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  • Wiley  (131,311)
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  • 1
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2016 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2380-6761
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 2
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1995 – 5.1999
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1075-4261
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6343
    Topics: Biology , Physics
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  • 3
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Formerly as: Chinese Journal of Geophysics  (2000–2017)
    Publisher: Wiley
    Corporation: Chinese Geophysical Society (CGS)
    Electronic ISSN: 2096-3955
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Keywords: Geophysik
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  • 4
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    Wiley
    Online: 6.1995 – 16.2005
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1048-4078
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6513
    Topics: Economics
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  • 5
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    Wiley | Royal Geographical Society
    Online: 1(1).2014 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Royal Geographical Society
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-4049
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Keywords: Allgemeine Geographie ; Umweltforschung
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  • 6
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1963 – 28.1990
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0449-2986 , 0887-6258
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-6254 , 1543-0472
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1963 – 74.1986
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0360-8905 , 0449-2994
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
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    Wiley | American Oil Chemist's Society; formerly Springer
    Online: 1.1924 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Oil Chemist's Society; formerly Springer
    Print ISSN: 0003-021X , 0095-9502 , 0095-9510 , 0095-9774
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-9331 , 2168-8079
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 9
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    Wiley | formerly Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Online: 1.2008 – 3.2010
    Publisher: Wiley , formerly Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Print ISSN: 1753-8416
    Electronic ISSN: 1753-8424
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 10
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    Wiley
    Online: 9.1997 – 12.2000
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0895-7533
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-2728
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 11
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    Wiley | Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
    Electronic ISSN: 2378-2242
    Topics: Biology
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  • 12
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    Wiley | American Oil Chemists' Society | formerly Springer
    Online: 1.1966 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Oil Chemists' Society , formerly Springer
    Print ISSN: 0024-4201
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-9307
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 13
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    Wiley | Botanical Society of America, BioOne
    Online: 1(1).2013 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Botanical Society of America, BioOne
    Electronic ISSN: 2168-0450
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
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    Wiley | International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Online: 1(1).1972 – (older than 24 months)
    Publisher: Wiley , International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Print ISSN: 1470-8175
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-3429
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2004 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-8325
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 16
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1996 – 2.1997
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1082-4928
    Electronic ISSN: 1082-4928
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 17
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    Wiley | Educational Testing Service
    Online: (1).1948 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Educational Testing Service
    Print ISSN: 0898-2236
    Electronic ISSN: 2330-8516
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
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  • 18
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2013 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2048-7177
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 19
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    Oxford University Press (OUP) | Wiley
    Online: 1.1922 –
    Print: 98.1989 – 191.2012 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 29/7 - 30/4)
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP) , Wiley
    Corporation: Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft, DGG , European Geophysical Society, EGS , Royal Astronomical Society, RAS
    Print ISSN: 0016-8009 , 0955-419X , 0956-540X , 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Acronym: GJI
    Abbreviation: Geophys J Int
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  • 20
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2152-3878
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Acronym: GHG
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  • 21
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    American Water Works Association | Wiley | JSTOR
    Online: 1.1914 – (older than 4 years)
    Publisher: American Water Works Association , Wiley , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0003-150X
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-8833
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 22
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2009 –
    Formerly as: ASLO Web Lectures  (2009–2011)
    Publisher: Wiley
    Corporation: Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, ASLO
    Print ISSN: 2164-0254
    Electronic ISSN: 2164-0254
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
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    Wiley | JSTOR
    Online: 78.1976 – (older than 6 years)
    Publisher: Wiley , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0347-0520
    Electronic ISSN: 1467-9442
    Topics: Economics
    Keywords: JSTOR Archive Collection Business II
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  • 24
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    Wiley | ILO
    Online: 2008 –
    Publisher: Wiley , ILO
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-9280 , 2059-3031
    Topics: Economics
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  • 25
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    Wiley
    Online: 30.1979 – 50.1999
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0323-7648
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-4044
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 26
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    Wiley | Botanical Society of America
    Online: 84(1).1997 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Wiley , Botanical Society of America
    Print ISSN: 0002-9122
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-2197
    Topics: Biology
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  • 27
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1974 – 23.1994
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0306-042X , 1052-9306
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-9888
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 28
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    Wiley
    Online: 2(1).2001 – 6(8).2005
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1531-6912
    Electronic ISSN: 1532-6268
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 29
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2000 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 1681-4835
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 30
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    Elsevier | Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2011 –
    Publisher: Elsevier , Wiley
    Corporation: Federation of European Biochemical Societies, FEBS
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-5463
    Topics: Biology
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  • 31
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    Wiley | Financial Management Association International | JSTOR
    Online: 1(1).1972 – (older than 4 years)
    Publisher: Wiley , Financial Management Association International , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0046-3892
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-053X
    Topics: Economics
    Keywords: JSTOR Archive Collection Business II
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  • 32
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    Routledge, Taylor & Francis | IOS Press | Wiley
    Online: 8.1998 – 10.2003
    Publisher: Routledge, Taylor & Francis , IOS Press , Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0268-1102
    Electronic ISSN: 1554-0170
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 33
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1990 – 6.1995
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1045-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1549-9316
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 34
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.1989 – 13.2001
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1040-7685
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-667X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 35
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    Wiley | American Oil Chemist's Society | formerly Springer
    Online: 1.1998 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Oil Chemist's Society , formerly Springer
    Print ISSN: 1097-3958
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-9293
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 36
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    Wiley
    Online: 15(1).2001 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 2043-0655
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 37
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.2004 – 2.2005
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1612-8931
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-0045
    Topics: Economics
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  • 38
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    Wiley | Oxford University Press
    Online: 1(1).2014 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Oxford University Press
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-4986
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 39
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    Wiley
    Online: 3(3).1995 – 6(4).1998
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0966-9051
    Electronic ISSN: 1361-6374
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 40
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    Wiley | Association for Tropical Biology; JSTOR
    Online: 1.1969 – (older than 6 years)
    Publisher: Wiley , Association for Tropical Biology; JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0006-3606
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-7429
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: JSTOR Archive Collection Ecology & Botany I
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  • 41
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1864-5631
    Electronic ISSN: 1864-564X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 42
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).1980 – 50(6).2002
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0196-4763
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-0320
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 43
    Formerly as: Cytometry  (1980–2002)
    Publisher: Wiley
    Corporation: International Society for Analytical Cytology, ISAC
    Print ISSN: 1552-4949
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-4957
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 44
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    Wiley | Electronics and Telekommunication Research Institute
    Online: 15(2).1993 –
    Publisher: Wiley , Electronics and Telekommunication Research Institute
    Print ISSN: 1225-6463
    Electronic ISSN: 2233-7326
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 45
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2012 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2048-3694
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 46
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    Wiley | American Geophysical Union
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Wiley , American Geophysical Union
    Electronic ISSN: 2471-1403
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
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  • 47
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    Wiley | JSTOR
    Online: 9(1).1988 – (older than 6 years)
    Publisher: Wiley , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0894-3796
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1379
    Topics: Psychology , Economics
    Keywords: JSTOR Archive Collection Business I
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  • 48
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    Wiley
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Topics: Physics
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  • 49
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    Wiley
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Electronic ISSN: 2475-4455
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    Wiley
    Online: 48.2012 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0177-7580
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 51
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    Wiley | formerly Elsevier
    Online: 4.1994 – 11.2002
    Publisher: Wiley , formerly Elsevier
    Print ISSN: 1058-3300
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5924
    Topics: Economics
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  • 52
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    Wiley
    Online: 1.2000 – 2.2001
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1529-7942
    Electronic ISSN: 1529-7950
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 53
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    Wiley
    Online: 7(2).2011 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Topics: Physics
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  • 54
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    Wiley
    Online: 23(5).2011 –
    Publisher: Wiley
    Print ISSN: 0966-0941
    Electronic ISSN: 0966-0941
    Topics: Physics
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  • 55
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Wiley
    Call number: MOP S 12168
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Although it has been more than 30 years since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, comprehending the interconnections between hydrothermal venting and microbial life remains a challenge. Here we investigate abiotic-biotic linkages in low-temperature hydrothermal biotopes at Desperate and Lilliput on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both sites are basalt-hosted and fluids exhibit the expected chemical signatures. However, contrasting crustal permeabilities have been proposed, supporting pervasive mixing at Desperate but restricting circulation at Lilliput. In Desperate fluids, sulfide and O2 were readily available but H2 hardly detectable. Under incubation conditions (oxic unamended, sulfide-spiked, oxic and anoxic H2 -spiked at 18°C), only sulfide oxidation by Thiomicrospira fuelled biomass synthesis. Microbial phylogenies from Desperate incubation experiments resembled those of the natural samples suggesting that the incubation conditions mimicked the environment. In Lilliput fluids, O2 was limited, whereas sulfide and H2 were enriched. Autotrophy appeared to be stimulated by residual sulfide and by amended H2 . Yet, based on bacterial phylogenies only conditions in anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput incubations appeared similar to parts of the Lilliput habitat. In anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput enrichments Campylobacteraceae likely supported biomass production through H2 oxidation. We argue that the diverging circulation patterns arising from different subseafloor permeabilities act as major driving forces shaping these biotope structures.
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  • 58
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    Wiley
    In:  In: State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005: A Detailed 50-year Survey of Meteorology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Environment. , ed. by Feistel , R., Nausch , G. and Wasmund , N. Wiley, Hoboken, pp. 265-309.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Description: Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka et Shimada sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) is described from southern and western Japan and is characterized by the following combination of features: (i) the large, fragile, easily torn thalli, which are 30–55 μm thick in the upper and middle regions and often have microscopic marginal teeth; (ii) the production of zoids in the upper marginal region; (iii) a regular alternation of dioecious gametophytes and a sporophyte; (iv) the production of free-floating thalli from torn-off attached thalli, which reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation and form green tides in summer to autumn; (v) disorderly arranged cells that are polygonal or quadrangular in the upper and middle regions; and (vi) the chloroplast covering the outer face of cell, with 1–3 pyrenoids. Ulva ohnoi differs from U. armohcana Dion et al., U. fasciata Delile, U. reticulata Forsskal, U. scandinavica Eliding and U. spiulosaOkamura et Segawa, which all possess microscopic marginal serrations, in thallus shape, cell shape or life history pattern. It is also distinguished from morphologically similar species by sequences of the nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and the plastid encoded large subunit of ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxgenase gene. Furthermore, crossing tests demonstrate that there is a reproductive boundary between U. ohnoi and the most closely related species, U. fasciata and U. reticulata.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Coccolithophores belong to the most abundant calcium carbonate mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process, resulting in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolith calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimizing crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures. To obtain insight into the pathway of biomineralization of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths, we examine intracrystalline nanostructural features of the coccolith calcite in combination with cell ultrastructural observations related to the formation of the calcite in the coccolith vesicle within the cell. With TEM diffraction and annular dark-field imaging, we prove the presence of planar imperfections in the calcite crystals such as planar mosaic block boundaries. As only minor misorientations occur, we attribute them to dislocation networks creating small-angle boundaries. Intracrystalline occluded biopolymers are not observed. Hence, in E. huxleyi calcite mosaicity is not caused by occluded biopolymers, as it is the case in extracellularly formed hard tissues of marine invertebrates, but by planar defects and dislocations which are typical for crystals formed by classical ion-by-ion growth mechanisms. Using cryo-preparation techniques for SEM and TEM, we found that the membrane of the coccolith vesicle and the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope are in tight proximity, with a well-controlled constant gap of ~4 nm between them. We describe this conspicuous connection as a not yet described interorganelle junction, the “nuclear envelope junction”. The narrow gap of this junction likely facilitates transport of Ca2+ ions from the nuclear envelope to the coccolith vesicle. On the basis of our observations, we propose that formation of the coccolith utilizes the nuclear envelope–endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-store of the cell for the transport of Ca2+ ions from the external medium to the coccolith vesicle and that E. huxleyi calcite forms by ion-by-ion growth rather than by a nanoparticle accretion mechanism.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Contents 670 I. 671 II. 671 III. 676 IV. 678 678 References 678 SUMMARY: Biotic interactions underlie life's diversity and are the lynchpin to understanding its complexity and resilience within an ecological niche. Algal biologists have embraced this paradigm, and studies building on the explosive growth in omics and cell biology methods have facilitated the in-depth analysis of nonmodel organisms and communities from a variety of ecosystems. In turn, these advances have enabled a major revision of our understanding of the origin and evolution of photosynthesis in eukaryotes, bacterial-algal interactions, control of massive algal blooms in the ocean, and the maintenance and degradation of coral reefs. Here, we review some of the most exciting developments in the field of algal biotic interactions and identify challenges for scientists in the coming years. We foresee the development of an algal knowledgebase that integrates ecosystem-wide omics data and the development of molecular tools/resources to perform functional analyses of individuals in isolation and in populations. These assets will allow us to move beyond mechanistic studies of a single species towards understanding the interactions amongst algae and other organisms in both the laboratory and the field.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: The responses of sea ice microalgae to variation in ambient irradiance (0 to 150 μE · m−2· s−1), temperature (–6° to + 6° C), and salinity (0 to 100 ppt) were tested to determine whether these variables act independently or in concert to influence rates of microalgal photosynthesis. The photosynthetic efficiency and maximum photosynthetic rate for sea ice microalgae increased as a function of incubation temperature between -6° and + 6° C. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency, maximum photosynthetic rate, and quantum yield were greatest at salinities between SO and 50 ppt. In contrast, the mean specific absorption coefficients were lowest near seawater salinities, and the saturating irradiance, Is, appeared to be inversely proportional to salinity. Results also suggest that the effects of salinity on the growth of sea ice microalgae are independent of those elicited by temperature or light, and that the functional relationship between salinity and light or temperature is multiplicative. This information is essential to the proper formulation of algorithms used to describe algal growth in environments where light, temperature, and salinity are changing simultaneously, such as within sea ice or within the water column at the marginal ice edge zone.
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  • 63
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    In:  Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 55 (31). pp. 8944-8947.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Bacterial defense mechanisms have evolved to protect bacteria against predation by nematodes, predatory bacteria, or amoebae. We identified novel bacterial alkaloids (pyreudiones A–D) that protect the producer, Pseudomonas fluorescens HKI0770, against amoebal predation. Isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and a proposed biosynthetic pathway for these structures are presented. The generation of P. fluorescens gene-deletion mutants unable to produce pyreudiones rendered the bacterium edible to a variety of soil-dwelling amoebae.
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  • 64
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    In:  Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5 (2). pp. 281-290.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Geoengineering, especially its potentially fast and high-leverage versions, is often justified as a necessary response to possible future climate emergencies. In this article, we take the notion of ‘necessity’ in international law as a starting point in assessing how rapid, high-leverage geoengineering might be justified legally. The need to specify reliably ‘grave and imminent peril’ makes such a justification difficult because our scientific ability to predict abrupt climate change, for example, as tipping elements, is limited. The time it takes to establish scientific consensus as well as policy acceptance restricts the scope for effective forewarning and so pre-emptive justifications for geoengineering become more tempting. While recognizing that dangerous, large-scale impacts of climate change is becoming increasingly difficult to avoid, the pre-emptive, emergency frame is problematic. We suggest that arguments from emergency operate on a high level of uncertainty and tend toward hubristic attempts to shape the future, as well as tending to close down rather than open up space for deliberation. We conclude that the emergency frame is not likely to go away, that ignoring or repressing it is a dangerous response, and that more effort is required to defuse and disarm emergency rhetoric.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Fucoidan, a natural component of seaweeds, is reported to have immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underpinning these activities remain poorly understood. In this study, the cytotoxicity and anti-tumor activities of fucoidan were investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The human AML cell lines NB4, KG1a, HL60, and K562 were treated with fucoidan and cell cycle, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic pathways molecules were analyzed. Fucoidan suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines NB4 and HL60, but not in KG1a and K562 cells. In NB4 cells, apoptosis was caspase-dependent as it was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor. P21/WAF1/CIP1 was significantly up-regulated leading to cell cycle arrest. Fucoidan decreased the activation of ERK1/2 and down-regulated the activation of AKT through hypo-phosphorylation of Thr(308) residue but not Ser(473). In vivo, a xenograft model using the NB4 cells was employed. Mice were fed with fucoidan and tumor growth was measured following inoculation with NB4 cells. Subsequently, splenic natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity was also examined. Oral doses of fucoidan significantly delayed tumor growth in the xenograft model and increased cytolytic activity of NK cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the selective inhibitory effect of fucoidan on APL cells and its protective effect against APL development in mice warrant further investigation of fucoidan as a useful agent in treatment of certain types of leukemia.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNFα stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNFα, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNFα stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNFα may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism.
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  • 67
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    In:  Journal of Phycology, 28 (5). pp. 678-683.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Studies of laboratory cultures of Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton from southernmost South America revealed that this species has an obligate sexual life history in which a macroscopic sporophyte alternates with a monoecious microscopic gametophyte. Sexual reproduction is isogamous and under photoperiodic control. Gametes are produced only in short days, whereas in long days, asexual zoospores are formed that recycle the gametophyte generation. Unfused gametes develop into gametophytes, and sporophytes originate only from zygotes. Unlike other sexual members of the Chordariales, gametes of C. linearis have a reduced stigma and do not show phototaxis. They are released at the beginning of the night, not in the morning. In nature, C. linearis seems to be regularly infected by a dictyosiphonalean epiphyte resembling the rare arctic species Trachynema groenlandicum (Lund) Pedersen. The epiphyte is responsible for previous contradictory results obtained in laboratory cultures of C. linearis. This is the first record of Trachynema in the southern hemisphere.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The diversity of stony corals displays one of the most exemplary latitudinal gradients on the planet, yet the evolutionary dynamics that produced this pattern remains unclear. Using both paleontological and distributional data, we compare the origination, extinction and immigration levels between low and high latitudes since the earliest proliferation of the group during the mid-Triassic. Altogether, first and last occurrence localities in the fossil record do not support a positive preference towards either latitudinal bin. Nonetheless, considering past and present scleractinian fauna, the process of extinction has been apparently more pronounced at higher latitudes based on face values and correlation coefficients. Far above these differences, immigration of extant taxa has been substantially higher towards the tropics than to temperate regions. While the net dispersal toward low latitudes persists in all temporal intervals, the gradient of diversity was largely built up during the Cenozoic Era and only becomes significantly steep from the Neogene Period onwards. This dynamic supports the ‘into the tropical museum’ model, which suggests that tropics have historically acted as a center of accumulation for marine biodiversity.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Sexual dimorphism is founded upon a resource allocation trade-off between investments in reproduction versus other life-history traits including the immune system. In species with conventional parental care roles, theory predicts that males maximize their lifetime reproductive success by allocating resources toward sexual selection, while females achieve this through prolonging their lifespan. Here, we examine the interrelation between sexual dimorphism and parental care strategies in closely related maternal and biparental mouthbrooding cichlid fishes from East African Lake Tanganyika. We measured cellular immune parameters, examined the relative expression of 28 immune system and life history-related candidate genes and analyzed the microbiota composition in the buccal cavity. According to our predictions, maternal mouthbrooders are more sexually dimorphic in immune parameters than biparental mouthbrooders, which has possibly arisen through a differential resource allocation into parental care versus secondary sexual traits. Biparental mouthbrooders, on the other hand, which share the costs of parental care, feature an upregulated adaptive immune response and stronger antiviral properties, while their inflammation response is reduced. Overall, our results suggest a differential resource allocation trade-off between the two modes of parental investment.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Haplogloia andersonii (Farlow) Levring is an anti-tropical species that occurs on cold and warm-temperate Pacific coasts of both Americas. In its habit it resembles the subantarctic species Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton. Culture studies show that the species differ in morphology and ecophysiology of their microscopic gametophytes and in gamete behavior. Details of sporophyte anatomy are presented that also allow the distinction of field plants. In South America, H. andersonii occurs only on the Pacific coast, from central Perú (14°S) to southern Chile (50°S). Chordaria linearis occurs on the Pacific coast from Chiloé Island (43°S) to Cape Horn (56°S). In the shared area the species may co-occur. On the Atlantic coast, C. linearis was newly collected at a locality in northern Patagonia (41°S). In addition, C. linearis occurs in Antarctica. Haplogloia moniliformis Richer, recently described from Macquarie Island, is probably synonymous with Chordaria linearis.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: The survival of cod Gadus morhua, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, and dab Limanda limanda was determined in relation to ambient oxygen saturation at 8° C and 35% m salinity. Mortalit rates were observed in fish exposed to constant oxygen levels for 24h. First mortality occurred around 60 % oxygen saturation in cod and around 30% oxygen saturation in dab and plaice. Below these thresholds mortality increased linearly with decreasing oxygen levels. If cod were infested with 1 or 2 individuals of Lernaeocera branchialis (Copepoda), their tolerance was significantly lower; under such circumstances the incipient lethal oxygen saturation was 66 %.
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  • 72
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    In:  International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 42 (7). pp. 931-942.
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: Gas hydrate‐bearing sediments (GHBSs) have been considered as a potential energy resource. In this paper, the mechanical properties of GHBS are firstly investigated by the integrated test apparatus for synthesis of GHBS using silty sand as skeleton. Triaxial tests indicate an obvious transition of stress‐strain relationship from strain hardening under low hydrate saturation and strain softening under high hydrate saturation. The hypoplastic models coupled with Drucker‐Prager criterion and the Mohr‐Coulomb criterion are proposed to analyze the stress‐strain relationship of GHBS with considering the effective porosity because of the hydrate filling in the pores of GHBS. The strain hardening and softening behaviors are well predicted with less material parameters compared with the classical models. Compared with the test results, the proposed hypoplastic models are verified to be capable of capturing the salient features of the mechanical behaviors of GHBS under the conditions of little temperature change and no hydrate dissociation.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: There has been increasing interest in algae-based bioassessment, particularly, trait-based approaches are increasingly suggested. However, the main drivers, especially the contribution of hydrological variables, of species composition, trait composition, and beta diversity of algae communities are less studied. To link species and trait composition to multiple factors (i.e., hydrological variables, local environmental variables, and spatial factors) that potentially control species occurrence/abundance and to determine their relative roles in shaping species composition, trait composition, and beta diversities of pelagic algae communities, samples were collected from a German lowland catchment, where a well-proven ecohydrological modeling enabled to predict long-term discharges at each sampling site. Both trait and species composition showed significant correlations with hydrological, environmental, and spatial variables, and variation partitioning revealed that the hydrological and local environmental variables outperformed spatial variables. A higher variation of trait composition (57.0%) than species composition (37.5%) could be explained by abiotic factors. Mantel tests showed that both species and trait-based beta diversities were mostly related to hydrological and environmental heterogeneity with hydrological contributing more than environmental variables, while purely spatial impact was less important. Our findings revealed the relative importance of hydrological variables in shaping pelagic algae community and their spatial patterns of beta diversities, emphasizing the need to include hydrological variables in long-term biomonitoring campaigns and biodiversity conservation or restoration. A key implication for biodiversity conservation was that maintaining the instream flow regime and keeping various habitats among rivers are of vital importance. However, further investigations at multispatial and temporal scales are greatly needed.
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  • 74
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    Wiley
    In:  International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 37 (8). pp. 832-854.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: This article presents a fundamental study on the role of particle breakage on the shear behavior of granular soils using the three-dimensional (3-D) discrete element method. The effects of particle breakage on the stress ratio, volumetric strain, plastic deformation, and shear failure behavior of dense crushable specimens undergoing plane strain shearing conditions are thoroughly investigated through a variety of micromechanical analyses and mechanism demonstrations. The simulation of a granular specimen is based on the effective modeling of realistic fracture behavior of single soil particles, which is demonstrated by the qualitative agreement between the results from platen compression simulations and those from physical laboratory tests. The simulation results show that the major effects of particle breakage include the reduction of volumetric dilation and peak stress ratio and more importantly the plastic deformation mechanisms and the shear failure modes vary as a function of soil crushability. Consistent macro- and micromechanical evidence demonstrates that shear banding and massive volumetric contraction depict the two end failure modes of a dense specimen, which is dominated by particle rearrangement–induced dilation and particle crushing–induced compression, respectively, with a more general case being the combination and competition of the two failure modes in the medium range of soil crushability and confining stress. However, it is further shown that a highly crushable specimen will eventually develop a shear band at a large strain because of the continuous decay of particle breakage.
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  • 75
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    In:  In: Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. , ed. by Berglund, B. E. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 527-570. ISBN 0-471-90691-3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Climate change will not only shift environmental means but will also increase the intensity of extreme events, exerting additional stress on ecosystems. While field observations on the ecological consequences of heat waves are emerging, experimental evidence is rare, and lacking at the community level. Using a novel "near-natural" outdoor mesocosms approach, this study tested whether marine summer heat waves have detrimental consequences for macrofauna of a temperate coastal community, and whether sequential heat waves provoke an increase or decrease of sensitivity to thermal stress. Three treatments were applied, defined and characterized through a statistical analysis of 15 years of temperature records from the experimental site: (1) no heat wave, (2) two heat waves in June and July followed by a summer heat wave in August and (3) the summer heat wave only. Overall, 50% of the species showed positive, negative or positive/negative responses in either abundance and/or biomass. We highlight four possible ways in which single species responded to either three subsequent heat waves or one summer heat wave: (1) absence of a response (tolerance, 50% of species), (2) negative accumulative effects by three subsequent heat waves (tellinid bivalve), (3) buffering by proceeding heat waves due to acclimation and/or shifts in phenology (spionid polychaete) and (4) an accumulative positive effect by subsequent heat waves (amphipod). The differential responses to single or sequential heat waves at the species level entailed shifts at the community level. Community-level differences between single and triple heat waves were more pronounced than those between regimes with vs. without heat waves. Detritivory was reduced by the single heat wave while suspension feeding was less common in the triple heat wave regime. Critical extreme events occur already today and will occur more frequently in a changing climate, thus, leading to detrimental impacts on coastal marine systems.
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  • 77
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    In:  International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 31 (3). pp. 373-393.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: In contrast to continuum systems where localization or shear banding arises through a bifurcation in a predefined system of differential equations, shear bands emerge in numerical simulations of deforming granular systems with no prescribed mathematical relations other than simple contact forces between particles. Shear bands emerge from the self‐organization of large numbers of particles with long‐range geometrical interactions playing a dominant role; both translation and rotation of particles are important. Granular media therefore deform more like materials with non‐local constitutive relations than materials where only first‐order interactions are relevant. In this paper we adopt a thermo‐mechanical approach and explore the fluxes of energy in the evolving granular system (that has cohesion as well as friction between the particles) as it is loaded through the unstable localization regime, and track the evolution of energy dissipation. As in continua, the sign of the second‐order work defines the emergence of instability in the system. Initially, these instabilities decay into stable configurations of particles but with continued loading, force chains collapse locally to generate geometrically necessary fractures. These zones then propagate to generate localization zones. When these fractures form a continuous network, the system is at the percolation thresh‐hold for broken bonds. However, long before this stage, the second‐order work fluctuates in bursts weakly correlated with bursts in kinetic energy as damage accumulates. This behaviour suggests that any continuum constitutive description of granular media must be (i) non‐local in an anisotropic manner, (ii) micro‐polar, and (iii) involve damage evolution.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Gelatinous zooplankton can dominate the dynamics of marine ecosystems; can have major ecological, social, and economic impacts; are often indicative of broader ecosystem perturbations; and are increasingly being harvested by humans. Yet fisheries scientists typically do not monitor these taxa on a regular basis, despite the existence of clear rationales and even mandated authorizations to do so. Notably, the costs of monitoring jellyfish during regular fisheries research cruises would be a small increase over the cost of running a large fishery survey and a small fraction of the costs caused by impacts from these taxa. As ecosystems experience increasing pressures from climate change and fisheries, we recommend considering routine monitoring before some future jellyfish‐associated crisis arises.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: We present high-resolution resistivity imaging of gas hydrate pipe-like structures, as derived from marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) inversions that combine towed and ocean-bottom electric field receiver data, acquired from the Nyegga region, offshore Norway. Two-dimensional CSEM inversions applied to the towed receiver data detected four new prominent vertical resistive features that are likely gas hydrate structures, located in proximity to a major gas hydrate pipe-like structure, known as the CNE03 pockmark. The resistivity model resulting from the CSEM data inversion resolved the CNE03 hydrate structure in high resolution, as inferred by comparison to seismically constrained inversions. Our results indicate that shallow gas hydrate vertical features can be delineated effectively by inverting both ocean-bottom and towed receiver CSEM data simultaneously. The approach applied here can be utilised to map and monitor seafloor mineralisation, freshwater reservoirs, CO2 sequestration sites and near-surface geothermal systems.
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  • 80
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    In:  Macromolecular Symposia, 141 (1). pp. 103-116.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-09
    Description: In this paper we discuss the use of Raman spectroscopy for characterising polymers both in the laboratory and also in‐situ at the production line. We show how polymer crystallinity can be followed during extrusion and drawing, and describe the compositional analysis of cross‐linked acrylic terpolymers in a polymerisation reactor. We also discuss problems which can arise such as sample fluorescence from moving polymers, distortion of relative band intensities due to chromatic aberration, and sampling difficulties with turbid solutions.
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Aim: Experimental simulation of near‐future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans‐generational exposure to near‐future acidification levels. Methods: Here, we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, to study trans‐generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints. Results: Acclimation of adults to pHT 7.2 (pCO2 3500 μatm) led to reductions in feeding rates, gonad weight and fecundity. No effects were evident at moderate acidification levels (pHT 7.4; pCO2 2000 μatm). Parental pre‐acclimation to pHT 7.2 for 85 days reduced developmental rates even when larvae were raised under moderate and high pH conditions, whereas pre‐acclimation to pHT 7.4 did not alter offspring performance. Microelectrode measurements and pharmacological inhibitor studies carried out on larval stages demonstrated that maintenance of alkaline gastric pH represents a substantial energy sink under acidified conditions that may contribute up to 30% to the total energy budget. Conclusion: Parental pre‐acclimation to acidification levels that are beyond the pH that is encountered by this population in its natural habitat (eg, pHT 7.2) negatively affected larval size and development, potentially through reduced energy transfer. Maintenance of alkaline gastric pH and reductions in maternal energy reserves probably constitute the main factors for a reduced juvenile recruitment of this marine keystone species under simulated OA.
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  • 82
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    In:  Vom Wasser, 21 . pp. 13-32.
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
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  • 83
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    In:  Vom Wasser, 13 . pp. 87-97.
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Aim: We examined potential environmental drivers of broad-scale spatial patterns in the trophic structure of marine ecosystems as represented by nitrogen stable isotopes in globally distributed marine predators. Additionally, we assessed the effects of spatial scale on the predictive capabilities of environmental variables. Location: Global oceans. Time period: 2000 to 2015. Major taxa studied: Tunas: Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus, Thunnus alalunga. Methods: We undertook a global compilation and meta-analysis of the bulk nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N values) of three tuna species (n = 4,281). After adjusting for regional variations in baseline δ15N values using a global ocean biogeochemistry model, generalized additive mixed models were employed to infer global-scale oceanographic controls of trophic structure, using cosmopolitan tuna species as a model. Results: For the three tuna species, variation in trophic position estimated using bulk δ15N values was largely explained by geographical location and the corresponding oxygen minimum layer depth. Tuna trophic positions declined in areas with reduced oxygen at depth. Food-chain length, as captured by maximum trophic position, was longer in areas of the western Pacific Ocean and shorter in the northern Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Trophic adaptability of the tuna predators, as indicated by intraspecific variability, was highest in the western and central Pacific Ocean and lowest in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Our analysis demonstrated that while tunas share similar functional trophic roles, deeper-foraging tuna species had higher trophic positions globally. The predictive capacity of environmental variables decreased at finer (regional) spatial scales. Main conclusions: Our work suggests that habitat compression resulting from the predicted global expansion of oxygen minimum zones with ocean warming will impact the trophic structure of marine food webs and the corresponding foraging habits of marine predators. Spatial scale analyses highlighted the importance of representing differences in regional ecological dynamics