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  • Articles  (36)
  • J31  (33)
  • Educación
  • Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)  (25)
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The urban labor market in Bolivia can be divided into 4 main sectors: 1) the public sector, 2) the formal private sector, 3) self-employed informals, and 4) informal workers. Although incomes are generally higher in the public sector and in the formal private sector, there is a strong preference in Bolivia for being informally self-employed. Two thirds of both men and women in urban areas respond that they would prefer to be self-employed rather than a salaried employee, and few see any advantage of becoming formal under the current institutional set-up. Currently, half of all economically active women in urban areas are informally self-employed, while this is the case for only one third of men. This implies that women are actually closer to the desired state than men, according to their own preferences. The real problem for women is not that they are informally self-employed, but rather that the profitability of their informal enterprises is low. On average, monthly profits of female micro-entrepreneurs is about 40% lower than those of male micro-entrepreneurs. This report uses quantitative information from about 600 micro and small enterprises to break down and understand this gender gap in profitability, and the results show that almost the whole gap is due to the fact that women operate their businesses on a much smaller scale (with less productive capital and fewer employees) than men. Why do female entrepreneurs operate on a smaller scale? One partial explanation is that they do not want to grow, because the business then would loose some of the features that make a micro-business particularly attractive for women (not to depend on others, to be able to care for children simultaneously, flexible working hours, and daily revenues). More important, however, is the lack of access to capital. Micro and small businesses operated by women have only a third of the operating capital of male operated businesses. There are two main reasons for this. First, women generally have fewer opportunities to accumulate capital, both because their household and reproductive work takes time away from paid work, and because they tend to earn less than men when they do work for money. Second, they do not have access to credit on reasonable terms. Access by itself is not the problem, as there is a very active micro-credit industry in Bolivia, but the terms are so unattractive that women try to avoid it if at all possible. The interest rates are high (20-40% per year); the group-lending practices increases the risk for the borrower, as they may end up paying other group members debt also; and they are typically required to assist at compulsory training courses twice a month, which is demanding for busy women running both a business and a household. Banks offer loans at more reasonable terms, but the requirements are difficult for micro-entrepreneurs to comply with (especially proof of a monthly pay check) and the risk is large as an entire house is often put up as collateral for even a small loan. Capital and credit is not a binding constraint in all sectors, however. On average, returns to additional capital investments are estimated to be relatively high (internal rates of return of over 20%) in the food sales sector, the textile clothing sector, and the camelid clothing sector. In contrast, they are estimated to be negative for grocery stores and the transport sector, which have experienced overinvestment to the extent that the returns to both capital and labor in these two sectors have been severely depressed. Even in the sectors where returns to capital are relatively high, a doubling of productive capital would not lead to a doubling of monthly profits. In fact, estimation results show strongly diminishing returns to scale, which means that micro-enterprises have little incentive to grow. Under the current institutional setup in Bolivia, it makes more economic sense to have several identical micro-enterprises in the family rather than one larger enterprise, and this is indeed often observed in practice. This is partly due to the characteristics of the sectors (for example, several small stores can capture a larger market due to the geographical dispersion), but it is mostly due to the tax-system, which becomes very demanding, both in terms of bureaucratic procedures and in terms of tax burden, as soon as an enterprise grows past a certain threshold. Under the current institutional set up, micro-entrepreneurs perceive no benefits from becoming formal, and indeed estimation results confirm that formality would lower the monthly profits of micro-enterprises (less than 3 workers and less than $1000 in operating capital) by 30-40%. Slightly bigger firms (3-5 workers), however, may benefit from getting a NIT and thus be able to offer facturas to the clients.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; J42 ; J48 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Productivity ; Gender ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper estimates structural parameters of both a simple and an extended job separation model with the purpose of understanding constraints in the labor market in Bolivia. The results confirm the hypothesis that skilled labor is a scarce commodity in Bolivia, while unskilled labor is abundantly available. This implies that skilled employees shop around for alternative employment opportunities and quit their jobs when a better opportunity arises. The quit rate among skilled employees in the private sector is much higher than the quit rate among skilled employees in the public sector. The reverse is true for the lay-off rate, and together this suggests that the private sector has difficulties maintaining its skilled labor. The estimates of the wage sensitivity of job search effort parameters presented in this paper suggest that it would be difficult for the private sector to improve its capacity to retain skilled employees by increasing wages skilled employees in the private sector do not seem to reduce their on-the-job search in response to higher wages. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the public sector in Bolivia, inflated by high levels of foreign aid (about 10% of GDP), may be detracting scarce human resources from local productive sectors, potentially jeopardizing the opportunity for sustainable development.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Mobility ; on-the-job search ; labor markets ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Varios estudios realizados en Bolivia sugieren que los trabajadores calificados son escasos y que los puestos de trabajo en el sector público son tan atractivos que el sector privado no puede captar ni mantener los trabajadores calificados que necesita. Tal tendencia limita fuertemente el crecimiento económico y la reducción de la pobreza, puesto que el sector productivo tiene restricciones en la contratación eficaz de uno de sus factores de producción más importantes. El presente documento testea esta hipótesis a través de la estimación de modelos estructurales que permitan estudiar los patrones de comportamiento de búsqueda de trabajo de los empleados en Bolivia. Los resultados están consistentes con la hipótesis.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Movilidad ; mercado laboral ; búsqueda de trabajo ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Based on a two-million-observation panel dataset that matches public firms with detailed data on their employees, we find that entrenched managers pay their workers more. For example, our estimates show that CEOs with more control rights (votes) than all other blockholders together, pay their workers about 6%, or $2,200 per year, higher wages. Since cash flow rights ownership by the CEO and better corporate governance are found to mitigate such behavior, we interpret the higher pay as evidence of agency problems between shareholders and managers affecting workers’ pay. The findings do not appear to be driven by endogeneity of managerial ownership and are robust to a series of robustness checks. These results are consistent with an agency model in which entrenched managers pay high wages because they come with private benefits, such as lower-effort wage bargaining and better CEO-employee relations, and suggest more broadly an important link between the corporate governance of large public firms and labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: G32 ; G34 ; J31 ; J33 ; ddc:330 ; Corporate Governance ; Agency Problems ; Private Benefits ; Matched Employer-Employee Data ; Wages ; Führungskräfte ; Angestellte ; Vergütungssystem ; Lohnbildung ; Corporate Governance ; Prinzipal-Agent-Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This study explores how relative skilled-wage premia affect FDI. Contrary to previous studies based on factor endowment differences, we find strong support for vertical FDI, in the sense that more FDI is conducted in countries where unskilled labor is relatively cheap. In addition, we find t hat relative skill-premia also affect FDI activities that have previously been associated with horizontal FDI, i.e. local affiliate sales. Consequently, the potential effects of changes in the relative wage costs on international production reallocation within MNEs are large. In fact, if not for the 8% rise in the US skilled wage premium relative to the average host country between 1986-1994, annual US affiliate sales abroad in relation to US GDP would have been half a percentage point higher.
    Keywords: F13 ; F23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Multinational Firms ; Skilled-Wage Premium ; New Trade Theory ; Direktinvestition ; Arbeitskosten ; Lohnstruktur ; Qualifikation ; Schweden ; USA ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 14
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper considers the effects of union-bargained minimum wages on transitions into and out of employment in the hotels and catering industry over the period 1979–99. This industry is characterised by a high fraction of unskilled labour input, high worker turnover and binding minimum wages. The empirical approach identifies workers affected by real minimum wage increases and decreases, respectively. Job separations and accessions for the treatment groups are then contrasted to the outcomes for control groups, with wages marginally above those of the treatment groups. Unlike previous studies, this paper also considers same-period transitions for same-wage workers who are unaffected by minimum wage changes. This procedure should help to control for unobserved differences between high- and low-wage workers and is made possible by the diversified minimum wage structure of the industry. According to the results, increasing minimum wages tend to be associated with non-negligible employment effects (except for teenagers during 1993–98). The evidence regarding decreasing minimum wages is less conclusive.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Minimum Wages ; Employment ; Mindestlohn ; Beschäftigung ; Tourismusberufe ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Investigating the robustness of the skill-biased technical change hypothesis, this analysis incorporates two novel features. First, effective labor is modeled as the product of a quantity measure - number of employees with a given level of education - and a quality index, depending on, i.a., demographic characteristics and fields-of-study. Second, low-skilled labor is more disaggregated than in earlier studies. A fully specified structural model is used, containing demand equations for four categories of labor, two types of capital and intermediate goods. The empirical application covers 24 industries in the Swedish manufacturing sector 1985-1995. The skill-bias is further corroborated: it is confirmed although the specification of effective labor is supported. Substantial differences are, however, found among the low-skilled.
    Keywords: D21 ; J23 ; J31 ; L60 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Robustness Test ; Labor Quality ; Heterogeneous Low-Skilled ; Manufacturing Application ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Qualifikation ; Fachkräfte ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 16
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Investment in human capital is a central issue in the literature on economic growth. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the economic incentives for investment in university education across countries. An empirical investigation of earnings for private-sector engineers and business administrators in seven European countries - Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom - is presented. The analysis is based on a large micro-data set that is ideally suited for international comparisons. It contains information on earnings, age, occupation, responsibility level, industry and firm size. Standardized wage premia for university vs. high school level positions are computed for each country and field of work. The results indicate that the wage premia are higher for business administrators than for engineers in all the countries considered and that the premia for engineers are remarkably similar across countries. Aggregation over fields of work, which is not uncommon in studies on the returns to education, therefore seems to be questionable practice when comparing the returns in different countries.
    Keywords: J31 ; J44 ; ddc:330 ; Returns to education ; Company wage policies ; Bildungsertrag ; Akademiker ; Ingenieure ; Ökonomen ; Schätzung ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 17
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This thesis contains two studies. The first study investigates the income distribution among Namibian households. The second study examines the differences in earnings between males and females in the Namibian labour market. In both studies we use the 1993/1994 Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey. The aim of the first study is to investigate what socio-economic variables that affect the Namibian income distribution. To measure this we use the Gini coefficient. To investigate the extent to which total income inequality is due to 'within-group' inequality or 'between-group' inequality we use both Theilo's (1967) entropy index T and Theil's second measure L. Income inequality is much more pronounced in the Central/southern region than in the North/north-east region. The 'within-group' inequality seems to be the principal determinant of total inequality. Education and main source of income are important variables in determining degrees of 'between-group' inequality. We find that Namibia still suffers from a skewed income distribution. The aim of the second study is to examine the differences in earnings between males and females in manufacturing, service and public sector. The estimated earnings differences are decomposed into endowment and discrimination components using techniques by Oaxaca (1973) and Oaxaca and Ransom (1994). Comparing Heckman's (1979)two-stage estimation procedure with ordinary least square estimates we find that accounting for selection does not affect the endowment component, but do affect the discrimination component. We also find that females have a productivity advantage over the males, which reduces the gross wage differential.
    Keywords: J31 ; J71 ; O15 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Income distribution ; Gender discrimination ; Namibia ; Einkommensverteilung ; Arbeitsmarktdiskriminierung ; Schätzung ; Namibia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Lam and Schoeni (1993) consider an equation where earnings are explained by schooling and ability. They assume that ability data are lacking and that schooling is measured with error. The estimate obtained by regressing earnings on schooling thus contains omitted variable bias (OVB), which is positive, and measurement error bias (MEB), which is negative. Adding a family background variable to proxy for ability is claimed to: i) decrease the OVB towards, but not below, zero and ii) make the MEB even more negative. This note claims that while ii) is true, even in the context of multiple family background variables, i) is in general incorrect. The OVB may increase in magnitude and/or change sign. Conditions are provided under which i) holds. A simulation procedure is suggested that will yield consistent estimates of the total bias and its components, conditional upon values on the true return and the measurement error variance.
    Keywords: C13 ; C20 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; data ; Proxy variables ; Measurement error ; Partial correlations ; Simulations ; Bildungsertrag ; Schule ; Schätztheorie ; Simulation ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: A quality-adjusted specification of labor is suggested which allows firm training to affect labor efficiency. To assess the cost and productivity effects, this specification is integrated into a flexible neoclassical cost function. The empirical analysis uses panel data for eight plants in the Swedish Machine Tool Industry. The econometric results imply a high probability that training expenditures result in net decreases in total costs. Judging from the corresponding point estimates, these cost savings can be very large. The estimates of productivity effects are also positive, albeit rather small.
    Keywords: C51 ; D21 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; ENTERPRISES ; TRAINING ; WORKERS ; PRODUCTIVITY ; Personalentwicklung ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Produktionskosten ; Werkzeugmaschine ; Theorie ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; ddc:330 ; Strength of ties ; Calculative trust ; Reservation wages ; Humankapital ; Führungskräfte ; Schweden ; Führungskräfte
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; Manager ; Incentives ; Efficiency wage ; Wealth ; Dynamics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; ddc:330 ; Wage distribution ; Executive wages ; Board of directors
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Wage ; Policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; J64 ; J65 ; ddc:330 ; Reservation wages ; temporary employment ; unemployment benefits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J20 ; J31 ; J48 ; ddc:330 ; Labour market model ; firm behaviour ; equilibrium outcome ; policy analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: It was early noted that the Phillips Curve explanation of wage dynamics lacks a solid microeconomic basis. As the explanatory unemployment variable in the Phillips relation is intuitively to be regarded as an indicator of labour scarcity, several authors have argued that the determination of factor shares (the wage/profit ratio) ought to be the logical intermediate step between unemployment and wage inflation. Contributions by Kuh, Solow and Stiglitz in the late sixties follow this line of thought. As soon as wage-setting by firms instead of the impersonal forces of excess demand has been considered, problems have arisen, however. Given the ubiquity of diminishing returns to labour in the short run in static economic models, it is hard to derive the desired result that the wage share increases when unemployment falls. Monopolistic price-setting among firms can only yield such a result, if arbitrary rules for mark-up pricing are enforced. Even more disappointing, the temporarily monopsonistic firm of labour market search models has been shown to increase its (real) wage, when it faces larger flows of unemployed job applicants. The aim of this paper is to show that search theory easily yields the result that factor shares turn in favour of wages, when unemployment falls. The only important prerequisite for this result is that money wages are treated as downward rigid. The analysis remains valid when firms experience constant returns to labour in the short run (up to a capacity limit or to a demand constraint). In fact, my analysis predicts that with such a simple, but presumably relevant, production technology, factor shares are determined by the stock of unfilled vacancies, which in turn is partly determined by the unemployment stock. As intuition says the share of wages in value added increases with the stock of vacancies and decreases with unemployment.
    Keywords: J31 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Wages ; Unemployment ; Factor shares
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: D83 ; J24 ; J31 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; Wage rigidity ; tenure ; human capital ; overtime ; insider-outsider ; innovation imports
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: C10 ; C81 ; J31 ; J62 ; L22 ; ddc:330 ; Panel data ; labour mobility ; wages
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: The present study is a theoretical and empirical investigation into the aggregate wage dynamics of Swedish manufacturing. It contains three essential results: •a rigorous search theoretical model of the wage behaviour of firms is presented and adapted for application to aggregate data •the implications of the model are confirmed by Swedish data for manufacturing industry and a stable wage drift equation is demonstrated to have existed since the mid-sixties •the model is consistent with the findings of earlier postwar empirical research on wage drift in Sweden and provides them with a more satisfactory theoretical interpretation.
    Keywords: J31 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; Wages ; manufacturing sector ; wage drift ; Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Lohn ; Industrie ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: The present paper has two aims. The first one concerns primarily an issue of method. I set up and analyse an explicitly stochastic model of the optimal behaviour of a firm, which recruits from a search labour market. The second aim of my paper concerns very much an issue of substance in economics. I show that when the firm is not allowed to decrease its money wage, its optimal response to lower unemployment is to increase its wage, if a plausible (and testable) condition with regard to its expected horizon is met. Hence search theory predicts the existence of a micro Phillips relation under plausible assumptions.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; Wage rigidity ; job search ; phillips curve ; optimal firm behaviour ; Phillips-Kurve ; Lohnrigidität ; Arbeitsuche ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job search ; youth unemployment ; Markovian model ; search intensity ; reservation wage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: J31 ; J64 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; Wage dispersion ; unemployment ; Sweden ; Lohnstruktur ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Swedish Manufacturing Industry is said to be technologically and commercially in good shape. While Swedish wage levels were higher than in all industrial countries in the mid-70s, wages - expressed in international currencies - have now dropped to a mid-position, and real rates of return are back to the average for the postwar period. Given what empirical research on Swedish labor market behavior tells us, the large devaluation in late 1982 should have been followed by strong wage drift. However, to understand recruitment and wage setting decisions, one really needs a model in which firm pricing, production and investment decisions are controlled by overriding profitability objectives and where the rate of interest plays a role. The Swedish micro-to-macro model is such a model.
    Keywords: J31 ; L10 ; L23 ; ddc:330 ; Economic growth ; wage setting ; micro-macro simulation model ; Lohntheorie ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Keywords: C42 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Compensating wage differentials ; Survey ; Sweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: The human capital model predicts that in equilibrium and in the absence of discrimination units of human capital possessed by individuals are paid the same rentals. This would hold also when comparing private and government sectors. Only non-pecuniary rewards such as better job security of fringe benefits would lead to acceptance of lower money payment. In Sweden salary differentials standardized for human capital variables are found to be in favour of private sector employment. This result contrasts with recent findings for the USA where the reverse was found.
    Keywords: J31 ; J45 ; ddc:330 ; Wage ; Private sector ; Public sector
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: How important for success on the job is uninterrupted labor force participation? Data on labor force status for a 15 year period for individual salaried employees in Swedish Industry makes possible the estimation of the effect of years of experience and years of non-experience on earnings. One result is that both women and men experience salary decreases by labor force interruptions. However, net investment during non-experience years found to be positive, women as well as men return to the labor market with a larger amount of human capital after the interruption than before the interruption.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; Wage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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