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  • Springer Nature  (68,240)
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  • 1
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3669
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3650
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2157-846X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 4
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3366
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-2106
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
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    Springer Nature | formerly Wiley
    Online: 26.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , formerly Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1671-4083
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-7254
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 7
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Formerly as: Nature Reports  (2007–2010)
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Acronym: NCC
    Abbreviation: Nat Clim Change
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  • 8
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-334X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-5276
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-7132
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 12
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 50.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2510-2788
    Electronic ISSN: 1802-9698
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 13
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3642
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.1924 – (older than 5 years)
    Formerly as: Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science  (1924–1986)
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 0004-945X , 0818-9641
    Electronic ISSN: 1440-1711
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 32.2003 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 0093-7355
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-4475
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
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    Springer Nature | Society for Mining, Metallurgy, & Exploration (SME)
    Online: 1.1984 –
    Formerly as: Minerals and Metallurgical Processing Journal (M&MP)  (1984–2018)
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Society for Mining, Metallurgy, & Exploration (SME)
    Corporation: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, & Exploration (SME)
    Print ISSN: 0747-9182 , 2524-3462
    Electronic ISSN: 2524-3470
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Keywords: Bergbau ; Metallurgie
    Acronym: MME
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  • 17
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1749-4885
    Electronic ISSN: 1749-4893
    Topics: Physics
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  • 18
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7546
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Keywords: energy ; photovoltaics ; fuel cells
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  • 19
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3374
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
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  • 20
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
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  • 21
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3358
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 22
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
    Abbreviation: Nat Geosci
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  • 23
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4621
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 24
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4648
    Topics: Physics
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  • 25
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    Springer Nature | Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 26
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2 . pp. 611-613.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Climate change challenges plankton communities, but evolutionary adaptation could mitigate the potential impacts. Here, we tested with the phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi whether adaptation to a stressor under laboratory conditions leads to equivalent fitness gains in a more natural environment. We found that fitness advantages that had evolved under laboratory conditions were masked by pleiotropic effects in natural plankton communities. Moreover, new genotypes with highly variable competitive abilities evolved on timescales significantly shorter than climate change.
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  • 27
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    Springer Nature
    In:  In: Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems. , ed. by Breitkreuz, C. and Rocchi, S. Advances in Volcanology . Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 119-130.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Subvolcanic systems are characterized by complex combinations of intrusive units (dykes, sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets, etc.) for which genetic relationships are unclear. This chapter explains how whole-rock geochemistry may be used to resolve the genetic relationships of such subvolcanic (and volcanic) systems. We start with a short introduction of the geochemical fingerprinting method with particular emphasis on the statistical refinement method called Forward Stepwise-Discriminant Function Analysis (FS-DFA). Combined with field mapping and structural analysis, geochemical fingerprinting based on major and trace elements and isotope ratios, is a very powerful tool to distinguish between igneous units (lavas, sills, dykes) with subtle (or not so subtle) geochemical differences. Different geochemical fingerprinting or signatures indicate derivation from distinct magma batches. The results from FS-DFA analyses may be used to reveal genetic relationships between geological units, or lack of such, which again may be used to throw light on subvolcanic plumbing systems, the feeding system in sill-dyke complexes, as well as other problems. The method is illustrated by studies of the Golden Valley Sill Complex in the Karoo Basin (South Africa).
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-03-23
    Description: At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Description: Currently there is a scarcity of paleo-records related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly in East-Central Europe (ECE). Here we report δ15N analysis of guano from a cave in NW Romania with the intent of reconstructing past variation in ECE hydroclimate and examine NAO impacts on winter precipitation. We argue that the δ15N values of guano indicate that the nitrogen cycle is hydrologically controlled and the δ15N values likely reflect winter precipitation related to nitrogen mineralization prior to the growing season. Drier conditions indicated by δ15N values at AD 1848–1852 and AD 1880–1930 correspond to the positive phase of the NAO. The increased frequency of negative phases of the NAO between AD 1940–1975 is contemporaneous with higher δ15N values (wetter conditions). A 4‰ decrease in δ15N values at the end of the 1970’s corresponds to a strong reduction in precipitation associated with a shift from negative to positive phase of the NAO. Using the relationship between NAO index and δ15N values in guano for the instrumental period, we reconstructed NAO-like phases back to AD 1650. Our results advocate that δ15N values of guano offer a proxy of the NAO conditions in the more distant past, helping assess its predictability.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-04-08
    Description: The deglacial history of CO2 release from the deep North Pacific remains unresolved. This is due to conflicting indications about subarctic Pacific ventilation changes based on various marine proxies, especially for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS-1) when a rapid atmospheric CO2 rise occurs. Here, we use a complex Earth System Model to investigate the deglacial North Pacific overturning and its control on ocean stratification. Our results show an enhanced intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification coeval with intensified North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation during HS-1, compared to the Last Glacial Maximum. The stronger NPIW formation causes lower salinities and higher temperatures at intermediate depths. By lowering NPIW densities, this enlarges vertical density gradient and thus enhances intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification during HS-1. Physically, this process prevents the North Pacific deep waters from a better communication with the upper oceans, thus prolongs the existing isolation of glacial Pacific abyssal carbons during HS-1.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-05-03
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Subglacial lakes are widespread beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet but their control on ice-sheet dynamics and their ability to harbour life remain poorly characterized. Here we present evidence for a palaeo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continental shelf. A distinct sediment facies recovered from a bedrock basin in Pine Island Bay indicates deposition within a low-energy lake environment. Diffusive-advection modelling demonstrates that low chloride concentrations in the pore water of the corresponding sediments can only be explained by initial deposition of this facies in a freshwater setting. These observations indicate that an active subglacial meltwater network, similar to that observed beneath the extant ice sheet, was also active during the last glacial period. It also provides a new framework for refining the exploration of these unique environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)—one of the most abundant animal species on Earth—exhibits a five to six year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modelling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales. Our model indicates that the cycle amplitude increases with reduction of krill loss rates. Thus, a decline of apex predators is likely to increase the oscillation amplitude, potentially destabilizing the marine food web, with drastic consequences for the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 35
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    Springer Nature
    Publication Date: 2017-09-24
    Description: We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as sea oor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean ecosystem where it plays a central role in the Antarctic food web. Available information supports the existence of an endogenous timing system in krill enabling it to synchronize metabolism and behavior with an environment characterized by extreme seasonal changes in terms of day length, food availability, and surface ice extent. A screening of our transcriptome database “KrillDB” allowed us to identify the putative orthologues of 20 circadian clock components. Mapping of conserved domains and phylogenetic analyses strongly supported annotations of the identi ed sequences. Luciferase assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments allowed us to de ne the role of the main clock components. Our ndings provide an overall picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of the endogenous circadian clock in the Antarctic krill and shed light on their evolution throughout crustaceans speciation. Interestingly, the core clock machinery shows both mammalian and insect features that presumably contribute to an evolutionary strategy to cope with polar environment’s challenges. Moreover, despite the extreme variability characterizing the Antarctic seasonal day length, the conserved light mediated degradation of the photoreceptor EsCRY1 suggests a persisting pivotal role of light as a Zeitgeber.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-03-04
    Description: There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra landscapes are composed of a complex mosaic of patterned ground features, varying in soil moisture, vegetation composition, and surface hydrology over small spatial scales (10–100 m). The importance of microtopography and associated geomorphic landforms in influencing ecosystem structure and function is well founded, however, spatial data products describing local to regional scale distribution of patterned ground or polygonal tundra geomorphology are largely unavailable. Thus, our understanding of local impacts on regional scale processes (e.g., carbon dynamics) may be limited. We produced two key spatiotemporal datasets spanning the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km2) to evaluate climate-geomorphological controls on arctic tundra productivity change, using (1) a novel 30m classification of polygonal tundra geomorphology and (2) decadal-trends in surface greenness using the Landsat archive (1999–2014). These datasets can be easily integrated and adapted in an array of local to regional applications such as (1) upscaling plot-level measurements (e.g., carbon/energy fluxes), (2) mapping of soils, vegetation, or permafrost, and/or (3) initializing ecosystem biogeochemistry, hydrology, and/or habitat modeling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-02-06
    Description: Ocean acidification—the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO2 concentrations—has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO2, but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO2) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO2-stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO2 ocean.
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  • 40
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1 (11). pp. 1600-1601.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Comb jellies are remarkably different from other animals. Phylogenetic analyses of broadly sampled ctenophore transcriptome data provide additional evidence that they are the sister group to all other animals and reveal details of their evolutionary relationships to each other.
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  • 41
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Sustainability, 1 (12). pp. 750-758.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: A paradigm shift is underway in wastewater treatment as the industry heads toward ~3% of global electricity consumption and contributes ~1.6% of greenhouse gas emissions. Although incremental improvements to energy efficiency and renewable energy recovery are underway, studies considering wastewater for carbon capture and utilization are few. This Review summarizes alternative wastewater treatment pathways capable of simultaneous CO2 capture and utilization, and demonstrates the environmental and economic benefits of microbial electrochemical and phototrophic processes. Preliminary estimates demonstrate that re-envisioning wastewater treatment may entirely offset the industry’s greenhouse gas footprint and make it a globally significant contributor of negative carbon emissions.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-07-05
    Description: Little is known about the production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the anoxic oceanic sediments. In this study, sediment pore waters were sampled from four different sites in the Chukchi-East Siberian Seas area to examine the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their optical properties. The production of FDOM, coupled with the increase of nutrients, was observed above the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). The presence of FDOM was concurrent with sulfate reduction and increased alkalinity (R2 〉 0.96, p 〈 0.0001), suggesting a link to organic matter degradation. This inference was supported by the positive correlation (R2 〉 0.95, p 〈 0.0001) between the net production of FDOM and the modeled degradation rates of particulate organic carbon sulfate reduction. The production of FDOM was more pronounced in a shallow shelf site S1 with a total net production ranging from 17.9 to 62.3 RU for different FDOM components above the SMTZ depth of ca. 4.1 mbsf, which presumably underwent more accumulation of particulate organic matter than the other three deeper sites. The sediments were generally found to be the sources of CDOM and FDOM to the overlying water column, unearthing a channel of generally bio-refractory and pre-aged DOM to the oceans.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice habitats are, however, vital for larval krill when water column productivity is limited by light, by providing structures that offer protec- tion from predators and to collect organic material released from the ice. The larvae feed on this sparse ice-associated food during the day. After sunset, they migrate into the water below the ice (upper 20 m) and drift away from the ice areas where they have previously fed. Model analyses indicate that this behaviour increases both food uptake in a patchy food environment and the likelihood of overwinter transport to areas where feeding conditions are more favourable in spring.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity. We analyzed the spatial variability of decadal-scale trends in surface greenness across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km²) using the Landsat archive (1999–2014), in combination with novel 30 m classifications of polygonal tundra and regional watersheds, finding landscape heterogeneity and regional climate change to be the most important factors controlling historical greenness trends. Browning was linked to increased temperature and precipitation, with the exception of young landforms (developed following lake drainage), which will likely continue to green. Spatiotemporal model forecasting suggests carbon uptake potential to be reduced in response to warmer and/or wetter climatic conditions, potentially increasing the net loss of carbon to the atmosphere, at a greater degree than previously expected.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: Lagoon development in ice-rich permafrost environments such as the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coastline and the Yedoma coastlines of northern Siberia represents a key mechanism of marine inundation of permafrost along the Arctic coastal plains. Here we show lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeastern Siberia. This study extends previous studies of the Ivashkina Lagoon, and provides a first dated geochronological context for sedimentation and lithological characteristics. In addition, we report ground temperature measurements from different borehole sites in and around the lagoon to support our analysis of the thermokarst lagoon environment. Furthermore, a change detection study was carried out using historical aerial photography and modern satellite imagery for the 1982 to 2016 period. Several stages of landscape dynamics were reconstructed, starting with an initial Yedoma Ice Complex that covered the area during the late Pleistocene and which was locally thawed by thermokarst lake development during the Late Glacial with subsequent lacustrine sedimentation. A final stage completed the landscape dynamics during the last few hundreds of years. This stage was characterized by lake drainage and lagoon development, including strong reworking of surface sediments. By extrapolating the organic carbon data from Ivashkina Lagoon to the lagoons of the Bykovsky Peninsula, we estimate that lagoons contain 1.68 ± 0.04 Mt of organic carbon in their upper 6 m.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2017-10-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Glaciological and oceanographic observations coupled with numerical models show that warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) incursions onto the West Antarctic continental shelf cause melting of the undersides of floating ice shelves. Because these ice shelves buttress glaciers feeding into them, their ocean-induced thinning is driving Antarctic ice-sheet retreat today. Here we present a multi-proxy data based reconstruction of variability in CDW inflow to the Amundsen Sea sector, the most vulnerable part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, during the Holocene epoch (from 11.7 thousand years ago to the present). The chemical compositions of foraminifer shells and benthic foraminifer assemblages in marine sediments indicate that enhanced CDW upwelling, controlled by the latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, forced deglaciation of this sector from at least 10,400 years ago until 7,500 years ago—when an ice-shelf collapse may have caused rapid ice-sheet thinning further upstream—and since the 1940s. These results increase confidence in the predictive capability of current ice-sheet models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: The field of Arctic sea ice prediction on “weather time scales” is still in its infancy with little existing understanding of the limits of predictability. This is especially true for sea ice deformation along so-called Linear Kinematic Features (LKFs) including leads that are relevant for marine operations. Here the potential predictability of the sea ice pack in the wintertime Arctic up to ten days ahead is determined, exploiting the fact that sea ice-ocean models start to show skill at representing sea ice deformation at high spatial resolutions. Results are based on ensemble simulations with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model driven by atmospheric ensemble forecasts. The predictability of LKFs as measured by different metrics drops quickly, with predictability being almost completely lost after 4–8 days. In contrast, quantities such as sea ice concentration or the location of the ice edge retain high levels of predictability throughout the full 10-day forecast period. It is argued that the rapid error growth for LKFs is mainly due to the chaotic behaviour of the atmosphere associated with the low predictability of near surface wind divergence and vorticity; initial condition uncertainty for ice thickness is found to be of minor importance as long as LKFs are initialized at the right locations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Stable water isotope records from Antarctica are key for our understanding of Quaternary climate variations. However, the exact quantitative interpretation of these important climate proxy records in terms of surface temperature, ice sheet height and other climatic changes is still a matter of debate. Here we report results obtained with an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water isotopes, run at a high-spatial horizontal resolution of one-by-one degree. Comparing different glacial maximum ice sheet reconstructions, a best model data match is achieved for the PMIP3 reconstruction. Reduced West Antarctic elevation changes between 400 and 800 m lead to further improved agreement with ice core data. Our modern and glacial climate simulations support the validity of the isotopic paleothermometer approach based on the use of present-day observations and reveal that a glacial ocean state as displayed in the GLAMAP reconstruction is suitable for capturing the observed glacial isotope changes in Antarctic ice cores.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. A total of 1067 individuals were collected over 25 years from different locations on a circumpolar scale. Samples were genotyped at fifteen microsatellites to assess population differentiation and genetic structuring using clustering methods, F-statistics, and hierarchical analysis of variance. A lack of differentiation was found between locations connected by the Antarctic Slope Front Current (ASF), indicative of high levels of gene flow. However, gene flow was significantly reduced at the South Orkney Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula where the ASF is absent. This pattern of gene flow emphasized the relevance of large-scale circulation as a mechanism for circumpolar connectivity. Chaotic genetic patchiness characterized population structure over time, with varying patterns of differentiation observed between years, accompanied by heterogeneous standard length distributions. The present study supports a more nuanced version of the genetic panmixia hypothesis that reflects physical-biological interactions over the life history.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in ISME Journal (2019), doi:10.1038/s41396-019-0373-4.
    Description: The benthos in estuarine environments often experiences periods of regularly occurring hypoxic and anoxic conditions, dramatically impacting biogeochemical cycles. How oxygen depletion affects the growth of specific uncultivated microbial populations within these diverse benthic communities, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we applied H218O quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP) in order to quantify the growth of diverse, uncultured bacterial populations in response to low oxygen concentrations in estuarine sediments. Over the course of 7- and 28-day incubations with redox conditions spanning from hypoxia to euxinia (sulfidic), 18O labeling of bacterial populations exhibited different patterns consistent with micro-aerophilic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant anaerobic growth. 18O-labeled populations displaying anaerobic growth had a significantly non-random phylogenetic distribution, exhibited by numerous clades currently lacking cultured representatives within the Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Latescibacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Acidobacteria. Genes encoding the beta-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsrB) became 18O labeled only during euxinic conditions. Sequencing of these 18O-labeled dsrB genes showed that Acidobacteria were the dominant group of growing sulfate-reducing bacteria, highlighting their importance for sulfur cycling in estuarine sediments. Our findings provide the first experimental constraints on the redox conditions underlying increased growth in several groups of “microbial dark matter”, validating hypotheses put forth by earlier metagenomic studies.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant OR 417/1-1 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and a Junior Researcher Fund grant from LMU Munich to WDO. This work was performed in part, through the Master’s Program in Geobiology and Paleontology (MGAP) at LMU Munich.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Gruen, D. S., Wolfe, J. M., & Fournier, G. P.. Paleozoic diversification of terrestrial chitin-degrading bacterial lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, (2019): 34, doi:10.1186/s12862-019-1357-8.
    Description: Background Establishing the divergence times of groups of organisms is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This is especially challenging for microbial lineages due to the near-absence of preserved physical evidence (diagnostic body fossils or geochemical biomarkers). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can serve as a temporal scaffold between microbial groups and other fossil-calibrated clades, potentially improving these estimates. Specifically, HGT to or from organisms with fossil-calibrated age estimates can propagate these constraints to additional groups that lack fossils. While HGT is common between lineages, only a small subset of HGT events are potentially informative for dating microbial groups. Results Constrained by published fossil-calibrated studies of fungal evolution, molecular clock analyses show that multiple clades of Bacteria likely acquired chitinase homologs via HGT during the very late Neoproterozoic into the early Paleozoic. These results also show that, following these HGT events, recipient terrestrial bacterial clades likely diversified ~ 300–500 million years ago, consistent with established timescales of arthropod and plant terrestrialization. Conclusions We conclude that these age estimates are broadly consistent with the dispersal of chitinase genes throughout the microbial world in direct response to the evolution and ecological expansion of detrital-chitin producing groups. The convergence of multiple lines of evidence demonstrates the utility of HGT-based dating methods in microbial evolution. The pattern of inheritance of chitinase genes in multiple terrestrial bacterial lineages via HGT processes suggests that these genes, and possibly other genes encoding substrate-specific enzymes, can serve as a “standard candle” for dating microbial lineages across the Tree of Life.
    Description: This work was supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program Award to DSG., and Simons Collaboration on the Origins of Life Award #339603 and NSF Integrated Earth Systems Program Award #1615426 to GPF. The funding agencies for this study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, or in writing the manuscript.
    Keywords: Horizontal gene transfer ; Chitinase ; Chitin ; Bacteria ; Fungi ; Arthropods
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2019. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer Nature for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Zakroff, C., Mooney, T.A. & Wirth, C. Ocean acidification responses in paralarval squid swimming behavior using a novel 3D tracking system. Hydrobiologia, 808(1),(2018):83-106, doi:10.1007/s10750-017-3342-9.
    Description: Chronic embryonic exposure to ocean acidification (OA) has been shown to degrade the aragonitic statolith of paralarval squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a key structure for their swimming behavior. This study examined if day-of-hatching paralarval D. pealeii from eggs reared under chronic OA demonstrated measurable impairments to swimming activity and control. This required the development of a novel, cost-effective, and robust method for 3D motion tracking and analysis. Squid eggs were reared in pCO2 levels in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 400 - 2200 ppm. Initial 2D experiments showed paralarvae in higher acidification environments spent more time at depth. In 3D experiments, velocity, particularly positive and negative vertical velocities, significantly decreased from 400 to 1000 ppm pCO2, but showed non-significant decreases at higher concentrations. Activity and horizontal velocity decreased linearly with increasing pCO2, indicating a subtle impact to paralarval energetics. Patterns may have been obscured by notable individual variability in the paralarvae. Responses were also seen to vary between trials on cohort or potentially annual scales. Overall, paralarval swimming appeared resilient to OA, with effects being slight. The newly developed 3D tracking system provides a powerful and accessible method for future studies to explore similar questions in the larvae of aquatic taxa.
    Description: We thank D. Remsen, the MBL Marine Resources Center staff, and MBL Gemma crew for their support in acquiring squid. R. Galat and the facilities staff of the WHOI ESL provided system support. D. McCorkle, KYK Chan, and M. White provided valuable insight on the OA system. E. Moberg, A. Beet, and A. Solow assisted in the development and coding of the 3D model system. We also thank E. Bonk, K. Hoering, M. Lee, D. Weiler, and A. Schlunk for their assistance and input with the experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374. This project is funded by NSF Grant No. 1220034.
    Keywords: Hypercapnia ; Cephalopod ; Larvae ; Movement analysis ; Stress physiology
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: An approach is presented for high-field MRI studies of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of a marine crustacean, the edible crab Cancer pagurus, submerged in highly conductive seawater. Structure and function of the CVS were investigated at 9.4 T. Cardiac motion was studied using self-gated CINE MRI. Imaging protocols and radio-frequency coil arrangements were tested for anatomical imaging. Haemolymph flow was quantified using phase-contrast angiography. Signal-to-noise-ratios and flow velocities in afferent and efferent branchial veins were compared with Student’s t test (n = 5). Seawater induced signal losses were dependent on imaging protocols and RF coil setup. Internal cardiac structures could be visualized with high spatial resolution within 8 min using a gradient-echo technique. Variations in haemolymph flow in different vessels could be determined over time. Maximum flow was similar within individual vessels and corresponded to literature values from Doppler measurements. Heart contractions were more pronounced in lateral and dorso-ventral directions than in the anterior–posterior direction. Choosing adequate imaging protocols in combination with a specific RF coil arrangement allows to monitor various parts of the crustacean CVS with exceptionally high spatial resolution despite the adverse effects of seawater at 9.4 T.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets—a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated through strong visually-based assortative mating. Using full-genome analysis, we identify four narrow genomic intervals that are consistently differentiated among sympatric species in a backdrop of extremely low genomic divergence. These four intervals include genes involved in pigmentation (sox10), axial patterning (hoxc13a), photoreceptor development (casz1) and visual sensitivity (SWS and LWS opsins) that develop islands of long-distance and inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium as species diverge. The relatively simple genomic architecture of species differences facilitates the evolution of linkage disequilibrium in the presence of gene flow.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Organisms in shallow waters at high latitudes are under pressure due to climate change. These areas are typically inhabited by microphytobenthos (MPB) communities, composed mainly of diatoms. Only sparse information is available on the ecophysiology and acclimation processes within MPBs from Arctic regions. The physico-chemical environment and the ecology and ecophysiology of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) are addressed in this review. MPB biofilms cover extensive areas of sediment. They show high rates of primary production, stabilise sediment surfaces against erosion under hydrodynamic forces,and affect the exchange of oxygen and nutrients across the sediment-water interface. Additionally, this phototrophic community represents a key component in the functioning of the Kongsfjorden trophic web, particularly as a major food source for benthic suspension- or deposit-feeders. MPB in Kongsfjorden is confronted with pronounced seasonal variations in solar radiation, low temperatures, and hyposaline (meltwater) conditions in summer, as well as long periods of ice and snow cover in winter. From the few data available, it seems that these organisms can easily cope with these environmental extremes. The underlying physiological mechanisms that allow growth and photosynthesis to continue under widely varying abiotic parameters, along with vertical migration and heterotrophy, and biochemical features such as a pronounced fatty-acid metabolism and silicate incorporation are discussed. Existing gaps in our knowledge of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden, such as the chemical ecology of biotic interactions, need to be filled. In addition, since many of the underlying molecular acclimation mechanisms are poorly understood, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics, in conjunction with cell biological and biochemical techniques, are urgently needed. Climate change models for the Arctic predict other multifactorial stressors, such as an increase in precipitation and permafrost thawing, with consequences for the shallow-water regions. Both precipitation and permafrost thawing are likely to increase nutrient-enriched, turbid freshwater runoff and may locally counteract the expected increase in coastal radiation availability. So far, complex interactions among factors, as well as the full genetic diversity and physiological plasticity of Arctic benthic diatoms, have only rarely been considered. The limited existing information is described and discussed in this review.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-07-28
    Description: A user-friendly herbicide derived from photo-responsive supramolecular vesicles A user-friendly herbicide derived from photo-responsive supramolecular vesicles, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05437-5 Paraquat is a widely used herbicide that is highly toxic to humans upon acute ingestion or chronic exposure. Here, the authors generate a photosensitive formulation that releases paraquat upon exposure to UV light or sunlight, which shows an improved safety profile in zebrafish and mouse models, while maintaining substantial herbicidal activity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Astrovirus infections induce age-dependent dysbiosis in gut microbiomes of bats Astrovirus infections induce age-dependent dysbiosis in gut microbiomes of bats, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0239-1 Astrovirus infections induce age-dependent dysbiosis in gut microbiomes of bats
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Adaptive mechanisms that provide competitive advantages to marine bacteroidetes during microalgal blooms Adaptive mechanisms that provide competitive advantages to marine bacteroidetes during microalgal blooms, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0243-5 Adaptive mechanisms that provide competitive advantages to marine bacteroidetes during microalgal blooms
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Making carbon pricing work for citizens Making carbon pricing work for citizens, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0201-2 Ambitious carbon pricing reform is needed to meet climate targets. This Perspective argues that effective revenue recycling schemes should prioritize behavioural considerations that are aimed at achieving greater political acceptance.
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Peace, security and climate change Peace, security and climate change, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0238-2 Peace, security and climate change
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Unprecedented Sahel drought Unprecedented Sahel drought, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0252-4 Unprecedented Sahel drought
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Detection of continental-scale intensification of hourly rainfall extremes Detection of continental-scale intensification of hourly rainfall extremes, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0245-3 Theory predicts that hourly rainfall extremes may increase with anthropogenic warming. Observations from Australia suggest changes two to three times above the Clausius–Clapeyron rate, above that expected from natural variability.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Carbon prices across countries Carbon prices across countries, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0239-1 With country-specific development objectives and constraints, multiple market failures and limited international transfers, carbon prices do not need to be uniform across countries, but must be part of broader policy packages.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: The must-have and nice-to-have experimental and computational requirements for functional frequency doubling deep-UV crystals The must-have and nice-to-have experimental and computational requirements for functional frequency doubling deep-UV crystals, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05411-1 The must-have and nice-to-have experimental and computational requirements for functional frequency doubling deep-UV crystals
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Transforming ground mica into high-performance biomimetic polymeric mica film Transforming ground mica into high-performance biomimetic polymeric mica film, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05355-6 Biomimetic assembly of nanosheets into nacre-like structures and films is of interest for a range of applications; the abundance of mica makes it a good candidate. Here, the authors report on the large-scale exfoliation of ground mica into nanosheets and the assembly into polymeric mica films.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Operando and three-dimensional visualization of anion depletion and lithium growth by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy Operando and three-dimensional visualization of anion depletion and lithium growth by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05289-z The relationship between Li-ion concentration and Li deposition remains an issue to be addressed. Here the authors show that stimulated Raman scattering microscopy offers insight into the concentration evolution and its impact on the dendrite growth, which is not possible by existing techniques.
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: The atmospheric response to sea-ice loss The atmospheric response to sea-ice loss, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0243-5 The coincident reduction of Arctic sea ice with increasing mid-latitude wintertime extremes has motivated much research on Arctic–mid-latitude linkages. A new study reveals that projected Antarctic sea-ice loss could also impact the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes through perturbations to the strength and position of the westerly winds.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Giant anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic kagome-lattice semimetal Giant anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic kagome-lattice semimetal, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0234-5 Electrical transport measurements reveal that Co3Sn2S2 is probably a magnetic Weyl semimetal, and hosts the highest simultaneous anomalous Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall angle. This is driven by the strong Berry curvature near the Weyl points.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Reconstructing the topology of optical polarization knots Reconstructing the topology of optical polarization knots, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0229-2 Knotted lines representing torus knot and figure-eight knot are produced in the polarization profile of optical beams, leading to a topological characterization of the structure of the polarization field.
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Transverse transport Transverse transport, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0240-7 The discovery of large anomalous electronic and thermal transport in candidate magnetic Weyl semimetals reveals another example of the striking features of topological materials.
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Bee-line for decline Bee-line for decline, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0249-z Bee-line for decline
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Regional heat uptake Regional heat uptake, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0251-5 Regional heat uptake
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Highly-efficient extraction of entangled photons from quantum dots using a broadband optical antenna Highly-efficient extraction of entangled photons from quantum dots using a broadband optical antenna, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05456-2 Cascade radiative decay in quantum dots is a promising way of generating entangled photon pairs, but the extraction efficiency is a strongly limiting factor. Here, the authors demonstrate high extraction efficiency through a broadband dielectric photonic antenna.
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Spin-induced multiferroicity in the binary perovskite manganite Mn 2 O 3 Spin-induced multiferroicity in the binary perovskite manganite Mn〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉3〈/sub〉, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05296-0 Multiferroic binary oxides with the perovskite structure have been very rare. Here, Cong et al. report magnetically-driven ferroelectricity and a large magnetoelectric effect in a binary perovskite compound Mn2O3 at low temperatures.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05421-z Biodiversity change can impact ecosystem functioning, though this is primarily studied at lower trophic levels. Here, Schuldt et al. find that biodiversity components other than tree species richness are particularly important, and higher trophic level diversity plays a role in multifunctionality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Predictable evolution towards larger brains in birds colonizing oceanic islands Predictable evolution towards larger brains in birds colonizing oceanic islands, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05280-8 Islands may impose a distinct set of selective pressures, leading to the repeated evolution of certain traits. Here, Sayol et al. compare brain sizes of more than 1900 bird species in a phylogenetic context, finding a consistent trend for in situ evolution of increased brain size in island birds.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Author Correction: RPAP3 provides a flexible scaffold for coupling HSP90 to the human R2TP co-chaperone complex Author Correction: RPAP3 provides a flexible scaffold for coupling HSP90 to the human R2TP co-chaperone complex, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05546-1 Author Correction: RPAP3 provides a flexible scaffold for coupling HSP90 to the human R2TP co-chaperone complex
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Publisher Correction: Long-haul optical transmission link using low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers Publisher Correction: Long-haul optical transmission link using low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05591-w Publisher Correction: Long-haul optical transmission link using low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 81
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    Springer Nature
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Bearing the load Bearing the load, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0067-3 Bearing the load
    Print ISSN: 1740-1526
    Electronic ISSN: 1740-1534
    Topics: Biology