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  • Wiley  (80,212)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (61,554)
  • 2010-2014  (141,766)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: In multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler data acquired during RV Polarstern cruise ARK-VII/3a from the Hovgaard Ridge (Fram Strait), we found evidence for very deep (〉1200 m) iceberg scouring. Five elongated seafloor features have been detected that are interpreted to be iceberg scours. The scours are oriented in north-south/south-north direction and are about 15 m deep, 300 m wide, and 4 km long crossing the entire width of the ridge. They are attributed to multiple giant palaeo-icebergs that most probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait. The huge keel-depths are indicative of ice sheets extending into the Arctic Ocean being at least 1200 m thick at the calving front during glacial maxima. The deep St Anna Trough or grounded ice observed at the East Siberian Continental Margin are likely source regions of these icebergs that delivered freshwater to the Nordic Seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Stratospheric ozone depletion and emission of greenhouse gases lead to a trend of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) towards its high-index polarity. The positive phase of the SAM is characterised by stronger than usual westerly winds that induce changes in the physical carbon transport. Changes in the natural carbon budget of the upper 100 m of the Southern Ocean in response to a positive SAM phase are explored with a coupled ecosystem-general circulation model and regression analysis. Previously overlooked processes that are important for the upper ocean carbon budget during a positive SAM period are identified, namely export production and downward transport of carbon north of the Polar Front (PF) as large as the upwelling in the south. The limiting micronutrient iron is brought into the surface layer by upwelling and stimulates phytoplankton growth and export production, but only in summer. This leads to a drawdown of carbon and less summertime outgassing (or more uptake) of natural CO2. In winter, biological mechanisms are inactive and the surface ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere by releasing CO2. In the annual mean, the upper ocean region south of the PF loses more carbon by additional export production than by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere, highlighting the role of the biological carbon pump in response to a positive SAM event.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: The large-scale boreal winter climatic patterns associated with interannual variability in a coral oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from the southern Red Sea (Klein et al. [1997]) covering most of the last century are investigated. From the early 1930’s to the early 1960’s, the winter coral δ18O record, reflecting temperature and salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters, is associated with global (or large scale) sea surface temperature (SST) and 850mb geopotential height (Z850) anomalies which project on the corresponding patterns associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In contrast, since the early 1960’s the winter coral δ18O record is related to a Z850 pattern that reflects the ENSO-independent part of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which includes the Siberian High, the East Asian through and the East Asian upper-tropospheric Jet. Our results indicate a weakening of the ENSO control on interannual temperature/salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters in the early 1960’s, due to the warming of the Indian Ocean, and suggest that information about the non-stationarity in the relationship between ENSO and two distinct modes of EAWM can be documented in southern Red Sea coral δ18O records.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-06-25
    Description: Magnetic anomaly identifications underpin plate tectonic reconstructions and form the primary dataset from which age of the oceanic lithosphere and seafloor spreading regimes in the ocean basins can be determined. Although these identifications are an invaluable resource, their usefulness to the wider scientific community has been limited due to the lack of a central community infrastructure to organize, host and update these interpretations. We have developed an open-source, community-driven online infrastructure as a repository for quality-checked magnetic anomaly identifications from all ocean basins. We provide a global sample dataset that comprises 96,733 individually picked magnetic anomaly identifications organized by ocean basin and publication reference, and provide accompanying Hellinger-format files, where available. Our infrastructure is designed to facilitate research in plate tectonic reconstructions or research that relies on an assessment of plate reconstructions, for both experts and non-experts alike. To further enhance the existing repository and strengthen its value, we encourage others in the community to contribute to this effort.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: Geochemical evidence from boreholes suggests enhanced transport of Northern Component Water (NCW) to southern latitudes from about 6 Ma onwards. However, information on how this change in transport influenced the intensity and position of current systems is sparse. Here we use seismic reflection profiles interpreted together with bathymetric data to investigate current derived deposits at the central Argentine Margin. Upslope migrating mudwaves overlying a late Miocene erosional unconformity provide evidence that Circumpolar Deepwater (CDW) flow slowed down with the onset of NCW inflow. During the last ~3 Ma changes in dimensions and migration rates of the waves are small indicating continuous bottom current flow conditions similar to today with only minor variations in flow speed, suggesting that the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) in the western south Atlantic as observed today, has been a pervasive feature of the global thermohaline circulation system during the Plio-/Pleistocene.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-09-20
    Description: A critical question regarding the organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean is whether the decline in ice extent and thickness and the associated increase in solar irradiance in the upper ocean will result in increased primary production and particulate organic carbon (POC) export. To assess spatial and temporal variability in POC export, under-ice export fluxes were measured with short-term sediment traps in the northern Laptev Sea in July-August-September 1995, north of the Fram Strait in July 1997, and in the Central Arctic in August–September 2012. Sediment traps were deployed at 2–5 m and 20–25 m under ice for periods ranging from 8.5 to 71 h. In addition to POC fluxes, total particulate matter, chlorophyll a, biogenic particulate silica, phytoplankton, and zooplankton fecal pellet fluxes were measured to evaluate the amount and composition of the material exported in the upper Arctic Ocean. Whereas elevated export fluxes observed on and near the Laptev Sea shelf were likely the combined result of high primary production, resuspension, and release of particulate matter from melting ice, low export fluxes above the central basins despite increased light availability during the record minimum ice extent of 2012 suggest that POC export was limited by nutrient supply during summer. These results suggest that the ongoing decline in ice cover affects export fluxes differently on Arctic shelves and over the deep Arctic Ocean and that POC export is likely to remain low above the central basins unless additional nutrients are supplied to surface waters.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-18
    Description: A new seismostratigraphic model has been established within the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the East Siberian Shelf on the basis of multichannel seismic reflection data acquired along a transect at 81°N. Ages for the sedimentary units were estimated via links to seismic lines and drill site data of the US Chukchi Shelf, the Lomonosov Ridge, and the adjacent Laptev Shelf. Two distinct seismic units were mapped throughout the area and are the constraints for dating the remaining strata. The lower marker unit, a pronounced high-amplitude reflector sequence (HARS), is the most striking stratigraphic feature over large parts of the Arctic Ocean. It indicates a strong and widespread change in deposition conditions. Probably, it developed during Oligocene times when a reorientation of Arctic Plates took place, accompanied by the gradual opening of the Fram Strait, and a widespread regression of sea level. The top of the HARS likely marks the end of Oligocene/early Miocene (23Ma). An age estimate for the base of the sequence is less clear but likely corresponds to base of Eocene (˜56Ma). The second marked unit detected on the seismic lines parallels the seafloor with a thickness of about 200ms two-way travel time (160 m). Its base is marked by a change from a partly transparent sequence with weak amplitude reflections below to a set of continuous high-amplitude reflectors above. This interface likely marks the transition to large-scale glaciation of the northern hemisphere and therefore is ascribed to the top Miocene (5.3 Ma).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-05-23
    Description: Microbial permafrost communities play an important role in carbon cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes. Despite the importance of these processes, there is a lack of knowledge about how environmental and climatic changes affect the abundance and composition of microorganisms. Here, we investigated the changing distribution of permafrost microorganisms in response to climate and lake-level changes. The permafrost core was drilled at the near shore of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic, and a combined microbiological and lipid biomarker approach was applied. The lower part of the permafrost core, deposited under subaquatic conditions, contains only small amounts of microbial signals; total organic carbon (TOC) content is sparse. After exposure of the site to subaerial conditions during the Allerød, the abundance of Bacteria and Archaea started to increase and the lake-level change is especially evidenced by the relative proportion of archaeal biomarkers. This increase is supported by rising bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene copy numbers and significant amounts of TOC during the late Allerød. After a small decrease during the colder Younger Dryas, the TOC content and the microbial signals strongly increase during the Holocene, presumably stimulated by pedogenesis. The occurrence of intact phospholipids indicates the presence of living microorganisms in these deposits. Our data suggest that methane formation is mainly expected for the subaerial interval, especially the Holocene where methanogens were identified by fingerprinting. This study emphasises the role of the uppermost permafrost deposits as a hotspot of carbon cycling in arctic environments, especially in the light of expected future global warming.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-21
    Description: Eulimnogammarus verrucosus is an amphipod endemic to the unique ecosystem of Lake Baikal and serves as an emerging model in ecotoxicological studies. We report here on a survey sequencing of its genome as a first step to establish sequence resources for this species. From a single lane of paired-end sequencing data, we estimated the genome size as nearly 10 Gb and we obtained an overview of the repeat content. At least two-thirds of the genome are non-unique DNA, and a third of the genomic DNA is composed of just five families of repetitive elements, including low-complexity sequences. Attempts to use off-the-shelf assembly tools failed on the available low-coverage data both before and after removal of highly repetitive components. Using a seed-based approach we nevertheless assembled short contigs covering 33 pre-microRNAs and the homeodomain-containing exon of nine Hox genes. The absence of clear evidence for paralogs implies that a genome duplication did not contribute to the large genome size. We furthermore report the assembly of the mitochondrial genome using a new, guided “crystallization” procedure. The initial results presented here set the stage for a more complete sequencing and analysis of this large genome.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-07-17
    Description: The horizontal and vertical circulation of the Weddell Gyre is diagnosed using a box inverse model constructed with recent hydrographic sections and including mobile sea ice and eddy transports. The gyre is found to convey 42 +/- 8 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m3 s–1) across the central Weddell Sea and to intensify to 54 +/- 15 Sv further offshore. This circulation injects 36 +/- 13 TW of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the gyre, and exports 51 +/- 23 mSv of freshwater, including 13 +/- 1 mSv as sea ice to the midlatitude Southern Ocean. The gyre’s overturning circulation has an asymmetric double-cell structure, in which 13 +/- 4 Sv of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and relatively light Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are transformed into upper-ocean water masses by midgyre upwelling (at a rate of 2 +/- 2 Sv) and into denser AABW by downwelling focussed at the western boundary (8 +/- 2 Sv). The gyre circulation exhibits a substantial throughflow component, by which CDW and AABW enter the gyre from the Indian sector, undergo ventilation and densification within the gyre, and are exported to the South Atlantic across the gyre’s northern rim. The relatively modest net production of AABW in the Weddell Gyre (6 +/- 2 Sv) suggests that the gyre’s prominence in the closure of the lower limb of global oceanic overturning stems largely from the recycling and equatorward export of Indian-sourced AABW.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2014-07-23
    Description: In this study latent heat flux (λE) measurements made at 65 boreal and arctic eddy-covariance (EC) sites were analyses by using the Penman–Monteith equation. Sites were stratified into nine different ecosystem types: harvested and burnt forest areas, pine forests, spruce or fir forests, Douglas-fir forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, larch forests, wetlands, tundra and natural grasslands. The Penman–Monteith equation was calibrated with variable surface resistances against half-hourly eddy-covariance data and clear differences between ecosystem types were observed. Based on the modeled behavior of surface and aerodynamic resistances, surface resistance tightly control λE in most mature forests, while it had less importance in ecosystems having shorter vegetation like young or recently harvested forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra. The parameters of the Penman–Monteith equation were clearly different for winter and summer conditions, indicating that phenological effects on surface resistance are important. We also compared the simulated λE of different ecosystem types under meteorological conditions at one site. Values of λE varied between 15% and 38% of the net radiation in the simulations with mean ecosystem parameters. In general, the simulations suggest that λE is higher from forested ecosystems than from grasslands, wetlands or tundra-type ecosystems. Forests showed usually a tighter stomatal control of λE as indicated by a pronounced sensitivity of surface resistance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Nevertheless, the surface resistance of forests was lower than for open vegetation types including wetlands. Tundra and wetlands had higher surface resistances, which were less sensitive to vapor pressure deficits. The results indicate that the variation in surface resistance within and between different vegetation types might play a significant role in energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. These results suggest the need to take into account vegetation type and phenology in energy exchange modeling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2014-07-28
    Description: The results of numerical simulations of the Eltanin impact are combined with the available geological data in order to reconstruct the impact dynamics and to get some constraints on the impact parameters. Numerical simulations show that the Eltanin projectile size should be less than 2 km for a 45° oblique impact and less than 1.5 km for a vertical impact. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the projectile diameter cannot be considerably smaller than 1 km; otherwise, the impact-induced water flow cannot transport eroded sediments across large distances. The maximum displacement approximately equals the water crater radius and rapidly decreases with increasing distances. Numerical simulations also show that ejecta deposits strongly depend on impact angle and projectile size and, therefore, cannot be used for reliable estimates of the initial projectile mass. The initial amplitudes of tsunami-like waves are estimated. The presence of clay-rich sediments, typical for the abyssal basins in cores PS2709 and PS2708 on the Freeden Seamounts (Bellingshausen Sea, Southern Ocean) combined with numerical data allow us to suggest a probable point of impact to the east of the seamounts. The results do not exclude the possibility that a crater in the ocean bottom may exist, but such a structure has not been found yet
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: Ensemble experiments with a climate model are carried out in order to explore how incorporating a stochastic ice strength parameterization to account for model uncertainty affects estimates of potential sea ice predictability on time scales from days to seasons. The impact of this new parameterization depends strongly on the spatial scale, lead time and the hemisphere being considered: Whereas the representation of model uncertainty increases the ensemble spread of Arctic sea ice thickness predictions generated by atmospheric initial perturbations up to about 4 weeks into the forecast, rather small changes are found for longer lead times as well as integrated quantities such as total sea ice area. The regions where initial condition uncertainty generates spread in sea ice thickness on subseasonal time scales (primarily along the ice edge) differ from that of the stochastic sea ice strength parameterization (along the coast lines and in the interior of the Arctic). For the Antarctic the influence of the stochastic sea ice strength parameterization is much weaker due to the predominance of thinner first year ice. These results suggest that sea ice data assimilation and prediction on subseasonal time scales could benefit from taking model uncertainty into account, especially in the Arctic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-08-30
    Description: Whereas millennial to submillennial climate variability has been identified during the current interglacial period, past interglacial variability features remain poorly explored because of lacking data at sufficient temporal resolutions. Here we present new deuterium data from the EPICA Dome C ice core, documenting at decadal resolution temperature changes occurring over the East Antarctic plateau during the warmer-than-today last interglacial. Expanding previous evidence of instabilities during the last interglacial, multicentennial subevents are identified and labeled for the first time in a past interglacial context. A variance analysis further reveals two major climatic features. First, an increase in variability is detected prior to the glacial inception, as already observed at the end of Marine Isotopic Stage 11 in the same core. Second, the overall variance level is systematically higher during the last interglacial than during the current one, suggesting that a warmer East Antarctic climate may also be more variable.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: An intercomparison of four low-resolution remotely sensed ice-drift products in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The purpose of the study is to examine the uncertainty in space and time of these different drift products. The comparison is based on monthly mean ice drifts from October 2002 to December 2006. The ice drifts were also compared with available buoy data. The result shows that the differences of the drift vectors are not spatially uniform, but are covariant with ice concentration and thickness. In high (low) ice-concentration areas, the differences are small (large), and in thick (thin) ice-thickness areas, the differences are small (large). A comparison with the drift deduced from buoys reveals that the error of the drift speed depends on the magnitude of the drift speed: larger drift speeds have larger errors. Based on the intercomparison of the products and comparison with buoy data, uncertainties of the monthly mean drift are estimated. The estimated uncertainty maps reasonably reflect the difference between the products in relation to ice concentration and the bias from the buoy drift in relation to drift speed. Examinations of distinctive features of Arctic sea ice motion demonstrate that the transpolar drift speed differs among the products by 13% (0.32 cm s−1) on average, and ice drift curl in the Amerasian Basin differs by up to 24% (3.3 × 104 m2 s−1). These uncertainties should be taken into account if these products are used, particularly for model validation and data assimilation within the Arctic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-01-14
    Description: We analyze simulated sea ice changes in eight different Earth System Models that have conducted experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The simulated response of balancing abrupt quadrupling of CO2 (abrupt4xCO2) with reduced shortwave radiation successfully moderates annually averaged Arctic temperature rise to about 1°C, with modest changes in seasonal sea ice cycle compared with the preindustrial control simulations (piControl). Changes in summer and autumn sea ice extent are spatially correlated with temperature patterns but much less in winter and spring seasons. However, there are changes of ±20% in sea ice concentration in all seasons, and these will induce changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. In summer and autumn, the models consistently simulate less sea ice relative to preindustrial simulations in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas, and some models show increased sea ice in the Barents/Kara Seas region. Sea ice extent increases in the Greenland Sea, particularly in winter and spring and is to some extent associated with changed sea ice drift. Decreased sea ice cover in winter and spring in the Barents Sea is associated with increased cyclonic activity entering this area under G1. In comparison, the abrupt4xCO2 experiment shows almost total sea ice loss in September and strong correlation with regional temperatures in all seasons consistent with open ocean conditions. The tropospheric circulation displays a Pacific North America pattern-like anomaly with negative phase in G1-piControl and positive phase under abrupt4xCO2-piControl.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-03-06
    Description: The climate during the Cenozoic era changed in several steps from ice-free poles and warm conditions to ice-covered poles and cold conditions. Since the 1950s, a body of information on ice volume and temperature changes has been built up predominantly on the basis of measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of shells of benthic foraminifera collected from marine sediment cores. The statistical methodology of time series analysis has also evolved, allowing more information to be extracted from these records. Here we provide a comprehensive view of Cenozoic climate evolution by means of a coherent and systematic application of time series analytical tools to each record from a compilation spanning the interval from 4 to 61 Myr ago. We quantitatively describe several prominent features of the oxygen isotope record, taking into account the various sources of uncertainty (including measurement, proxy noise, and dating errors). The estimated transition times and amplitudes allow us to assess causal climatological-tectonic influences on the following known features of the Cenozoic oxygen isotopic record: Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Eocene-Oligocene Transition, Oligocene-Miocene Boundary, and the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. We further describe and causally interpret the following features: Paleocene-Eocene warming trend, the two-step, long-term Eocene cooling, and the changes within the most recent interval (Miocene-Pliocene). We review the scope and methods of constructing Cenozoic stacks of benthic oxygen isotope records and present two new latitudinal stacks, which capture besides global ice volume also bottom water temperatures at low (less than 30°) and high latitudes. This review concludes with an identification of future directions for data collection, statistical method development, and climate modeling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: Ice shelves play an important role in stabilizing the interior grounded ice of the large ice sheets. The thinning of major ice shelves observed in recent years, possibly in connection to warmer ocean waters coming into contact with the ice-shelf base, has focused attention on the ice-ocean interface. Here we reveal a complex network of sub ice-shelf channels under the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, mapped using ground-penetrating radar over a 100 km2 grid. The channels are 300–500 m wide and 50 m high, among the narrowest of any reported. Observing narrow channels beneath an ice shelf that is mainly surrounded by cold ocean waters, with temperatures close to the surface freezing point, shows that channelized basal melting is not restricted to rapidly melting ice shelves, indicating that spatial melt patterns around Antarctica are likely to vary on scales that are not yet incorporated in ice-ocean models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2017-11-13
    Description: Break-up events in ice shelves have been studied extensively during the last years. One popular assumption links disintegration events to surface melting of the ice shelf in conjunction with growing melt-water ponds, leading to hydro-fracture. As this explanation only holds during warm seasons [1], the possibility of frost wedging as forcing mechanism for autumn and winter break-up events is considered. Frost wedging can only occur if a closed ice lid seals the water inside the crack. Hence, the present study of frost wedging in a single crack uses ice lid thicknesses to evaluate the additional pressure on the crack faces. The investigation of the resulting stress intensity factor as a measure of crack criticality follows consequently. The results show that freezing water inside a crack can result in unstable crack growth of an initially stable water filled crack.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: During IODP Expedition 322, an interval of Late Miocene (7.6 to ∼9.1 Ma) tuffaceous and volcaniclastic sandstones was discovered in the Shikoku Basin (Site C0011B), Nankai region. This interval consists of bioturbated silty claystone including four 1–7 m thick interbeds of tuffaceous sandstones (TST) containing 57–82% (by volume) pyroclasts. We use major and trace element glass compositions, as well as radiogenic isotope compositions, to show that the tuffaceous sandstones beds derived from single eruptive events, and that the majority (TST 1, 2, 3a) came from different eruptions from a similar source region, which we have identified to be the Japanese mainland, 350 km away. In particular, diagnostic trace element ratios (e.g., Th/La, Sm/La, Rb/Hf, Th/Nb, and U/Th) and isotopic data indicate a marked contribution from a mantle source beneath continental crust, which is most consistent with a Japanese mainland source and likely excludes the Izu-Bonin island arc and back arc as a source region for the younger TST beds. Nevertheless, some of the chemical data measured on the oldest sandstone bed (TST 3b, Unit IIb) show affinity to or can clearly be attributed to an Izu-Bonin composition. While we cannot completely exclude the possibility that all TST beds derived from unknown and exotic Izu-Bonin source(s), the collected lines of evidence are most consistent with an origin from the paleo-Honshu arc for TST 1 through 3a. We therefore suggest the former collision zone between the Izu-Bonin arc and Honshu paleo-arc as the most likely region where the eruptive products entered the ocean, also concurrent with nearby (∼200 km) possible Miocene source areas for the tuffaceous sandstones at the paleo-NE-Honshu arc. Estimating the distribution area of the tuffaceous sandstones in the Miocene between this source region and the ∼350 km distant Expedition 322, using bathymetric constraints, we calculate that the sandstone beds represent minimum erupted magma volumes between ∼1 and 17 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent (DRE)). We conclude that several large volume eruptions occurred during the Late Miocene time next to the collision zone of paleo-Honshu and Izu-Bonin arc and covered the entire Philippine Sea plate with meter thick, sheet-like pyroclastic deposits that are now subducted in the Nankai subduction zone.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2017-01-01
    Description: Storfjorden, which hosts a latent heat polynya, is a well known region of dense water formation. This Brine-enriched Shelf Water (BSW) displays substantial year to year variability in its properties, which is partly linked to interannual variations in ice production. Here we have developed a model based on high-resolution AMSR-E satellite sea-ice concentration data, available between 2002 and 2011, and atmospheric forcing to estimate the ice production in the polynya and associated salt release. The average modeled ice production for the epoch 2002–2011 is 47 km3 per year, corresponding to a salt release of 1200 × 109 kg. The two most anomalous winters were 2004–2005 (salt deficit of −367 × 109 kg) and 2007–2008 (salt excess of 398 × 109 kg). Available observations of BSW properties are relatively scarce during this period and are here augmented with data collected in March 2007 from an ice-tethered mooring to the northwest of the fjord. BSW was found up to the surface, with maximum salinity and density of 35.27 and 28.4 kg m−3, respectively, at 55 m. In addition, supercooled water was found down to 10 m under relatively mild atmospheric conditions. It is shown to have formed a week before, during an intense frazil ice formation episode, exceeding 2 km3 of frazil ice according to the model. Although observations remain too few to robustly assess the relation between ice production and BSW properties, there is suggestion of a direct impact for most anomalous years. The exceptional ice production in 2007–2008 is most likely the cause of the very saline BSW in 2008 and strong plume of dense water toward Fram Strait reported by other authors. Anomalous ice production appears predominantly driven by the duration of the freezing season and anomalous opening of the polynya.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-12-09
    Description: Aim: After J. L. Lockwood, P. Cassey and T. Blackburn (2009, Diversity and Distributions, 15, 904–910) first described a theoretical relationship between propagule pressure and colonization pressure, two empirical studies demonstrated that the transport stage of the invasion process can profoundly influence the strength of the relationship among multiple events, as well as predictions of introduction risk. However, studies exploring dynamics of transported communities are rare, as repeated-measures sampling during transportation by any vector is logistically difficult. We constructed a conceptual model of community dynamics during transportation and supported it by empirical data for propagule pressure and colonization pressure of plankton. Location: Global. Methods: A conceptual model of community dynamics was developed based on lognormal species abundance distribution and the simulation model of J. L. Lockwood, P. Cassey and T. Blackburn (2009, Diversity and Distributions, 15, 904–910). We considered four cases: case ‘A’ – no reduction in propagule nor colonization pressure; case ‘B’ – strong reduction in propagule and mild reduction in colonization pressure; case ‘C’ – mild reduction in propagule and strong reduction in colonization pressure; and case ‘D’ – strong reduction in both propagule and colonization pressures. Results: The cases ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ were supported by empirical data for invertebrates, dinoflagellates and diatoms from ships’ ballast tanks, respectively. Propagule pressure of invertebrates, dinoflagellates and diatoms decreased 99.95%, 80% and 94% in 25 days, respectively, while colonization pressure decreased 34%, 57% and 64%. Main conclusions: Transport affects both propagule pressure and colonization pressure of taxa, with the magnitude of change dependent on length of transport and taxon-specific survival and reproduction. Our model demonstrates that introduction risk varies substantially across and within taxa depending on the occurrence and severity of selection pressures during transportation which serve to change species abundance distributions.
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  • 23
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    Wiley
    In:  In: The Galápagos: A natural laboratory for Earth Sciences. , ed. by Harpp, K., Mittelstaedt, E., d'Ozouville, N. and Graham, D. W. AGU Geophysical Monograph, 204 . Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 393-414. ISBN 978-1-118-85241-5
    Publication Date: 2014-09-22
    Description: Along the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC), 3He/4He varies from 8.5–5.9 RA. High 3He/4He ratios, resembling those in the western and southern Galápagos islands, are absent. This lack of high 3He/4He contrasts markedly with other localities of plume–ridge interaction, such as Iceland, Easter, and Amsterdam/St. Paul. The most striking feature is a 3He/4He gradient, decreasing westward from 8.4–7.0 RA between 89 and 93°W, where the GSC is shallowest and shows “axial high” morphology. The intra-segment 3He/4He variability within this region indicates that magma crosses the mantle/crust boundary at multiple points beneath individual ridge segments, and lateral mixing within the crust and upper mantle is limited. Some of the 3He/4He variability may also reflect transfer of discrete heterogeneity from beneath the northern sector of the Galápagos plateau. One possible explanation for the absence of high 3He/4He along the GSC is that helium is a relatively ineffective downstream tracer of mantle material from the core of the Galápagos plume, due to its preferential extraction beneath the archipelago compared to other incompatible, lithophile tracers. A second explanation is that the heterogeneous Galápagos plume is sheared in the upper mantle by motion of the Nazca Plate relative to the migrating GSC. In this case, plume core material having high 3He/4He (from beneath Fernandina and Isabela) would be dispersed mostly away from the ridge, while plume edge material having low 3He/4He plus enriched Sr and Pb isotope signatures (from beneath the northern periphery of the archipelago) is smeared into the sub-ridge mantle.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The application of Rietveld texture analysis (RTA) to time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction data allows complex materials with many diffraction peaks to be investigated, for example, rocks composed of different minerals. At the recently upgraded SKAT texture diffractometer at the JINR in Dubna (Russia), which provides three alternative multidetector systems, resolution and accessible range of lattice d spacings can be adapted to sample requirements. In order to infer the optimum experimental setup and the reliability of texture estimates from complicated TOF patterns, the influence of counting statistics and various spectral resolutions on texture deconvolution was investigated. Comparing the results obtained at different resolutions and from different sections of the d patterns indicates that the textures of a four-phase sample can be determined, but using a section at small d spacings with a larger number of peak overlaps leads to smoother textures. A complex seven-phase sample shows orientation differences in addition to the smoothing effect. Weak textures and textures of the minor rock constituents are inaccurate owing to multiple peak overlaps. Consequently, good resolution is essential for RTA on such samples. Grid thinning tests confirmed that no more than 150 diffraction spectra are needed to characterize the texture of a monomineralic sample, and approximately 350 spectra are sufficient for a four-phase sample. The irregular grid point arrangement caused by the SKAT geometry has no negative consequences.
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  • 25
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    In:  Ecology, 95 (10). pp. 2840-2850.
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: The movements of some long-distance migrants are driven by innate compass headings that they follow on their first migrations (e.g., some birds and insects), while the movements of other first-time migrants are learned by following more experienced conspecifics (e.g., baleen whales). However, the overall roles of innate, learned, and social behaviors in driving migration goals in many taxa are poorly understood. To look for evidence of whether migration routes are innate or learned for sea turtles, here for 42 sites around the world we compare the migration routes of 〉400 satellite-tracked adults of multiple species of sea turtle with ∼45 000 Lagrangian hatchling turtle drift scenarios. In so doing, we show that the migration routes of adult turtles are strongly related to hatchling drift patterns, implying that adult migration goals are learned through their past experiences dispersing with ocean currents. The diverse migration destinations of adults consistently reflected the diversity in sites they would have encountered as drifting hatchlings. Our findings reveal how a simple mechanism, juvenile passive drift, can explain the ontogeny of some of the longest migrations in the animal kingdom and ensure that adults find suitable foraging sites. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-2164.1
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-10-26
    Description: Epsilonproteobacteria have been found globally distributed in marine anoxic/sulfidic areas mediating relevant transformations within the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In the Baltic Sea redox zones, chemoautotrophic epsilonproteobacteria mainly belong to the Sulfurimonas gotlandica GD17 cluster for which recently a representative strain, S. gotlandica GD1T, could be established as a model organism. In this study, the potential effects of changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH on S. gotlandica GD1T were examined. Bacterial cell abundance within a broad range of DIC concentrations and pH values were monitored and substrate utilization was determined. The results showed that the DIC saturation concentration for achieving maximal cell numbers was already reached at 800 μmol L−1, which is well below in situ DIC levels. The pH optimum was between 6.6 and 8.0. Within a pH range of 6.6–7.1 there was no significant difference in substrate utilization; however, at lower pH values maximum cell abundance decreased sharply and cell-specific substrate consumption increased.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2017-03-30
    Description: Sponges are important components of marine benthic environments and are associated with microbial symbionts that carry out ecologically relevant functions. Stylissa carteri is an abundant, low-microbial abundance species in the Red Sea. We aimed to achieve the functional and taxonomic characterization of the most actively expressed prokaryotic genes in S. carteri. Prokaryotic mRNA was enriched from sponge total RNA, sequenced using Illumina HiSeq technology and annotated using the metagenomics Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) pipeline. We detected high expression of archaeal ammonia oxidation and photosynthetic carbon fixation by members of the genus Synechococcus. Functions related to stress response and membrane transporters were among the most highly expressed by S. carteri symbionts. Unexpectedly, gene functions related to methylotrophy were highly expressed by gammaproteobacterial symbionts. The presence of seawater-derived microbes is indicated by the phylogenetic proximity of organic carbon transporters to orthologues of members from the SAR11 clade. In summary, we revealed the most expressed functions of the S. carteri-associated microbial community and linked them to the dominant taxonomic members of the microbiome. This work demonstrates the applicability of metatranscriptomics to explore poorly characterized symbiotic consortia and expands our knowledge of the ecologically relevant functions carried out by coral reef sponge symbionts.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2015-07-24
    Description: Episodic gas seepage occurs at the seafloor in the Gulf of Izmit (Sea of Marmara, NW Turkey) along the submerged segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), which ruptured during the 1999 Mw7.4 Izmit earthquake, and caused tectonic loading of the fault segment in front of the Istanbul metropolitan area. In order to study gas seepage and seismic energy release along the NAF, a multiparametric benthic observatory (SN-4) was deployed in the gulf at the western end of the 1999 Izmit earthquake rupture, and operated for about 1 yr at 166 m water depth. The SN-4 payload included a three-component broad-band seismometer, as well as gas and oceanographic sensors. We analysed data collected continuously for 161 d in the first part of the experiment, from 2009 October to 2010 March. The main objective of our work was to verify whether tectonic deformation along the NAF could trigger methane seepage. For this reason, we considered only local seismicity, that is, within 100 km from the station. No significant (ML ≥ 3.6) local earthquakes occurred during this period; on the other hand, the seismometer recorded high-frequency SDEs (short duration events), which are not related to seismicity but to abrupt increases of dissolved methane concentration in the sea water that we called MPEs (methane peak events). Acquisition of current velocity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature and salinity, allowed us to analyse the local oceanographic setting during each event, and correlate SDEs to episodic gas discharges from the seabed. We noted that MPEs are the result of such gas releases, but are detected only under favourable oceanographic conditions. This stresses the importance of collecting long-term multiparametric time-series to address complex phenomena such as gas and seismic energy release at the seafloor. Results from the SN-4 experiment in the Sea of Marmara suggest that neither low-magnitude local seismicity, nor regional events affect intensity and frequency of gas flows from the seafloor.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Three species of marine phytoplankton, Rhodomonas sp., Isochrysis galbana Parke, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, were cultivated in semicontinuous cultures to test biochemical responses (fatty acids; FAs) to five nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) supply ratios and four growth rates (dilution rates). The characteristic FA profile was observed for each algal species (representing particular algal class), which remained relatively stable across the entire ranges of N:P supply ratios and growth rates. For all species, significant direct effects of N:P supply ratios on FAs were found at lower growth rates. The highest saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid (SFA and MUFA) contents were observed under N deficiency at the lowest growth rate in all three species, while responses of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) revealed no consistent pattern. Total FAs (and SFAs and MUFAs) in all species showed significant negative correlations with N cell quota (QN) under N deficiency, but PUFAs had species-specific correlations with QN. The results show that characteristic FA profiles of algal genus or species (representing particular algal classes) underlie fluctuations according to culture conditions. The significant correlation between FAs and QN under N deficiency suggests that elemental and biochemical limitation of phytoplankton should be considered mutually as determinants of food quality for zooplankton in marine ecosystems.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The widely cited Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model of plankton seasonal succession is often used as a template to explain the seasonal changes in plankton communities outside the cold temperate zone, where it was developed, but this may be inappropriate for lower-latitude lakes. Lower-latitude lakes have high light availability in winter and less pronounced seasonal variations in fish predation on zooplankton. We might therefore expect higher phytoplankton crops in winter and much more predation on zooplankton by fish than in colder lakes. This might lead to less grazing in summer and relatively higher phytoplankton crops. We compared data on phytoplankton biovolume, zooplankton biomass and body size from 18 German and 6 Greek lakes to test these hypotheses.
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  • 31
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    In:  In: eLS (Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). Wiley, Chichester, UK, ..
    Publication Date: 2017-03-22
    Description: Abstract: Green sulfur bacteria have gained much attention because of a number of highly interesting features including unique structures of the photosynthetic apparatus and the presence of chlorosomes as very powerful light antenna that can capture minute amounts of light. This has important ecological consequences, because the efficient light-harvesting determines the ecological niche of these bacteria at the lowermost part of stratified environments where the least of light is available. Furthermore, the strict dependency on photosynthesis to provide energy for growth and the obligate phototrophy of green sulfur bacteria together with their characteristic sulfur metabolism have provoked much interest in their physiology, ecology and genomics. The oxidation of sulfide as their outmost important photosynthetic electron donor involves the deposition of elemental sulfur globules outside the cells and separates the process of sulfide oxidation to sulfate into two parts. This is the basis for stable syntrophic associations between green sulfur bacteria and sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in which the sulfur compounds are recycled. The green sulfur bacteria are distantly related to other bacteria and represent the phylum Chlorobi, though the known representatives are taxonomically treated as Chlorobiaceae with the genera Chlorobium, Chlorobaculum, Prosthecochloris and Chloroherpeton. Key Concepts: Green sulfur bacteria depend on light for life due to their obligate phototrophic metabolism. Green sulfur bacteria perform a highly efficient photosynthesis due to the presence of light harvesting organelles, the chlorosomes, which are filled with special bacteriochlorophyll molecules. Green sulfur bacteria inhabit the lowermost part of the photic environments due to their efficient light capture. Green sulfur bacteria inhabit the lowermost part of the chemocline in the stratified environment due to their sensitivity to oxygen, their high sulfide tolerance and their dependence in light. Green sulfur bacteria are important drivers of oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds in the stratified, sulfide-containing environment receiving low irradiation.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-02-23
    Description: Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-01-10
    Description: Marine sponges are generally classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) species. Here, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the diversity, specificity and transcriptional activity of microbes associated with an LMA sponge (Stylissa carteri), an HMA sponge (Xestospongia testudinaria) and sea water collected from the central Saudi Arabia coast of the Red Sea. Altogether, 887 068 denoised sequences were obtained, of which 806 661 sequences remained after quality control. This resulted in 1477 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were assigned to 27 microbial phyla. The microbial composition of S. carteri was more similar to that of sea water than to that of X. testudinaria, which is consistent with the observation that the sequence data set of S. carteri contained many more possibly sea water sequences (~24%) than the X. testudinaria data set (~6%). The most abundant OTUs were shared between all three sources (S. carteri, X. testudinaria, sea water), while rare OTUs were unique to any given source. Despite this high degree of overlap, each sponge species contained its own specific microbiota. The X. testudinaria-specific bacterial taxa were similar to those already described for this species. A set of S. carteri-specific bacterial taxa related to Proteobacteria and Nitrospira was identified, which are likely permanently associated with S. carteri. The transcriptional activity of sponge-associated microorganisms correlated well with their abundance. Quantitative PCR revealed the presence of Poribacteria, representing typical sponge symbionts, in both sponge species and in sea water; however, low transcriptional activity in sea water suggested that Poribacteria are not active outside the host context.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-01-24
    Description: Forazoline A, a novel antifungal polyketide with in vivo efficacy against Candida albicans, was discovered using LCMS-based metabolomics to investigate marine-invertebrate-associated bacteria. Forazoline A had a highly unusual and unprecedented skeleton. Acquisition of 13C–13C gCOSY and 13C–15N HMQC NMR data provided the direct carbon–carbon and carbon–nitrogen connectivity, respectively. This approach represents the first example of determining direct 13C–15N connectivity for a natural product. Using yeast chemical genomics, we propose that forazoline A operated through a new mechanism of action with a phenotypic outcome of disrupting membrane integrity.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-09-20
    Description: The purine alkaloid caffeine is a major component of many beverages such as coffee and tea. Caffeine and its metabolites theobromine and xanthine have been shown to have antioxidant properties. Caffeine can also act as adenosine-receptor antagonist. Although it has been shown that adenosine and antioxidants promote wound healing, the effect of caffeine on wound healing is currently unknown. To investigate the effects of caffeine on processes involved in epithelialisation, we used primary human keratinocytes, HaCaT cell line and ex vivo model of human skin. First, we tested the effects of caffeine on cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration, processes essential for normal wound epithelialisation and closure. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assay to test the effects of seven different caffeine doses ranging from 0·1 to 5 mM. We found that caffeine restricted cell proliferation of keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, scratch wound assays performed on keratinocyte monolayers indicated dose-dependent delays in cell migration. Interestingly, adhesion and differentiation remained unaffected in monolayer cultures treated with various doses of caffeine. Using a human ex vivo wound healing model, we tested topical application of caffeine and found that it impedes epithelialisation, confirming in vitro data. We conclude that caffeine, which is known to have antioxidant properties, impedes keratinocyte proliferation and migration, suggesting that it may have an inhibitory effect on wound healing and epithelialisation. Therefore, our findings are more in support of a role for caffeine as adenosine-receptor antagonist that would negate the effect of adenosine in promoting wound healing.
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  • 37
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    In:  In: Imaging marine life: macrophotography and microscopy approaches for marine biology. , ed. by Reynaud, E. G. Wiley, Weinheim, pp. 69-91.
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A Rhodobacter capsulatus strain, designated XJ-1, isolated from saline soil, accumulated almost only one kind of bacteriochlorophyll a anaerobically in the light, aerobically in the light and dark, and the relative contents of the bacteriochlorophyll a were 44.61, 74.89, and 77.53% of the total pigments, respectively. A new purple pigment appeared only in aerobic-light grown cells, exhibited absorption maxima at 355, 389, 520, 621, and 755 nm, especially distinctly unusual peak at 621 nm, whereas vanished in anaerobic-light and in aerobic-dark culture. Spheroidene and OH–spheroidene predominated in anaerobic phototrophic cultures. Spheroidenone was the sole carotenoid when exposed to both light and oxygen. The second keto-carotenoids, OH–spheroidenone, presented only in aerobic-dark culture in addition to spheroidenone. Strain XJ-1 would be a good model organism for the further illustration of the regulation of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis gene expression in response to unique habitat.
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  • 39
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    In:  Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27 (8). pp. 1562-1571.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-10
    Description: The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, secretes quinones that control the microbial flora in the surrounding environment. These secretions act as an external immune defence that provides protection against pathogens. At high concentrations, however, these secretions are harmful to the host itself, and selection may thus have optimized the level of expression under natural conditions. Here, we show that the expression of external immunity responded to selection during experimental evolution within a few generations. At the same time, one component of internal immune defence (phenoloxidase activity) was compromised in beetles selected for either high or low external defences. Intriguingly, offspring protection against a natural pathogen was reduced in flour obtained from beetle lines selected for low amounts of secretions. Altogether, this suggests that external and internal immune defences work together efficiently under natural conditions, whereas every manipulation on the side of external immune defence comes with costs to the internal immune defence.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: A synthetic protocol has been designed to synthesize grecoketidone (2k), 5-hydroxylapachol (2g), and the recently discovered natural products juglonbutin (2o) and its derivatives, leading to a small library of different 1,4-naphthoquinones with the intention of finding new active compounds. Within our collection, 2-O-alkylated naphthoquinones with an ester functionality in the side-chain and a free OH group at C-5 showed the best activities. Compounds 2f, 2m, and 2n showed GI50 values against 12 tumor cell lines in the lower micromolar range and juglonbutin (2o) showed remarkably efficient inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β with an IC50 value of 2.03 μM. Furthermore, studies on the mode of action of the most active cytotoxic compounds have been carried out. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of juglonbutin (2o) and its biological activity.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Loess-paleosol sequences are important terrestrial archives of palaeoenvironmental change. Such sequences are rich in pedogenic carbonate, the oxygen and carbon isotopic values of which can provide important palaeoenvironmental information. Although some studies have pioneered the use of O and C isotopes in loess-paleosol sequences, they are not routinely used as palaeoclimate proxies. In this study we analysed the sedimentology, micromorphology, geochronology and isotopic geochemistry of a Middle Pleistocene loess-paleosol section, located at Kärlich, Germany. The section studied correlates with the Elsterian glacial (MIS 12) and Holsteinian interglacial (MIS 11). Embedded tephra layers yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 466±3 ka, 447±1 ka and 361±3 ka. The sedimentology and micromorphology of the sequence record a shift from accretionary loess accumulation (MIS 12) to prolonged pedogenesis at a stable land surface (MIS 11). Soil carbonate δ18O values record an enrichment of ∼3‰ during the accumulation of the loess, reaching peak values comparable with those found in the MIS 11 soil. The δ18O signal is interpreted as reflecting temperature, highlighting the potential of δ18O analysis of European loess soil carbonates as a means of reconstructing palaeotemperature history.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2017-09-26
    Description: Hyperthermophilic iron reducers are common in hydrothermal chimneys found along the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean based on culture-dependent estimates. However, information on the availability of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides within these chimneys, the types of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides utilized by the organisms, rates and environmental constraints of hyperthermophilic iron reduction, and mineral end products is needed to determine their biogeochemical significance and are addressed in this study. Thin-section petrography on the interior of a hydrothermal chimney from the Dante edifice at Endeavour showed a thin coat of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The iron sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-dependent estimates of hyperthermophilic iron reducer abundances in this sample were 1740 and 10 cells per gram (dry weight) of material from the outer surface and the marcasite-sphalerite-rich interior, respectively. Two hyperthermophilic iron reducers, Hyperthermus sp. Ro04 and Pyrodictium sp. Su06, were isolated from other active hydrothermal chimneys on the Endeavour Segment. Strain Ro04 is a neutrophilic (pHopt 7–8) heterotroph, while strain Su06 is a mildly acidophilic (pHopt 5), hydrogenotrophic autotroph, both with optimal growth temperatures of 90–92 °C. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron oxides before and after growth demonstrated that both organisms form nanophase (〈12 nm) magnetite [Fe3O4] from laboratory-synthesized ferrihydrite [Fe10O14(OH)2] with no detectable mineral intermediates. They produced up to 40 mm Fe2+ in a growth-dependent manner, while all abiotic and biotic controls produced 〈3 mm Fe2+. Hyperthermophilic iron reducers may have a growth advantage over other hyperthermophiles in hydrothermal systems that are mildly acidic where mineral weathering at increased temperatures occurs.
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  • 43
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    In:  FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 88 (1). pp. 1-25.
    Publication Date: 2015-05-27
    Description: Harmful, bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) are occurring with increasing regularity in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The most commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxins are the hepatotoxic microcystin and nodularin. These cyclic hepta- and pentapeptides are synthesised nonribosomally by the gene products of the toxin gene clusters mcy and nda, respectively. Understanding of the regulation of hepatotoxin production is incomplete, although there is strong evidence supporting the roles of iron, light, higher nitrate availability and inorganic carbon in modulating microcystin levels. The majority of these studies have focused on the unicellular freshwater, microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, with little attention being paid to terrestrial or marine toxin producers. This review intends to investigate the regulation of microcystin and nodularin production in unicellular and filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria against the background of changing climate conditions. Special focus is given to diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, for example Nodularia spumigena, capable of regulating their nitrogen levels by actively fixing dinitrogen. By combining data from significant studies, an overall scheme of the regulation of toxin production is presented, focussing specifically on nodularin production in diazotrophs against the background of increasing carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures envisaged under current climate change models. Furthermore, the risk of sustaining and spreading CyanoHABs in the future ocean is evaluated.
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  • 44
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    In:  Evolutionary Applications, 7 (1). pp. 104-122.
    Publication Date: 2014-04-24
    Description: I summarize marine studies on plastic versus adaptive responses to global change. Due to the lack of time series, this review focuses largely on the potential for adaptive evolution in marine animals and plants. The approaches were mainly synchronic comparisons of phenotypically divergent populations, substituting spatial contrasts in temperature or CO2 environments for temporal changes, or in assessments of adaptive genetic diversity within populations for traits important under global change. The available literature is biased towards gastropods, crustaceans, cnidarians and macroalgae. Focal traits were mostly environmental tolerances, which correspond to phenotypic buffering, a plasticity type that maintains a functional phenotype despite external disturbance. Almost all studies address coastal species that are already today exposed to fluctuations in temperature, pH and oxygen levels. Recommendations for future research include (i) initiation and analyses of observational and experimental temporal studies encompassing diverse phenotypic traits (including diapausing cues, dispersal traits, reproductive timing, morphology) (ii) quantification of nongenetic trans-generational effects along with components of additive genetic variance (iii) adaptive changes in microbe–host associations under the holobiont model in response to global change (iv) evolution of plasticity patterns under increasingly fluctuating environments and extreme conditions and (v) joint consideration of demography and evolutionary adaptation in evolutionary rescue approaches.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2014-08-11
    Description: Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence of unique mitochondrial haplotypes in Ireland suggests that a cryptic northern refugium may have played a role in recolonization, no explicit test of this hypothesis has been conducted. The three-spined stickleback is native and ubiquitous to aquatic ecosystems throughout Ireland, making it an excellent model species with which to examine the biogeographical history of anadromous fishes in the region. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine the presence of divergent evolutionary lineages and to assess broad-scale patterns of geographical clustering among postglacially isolated populations. Our results confirm that Ireland is a region of secondary contact for divergent mitochondrial lineages and that endemic haplotypes occur in populations in Central and Southern Ireland. To test whether a putative Irish lineage arose from a cryptic Irish refugium, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). However, we found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, the Irish lineage likely diverged from the European lineage as a result of postglacial isolation of freshwater populations by rising sea levels. These findings emphasize the need to rigorously test biogeographical hypothesis and contribute further evidence that postglacial processes may have shaped genetic diversity in temperate fauna.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (ω2) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. Our study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2014-06-04
    Description: We present an unprecedented multicentennial sediment record from the foot of Vesterisbanken Seamount, central Greenland Sea, covering the past 22.3 thousand years (ka). Based on planktic foraminiferal total abundances, species assemblages, and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, the palaeoenvironments in this region of modern deepwater renewal were reconstructed. Results show that during the Last Glacial Maximum the area was affected by harsh polar conditions with only episodic improvements during warm summer seasons. Since 18 ka extreme freshwater discharges from nearby sources occurred, influencing the surface water environment. The last major freshwater event took place during the Younger Dryas. The onset of the Holocene was characterized by an improvement of environmental conditions suggesting warming and increasing ventilation of the upper water layers. The early Holocene saw a stronger Atlantic waters advection to the area, which began around 10.5 and ended quite rapidly at 5.5 ka, followed by the onset of Neoglacial cooling. Surface water ventilation reached a maximum in the middle Holocene. Around 3 ka the surface water stratification increased leading to subsequent amplification of the warming induced the North Atlantic Oscillation at 2 ka.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: We have geochemically and statistically characterized bulk marine sediment and ash layers at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1149 (Izu-Bonin Arc) and Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 52 (Mariana Arc), and have quantified that multiple dispersed ash sources collectively comprise ~30-35% of the hemipelagic sediment mass entering the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the bulk sediment at Site 1149 is a mixture of Chinese Loess, a second compositionally distinct eolian source, a dispersed mafic ash, and a dispersed felsic ash. We interpret the source of these ashes as respectively being basalt from the Izu-Bonin Front Arc (IBFA) and rhyolite from the Honshu Arc. Sr-, Nd-, and Pb isotopic analyses of the bulk sediment are consistent with the chemical/statistical-based interpretations. Comparison of the mass accumulation rate of the dispersed ash component to discrete ash layer parameters (thickness, sedimentation rate, and number of layers) suggests that eruption frequency, rather than eruption size, drives the dispersed ash record. At Site 52, the geochemistry and statistical modeling indicates that Chinese Loess, IBFA, dispersed BNN (boninite from Izu-Bonin), and a dispersed felsic ash of unknown origin are the sources. At Site 1149 the ash layers and the dispersed ash are compositionally coupled, whereas at Site 52 they are decoupled in that there are no boninite layers, yet boninite is dispersed within the sediment. Changes in the volcanic and eolian inputs through time indicate strong arc- and climate-related controls.
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  • 49
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    In:  In: Biofouling Methods. , ed. by Dobretsov, S., Williams, D. N. and Thomason, J. Wiley, New York, USA, pp. 93-113. ISBN 978-0-470-65985-4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-06
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Contemporary genetic diversity is the product of both historical and contemporary forces, such as climatic and geological processes affecting range distribution and continuously moulded by evolutionary forces selection, gene flow and genetic drift. Predatory freshwater fishes, such as Northern Pike Esox lucius, commonly exhibit small population sizes, and several local populations are considered endangered. Pike inhabit diverse habitat types, including lakes, rivers and brackish marine waters, thus spanning from small isolated patches to large open marine systems. However, pike population structure from local to regional scales is relatively poorly described, in spite of its significance to developing conservation measures. We analysed microsatellite variation in a total of 1185 North European pike from 46 samples collected across both local and regional scales, as well as over time, to address two overarching questions: Is pike population structure associated with local and/or regional connectivity patterns, and which factors likely have the main influence on the contemporary distribution of genetic diversity? To answer this, we combined estimators of population diversity and structure to assess evidence of whether populations within (i) habitats, (ii) drainage systems and (iii) geographical regions are closer related than among these ranges, and whether patterns are temporally stable. Contrasting previous predictions that genetic drift obscures signals of postglacial colonisation history, we identified clear regional differences in population genetic signatures, suggesting a major effect of drainage divides on colonisation history and connectivity. However, several populations deviated from the general pattern, showing that local processes may be complex and need to be examined case-by-case.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-12-13
    Description: Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used on adult bivalve shells to investigate organic and inorganic shell components but has not yet been applied to bivalve larvae. It is known that the organic matrix of larval shells contains pigments, but less is known about the presence or source of these molecules in larvae. We investigated Raman spectra of seven species of bivalve larvae to assess the types of pigments present in shells of each species and how the ratio of inorganic : organic material changes in a dorso-ventral direction. In laboratory experiments, we reared larvae of three clam species in waters containing different organic signatures to determine if larvae incorporated compounds from source waters into their shells. We found differences in spectra and pigments between most species but found less intraspecific differences. A neural network classifier for Raman spectra classified five out of seven species with greater than 85% accuracy. There were slight differences between the amount and type of pigment present along the shell, with the prodissoconch I and shell margin areas being the most variable. Raman spectra of 1-day-old larvae were found to be differentiable when larvae were reared in waters with different organic signatures. With micro-Raman spectroscopy, it may be possible to identify some unknown species in the wild and trace their natal origins, which could enhance identification accuracy of bivalve larvae and ultimately aid management and restoration efforts.
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  • 52
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    In:  In: Biofouling Methods. , ed. by Dobretsov, S., Williams, D. N. and Thomason, J. C. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 281-289. ISBN 978-0-470-65985-4
    Publication Date: 2016-08-05
    Description: In this chapter a variety of field and laboratory techniques to assess biofouling assemblages are described. The first part, focusing on traditional methods, also includes methods of using image analysis, functional groups and several mathematical and theoretical models to estimate species diversity. The second part is applied and deals with the assessment of biofouling on in-service vessels in order to determine their biosecurity risk. The third part gives an overview of the methods required to undertake field experiments with biofouling assemblages on a global scale. Assessing fouling assemblages: This chapter focuses on traditional methods, also includes methods of using image analysis, functional groups and several mathematical and theoretical models to estimate species diversity. In ecology, manipulative experiments of living organisms are often carried out in the field, providing a real assessment of the community in question. As a precursor to these experiments a baseline survey of the natural community is essential to provide the wider context for change. The chapter gives some of the more popular methods used to assess fouling communities. The protocols necessary for carrying out these methods along with appropriate statistical techniques are discussed. Finally, a critique of the problems associated with each method is provided, and suggestions made for how to address these problems. Both field methods and digital methods are discussed in the chapter. Assessment of in-service vessels for biosecurity risk: Biofouling organisms, including sessile and mobile species, are encountered on all vessel types, including commercial vessels of all categories, naval ships, and recreational vessels. Criteria used to determine the biosecurity risk posed by hull fouling of in-service vessels are often specific to the requirements of environmental management agencies and result in the use of different sampling approaches. The biosecurity risk of vessels can also be estimated using abundance, biomass or richness of biofouling as the metrics of interest. This chapter provides guidance on approaches to determining the biosecurity risk of in-service vessels in situ or in dry-dock. It focuses on surveys designed to create biological inventories of vessel hulls and associated estimates of biofouling abundance. An absence of biofouling can only be guaranteed for inspections that have been designed using a statistical framework that provides a level of confidence of "freedom of infestation". Experiments on a global scale: The international research and student training program-Global Approach by Modular Experiments (GAME)-is one of a few initiatives worldwide that implements the scaling up of ecological studies from the regional to the global scale. Moreover, the innovative coupling of teaching and research and the propagation of a modular approach in experimental research makes it unique in marine sciences. Modularity means the simultaneous execution of identical experiments at multiple study sites that cover several biogeographic regions and climate zones. Marine epibiotic communities have repeatedly been recognized as suitable model systems for studies in community ecology and biodiversity research and such consortia of sessile metazoans and macroalgae have properties that make them for experimental studies. The chapter also presents chronology of a GAME project in seven major steps.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2015-06-18
    Description: Natural antifouling products have been the subject of considerable attention. We screened marine algae for antifouling activity and discovered omaezallenes, the new bromoallene-containing natural products isolated from the red alga Laurencia sp. Described is the isolation, structure elucidation, and total syntheses of omaezallenes. The relative and absolute configurations of natural omaezallenes were unambiguously established through total synthesis. The antifouling activities and ecotoxicity of omaezallenes were also evaluated.
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  • 54
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    In:  Geophysical Journal International, 199 (1). pp. 441-458.
    Publication Date: 2015-10-13
    Description: Several slope failures are observed near the deformation front on the frontal ridges of the northern Cascadia accretionary margin off Vancouver Island. The cause for these events is not clear, although several lines of evidence indicate a possible connection between the occurrence of gas hydrate and submarine landslide features. The presence of gas hydrate is indicated by a prominent bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), at a depth of ∼265–275 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf), as interpreted from vertical-incidence and wide-angle seismic data beneath the ridge crests of the frontal ridges. For one slide, informally called Slipstream Slide, the velocity structure inferred from tomography analyses shows anomalous high velocities values of about 2.0 km s−1 at shallow depths of 100 mbsf. The estimated depth of the glide plane (100 ± 10 m) closely matches the depth of these shallow high velocities. In contrast, at a frontal ridge slide just to the northwest (informally called Orca Slide), the glide plane occurs at the same depth as the current BSR. Our new results indicate that the glide plane of the Slipstream slope failure is associated with the contrast between sediments strengthened by gas hydrate and overlying sediments where little or no hydrate is present. In contrast, the glide plane of Orca Slide is between sediment strengthened by hydrate underlain by sediments beneath the gas hydrate stability zone, possibly containing free gas. Additionally, a set of margin perpendicular normal faults are imaged from seafloor down to BSR depth at both frontal ridges. As inferred from the multibeam bathymetry, the estimated volume of the material lost during the slope failure at Slipstream Slide is about 0.33 km3, and ∼0.24 km3 of this volume is present as debris material on the ocean basin floor. The 20 per cent difference is likely due to more widely distributed fine sediments not easily detectable as bathymetric anomalies. These volume estimates on the Cascadia margin are approaching the mass failure volume for other slides that have generated large tsunamis—for example 1–3 km3 for a 1998 Papua New Guinea slide.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: INTRODUCTION: Lichens are self-sustaining partnerships comprising fungi as shape-forming partners for their enclosed symbiotic algae. They produce a tremendous diversity of metabolites (1050 metabolites described so far). OBJECTIVES: A comparison of metabolic profiles in nine lichen species belonging to three genera (Lichina, Collema and Roccella) by using an optimised extraction protocol, determination of the fragmentation pathway and the in situ localisation for major compounds in Roccella species. METHODS: Chemical analysis was performed using a complementary study combining a Taguchi experimental design with qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. RESULTS: Optimal conditions to obtain the best total extraction yield were determined as follows: mortar grinding to a fine powder, two successive extractions, solid:liquid ratio (2:60) and 700 rpm stirring. Qualitative analysis of the metabolite profiling of these nine species extracted with the optimised method was corroborated using MS and MS/MS approaches. Nine main compounds were identified: 1 β-orcinol, 2 orsellinic acid, 3 putative choline sulphate, 4 roccellic acid, 5 montagnetol, 6 lecanoric acid, 7 erythrin, 8 lepraric acid and 9 acetylportentol, and several other compounds were reported. Identification was performed using the m/z ratio, fragmentation pathway and/or after isolation by NMR analysis. The variation of the metabolite profile in differently organised parts of two Roccella species suggests a specific role of major compounds in developmental stages of this symbiotic association. CONCLUSION: Metabolic profiles represent specific chemical species and depend on the extraction conditions, the kind of the photobiont partner and the in situ localisation of major compounds.
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  • 56
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    In:  Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 97 (1). pp. 123-135.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-25
    Description: In virtually every assessment of responses to large-scale crises and disasters, coordination is identified as a critical failure factor. After the crisis, official committees and political opponents often characterize the early phases of the response as a ‘failure to coordinate.’ Not surprisingly, improved coordination quickly emerges as the prescribed solution. Coordination, then, is apparently both the problem and the solution. But the proposed solutions rarely solve the problem: coordination continues to mar most crises and disasters. In the absence of a shared body of knowledge on coordination, it is hard to formulate a normative framework that allows for systematic assessment of coordination in times of crisis. As coordination is widely perceived as an important function of crisis and disaster management, this absence undermines a fair and balanced assessment of crisis management performance. This paper seeks to address that void. We aim to develop a framework that explains both the failure and success of crisis coordination. We do this by exploring the relevant literature, reformulating what coordination is and distilling from research the factors that cause failure and success.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the regional ocean circulation, sea ice, and global climate. From salinity observed by a variety of platforms, we are able, for the first time, to estimate a statistically reliable liquid freshwater trend from monthly gridded fields over all upper Arctic Ocean basins. From 1992 to 2012 this trend was 600 ± 300 km3 yr−1. A numerical model agrees very well with the observed freshwater changes. A decrease in salinity made up about two thirds of the freshwater trend and a thickening of the upper layer up to one third. The Arctic Ocean Oscillation index, a measure for the regional wind stress curl, correlated well with our freshwater time series. No clear relation to Arctic Oscillation or Arctic Dipole indices could be found. Following other observational studies, an increased Bering Strait freshwater import to the Arctic Ocean, a decreased Davis Strait export, and enhanced net sea ice melt could have played an important role in the freshwater trend we observed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: Sea ice and snow on sea ice to a large extent determine the surface heat budget in the Arctic Ocean. In spite of the advances in modeling sea-ice thermodynamics, a good number of models still rely on simple parameterizations of the thermodynamics of ice and snow. Based on simulations with an Arctic sea-ice model coupled to an ocean general circulation model, we analyzed the impact of changing two sea-ice parameterizations: (1) the prescribed ice thickness distribution (ITD) for surface heat budget calculations, and (2) the description of the snow layer. For the former, we prescribed a realistic ITD derived from airborne electromagnetic induction sounding measurements. For the latter, two different types of parameterizations were tested: (1) snow thickness independent of the sea-ice thickness below, and (2) a distribution proportional to the prescribed ITD. Our results show that changing the ITD from seven uniform categories to fifteen nonuniform categories derived from field measurements, and distributing the snow layer according to the ITD, leads to an increase in average Arctic-wide ice thickness by 0.56 m and an increase by 1 m in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Canadian Basin. This increase is found to be a direct consequence of 524 km3 extra thermodynamic growth during the months of ice formation (January, February, and March). Our results emphasize that these parameterizations are a key factor in sea-ice modeling to improve the representation of the sea-ice energy balance.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2017-02-08
    Description: The temperature variability simulated by climate models is generally consistent with that observed in instrumental records at the scale of global averages, but further insight can also be obtained from regional analysis of the marine temperature record. A protocol is developed for comparing model simulations to observations that account for observational noise and missing data. General consistency between Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model simulations and regional sea surface temperature variability is demonstrated at interannual timescales. At interdecadal timescales, however, the variability diagnosed from observations is significantly greater. Discrepancies are greatest at low latitudes, with none of the 41 models showing equal or greater interdecadal variability. The pattern of suppressed variability at longer timescales and smaller spatial scales appears consistent with models generally being too diffusive. Suppressed variability of low-latitude marine temperatures points to underestimation of intrinsic variability and may help explain why few models reproduce the observed temperature trends during the last 15 years.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2014-04-22
    Description: Two parameterizations of turbulent boundary layer processes at the interface between an ice shelf and the ocean beneath are investigated in terms of their impact on simulated melt rates and feedbacks. The parameterizations differ in the transfer coefficients for heat and freshwater fluxes. In their simplest form, they are assumed constant and hence are independent of the velocity of ocean currents at the ice shelf base. An augmented melt rate parameterization accounts for frictional turbulence via transfer coefficients that do depend on boundary layer current velocities via a drag law. In simulations with both parameterizations for idealized as well as realistic cavity geometries under Pine Island Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, significant differences in melt rate patterns between the velocity-independent and velocity-dependent formulations are found. While patterns are strongly correlated to those of thermal forcing for velocity-independent transfer coefficients, melting in the case of velocity-dependent coefficients is collocated with regions of high boundary layer currents, in particular where rapid plume outflow occurs. Both positive and negative feedbacks between melt rates, boundary layer temperature, velocities, and buoyancy fluxes are identified. Melt rates are found to increase with increasing drag coefficient inline image, in agreement with plume model simulations, but optimal values of Cd inferred from plume models are not easily transferable. Uncertainties therefore remain, both regarding simulated melt rate spatial distributions and magnitudes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2014-05-28
    Description: Forecast experiments with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model with and without relaxation of the Arctic troposphere toward reanalysis data are carried out in order to explore the influence that improved Arctic forecasts during wintertime would have on the skill of medium-range and extended-range prediction of 500 hPa geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. It turns out that the largest midlatitude improvements are found over eastern Europe, northern Asia, and North America; no discernible impact is found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific, where midlatitude and tropical dynamics appear to be more important. The strength of the linkage between the Arctic and the midlatitudes is found to be flow dependent, with anomalous northerly wind leading to a stronger Arctic influence. Finally, the results are discussed in the context of the possible impact of Arctic sea ice decline on midlatitude weather and climate.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Description: Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), nutrients, and oxygen in subsurface waters of the central Arctic Ocean have been investigated for conceivable time trends over the last two decades. Data from six cruises (1991–2011) that cover the Nansen, Amundsen, and Makarov Basins were included in this analysis. In waters deeper than 2000 m, no statistically significant trend could be observed for DIC, TA, phosphate, or nitrate, but a small rate of increase in apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) was noticeable. For the individual stations, differences in concentration of each property were computed between the mean concentrations in the Arctic Atlantic Water (AAW) or the upper Polar Deep Water (uPDW), i.e., between about 150 and 1400 m depth, and in the deep water (assumed invariable over time). In these shallower water layers, we observe significant above-zero time trends for DIC, in the range of 0.6–0.9 µmol kg-1 yr-1 (for AAW) and 0.4–0.6 µmol kg-1 yr-1 (for uPDW). No time trend in nutrients could be observed, indicating no change in the rate of organic matter mineralization within this depth range. Consequently, the buildup of DIC is attributed to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic carbon in the waters flowing into these depth layers of the Arctic Ocean. The resulting rate of increase of the column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 is estimated to be between 0.6 and 0.9 mol C m-2 yr-1, with distinct differences between basins.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2014-09-24
    Description: Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, a dominant diatom species throughout the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, is coined to be one of the main drivers of the biological silicate pump. Here, we study the distribution of this important species and expected consequences of climate change upon it, using correlative species distribution modeling and publicly available presence-only data. As experience with SDM is scarce for marine phytoplankton, this also serves as a pilot study for this organism group. Southern Ocean. We used the maximum entropy method to calculate distribution models for the diatom F. kerguelensis based on yearly and monthly environmental data (sea surface temperature, salinity, nitrate and silicate concentrations). Observation data were harvested from GBIF and the Global Diatom Database, and for further analyses also from the Hustedt Diatom Collection (BRM). The models were projected on current yearly and seasonal environmental data to study current distribution and its seasonality. Furthermore, we projected the seasonal model on future environmental data obtained from climate models for the year 2100. Projected on current yearly averaged environmental data, all models showed similar distribution patterns for F. kerguelensis. The monthly model showed seasonality, for example, a shift of the southern distribution boundary toward the north in the winter. Projections on future scenarios resulted in a moderately to negligibly shrinking distribution area and a change in seasonality. We found a substantial bias in the publicly available observation datasets, which could be reduced by additional observation records we obtained from the Hustedt Diatom Collection. Present day distribution patterns inferred from the models coincided well with background knowledge and previous reports about F. kerguelensis distribution, showing that maximum entropy-based distribution models are suitable to map distribution patterns for oceanic planktonic organisms. Our scenario projections indicate moderate effects of climate change upon the biogeography of F. kerguelensis.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2014-08-08
    Description: In this study MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 555 nm are compared to sun-photometer measurements from Svalbard for a period of 9 years. For the 642 daily coincident measurements that were obtained, MODIS AOT generally varies within the predicted uncertainty of the retrieval over ocean (ΔAOT = ±0.03 ± 0.05 · AOT). The results from the remote sensing have been used to examine the accuracy in estimates of aerosol optical properties in the Arctic, generated by global climate models and from in-situ measurements at the Zeppelin station, Svalbard. AOT simulated with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M)/ CAM4-Oslo global climate model does not reproduce the observed seasonal variability of the Arctic aerosol. The model overestimates clear-sky AOT by nearly a factor of 2 for the background summer season, while tending to underestimate the values in the spring season. Furthermore, large differences in all-sky AOT of up to one order of magnitude are found for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) model ensemble for the spring and summer seasons. Large differences between satellite/ground-based remote sensing of AOT and AOT estimated from dry and humidified scattering coefficients are found for the subarctic marine boundary layer in summer.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2014-08-18
    Description: Sedimentary proxies used to reconstructmarine productivity suffer fromvariable preservation and are sensitive to factors other than productivity. Therefore, proxy calibration is warranted. Here we map the spatial patterns of two paleoproductivity proxies, biogenic opal and barium fluxes, from a set of core-top sediments recovered in the Subarctic North Pacific. Comparisons of the proxy data with independent estimates of primary and export production, surface water macronutrient concentrations, and biological pCO2 drawdown indicate that neither proxy shows a significant correlation with primary or export productivity for the entire region. Biogenic opal fluxes, when corrected for preservation using 230Th-normalized accumulation rates, show a good correlation with primary productivity along the volcanic arcs (τ =0.71, p = 0.0024) and with export productivity throughout the western Subarctic North Pacific (τ = 0.71, p = 0.0107). Moderate and good correlations of biogenic barium flux with export production (τ = 0.57, p = 0.0022) and with surface water silicate concentrations (τ =0.70, p = 0.0002) are observed for the central and eastern Subarctic North Pacific. For reasons unknown, however, no correlation is found in the western Subarctic North Pacific between biogenic barium flux and the reference data. Nonetheless, we show that barite saturation, uncertainty in the lithogenic barium corrections, and problems with the reference data sets are not responsible for the lack of a significant correlation between biogenic barium flux and the reference data. Further studies evaluating the factors controlling the variability of the biogenic constituents in the sediments are desirable in this region.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Large-scale patterns of net community production (NCP) were estimated during the late summer cruise ARK-XXVI/3 (TransArc, August/September 2011) to the central Arctic Ocean. Several approaches were used based on the following: (i) continuous measurements of surface water oxygen to argon ratios (O2/Ar), (ii) underway measurements of surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), (iii) discrete samples of dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate. The NCP estimates agreed well within the uncertainties associated with each approach. The highest late summer NCP (up to 6 mol C m-2) was observed in the marginal sea ice zone region. Low values (〈1 mol C m-2) were found in the sea ice-covered deep basins with a strong spatial variability. Lowest values were found in the Amundsen Basin and moderate values in the Nansen and Makarov Basins with slightly higher estimates over the Mendeleev Ridge. Our findings support a coupling of NCP to sea ice coverage and nutrient supply and thus stress a potential change in spatial and temporal distribution of NCP in a future Arctic Ocean. To follow the evolution of NCP in space and time, it is suggested to apply one or several of these approaches in shipboard investigations with a time interval of 3 to 5 years.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: The interpretation of seismic refraction and gravity data acquired in 2010 gives new insights into the crustal structure of the West Greenland coast and the adjacent deep central Baffin Bay basin. Underneath Melville Bay, the depth of the Moho varies between 26 to 17 km. Stretched continental crust with a thickness of 25 to 14 km and deep sedimentary basins are present in this area. The deep Melville Bay Graben contains an up to ~11km thick infill of consolidated and unconsolidated sediments with velocities of 1.6 to 4.9 km/s. Seawards, at the ~60 km wide transition between oceanic and stretched continental crust, a mount-shaped magmatic structure is observed, which most likely formed prior to the initial formation of oceanic crust. The up to 4 km high magmatic structure is underlain by a ~2 km thick and ~50 km wide high velocity lower crust. More to the west, in the oceanic part of the Baffin Bay basin, we identify a 2-layered, 3.5 to 6 km thin igneous oceanic crust with increasing thickness toward the shelf. Beneath the oceanic crust, the depth of the Moho ranges between 11.5 and 13.5 km. In the western part of the profile, oceanic layer 3 is unusually thin (~1.5 km) A possible explanation for the thin crust is accretion due to slow spreading, although the basement is notably smooth compared to the basement of other regions formed by ultra-slow spreading. The oceanic crust is underlain by partly serpentinized upper mantle with velocities of 7.6 to 7.8 km/s.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2014-11-27
    Description: Over the polar oceans, near-surface atmospheric transport of momentum is strongly influenced by sea-ice surface topography. The latter is analyzed on the basis of laser altimeter data obtained during airborne campaigns between 1995 and 2011 over more than 10,000 km of flight distance in different regions of the Arctic Ocean. Spectra of height and spacing between topographic features averaged over 10 km flight sections show that typical values are 0.45 m for the mean height and about 20 m for the mean spacing. Nevertheless, the variability is high and the spatial variability is stronger than the temporal one. The total topography spectrum is divided into a range with small obstacles (between 0.2 m and 0.8 m height) and large obstacles (≥0.8 m). Results show that large pressure ridges represent the dominant topographic feature only along the coast of Greenland. In the Central Arctic, the concentration of large ridges decreased over the years, accompanied by an increase of small obstacles concentration and this might be related to decreasing multiyear ice. The application of a topography-dependent parameterization of neutral atmospheric drag coefficients reflects the large variability in the sea-ice topography and reveals characteristic differences between the regions. Based on the analysis of the two spectral ranges, we find that the consideration of only large pressure ridges is not enough to characterize the roughness degree of an ice field, and the values of drag coefficients are in most regions strongly influenced by small obstacles.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: The Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly shrinking, but a direct, longer-term assessment of the ice thinning remains challenging. A new time series constructed from in situ measurements of sea ice thickness at the end of the melt season in Fram Strait shows a thinning by over 50% during 2003-2012. The modal and mean ice thickness along 79 degrees N decreased at a rate of 0.3 and 0.2 m yr(-1), respectively, with long-term averages of 2.5 and 3 m. Airborne observations reveal an east-west thickness gradient across the strait in spring but not in summer due to advection from more different source regions. There is no clear relationship between interannual ice thickness variability and the source regions of the ice. The observed thinning is therefore likely a result of Arctic-wide reduction in ice thickness with a potential shift in exported ice types playing a minor role.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be −0.19 ± 0.09 Wm−2. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12°C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2015-01-21
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: UV-laser-based microscopic systems were utilized to dissect and sample organic tissue for stable isotope measurements from thin wood cross-sections. We tested UV-laser-based microscopic tissue dissection in practice for high-resolution isotopic analyses (δ13C/δ18O) on thin cross-sections from different tree species. The method allows serial isolation of tissue of any shape and from millimetre down to micrometre scales. On-screen pre-defined areas of interest were automatically dissected and collected for mass spectrometric analysis. Three examples of high-resolution isotopic analyses revealed that: in comparison to δ13C of xylem cells, woody ray parenchyma of deciduous trees have the same year-to-year variability, but reveal offsets that are opposite in sign depending on whether wholewood or cellulose is considered; high-resolution tree-ring δ18O profiles of Indonesian teak reflect monsoonal rainfall patterns and are sensitive to rainfall extremes caused by ENSO; and seasonal moisture signals in intra-tree-ring δ18O of white pine are weighted by nonlinear intra-annual growth dynamics. The applications demonstrate that the use of UV-laser-based microscopic dissection allows for sampling plant tissue at ultrahigh resolution and unprecedented precision. This new technique facilitates sampling for stable isotope analysis of anatomical plant traits like combined tree eco-physiological, wood anatomical and dendroclimatological studies.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: Sea level variations prior to the launch of satellite altimeters are estimated by analyzing historic tide gauge records. Recently, a number of groups have reconstructed sea level by applying EOF techniques to fill missing observations. We complement this study with alternative methods. In a first step gaps in 178 records of sea level change are filled using the pattern recognition capabilities of artificial neural networks. Afterward satellite altimetry is used to extrapolate local sea level change to global fields. Patterns of sea level change are compared to prior studies. Global mean sea level change since 1900 is found to be inline image on average. Local trends are essentially positive with the highest values found in the western tropical Pacific and in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar where it reaches about inline image. Regions with negative trends are spotty with a minimum value of about inline image south of the Aleutian Islands. Although the acceleration found for the global mean, inline image, is not significant, local values range from inline image in the central Indian Ocean to inline image in the western tropical Pacific and east of Japan. These extrema are associated with patterns of sea level change that differ significantly from the first half of the analyzed period (i.e., 1900–1950) to the second half (1950–2000). We take this as an indication of long period oceanic processes that are superimposed to the general sea level rise.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 74