During IODP Expedition 322, an interval of Late Miocene (7.6 to ∼9.1 Ma) tuffaceous and volcaniclastic sandstones was discovered in the Shikoku Basin (Site C0011B), Nankai region. This interval consists of bioturbated silty claystone including four 1–7 m thick interbeds of tuffaceous sandstones (TST) containing 57–82% (by volume) pyroclasts. We use major and trace element glass compositions, as well as radiogenic isotope compositions, to show that the tuffaceous sandstones beds derived from single eruptive events, and that the majority (TST 1, 2, 3a) came from different eruptions from a similar source region, which we have identified to be the Japanese mainland, 350 km away. In particular, diagnostic trace element ratios (e.g., Th/La, Sm/La, Rb/Hf, Th/Nb, and U/Th) and isotopic data indicate a marked contribution from a mantle source beneath continental crust, which is most consistent with a Japanese mainland source and likely excludes the Izu-Bonin island arc and back arc as a source region for the younger TST beds. Nevertheless, some of the chemical data measured on the oldest sandstone bed (TST 3b, Unit IIb) show affinity to or can clearly be attributed to an Izu-Bonin composition. While we cannot completely exclude the possibility that all TST beds derived from unknown and exotic Izu-Bonin source(s), the collected lines of evidence are most consistent with an origin from the paleo-Honshu arc for TST 1 through 3a. We therefore suggest the former collision zone between the Izu-Bonin arc and Honshu paleo-arc as the most likely region where the eruptive products entered the ocean, also concurrent with nearby (∼200 km) possible Miocene source areas for the tuffaceous sandstones at the paleo-NE-Honshu arc. Estimating the distribution area of the tuffaceous sandstones in the Miocene between this source region and the ∼350 km distant Expedition 322, using bathymetric constraints, we calculate that the sandstone beds represent minimum erupted magma volumes between ∼1 and 17 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent (DRE)). We conclude that several large volume eruptions occurred during the Late Miocene time next to the collision zone of paleo-Honshu and Izu-Bonin arc and covered the entire Philippine Sea plate with meter thick, sheet-like pyroclastic deposits that are now subducted in the Nankai subduction zone.