporal and spatial scales, the impact of climate change on large‐scale ocean gyres is still not clear. Here, based on satellite observations of sea surface height and sea surface temperature, we find a consistent poleward shift of the major ocean gyres. Due to strong natural variability, most of the observed ocean gyre shifts are not statistically significant, implying that natural variations may contribute to the observed trends. However, climate model simulations forced with increasing greenhouse gases suggest that the observed shift is most likely to be a response of global warming. The displacement of ocean gyres, which is coupled with the poleward shift of extratropical atmospheric circulation, has broad impacts on ocean heat transport, regional sea level rise, and coastal ocean circulation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-04-22
    Description: Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiotemporal resolutions are overlooked. This is particularly important in relation to effects of observation height (e.g. vegetation, snow and soil characteristics) and in habitats varying in their exposure to radiation, moisture and wind (e.g. topography, radiative forcing, or cold‐air pooling). Since organisms living close to the ground relate more strongly to these microclimatic conditions than to free‐air temperatures, microclimatic ground and near‐surface data are needed to provide realistic forecasts of the fate of such organisms under anthropogenic climate change, as well as of the functioning of the ecosystems they live in. To fill this critical gap, we highlight a call for temperature time series submissions to SoilTemp, a geospatial database initiative compiling soil and near‐surface temperature data from all over the world. Currently this database contains time series from 7538 temperature sensors from 51 countries across all key biomes. The database will pave the way towards an improved global understanding of microclimate and bridge the gap between the available climate data and the climate at fine spatiotemporal resolutions relevant to most organisms and ecosystem processes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 26
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (4). Art.Nr. e2019JC015753.
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
    Description: A new estimate of Agulhas leakage transport is calculated using profiling floats and drifters. Since Richardson's seminal estimate of 15 Sv in 2007, the number of floats and drifters passing through the Agulhas Current has quadrupled. Within uncertainties we find the same leakage percentages as Richardson, with 34% of drifters leaking at the surface and 21% of floats leaking at 1,000 m depth. We find that the drifters tend to follow a northward leakage pathway via the Benguela Current compared to the northwestward leakage pathway of the floats along the Agulhas Ring corridor. We simulate the isobaric and profiling behavior of the floats and drifters using two high resolution models and two offline Lagrangian tracking tools, quantifying for the first time the sampling biases associated with the observations. We find that the isobaric bias cannot be robustly simulated but likely causes an underestimate of observed leakage by one or two Sverdrups. The profiling behavior of the floats causes no significant bias in the leakage. Fitting a simulated vertical leakage profile to the observed leakage percentages from the floats and drifters and using the mean Agulhas transport observed by a moored array at 34°S we find an improved Agulhas leakage transport of 21.3 Sv, with an estimated error of 4.7 Sv. Our new leakage transport is higher primarily because we account for leakage at depths down to 2,000 m, while Richardson considered only the top 1,000 m of the water column.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-04-20
    Description: A site at the gas hydrate stability limit was investigated offshore northwestern Svalbard to study methane transport in sediment. The site was characterized by chemosynthetic communities (sulfur bacteria mats, tubeworms) and gas venting. Sediments were sampled with in‐situ porewater collectors and by gravity coring followed by analyses of porewater constituents, sediment and carbonate geochemistry, and microbial activity, taxonomy, and lipid biomarkers. Sulfide and alkalinity concentrations showed concentration maxima in near‐surface sediments at the bacterial mat and deeper maxima at the gas vent site. Sediments at the periphery of the chemosynthetic field were characterized by two sulfate‐methane transition zones (SMTZ) at ~204 and 45 cm depth, where activity maxima of microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate were found. Amplicon sequencing and lipid biomarker indicate that AOM at the SMTZs was mediated by ANME‐1 archaea. A 1D numerical transport reaction model suggests that the deeper SMTZ‐1 formed on centennial scale by vertical advection of methane, while the shallower SMTZ‐2 could only be reproduced by non‐vertical methane injections starting on decadal scale. Model results were supported by age distribution of authigenic carbonates, showing youngest carbonates within SMTZ‐2. We propose that non‐vertical methane injection was induced by increasing blockage of vertical transport or formation of sediment fractures. Our study further suggests that the methanotrophic response to the non‐vertical methane injection was commensurate with new methane supply. This finding provides new information about for the response time and efficiency of the benthic methane filter in environments with fluctuating methane transport.
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  • 28
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (3).
    Publication Date: 2020-04-28
    Description: Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) variability serves as a proxy of ocean mass variability, the knowledge of which is needed in geophysical applications. The question of how well it can be modeled by the present general ocean circulation models on time scales in excess of 1 day is addressed here by comparing the simulated OBP variability with the observed one. To this end, a new multiyear data set is used, obtained with an array of bottom pressure gauges deployed deeply along a transect across the Southern Ocean. We present a brief description of OBP data and show large‐scale correlations over several thousand kilometers at all time scales using daily and monthly averaged data. Annual and semiannual cycles are weak. Close to the Agulhas Retroflection, signals of up to 30 cm equivalent water height are detected. Further south, signals are mostly intermittent and noisy. It is shown that the models simulate consistent patterns of bottom pressure variability on monthly and longer scales except for areas with high mesoscale eddy activity, where high resolution is needed to capture the variability due to eddies. Furthermore, despite good agreement in the amplitude of variability, the in situ and simulated OBP show only modest correlation.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-05-04
    Description: Both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents (SIE) from 44 coupled models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) are evaluated by comparing them with observations and CMIP5 results. The CMIP6 multi‐model mean can adequately reproduce the seasonal cycles of both the Arctic and Antarctic SIE. The observed Arctic September SIE declining trend (−0.82±0.18 million km2/decade) between 1979 and 2014 is slightly underestimated in CMIP6 models (−0.70±0.06 million km2/decade). The observed weak but significant upward trend of the Antarctic SIE is not captured, which was an issue already in the CMIP5 phase. Compared with CMIP5 models, CMIP6 models have lower inter‐model spreads in SIE mean values and trends, although their SIE biases are relatively larger. The CMIP6 models did not reproduce the new summer tendencies after 2000, including the faster decline of Arctic SIE and the larger interannual variability in Antarctic SIE.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-05-04
    Description: We examine CMIP6 simulations of Arctic sea‐ice area and volume. We find that CMIP6 models produce a wide spread of mean Arctic sea‐ice area, capturing the observational estimate within the multi‐model ensemble spread. The CMIP6 multi‐model ensemble mean provides a more realistic estimate of the sensitivity of September Arctic sea‐ice area to a given amount of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and to a given amount of global warming, compared with earlier CMIP experiments. Still, most CMIP6 models fail to simulate at the same time a plausible evolution of sea‐ice area and of global mean surface temperature. In the vast majority of the available CMIP6 simulations, the Arctic Ocean becomes practically sea‐ice free (sea‐ice area 〈 1 million km2) in September for the first time before the year 2050 in each of the four emission scenarios SSP1‐1.9, SSP1‐2.6, SSP2‐4.5 and SSP5‐8.5 examined here.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: The generation of reliable age models for palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records in the Eurasian Arctic is often problematic when using conventional dating techniques. Tephrochronology can potentially improve the chronologies of such records and synchronise disparate sedimentary archives. However, to date, systematic tephra studies are lacking for this region. This paper presents the first cryptotephra data from the White Sea region (northwestern Russia) based on a peat core spanning the past ~1800 years. We identify seven geochemical glass populations that derive from six Icelandic volcanoes and correlate four of them to north European tephra isochrons; these include Askja ad 1875, the basaltic component of the ad 877 Landnám tephra, and tephras BTD‐15 (c. ad 1750–1650) and SL‐2/SB‐2 (ad 803–767) from unknown eruptions of Katla and Snæfellsjökull, respectively. The remaining three populations originate from Grímsvötn, Hekla and Katla; however, their attribution to individual eruptions remains ambiguous. These findings highlight the potential to extend the Late Holocene tephrochronological framework of northern Europe to the west Eurasian Arctic. The detection of at least three basaltic tephras in the core suggests that basaltic shards can be transported over larger distances than previously known and that peatlands are well suited to preserve such components.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: There is a strong economic interest in commercial deep‐sea mining of polymetallic nodules and therefore a need to define suitable preservation zones in the abyssal plain of the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ). However, besides ship‐based multibeam data, only sparse continuous environmental information is available over large geographic scales. We test the potential of modelling meiofauna abundance and diversity on high taxonomic level on large geographic scale using a random forest approach. Ship‐based multibeam bathymetry and backscatter signal are the only sources for 11 predictor variables, as well as the modelled abundance of polymetallic nodules on the seafloor. Continuous meiofauna predictions have been combined with all available environmental variables and classified into classes representing abyssal habitats using k‐means clustering. Results show that ship‐based, multibeam‐derived predictors can be used to calculate predictive models for meiofauna distribution on a large geographic scale. Predicted distribution varies between the different meiofauna response variables. To evaluate predictions, random forest regressions were additionally computed with 1,000 replicates, integrating varying numbers of sampling positions and parallel samples per site. Higher numbers of parallel samples are especially useful to smoothen the influence of the remarkable variability of meiofauna distribution on a small scale. However, a high number of sampling positions is even more important, integrating a greater amount of natural variability of environmental conditions into the model. Synthesis and applications. Polymetallic nodule exploration contractors are required to define potential mining and preservation zones within their licence area. The biodiversity and the environment of preservation zones should be representative of the sites that will be impacted by mining. Our predicted distributions of meiofauna and the derived habitat maps are an essential first step to enable the identification of areas with similar ecological conditions. In this way, it is possible to define preservation zones not only based on expert opinion and environmental proxies but also integrating evidence from the distribution of benthic communities.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-05-11
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into coastal areas is a common global phenomenon and is rapidly gaining scientific interest due to its influence on marine ecology, the coastal sedimentary environment and its potential as a future freshwater resource. We conducted an integrated study of hydroacoustic surveys combined with geochemical porewater and water column investigations at a well‐known groundwater seep site in Eckernförde Bay (Germany). We aim to better constrain the effects of shallow gas and SGD on high frequency multibeam backscatter data and to present acoustic indications for submarine groundwater discharge. Our high‐quality hydroacoustic data reveal hitherto unknown internal structures within the pockmarks in Eckernförde Bay. Using precisely positioned sediment core samples, our hydroacoustic‐geochemical approach can differentiate intra‐pockmark regimes that were formerly assigned to pockmarks of a different nature. We demonstrate that high‐frequency multibeam data, in particular the backscatter signals, can be used to detect shallow free gas in areas of enhanced groundwater advection in muddy sediments. Intriguingly, our data reveal relatively small (typically 〈15 m across) pockmarks within the much larger, previously mapped, pockmarks. The small pockmarks, which we refer to as “intra‐pockmarks”, have formed due to the localized ascent of gas and groundwater; they manifest themselves as a new type of ‘eyed’ pockmarks, revealed by their acoustic backscatter pattern. Our data suggest that, in organic‐rich muddy sediments, morphological lows combined with a strong multibeam backscatter signal can be indicative of free shallow gas and subsequent advective groundwater flow.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-05-25
    Description: Rationale To detect the small changes in past pH, the boron isotope ratio of coral carbonates, expressed as the δ11B value, needs to be both precise and accurate (2sd〈〈1‰). Boron measurements by Multi‐collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC‐ICPMS) requires the boron to be carefully purified before analysis, which is time consuming, and requires specialist training. Here, we use the prepFAST‐MC that enables the automatic extraction of B (up to 25 ng load) from a CaCO3 matrix. Methods Samples were purified using the prepFAST‐MC automated system with a ~25‐μL column of Amberlite IRA743 resin. Boron isotope measurements were performed byMC‐ICPMS. The effect of matrix load, speed of sample load onto the column, and blank contamination were tested to evaluate the effect on the purification process. The optimised protocol was tested on various standards and samples of aragonite corals. Results The blank contribution for the approach is ~60 pg and is negligible given our sample size (〈0.2% sample size). Efficiency of matrix removal is demonstrated with the addition of up to 1.6 mg of dissolved low‐B calcium carbonate to NIST SRM 951 with no impact on the accuracy of δ11B values. The Japanese Geological Survey Porites reference material JCp‐1, boric acid standard NIST SRM 951, and seawater, all processed on the prepFAST‐MC, give δ11B values within error of literature values (δ11BJCp‐1 = 24.31 ±0.20‰ (2sd, n=20); δ11BNIST 951 = ‐0.02 ±0.15‰ (2sd, n=13) and δ11BSeawater = 39.50 ±0.06 ‰ (2sd, n=2)). Results obtained from the coral Siderastrea siderea purified with the prepFAST‐MC show an average offset from the manual ion exchange protocols of Δδ11B=0.01 ±0.28‰ (2sd, n=12). Conclusions Our study demonstrates the capacity of the prepFAST‐MC to generate accurate and reproducible δ11B values for a range of material, without fractionation, with efficient matrix removal and with negligible blank contribution.
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  • 35
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-06-02
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-06-05
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 38
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125 (5). Art.Nr. e2019JB019237.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-08
    Description: Key Points: - The Kamchatka arc lavas show across-arc variations in chalcophile elements, suggesting that the amount of fluid decreases with depth - Slab-derived fluids have a negligible contribution to the Li budget of the Kamchatka arc lavas - CKD lavas have high U/Th, Li/Y, La/Sm and B/Nb ratios, indicating that lawsonite breakdown reaction dominates the water release Chalcophile elements and lithium (Li) isotopes were measured on lavas from a 220 km transect across the Kamchatka arc in order to investigate the fluid variations below arc volcanoes and to trace the geochemical behaviour of Li in convergent plate margins. From the Eastern Volcanic Front (EVF), through the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD), into the Sredinny Range (SR) volcanic zones, chalcophile element ratios (e.g., As/Ce and Sb/Ce) show clear across‐arc variations, decreasing (e.g., As/Ce: 0.20 to 0.03 and Sb/Ce: 0.013 to 0.002) with increasing depth above the slab (110 to 400 km). This clearly indicates a gradually decreasing influx of slab‐derived fluids added to the mantle wedge as the slab subducts below Kamchatka. In addition, the anomalously high U/Th, La/Sm and B/Nb ratios in the CKD lavas suggest lawsonite breakdown reaction dominates the fluid release in this area. However, Li/Y (0.07 to 1.78) and δ7Li (+1.8 to +5.4‰, with an exception of +8.6‰ in CKD) show limited variations and values similar to the MORB mantle. A dehydration model suggests that slab‐derived fluids, which are characterized by high Li concentration and high δ7Li, do not control the Li budget in Kamchatka arc lavas. Therefore, the isotopic heavy Li from slab‐derived fluids likely equilibrates in the sub‐arc mantle, which acts as a buffer for Li systematics. In addition, based on the Li isotopic signatures of Klyuchevskoy volcano, our study demonstrates insignificant Li isotopic fractionation during mantle melting and subsequent differentiation.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-06-09
    Description: Many marine microbial eukaryotes combine photosynthetic with phagotrophic nutrition, but incomplete understanding of such mixotrophic protists, their functional diversity, and underlying physiological mechanisms limits the assessment and modeling of their roles in present and future ocean ecosystems. We developed an experimental system to study responses of mixotrophic protists to availability of living prey and light, and used it to characterize contrasting physiological strategies in two stramenopiles in the genus Ochromonas. We show that oceanic isolate CCMP1393 is an obligate mixotroph, requiring both light and prey as complementary resources. Interdependence of photosynthesis and heterotrophy in CCMP1393 comprises a significant role of mitochondrial respiration in photosynthetic electron transport. In contrast, coastal isolate CCMP2951 is a facultative mixotroph that can substitute photosynthesis by phagotrophy and hence grow purely heterotrophically in darkness. In contrast to CCMP1393, CCMP2951 also exhibits a marked photoprotection response that integrates non‐photochemical quenching and mitochondrial respiration as electron sink for photosynthetically produced reducing equivalents. Facultative mixotrophs similar to CCMP2951 might be well adapted to variable environments, while obligate mixotrophs similar to CCMP1393 appear capable of resource efficient growth in oligotrophic ocean environments. Thus, the responses of these phylogenetically close protists to the availability of different resources reveals niche differentiation that influences impacts in food webs and leads to opposing carbon cycle roles.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-06-09
    Description: Sympatric speciation occurs without geographical barriers and is thought to often be driven by ecological specialization of individuals that eventually diverge genetically and phenotypically. Distinct morphologies between sympatric populations occupying different niches have been interpreted as such differentiating adaptive phenotypes, yet differences in performance and thus likely adaptiveness between them were rarely tested. Here, we investigated if divergent body shapes of two sympatric crater lake cichlid species from Nicaragua, one being a shore‐associated (benthic) species while the other prefers the open water zones (limnetic), affect cruising (Ucrit) and sprinting (Usprint) swimming abilities ‐ performances particularly relevant to their respective lifestyles. Furthermore, we investigated species differences in oxygen consumption (MO2) across different swimming speeds and compare gene expression in gills and white muscle at rest and during exercise. We found a superior cruising ability in the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus compared to the benthic A. astorquii, while sprinting was not different, suggesting that their distinct morphologies affect swimming performance. Increased cruising swimming ability in A. zaliosus was linked to a higher oxygen demand during activity (but not rest), indicating different metabolic rates during exercise ‐ a hypothesis supported by coinciding gene expression patterns of gill transcriptomes. We identified differentially expressed genes linked to swimming physiology, regulation of swimming behaviour and oxygen intake. A combination of physiological and morphological differences may thus underlie adaptations to these species’ distinct niches. This complex ecological specialization likely resulted in morphological and physiological trade‐offs that contributed to the rapid establishment and maintenance of divergence with gene flow.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-06-15
    Description: The plea for using more “realistic,” community‐level, investigations to assess the ecological impacts of global change has recently intensified. Such experiments are typically more complex, longer, more expensive, and harder to interpret than simple organism‐level benchtop experiments. Are they worth the extra effort? Using outdoor mesocosms, we investigated the effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA), their combination (OAW), and their natural fluctuations on coastal communities of the western Baltic Sea during all four seasons. These communities are dominated by the perennial and canopy‐forming macrophyte Fucus vesiculosus—an important ecosystem engineer Baltic‐wide. We, additionally, assessed the direct response of organisms to temperature and pH in benchtop experiments, and examined how well organism‐level responses can predict community‐level responses to the dominant driver, OW. OW affected the mesocosm communities substantially stronger than acidification. OW provoked structural and functional shifts in the community that differed in strength and direction among seasons. The organism‐level response to OW matched well the community‐level response of a given species only under warm and cold thermal stress, that is, in summer and winter. In other seasons, shifts in biotic interactions masked the direct OW effects. The combination of direct OW effects and OW‐driven shifts of biotic interactions is likely to jeopardize the future of the habitat‐forming macroalga F. vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, we conclude that seasonal mesocosm experiments are essential for our understanding of global change impact because they take into account the important fluctuations of abiotic and biotic pressures.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-06-15
    Description: Numerical simulations of ocean biogeochemical cycles need to adequately represent particle sinking velocities (SV). For decades, Stokes' Law estimating particle SV from density and size has been widely used. But while Stokes' Law holds for small, smooth, and rigid spheres settling at low Reynolds number, it fails when applied to marine aggregates complex in shape, structure, and composition. Minerals and zooplankton can alter phytoplankton aggregates in ways that change their SV, potentially improving the applicability of Stokes' models. Using rolling cylinders, we experimentally produced diatom aggregates in the presence and absence of minerals and/or microzooplankton. Minerals and to a lesser extent microzooplankton decreased aggregate size and roughness and increased their sphericity and compactness. Stokes' Law parameterized with a fractal porosity modeled adequately size‐SV relationships for mineral‐loaded aggregates. Phytoplankton‐only aggregates and those exposed to microzooplankton followed the general Navier‐Stokes drag equation suggesting an indiscernible effect of microzooplankton and a drag coefficient too complex to be calculated with a Stokes' assumption. We compared our results with a larger data set of ballasted and nonballasted marine aggregates. This confirmed that the size‐SV relationships for ballasted aggregates can be simulated by Stokes' models with an adequate fractal porosity parameterization. Given the importance of mineral ballasting in the ocean, our findings could ease biogeochemical model parameterization for a significant pool of particles in the ocean and especially in the mesopelagic zone where the particulate organic matter : mineral ratio decreases. Our results also reinforce the importance of accounting for porosity as a decisive predictor of marine aggregate SV.
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  • 43
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    ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography) | Wiley
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography, 65 (6). pp. 1136-1148.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-15
    Description: The duration and magnitude of the North Atlantic spring bloom impacts both higher trophic levels and oceanic carbon sequestration. Nutrient exhaustion offers a general explanation for bloom termination, but detail on which nutrients and their relative influence on phytoplankton productivity, community structure, and physiology is lacking. Here, we address this using nutrient addition bioassay experiments conducted across the midlatitude North Atlantic in June 2017 (late spring). In four out of six experiments, phytoplankton accumulated over 48–72 h following individual additions of either iron (Fe) or nitrogen (N). In the remaining two experiments, Fe and N were serially limiting, that is, their combined addition sequentially enhanced phytoplankton accumulation. Silicic acid (Si) added in combination with N + Fe led to further chlorophyll a (Chl a) enhancement at two sites. Conversely, addition of zinc, manganese, cobalt, vitamin B12, or phosphate in combination with N + Fe did not. At two sites, the simultaneous supply of all six nutrients, in combination with N + Fe, also led to no further Chl a enhancement, but did result in an additional 30–60% particulate carbon accumulation. This particulate carbon accumulation was not matched by a Redfield equivalent of particulate N, characteristic of high C:N organic exudates that enhance cell aggregation and sinking. Our results suggest that growth rates of larger phytoplankton were primarily limited by Fe and/or N, making the availability of these nutrients the main bottom‐up factors contributing to spring bloom termination. In addition, the simultaneous availability of other nutrients could modify bloom characteristics and carbon export efficiency.
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  • 44
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    ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography) | Wiley
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 18 (2). pp. 63-76.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-16
    Description: Ocean surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is a key factor controlling air–sea CO2 fluxes. Most surface pCO2 data are collected with relatively large and complex air–water equilibrators coupled to stand‐alone infrared analyzers installed on Ships of OPportunity (SOOP‐CO2). This approach has proven itself through years of successful deployments, but expansion and sustainability of the future measurement network faces challenges in terms of certification, autonomy, and maintenance, which motivates development of new systems. Here, we compare performance of three underway pCO2 measurement systems (General Oceanics, SubCtech, and Pro‐Oceanus), including a recently developed compact flow‐through, sensor‐based system. The systems were intercompared over a period of 34 days during two crossings of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. With a mean difference from the General Oceanics system of −5.7 ± 4.0 μatm (Pro‐Oceanus) and −4.7 ± 2.9 μatm (SubCtech) during the 1st crossing, our results indicate potential for good agreement between the systems. The study highlighted the challenge of assuring accuracy over long periods of time, particularly seen in a worse agreement during the 2nd crossing, and revealed a number of sources of systematic errors. These can influence accuracy of the measurements, agreement between systems and include slow response of membrane‐based systems to pCO2 changes, “within‐ship” respiration due to biofouling, and bias in measurement of the temperature of equilibration. These error sources can be controlled or corrected for, however, if unidentified, their magnitude can be significant relative to accuracy criteria assigned to the highest‐quality data in global databases. The advantages of the compact flow‐through system are presented along with a discussion of future solutions for improving data quality.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-06-16
    Description: Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant free-living photosynthetic microorganisms in the ocean. Uncultivated lineages of these picocyanobacteria also thrive in the dimly illuminated upper part of oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), where an important portion of ocean nitrogen (N) loss takes place via denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Recent metagenomic studies revealed that ODZ Prochlorococcus have the genetic potential for using different N forms, including nitrate and nitrite, uncommon N sources for Prochlorococcus, but common for Synechococcus. To determine which N sources ODZ picocyanobacteria are actually using in nature, the cellular N-15 natural abundance (delta N-15) and assimilation rates of different N compounds were determined using cell sorting by flow cytometry and mass spectrometry. The natural delta N-15 of the ODZ Prochlorococcus varied from -4.0 parts per thousand to 13.0 parts per thousand (n = 9), with 50% of the values in the range of -2.1-2.6 parts per thousand. While the highest values suggest nitrate use, most observations indicate the use of nitrite, ammonium, or a mixture of N sources. Meanwhile, incubation experiments revealed potential assimilation rates of ammonium and urea in the same order of magnitude as that expected for total N in several environments including ODZs, whereas rates of nitrite and nitrate assimilation were very low. Our results thus indicate that reduced forms of N and nitrite are the dominant sources for ODZ picocyanobacteria, although nitrate might be important on some occasions. ODZ picocyanobacteria might thus represent potential competitors with anammox bacteria for ammonium and nitrite, with ammonia-oxidizing archaea for ammonium, and with nitrite-oxidizing bacteria for nitrite.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-06-16
    Description: Eutrophication and climate change will affect habitats of species and more generally, the structure and functioning of ecosystems. We used a three‐dimensional, coupled hydrodynamic‐biogeochemical model to investigate potential future changes in size and location of potential habitats of marine species during the 21st century in a large, eutrophicated brackish sea (the Baltic Sea, northern Europe). We conducted scenario projections under the combined impact of nutrient load and climate change. Possible future changes of the eutrophication state of this sea were also assessed through two policy‐relevant indicators. The results imply a physiologically more stressful environment for marine species by the end of the 21st century: volumes of higher salinity water become more hypoxic/anoxic and the volumes of low salinity, oxic water increase. For example, these results impact and reduce cod reproductive habitats. The decrease is mainly climate change induced in the Baltic basins less directly influenced by inflows of saline, oxic water to the Baltic Sea (E Gotland and Gdansk Basins). In basins more directly influenced by such inflows (Arkona and Bornholm Basins), the combined effect from climate change and nutrient loads is of importance. The results for the eutrophication state indicators clearly indicate a more eutrophic sea than at present without a rigorous nutrient reduction policy, that is, the necessity to implement the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The multidisciplinary, multiscenario assessment strategy presented here provides a useful concept for the evaluation of impacts from cumulative stresses of changing climate and socioeconomic pressures on future eutrophication indicators and habitats of marine species.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-06-16
    Description: Thaw slumps in ice‐rich permafrost can retreat tens of metres per summer, driven by the melt of subaerially exposed ground ice. However, some slumps retain an ice‐veneering debris cover as they retreat. A quantitative understanding of the thermal regime and geomorphic evolution of debris‐covered slumps in a warming climate is largely lacking. To characterize the thermal regime, we instrumented four debris‐covered slumps in the Canadian Low Arctic and developed a numerical conduction‐based model. The observed surface temperatures 20°C and steep thermal gradients indicate that debris insulates the ice by shifting the energy balance towards radiative and turbulent losses. After the model was calibrated and validated with field observations, it predicted sub‐debris ice melt to decrease four‐fold from 1.9 to 0.5 m as the thickness of the fine‐grained debris quadruples from 0.1 to 0.4 m. With warming temperatures, melt is predicted to increase most rapidly, in relative terms, for thick (~0.5‐1.0 m) debris covers. The morphology and evolution of the debris‐covered slumps were characterized using field and remote sensing observations, which revealed differences in association with morphology and debris composition. Two low‐angle slumps retreated continually despite their persistent fine‐grained debris covers. The observed elevation losses decreased from ~1.0 m/yr where debris thickness ~.2 m to 0.1 m/yr where thickness ~1.0 m. Conversely, a steep slump with a coarse‐grained debris veneer underwent short‐lived bursts of retreat, hinting at a complex interplay of positive and negative feedback processes. The insulative protection and behaviour of debris vary significantly with factors such as thickness, grain size and climate: debris thus exerts a fundamental, spatially variable influence on slump trajectories in a warming climate.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-06-19
    Description: Mesoscale eddies can be strengthened by the absorption of submesoscale eddies resulting from mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities. This is shown for mesoscale eddies in the Agulhas Current system by investigating the kinetic energy cascade with a spectral and a coarse-graining approach in two model simulations of the Agulhas region. One simulation resolves mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities and one does not. When mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities are included, the largest submesoscale near-surface fluxes occur in winter-time in regions of strong mesoscale activity for upscale as well as downscale directions. The forward cascade at the smallest resolved scales occurs mainly in frontogenetic regions in the upper 30 m of the water column. In the Agulhas ring path, the forward cascade changes to an inverse cascade at a typical scale of mixed-layer eddies (15 km). At the same scale, the largest sources of the upscale flux occur. After the winter, the maximum of the upscale flux shifts to larger scales. Depending on the region, the kinetic energy reaches the mesoscales in spring or early summer aligned with the maximum of mesoscale kinetic energy. This indicates the importance of submesoscale flows for the mesoscale seasonal cycle. A case study shows that the underlying process is the mesoscale absorption of mixed-layer eddies. When mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities are not included in the simulation, the open-ocean upscale cascade in the Agulhas ring path is almost absent. This contributes to a 20 %-reduction of surface kinetic energy at mesoscales larger than 100 km when submesoscale dynamics are not resolved by the model.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-06-26
    Description: Antarctica's ice shelves play a key role in stabilizing the ice streams that feed them. Since basal melting largely depends on ice‐ocean interactions, it is vital to attain consistent bathymetry models to estimate water and heat exchange beneath ice shelves. We have constructed bathymetry models beneath the ice shelves of western Dronning Maud Land by inverting airborne gravity data and incorporating seismic, multibeam, and radar depth references. Our models reveal deep glacial troughs beneath the ice shelves and terminal moraines close to the continental shelf breaks, which currently limit the entry of Warm Deep Water from the Southern Ocean. The ice shelves buttress a catchment that comprises an ice volume equivalent to nearly 1 m of eustatic sea level rise, partly susceptible to ocean forcing. Changes in water temperature and thermocline depth may accelerate marine‐based ice sheet drainage and constitute an underestimated contribution to future global sea level rise.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-06-23
    Description: Although reports have documented loss of species diversity and ecological services caused by stressful temperature changes that result from climate change, some species cope through behavioural compensation. As temperatures and magnitudes of temperature extremes increase, animals should compensate to maintain fitness (such as through temporary behavioural shifts in activity times). Appropriate timing of activity helps avoid competition across species. Although coprophagic dung beetles exhibit species‐specific temporal activity times, it is unknown whether temperature drives evolution of these species‐specific temporal activity times. Using nine dung beetle species (three each of diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal species), we explored differences in heat stress tolerance measured as critical thermal maxima (CTmax; the highest temperature allowing activity) and heat knockdown time (HKDT; survival time under acute heat stress) across these species, and examined the results using a phylogenetically informed approach. Our results showed that day‐active species had significantly higher CTmax (diurnal 〉 crepuscular = nocturnal species), whereas crepuscular species had higher HKDT (crepuscular 〉 nocturnal 〉 diurnal species). There was no correlation between heat tolerance and body size across species with distinct temporal activity, and no significant phylogenetic constraint for activity. Species with higher CTmax did not necessarily have higher HKDT, which indicates that species may respond differently to diverse heat tolerance metrics. Acute heat tolerance for diurnal beetles indicates that this trait may constrain activity time and, under high acute temperatures with climate change, species may shift activity times in more benign environments. These results help elucidate the evolution of foraging behaviour and management of coprophagic beetle ecosystem services under changing environments.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-06-20
    Description: Key Points Calibration of XRF core scanning data highlights the need for careful examination of sediment properties such as porosity/water Grain size and water content in the sediment trigger systematic artifacts in the signal intensity of light elements (e.g. Si and Al) Known terrigenous flux proxies (e.g Ti/Ca, Fe/Ca) are influenced by sea level variations X‐ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning of marine and lake sediments has been extensively used to study changes in past environmental and climatic processes over a range of timescales. The interpretation of XRF‐derived element ratios in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies primarily considers differences in the relative abundances of particular elements. Here we present new XRF core scanning data from two long sediment cores in the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean and show that sea level related processes influence terrigenous inputs based proxies such as Ti/Ca, Fe/Ca, and elemental concentrations of the transition metals (e.g. Mn). Zr/Rb ratios are mainly a function of changes in median grain size of lithogenic particles and often covary with changes in Ca concentrations that reflect changes in biogenic calcium carbonate production. This suggests that a common process (i.e. sea level) influences both records. The interpretation of lighter element data (e.g. Si and Al) based on low XRF counts is complicated as variations in mean grain size and water content result in systematic artifacts and signal intensities not related to the Al or Si content of the sediments. This highlights the need for calibration of XRF core scanning data based on discrete sample analyses and careful examination of sediment properties such as porosity/water content for reliably disentangling environmental signals from other physical properties. In the case of the Andaman Sea, reliable extraction of a monsoon signal will require accounting for the sea level influence on the XRF data.
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  • 52
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  (Submitted) Global Biogeochemical Cycles .
    Publication Date: 2020-06-24
    Description: Radiogenic lead (Pb) and neodymium (Nd) isotope compositions extracted from authigenic phases in marine sediments are sensitive tracers to reconstruct past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. Chemical reductive leaching of hydrogenetic ferromanganese oxyhydroxides from bulk sediments is the most practical way to recover past seawater Pb and Ndisotope signatures in the Southern Ocean, due to the scarcity of alternative archives. However, the leached signal could be compromised if substantial quantities of Pb and Nd were released from non-hydrogenetic sediment fractions during chemical extraction. Here we developed a veryshort 10-seconds leaching method to extract reliable seawater Pb and Nd isotope signals from sediments in the Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean. The effect of a previously recommended MgCl2 prewash, the role of chelate ligands in the leaching solution and length of leaching time were investigated. The results show that 10 seconds exposure time of sediments to reductive leaching extracted sufficient and more reliable hydrogenetic Pb and Nd compared with the commonly used 30-minute leaching approaches. The robustness of our improved leaching method was validated via direct comparison of Pb and Nd isotope signatures with actual seawater, porewater and corresponding sediment leachates from three stations in front of the Antarctic Filchner-Rønne Ice Shelf. Our findings suggest that in contrast previously studied sites on the West Antarctic continental shelf, the southern Weddell Sea shelf is not a location of pronounced benthic Nd fluxes to the water column.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-06-23
    Description: Key points:  First insights into the crustal structure of the northeastern Lau Basin, along a 290 km transect at 17°20’S.  Crust in southern Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center was created by extension of arc crust and variable amount of magmatism.  Magmatic underplating is present in some parts of the southern Niuafo’ou Microplate The northeastern Lau Basin is one of the fastest opening and magmatically most active back‐arc regions on Earth. Although the current pattern of plate boundaries and motions in this complex mosaic of microplates is reasonably understood, the internal structure and evolution of the back‐arc crust are not. We present new geophysical data from a 290 km long east‐west oriented transect crossing the Niuafo’ou Microplate (back‐arc), the Fonualei Rift and Spreading Centre (FRSC) and the Tofua Volcanic Arc at 17°20’S. Our P‐wave tomography model and density modelling suggests that past crustal accretion inside the southern FRSC was accommodated by a combination of arc crustal extension and magmatic activity. The absence of magnetic reversals inside the FRSC supports this and suggests that focused seafloor spreading has until now not contributed to crustal accretion. The back‐arc crust constituting the southern Niuafo’ou Microplate reveals a heterogeneous structure comprising several crustal blocks. Some regions of the back‐arc show a crustal structure similar to typical oceanic crust, suggesting they originate from seafloor spreading. Other crustal blocks resemble a structure that is similar to volcanic arc crust or a ‘hydrous’ type of oceanic crust that has been created at a spreading center influenced by slab‐derived water at distances 〈 50 km to the arc. Throughout the back‐arc region we observe a high‐velocity (Vp 7.2‐7.5 km s‐1) lower crust, which is an indication for magmatic underplating, which is likely sustained by elevated upper mantle temperatures in this region.
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  • 54
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    ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography) | Wiley
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 18 (3). pp. 89-115.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-23
    Description: Numerical models are a suitable tool to quantify impacts of predicted climate change on complex ecosystems but are rarely used to study effects on benthic macroalgal communities. Fucus vesiculosus L. is a habitat-forming macroalga in the Baltic Sea and alarming shifts from the perennial Fucus community to annual filamentous algae are reported. We developed a box model able to simulate the seasonal growth of the Baltic Fucus-grazer-epiphyte system. This required the implementation of two state variables for Fucus biomass in units of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Model equations describe relevant physiological and ecological processes, such as storage of C and N assimilates by Fucus, shading effects of epiphytes or grazing by herbivores on both Fucus and epiphytes, but with species-specific rates and preferences. Parametrizations of the model equations and required initial conditions were based on measured parameters and process rates in the near-natural Kiel Outdoor Benthocosm (KOB) experiments during the Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification project. To validate the model, we compared simulation results with observations in the KOB experiment that lasted from April 2013 until March 2014 under ambient and climate-change scenarios, that is, increased atmospheric temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The model reproduced the magnitude and seasonal cycles of Fucus growth and other processes in the KOBs over 1 yr under different scenarios. Now having established the Fucus model, it will be possible to better highlight the actual threat of climate change to the Fucus community in the shallow nearshore waters of the Baltic Sea.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-06-23
    Description: The Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ca. 56 Ma) is marked by a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and increased global temperatures. The CIE is thought to result from the release of 13C‐depleted carbon, although the source(s) of carbon and triggers for its release, its rate of release, and the mechanisms by which the Earth system recovered are all debated. Many of the proposed mechanisms for the onset and recovery phases of the PETM make testable predictions about the marine silica cycle, making silicon isotope records a promising tool to address open questions about the PETM. We analyzed silicon isotope ratios (δ30Si) in radiolarian tests and sponge spicules from the Western North Atlantic (ODP Site 1051) across the PETM. Radiolarian δ30Si decreases by 0.6‰ from a background of 1‰ coeval with the CIE, while sponge δ30Si remains consistent at 0.2‰. Using a box model to test the Si cycle response to various scenarios, we find the data are best explained by a weak silicate weathering feedback, implying the recovery was mostly driven by nondiatom organic carbon burial, the other major long‐term carbon sink. We find no resolvable evidence for a volcanic trigger for carbon release, or for a change in regional oceanography. Better understanding of radiolarian Si isotope fractionation and more Si isotope records spanning the PETM are needed to confirm the global validity of these conclusions, but they highlight how the coupling between the silica and carbon cycles can be exploited to yield insight into the functioning of the Earth system.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-06-25
    Description: Along the margins of continental ice sheets, lakes formed in isostatically depressed basins duringglacial retreat. Their shorelines and extent are sensitive to the ice margin and the glacial history of the region.Proglacial lakes, in turn, also impact the glacial isostatic adjustment due to loading, and ice dynamics by posing amarine‐like boundary condition at the ice margin. In this study we present a tool that efficiently identifies lake basinsand the corresponding maximum water level for a given ice sheet and topography reconstruction. This algorithm,called the LakeCC model, iteratively checks the whole map for a set of increasing water levels and fills isolated basinsuntil they overflow into the ocean. We apply it to the present‐day Great Lakes and the results show good agreement(∼1−4%) with measured lake volume and depth. We then apply it to two topography reconstructions of NorthAmerica between the Last Glacial Maximum and the present. The model successfully reconstructs glacial lakes suchas Lake Agassiz, Lake McConnell and the predecessors of the Great Lakes. LakeCC can be used to judge the quality ofice sheet reconstructions.
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  • 57
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125 (e2019JB018460).
    Publication Date: 2020-07-03
    Description: Most arcs show systematic temporal and spatial variations in magmatism with clear shifts in igneous rock compositions between those of the magmatic front (MF) and those in the backarc (BA). It is unclear if similar magmatic polarity is seen for extensional continental arcs. Herein, we use geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with zircon U‐Pb geochronology to identify the different magmatic style of the Iran convergent margin, an extensional system that evolved over 100 Myr. Our new and compiled U‐Pb ages indicate that major magmatic episodes for the NE Iran BA occurred at 110–80, 75–50, 50–35, 35–20, and 15–10 Ma. In contrast to NE Iran BA magmatic episodes, compiled data from MF display two main magmatic episodes at 95–75 and 55–5 Ma, indicating more continuous magmatism for the MF than for the BA. We show that Paleogene Iran serves as a useful example of a continental arc under extension. Our data also suggest that there is not a clear relationship between the subduction velocity of Neotethyan Ocean beneath Iran and magmatic activity in Iran. Our results imply that the isotopic compositions of Iran BA igneous rocks do not directly correspond to the changes in tectonic processes or geodynamics, but other parameters such as the composition of lithosphere and melt source(s) should be considered. In addition, changes in subduction zone dynamics and contractional versus extensional tectonic regimes influenced the composition of MF and BA magmatic rocks. These controls diminished the geochemical and isotopic variations between the magmatic front and backarc.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-07-03
    Description: A coordinated regional climate model (RCM) evaluation and intercomparison project based on observations from a July–October 2014 trans‐Arctic Ocean field experiment (ACSE‐Arctic Clouds during Summer Experiment) is presented. Six state‐of‐the‐art RCMs were constrained with common reanalysis lateral boundary forcing and upper troposphere nudging techniques to explore how the RCMs represented the evolution of the surface energy budget (SEB) components and their relation to cloud properties. We find that the main reasons for the modeled differences in the SEB components are a direct consequence of the RCM treatment of cloud and cloud‐radiative interactions. The RCMs could be separated into groups by their overestimation or underestimation of cloud liquid. While radiative and turbulent heat flux errors were relatively large, they often invoke compensating errors. In addition, having the surface sea‐ice concentrations constrained by the reanalysis or satellite observations limited how errors in the modeled radiative fluxes could affect the SEB and ultimately the surface evolution and its coupling with lower tropospheric mixing and cloud properties. Many of these results are consistent with RCM biases reported in studies over a decade ago. One of the six models was a fully coupled ocean‐ice‐atmosphere model. Despite the biases in overestimating cloud liquid, and associated SEB errors due to too optically thick clouds, its simulations were useful in understanding how the fully coupled system is forced by, and responds to, the SEB evolution. Moving forward, we suggest that development of RCM studies need to consider the fully coupled climate system.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-07-03
    Description: Electromagnetic loop systems rely on the use of non‐conductive materials near the sensor to minimize bias effects superimposed on measured data. For marine sensors, rigidity, compactness, and ease of platform handling are essential. Thus, commonly a compromise between rigid, cost‐effective, and non‐conductive materials (e.g. stainless steel versus fiberglass composites) needs to be found. For systems dedicated to controlled‐source electromagnetic measurements, a spatial separation between critical system components and sensors may be feasible, whereas compact multi‐sensor platforms, remotely operated vehicles, and autonomous unmanned vehicles require the use of electrically conductive components near the sensor. While data analysis and geological interpretations benefit vastly from each added instrument and multidisciplinary approaches, this introduces a systematic and platform immanent bias in the measured electromagnetic data. In this scope we present two comparable case studies targeting loop‐source electromagnetic applications in both time and frequency domain: the MARTEMIS time domain system trades the compact design for a clear separation of 15 m between an upper fiberglass frame, holding most critical titanium system components, and a lower frame with its coil and receivers. In case of the GOLDEN EYE frequency domain profiler, the compact and rigid design is achieved by a circular fiberglass platform, carrying the transmitting and receiving coils, as well as several titanium housings and instruments. In this study, we analyze and quantify the quasi‐static influence of conductive objects on time and frequency domain coil systems by applying an analytically and experimentally verified 3D finite element model. Moreover, we present calibration and optimization procedures to minimize bias inherent in the measured data. The numerical experiments do not only show the significance of the bias on the inversion results, but also the efficiency of a system calibration against the analytically calculated response of a known environment. The remaining bias after calibration is a time/frequency dependent function of seafloor conductivity, which doubles the commonly estimated noise‐floor from 1% to 2%, decreasing the sensitivity and resolution of the devices. By optimizing size and position of critical conductive system components (e.g. titanium housings) and/or modifying the transmitter/receiver geometry, we significantly reduce the effect of this residual bias on the inversion results as demonstrated by 3D‐modelling. These procedures motivate the opportunity to design dedicated, compact, low‐bias platforms and provide a solution for autonomous and remotely steered designs by minimizing their effect on the sensitivity of the controlled‐source electromagnetic sensor.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-07-03
    Description: Despite their large number and in contrast to seamount chains, small solitary seamounts/seamount groups have rarely been sampled and therefore their origins remain enigmatic. Here we present 40Ar/39Ar, trace element and Nd‐Pb‐Hf isotope data from the solitary Demenitskoy Seamount, the isolated Tolkien seamount group and the Krylov Seamount and Ridge in the Canary Basin. Their chemical compositions range from intraplate ocean‐island‐basalt (Demenitskoy) to normal‐ and enriched‐mid‐ocean‐ridge‐basalt types (Tolkien and Krylov system, respectively). Lavas from all three seamount groups, however, show geochemical evidence for involvement of enriched (Canary/Cape Verde) plume material. Seismic tomography shows that large areas around these mantle plumes are affected by dispersal of presumably low‐velocity material, which also could have fed nearby isolated seamounts with diffusely‐upwelling plume material. This process may be extremely widespread but has been poorly studied to date.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: Gas hydrate dynamics and the fluid flow systems from two active pockmarks along Vestnesa Ridge (offshore west Svalbard) were investigated through the pore fluid geochemistry obtained during the 2016 MARUM-MeBo 70 drilling cruise. Based on the pore water chloride concentration profiles from Lunde and Lomvi pockmarks, we estimated up to 47% pore space occupied by gas hydrate in the sediments shallower than 11.5 mbsf. These gas hydrates were formed during periods of gaseous methane seepage, but are now in a state of dynamic equilibrium sustained by a relatively low methane supply at present. We detect a saline formation pore fluid around nine meters below seafloor from one of the seepage sites in Lunde pockmark. This formation pore fluid has elevated dissolved chloride concentrations and B/Cl ratios, higher δO and δD isotopic signatures of water and lower δB signatures, which collectively hint to a high temperature modification of this fluid at great depths. By integrating our findings with the previous work from Vestnesa Ridge, we show that the variable fluid phases (gaseous vs. aqueous fluid) and migration pathways are controlled by the sediment properties, such as buried carbonate crusts, and the state of fluid reservoirs.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-06-29
    Description: Communities are shaped by scale dependent processes. To study the diversity and variation of microbial communities across scales, the invasive and widespread seaweed Agarophyton vermiculophyllum presents a unique opportunity. We characterized pro‐ and eukaryotic communities associated with this holobiont across its known distribution range, which stretches over the northern hemisphere. Our data reveal that community composition and diversity in the holobiont vary at local but also larger geographic scales. While processes acting at the local scale (i.e., within population) are the main structuring drivers of associated microbial communities, changes in community composition also depend on processes acting at larger geographic scales. Interestingly, the largest analysed scale (i.e., native and non‐native ranges) explained variation in the prevalence of predicted functional groups, which could suggest a functional shift in microbiota occurred over the course of the invasion process. While high variability in microbiota at the local scale supports A. vermiculophyllum to be a generalist host, we also identified a number of core taxa. These geographically independent holobiont members imply that cointroduction of specific microbiota may have additionally promoted the invasion process.
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  • 63
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (5). Art.Nr. e2019JC015516.
    Publication Date: 2020-07-08
    Description: A method using a linear shallow water model is presented for decomposing the temporal variability of the barotropic streamfunction in a high‐resolution ocean model. The method is based in the vertically‐averaged momentum equations and is applied to the time series of annual mean streamfunction from the model configuration VIKING20 for the northern North Atlantic. An important result is the role played by the nonlinear advection terms in VIKING20 for driving transport. The method is illustrated by examining how the Gulf Stream transport in the recirculation region responds to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While no statistically significant response is found in the year overlapping with the winter NAO index, there is a tendency for the Gulf Stream transport to increase as the NAO becomes more positive. This becomes significant in lead years 1 and 2 when the mean flow advection (MFA) and eddy momentum flux (EMF) contributions, associated with nonlinear momentum advection, dominate. Only after 2 years, does the potential energy (PE) term, associated with the density field, start to play a role and it is only after 5 years that the transport dependence on the NAO ceases to be significant. It is also shown that the PE contribution to the transport streamfunction has significant memory of up to 5 years in the Labrador and Irminger Seas. However, it is only around the northern rim of these seas that VIKING20 and the transport reconstruction exhibit similar memory. This is due to masking by the MFA and EMF contributions.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-07-08
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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    Publication Date: 2020-07-10
    Description: Species distribution models (SDMs) correlate species occurrences with environmental predictors, and can be used to forecast distributions under future climates. SDMs have been criticized for not explicitly including the physiological processes underlying the species response to the environment. Recently, new methods have been suggested to combine SDMs with physiological estimates of performance (physiology-SDMs). In this study, we compare SDM and physiology-SDM predictions for select marine species in the Mediterranean Sea, a region subjected to exceptionally rapid climate change. We focused on six species and created physiology-SDMs that incorporate physiological thermal performance curves from experimental data with species occurrence records. We then contrasted projections of SDMs and physiology-SDMs under future climate (year 2100) for the entire Mediterranean Sea, and particularly the ‘warm’ trailing edge in the Levant region. Across the Mediterranean, we found cross-validation model performance to be similar for regular SDMs and physiology-SDMs. However, we also show that for around half the species the physiology-SDMs substantially outperform regular SDM in the warm Levant. Moreover, for all species the uncertainty associated with the coefficients estimated from the physiology-SDMs were much lower than in the regular SDMs. Under future climate, we find that both SDMs and physiology-SDMs showed similar patterns, with species predicted to shift their distribution north-west in accordance with warming sea temperatures. However, for the physiology-SDMs predicted distributional changes are more moderate than those predicted by regular SDMs. We conclude, that while physiology-SDM predictions generally agree with the regular SDMs, incorporation of the physiological data led to less extreme range shift forecasts. The results suggest that climate-induced range shifts may be less drastic than previously predicted, and thus most species are unlikely to completely disappear with warming climate. Taken together, the findings emphasize that physiological experimental data can provide valuable supplemental information to predict range shifts of marine species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Publication Date: 2020-07-10
    Description: Predation is a pervasive force that structures food webs and directly influences ecosystem functioning. The relative body sizes of predators and prey may be an important determinant of interaction strengths. However, studies quantifying the combined influence of intra‐ and interspecific variation in predator–prey body size ratios are lacking. We use a comparative functional response approach to examine interaction strengths between three size classes of invasive bluegill and largemouth bass toward three scaled size classes of their tilapia prey. We then quantify the influence of intra‐ and interspecific predator–prey body mass ratios on the scaling of attack rates and handling times. Type II functional responses were displayed by both predators across all predator and prey size classes. Largemouth bass consumed more than bluegill at small and intermediate predator size classes, while large predators of both species were more similar. Small prey were most vulnerable overall; however, differential attack rates among prey were emergent across predator sizes. For both bluegill and largemouth bass, small predators exhibited higher attack rates toward small and intermediate prey sizes, while larger predators exhibited greater attack rates toward large prey. Conversely, handling times increased with prey size, with small bluegill exhibiting particularly low feeding rates toward medium–large prey types. Attack rates for both predators peaked unimodally at intermediate predator–prey body mass ratios, while handling times generally shortened across increasing body mass ratios. We thus demonstrate effects of body size ratios on predator–prey interaction strengths between key fish species, with attack rates and handling times dependent on the relative sizes of predator–prey participants. Considerations for intra‐ and interspecific body size ratio effects are critical for predicting the strengths of interactions within ecosystems and may drive differential ecological impacts among invasive species as size ratios shift.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Publication Date: 2020-07-04
    Description: A major surface circulation feature of the Arctic Ocean is the Transpolar Drift (TPD), a current that transports river‐influenced shelf water from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas toward the center of the basin and Fram Strait. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program included a high‐resolution pan‐Arctic survey of carbon, nutrients, and a suite of trace elements and isotopes (TEIs). The cruises bisected the TPD at two locations in the central basin, which were defined by maxima in meteoric water and dissolved organic carbon concentrations that spanned 600 km horizontally and ~25‐50 m vertically. Dissolved TEIs such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Hg, Nd, and Th, which are generally particle‐reactive but can be complexed by organic matter, were observed at concentrations much higher than expected for the open ocean setting. Other trace element concentrations such as Al, V, Ga, and Pb were lower than expected due to scavenging over the productive East Siberian and Laptev shelf seas. Using a combination of radionuclide tracers and ice drift modeling, the transport rate for the core of the TPD was estimated at 0.9 ± 0.4 Sv (106 m3 s‐1). This rate was used to derive the mass flux for TEIs that were enriched in the TPD, revealing the importance of lateral transport in supplying materials beneath the ice to the central Arctic Ocean and potentially to the North Atlantic Ocean via Fram Strait. Continued intensification of the Arctic hydrologic cycle and permafrost degradation will likely lead to an increase in the flux of TEIs into the Arctic Ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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