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  • Other Sources  (1,565)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (1,565)
  • Wiley  (1,000)
  • American Meteorological Society  (348)
  • Springer Nature  (199)
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  • Other Sources  (1,565)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Although it has been more than 30 years since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, comprehending the interconnections between hydrothermal venting and microbial life remains a challenge. Here we investigate abiotic-biotic linkages in low-temperature hydrothermal biotopes at Desperate and Lilliput on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both sites are basalt-hosted and fluids exhibit the expected chemical signatures. However, contrasting crustal permeabilities have been proposed, supporting pervasive mixing at Desperate but restricting circulation at Lilliput. In Desperate fluids, sulfide and O2 were readily available but H2 hardly detectable. Under incubation conditions (oxic unamended, sulfide-spiked, oxic and anoxic H2 -spiked at 18°C), only sulfide oxidation by Thiomicrospira fuelled biomass synthesis. Microbial phylogenies from Desperate incubation experiments resembled those of the natural samples suggesting that the incubation conditions mimicked the environment. In Lilliput fluids, O2 was limited, whereas sulfide and H2 were enriched. Autotrophy appeared to be stimulated by residual sulfide and by amended H2 . Yet, based on bacterial phylogenies only conditions in anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput incubations appeared similar to parts of the Lilliput habitat. In anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput enrichments Campylobacteraceae likely supported biomass production through H2 oxidation. We argue that the diverging circulation patterns arising from different subseafloor permeabilities act as major driving forces shaping these biotope structures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Wiley
    In:  In: State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005: A Detailed 50-year Survey of Meteorology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Environment. , ed. by Feistel , R., Nausch , G. and Wasmund , N. Wiley, Hoboken, pp. 265-309.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Description: Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka et Shimada sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) is described from southern and western Japan and is characterized by the following combination of features: (i) the large, fragile, easily torn thalli, which are 30–55 μm thick in the upper and middle regions and often have microscopic marginal teeth; (ii) the production of zoids in the upper marginal region; (iii) a regular alternation of dioecious gametophytes and a sporophyte; (iv) the production of free-floating thalli from torn-off attached thalli, which reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation and form green tides in summer to autumn; (v) disorderly arranged cells that are polygonal or quadrangular in the upper and middle regions; and (vi) the chloroplast covering the outer face of cell, with 1–3 pyrenoids. Ulva ohnoi differs from U. armohcana Dion et al., U. fasciata Delile, U. reticulata Forsskal, U. scandinavica Eliding and U. spiulosaOkamura et Segawa, which all possess microscopic marginal serrations, in thallus shape, cell shape or life history pattern. It is also distinguished from morphologically similar species by sequences of the nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and the plastid encoded large subunit of ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxgenase gene. Furthermore, crossing tests demonstrate that there is a reproductive boundary between U. ohnoi and the most closely related species, U. fasciata and U. reticulata.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: The responses of sea ice microalgae to variation in ambient irradiance (0 to 150 μE · m−2· s−1), temperature (–6° to + 6° C), and salinity (0 to 100 ppt) were tested to determine whether these variables act independently or in concert to influence rates of microalgal photosynthesis. The photosynthetic efficiency and maximum photosynthetic rate for sea ice microalgae increased as a function of incubation temperature between -6° and + 6° C. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency, maximum photosynthetic rate, and quantum yield were greatest at salinities between SO and 50 ppt. In contrast, the mean specific absorption coefficients were lowest near seawater salinities, and the saturating irradiance, Is, appeared to be inversely proportional to salinity. Results also suggest that the effects of salinity on the growth of sea ice microalgae are independent of those elicited by temperature or light, and that the functional relationship between salinity and light or temperature is multiplicative. This information is essential to the proper formulation of algorithms used to describe algal growth in environments where light, temperature, and salinity are changing simultaneously, such as within sea ice or within the water column at the marginal ice edge zone.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Wiley
    In:  Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 55 (31). pp. 8944-8947.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Bacterial defense mechanisms have evolved to protect bacteria against predation by nematodes, predatory bacteria, or amoebae. We identified novel bacterial alkaloids (pyreudiones A–D) that protect the producer, Pseudomonas fluorescens HKI0770, against amoebal predation. Isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and a proposed biosynthetic pathway for these structures are presented. The generation of P. fluorescens gene-deletion mutants unable to produce pyreudiones rendered the bacterium edible to a variety of soil-dwelling amoebae.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Geoengineering, especially its potentially fast and high-leverage versions, is often justified as a necessary response to possible future climate emergencies. In this article, we take the notion of ‘necessity’ in international law as a starting point in assessing how rapid, high-leverage geoengineering might be justified legally. The need to specify reliably ‘grave and imminent peril’ makes such a justification difficult because our scientific ability to predict abrupt climate change, for example, as tipping elements, is limited. The time it takes to establish scientific consensus as well as policy acceptance restricts the scope for effective forewarning and so pre-emptive justifications for geoengineering become more tempting. While recognizing that dangerous, large-scale impacts of climate change is becoming increasingly difficult to avoid, the pre-emptive, emergency frame is problematic. We suggest that arguments from emergency operate on a high level of uncertainty and tend toward hubristic attempts to shape the future, as well as tending to close down rather than open up space for deliberation. We conclude that the emergency frame is not likely to go away, that ignoring or repressing it is a dangerous response, and that more effort is required to defuse and disarm emergency rhetoric.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Fucoidan, a natural component of seaweeds, is reported to have immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underpinning these activities remain poorly understood. In this study, the cytotoxicity and anti-tumor activities of fucoidan were investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The human AML cell lines NB4, KG1a, HL60, and K562 were treated with fucoidan and cell cycle, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic pathways molecules were analyzed. Fucoidan suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines NB4 and HL60, but not in KG1a and K562 cells. In NB4 cells, apoptosis was caspase-dependent as it was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor. P21/WAF1/CIP1 was significantly up-regulated leading to cell cycle arrest. Fucoidan decreased the activation of ERK1/2 and down-regulated the activation of AKT through hypo-phosphorylation of Thr(308) residue but not Ser(473). In vivo, a xenograft model using the NB4 cells was employed. Mice were fed with fucoidan and tumor growth was measured following inoculation with NB4 cells. Subsequently, splenic natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity was also examined. Oral doses of fucoidan significantly delayed tumor growth in the xenograft model and increased cytolytic activity of NK cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the selective inhibitory effect of fucoidan on APL cells and its protective effect against APL development in mice warrant further investigation of fucoidan as a useful agent in treatment of certain types of leukemia.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNFα stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNFα, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNFα stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNFα may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    In:  Journal of Phycology, 28 (5). pp. 678-683.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Studies of laboratory cultures of Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton from southernmost South America revealed that this species has an obligate sexual life history in which a macroscopic sporophyte alternates with a monoecious microscopic gametophyte. Sexual reproduction is isogamous and under photoperiodic control. Gametes are produced only in short days, whereas in long days, asexual zoospores are formed that recycle the gametophyte generation. Unfused gametes develop into gametophytes, and sporophytes originate only from zygotes. Unlike other sexual members of the Chordariales, gametes of C. linearis have a reduced stigma and do not show phototaxis. They are released at the beginning of the night, not in the morning. In nature, C. linearis seems to be regularly infected by a dictyosiphonalean epiphyte resembling the rare arctic species Trachynema groenlandicum (Lund) Pedersen. The epiphyte is responsible for previous contradictory results obtained in laboratory cultures of C. linearis. This is the first record of Trachynema in the southern hemisphere.
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