ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Springer Nature  (79,014)
Collection
Years
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2006 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2524-4892
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-4387
    Topics: Political Science , Economics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 16.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-336X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 32.2003 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 0093-7355
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-4475
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7546
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Keywords: energy ; photovoltaics ; fuel cells
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3374
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2020 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2661-8907
    Topics: Computer Science
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3642
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2522-8986
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-8994
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-334X
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2398-9629
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4648
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 50.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2510-2788
    Electronic ISSN: 1802-9698
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3650
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2157-846X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1749-4885
    Electronic ISSN: 1749-4893
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3366
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-7132
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature | Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature | formerly Wiley
    Online: 26.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , formerly Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1671-4083
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-7254
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3669
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Formerly as: Nature Reports  (2007–2010)
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Acronym: NCC
    Abbreviation: Nat Clim Change
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3358
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-5820
    Topics: Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
    Abbreviation: Nat Geosci
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-5276
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4621
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-2106
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Climate change challenges plankton communities, but evolutionary adaptation could mitigate the potential impacts. Here, we tested with the phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi whether adaptation to a stressor under laboratory conditions leads to equivalent fitness gains in a more natural environment. We found that fitness advantages that had evolved under laboratory conditions were masked by pleiotropic effects in natural plankton communities. Moreover, new genotypes with highly variable competitive abilities evolved on timescales significantly shorter than climate change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    In:  In: Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems. , ed. by Breitkreuz, C. and Rocchi, S. Advances in Volcanology . Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 119-130.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Subvolcanic systems are characterized by complex combinations of intrusive units (dykes, sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets, etc.) for which genetic relationships are unclear. This chapter explains how whole-rock geochemistry may be used to resolve the genetic relationships of such subvolcanic (and volcanic) systems. We start with a short introduction of the geochemical fingerprinting method with particular emphasis on the statistical refinement method called Forward Stepwise-Discriminant Function Analysis (FS-DFA). Combined with field mapping and structural analysis, geochemical fingerprinting based on major and trace elements and isotope ratios, is a very powerful tool to distinguish between igneous units (lavas, sills, dykes) with subtle (or not so subtle) geochemical differences. Different geochemical fingerprinting or signatures indicate derivation from distinct magma batches. The results from FS-DFA analyses may be used to reveal genetic relationships between geological units, or lack of such, which again may be used to throw light on subvolcanic plumbing systems, the feeding system in sill-dyke complexes, as well as other problems. The method is illustrated by studies of the Golden Valley Sill Complex in the Karoo Basin (South Africa).
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-03-23
    Description: At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Description: Currently there is a scarcity of paleo-records related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly in East-Central Europe (ECE). Here we report δ15N analysis of guano from a cave in NW Romania with the intent of reconstructing past variation in ECE hydroclimate and examine NAO impacts on winter precipitation. We argue that the δ15N values of guano indicate that the nitrogen cycle is hydrologically controlled and the δ15N values likely reflect winter precipitation related to nitrogen mineralization prior to the growing season. Drier conditions indicated by δ15N values at AD 1848–1852 and AD 1880–1930 correspond to the positive phase of the NAO. The increased frequency of negative phases of the NAO between AD 1940–1975 is contemporaneous with higher δ15N values (wetter conditions). A 4‰ decrease in δ15N values at the end of the 1970’s corresponds to a strong reduction in precipitation associated with a shift from negative to positive phase of the NAO. Using the relationship between NAO index and δ15N values in guano for the instrumental period, we reconstructed NAO-like phases back to AD 1650. Our results advocate that δ15N values of guano offer a proxy of the NAO conditions in the more distant past, helping assess its predictability.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-04-08
    Description: The deglacial history of CO2 release from the deep North Pacific remains unresolved. This is due to conflicting indications about subarctic Pacific ventilation changes based on various marine proxies, especially for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS-1) when a rapid atmospheric CO2 rise occurs. Here, we use a complex Earth System Model to investigate the deglacial North Pacific overturning and its control on ocean stratification. Our results show an enhanced intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification coeval with intensified North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation during HS-1, compared to the Last Glacial Maximum. The stronger NPIW formation causes lower salinities and higher temperatures at intermediate depths. By lowering NPIW densities, this enlarges vertical density gradient and thus enhances intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification during HS-1. Physically, this process prevents the North Pacific deep waters from a better communication with the upper oceans, thus prolongs the existing isolation of glacial Pacific abyssal carbons during HS-1.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-05-03
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Subglacial lakes are widespread beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet but their control on ice-sheet dynamics and their ability to harbour life remain poorly characterized. Here we present evidence for a palaeo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continental shelf. A distinct sediment facies recovered from a bedrock basin in Pine Island Bay indicates deposition within a low-energy lake environment. Diffusive-advection modelling demonstrates that low chloride concentrations in the pore water of the corresponding sediments can only be explained by initial deposition of this facies in a freshwater setting. These observations indicate that an active subglacial meltwater network, similar to that observed beneath the extant ice sheet, was also active during the last glacial period. It also provides a new framework for refining the exploration of these unique environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/zip
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)—one of the most abundant animal species on Earth—exhibits a five to six year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modelling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales. Our model indicates that the cycle amplitude increases with reduction of krill loss rates. Thus, a decline of apex predators is likely to increase the oscillation amplitude, potentially destabilizing the marine food web, with drastic consequences for the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2017-09-24
    Description: We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as sea oor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean ecosystem where it plays a central role in the Antarctic food web. Available information supports the existence of an endogenous timing system in krill enabling it to synchronize metabolism and behavior with an environment characterized by extreme seasonal changes in terms of day length, food availability, and surface ice extent. A screening of our transcriptome database “KrillDB” allowed us to identify the putative orthologues of 20 circadian clock components. Mapping of conserved domains and phylogenetic analyses strongly supported annotations of the identi ed sequences. Luciferase assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments allowed us to de ne the role of the main clock components. Our ndings provide an overall picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of the endogenous circadian clock in the Antarctic krill and shed light on their evolution throughout crustaceans speciation. Interestingly, the core clock machinery shows both mammalian and insect features that presumably contribute to an evolutionary strategy to cope with polar environment’s challenges. Moreover, despite the extreme variability characterizing the Antarctic seasonal day length, the conserved light mediated degradation of the photoreceptor EsCRY1 suggests a persisting pivotal role of light as a Zeitgeber.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-04
    Description: There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra landscapes are composed of a complex mosaic of patterned ground features, varying in soil moisture, vegetation composition, and surface hydrology over small spatial scales (10–100 m). The importance of microtopography and associated geomorphic landforms in influencing ecosystem structure and function is well founded, however, spatial data products describing local to regional scale distribution of patterned ground or polygonal tundra geomorphology are largely unavailable. Thus, our understanding of local impacts on regional scale processes (e.g., carbon dynamics) may be limited. We produced two key spatiotemporal datasets spanning the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km2) to evaluate climate-geomorphological controls on arctic tundra productivity change, using (1) a novel 30m classification of polygonal tundra geomorphology and (2) decadal-trends in surface greenness using the Landsat archive (1999–2014). These datasets can be easily integrated and adapted in an array of local to regional applications such as (1) upscaling plot-level measurements (e.g., carbon/energy fluxes), (2) mapping of soils, vegetation, or permafrost, and/or (3) initializing ecosystem biogeochemistry, hydrology, and/or habitat modeling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1 (11). pp. 1600-1601.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Comb jellies are remarkably different from other animals. Phylogenetic analyses of broadly sampled ctenophore transcriptome data provide additional evidence that they are the sister group to all other animals and reveal details of their evolutionary relationships to each other.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: A paradigm shift is underway in wastewater treatment as the industry heads toward ~3% of global electricity consumption and contributes ~1.6% of greenhouse gas emissions. Although incremental improvements to energy efficiency and renewable energy recovery are underway, studies considering wastewater for carbon capture and utilization are few. This Review summarizes alternative wastewater treatment pathways capable of simultaneous CO2 capture and utilization, and demonstrates the environmental and economic benefits of microbial electrochemical and phototrophic processes. Preliminary estimates demonstrate that re-envisioning wastewater treatment may entirely offset the industry’s greenhouse gas footprint and make it a globally significant contributor of negative carbon emissions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2017-07-05
    Description: Little is known about the production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the anoxic oceanic sediments. In this study, sediment pore waters were sampled from four different sites in the Chukchi-East Siberian Seas area to examine the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their optical properties. The production of FDOM, coupled with the increase of nutrients, was observed above the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). The presence of FDOM was concurrent with sulfate reduction and increased alkalinity (R2 〉 0.96, p 〈 0.0001), suggesting a link to organic matter degradation. This inference was supported by the positive correlation (R2 〉 0.95, p 〈 0.0001) between the net production of FDOM and the modeled degradation rates of particulate organic carbon sulfate reduction. The production of FDOM was more pronounced in a shallow shelf site S1 with a total net production ranging from 17.9 to 62.3 RU for different FDOM components above the SMTZ depth of ca. 4.1 mbsf, which presumably underwent more accumulation of particulate organic matter than the other three deeper sites. The sediments were generally found to be the sources of CDOM and FDOM to the overlying water column, unearthing a channel of generally bio-refractory and pre-aged DOM to the oceans.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice habitats are, however, vital for larval krill when water column productivity is limited by light, by providing structures that offer protec- tion from predators and to collect organic material released from the ice. The larvae feed on this sparse ice-associated food during the day. After sunset, they migrate into the water below the ice (upper 20 m) and drift away from the ice areas where they have previously fed. Model analyses indicate that this behaviour increases both food uptake in a patchy food environment and the likelihood of overwinter transport to areas where feeding conditions are more favourable in spring.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity. We analyzed the spatial variability of decadal-scale trends in surface greenness across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km²) using the Landsat archive (1999–2014), in combination with novel 30 m classifications of polygonal tundra and regional watersheds, finding landscape heterogeneity and regional climate change to be the most important factors controlling historical greenness trends. Browning was linked to increased temperature and precipitation, with the exception of young landforms (developed following lake drainage), which will likely continue to green. Spatiotemporal model forecasting suggests carbon uptake potential to be reduced in response to warmer and/or wetter climatic conditions, potentially increasing the net loss of carbon to the atmosphere, at a greater degree than previously expected.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: Lagoon development in ice-rich permafrost environments such as the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coastline and the Yedoma coastlines of northern Siberia represents a key mechanism of marine inundation of permafrost along the Arctic coastal plains. Here we show lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeastern Siberia. This study extends previous studies of the Ivashkina Lagoon, and provides a first dated geochronological context for sedimentation and lithological characteristics. In addition, we report ground temperature measurements from different borehole sites in and around the lagoon to support our analysis of the thermokarst lagoon environment. Furthermore, a change detection study was carried out using historical aerial photography and modern satellite imagery for the 1982 to 2016 period. Several stages of landscape dynamics were reconstructed, starting with an initial Yedoma Ice Complex that covered the area during the late Pleistocene and which was locally thawed by thermokarst lake development during the Late Glacial with subsequent lacustrine sedimentation. A final stage completed the landscape dynamics during the last few hundreds of years. This stage was characterized by lake drainage and lagoon development, including strong reworking of surface sediments. By extrapolating the organic carbon data from Ivashkina Lagoon to the lagoons of the Bykovsky Peninsula, we estimate that lagoons contain 1.68 ± 0.04 Mt of organic carbon in their upper 6 m.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2017-10-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Glaciological and oceanographic observations coupled with numerical models show that warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) incursions onto the West Antarctic continental shelf cause melting of the undersides of floating ice shelves. Because these ice shelves buttress glaciers feeding into them, their ocean-induced thinning is driving Antarctic ice-sheet retreat today. Here we present a multi-proxy data based reconstruction of variability in CDW inflow to the Amundsen Sea sector, the most vulnerable part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, during the Holocene epoch (from 11.7 thousand years ago to the present). The chemical compositions of foraminifer shells and benthic foraminifer assemblages in marine sediments indicate that enhanced CDW upwelling, controlled by the latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, forced deglaciation of this sector from at least 10,400 years ago until 7,500 years ago—when an ice-shelf collapse may have caused rapid ice-sheet thinning further upstream—and since the 1940s. These results increase confidence in the predictive capability of current ice-sheet models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: The field of Arctic sea ice prediction on “weather time scales” is still in its infancy with little existing understanding of the limits of predictability. This is especially true for sea ice deformation along so-called Linear Kinematic Features (LKFs) including leads that are relevant for marine operations. Here the potential predictability of the sea ice pack in the wintertime Arctic up to ten days ahead is determined, exploiting the fact that sea ice-ocean models start to show skill at representing sea ice deformation at high spatial resolutions. Results are based on ensemble simulations with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model driven by atmospheric ensemble forecasts. The predictability of LKFs as measured by different metrics drops quickly, with predictability being almost completely lost after 4–8 days. In contrast, quantities such as sea ice concentration or the location of the ice edge retain high levels of predictability throughout the full 10-day forecast period. It is argued that the rapid error growth for LKFs is mainly due to the chaotic behaviour of the atmosphere associated with the low predictability of near surface wind divergence and vorticity; initial condition uncertainty for ice thickness is found to be of minor importance as long as LKFs are initialized at the right locations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Stable water isotope records from Antarctica are key for our understanding of Quaternary climate variations. However, the exact quantitative interpretation of these important climate proxy records in terms of surface temperature, ice sheet height and other climatic changes is still a matter of debate. Here we report results obtained with an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water isotopes, run at a high-spatial horizontal resolution of one-by-one degree. Comparing different glacial maximum ice sheet reconstructions, a best model data match is achieved for the PMIP3 reconstruction. Reduced West Antarctic elevation changes between 400 and 800 m lead to further improved agreement with ice core data. Our modern and glacial climate simulations support the validity of the isotopic paleothermometer approach based on the use of present-day observations and reveal that a glacial ocean state as displayed in the GLAMAP reconstruction is suitable for capturing the observed glacial isotope changes in Antarctic ice cores.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in ISME Journal (2019), doi:10.1038/s41396-019-0373-4.
    Description: The benthos in estuarine environments often experiences periods of regularly occurring hypoxic and anoxic conditions, dramatically impacting biogeochemical cycles. How oxygen depletion affects the growth of specific uncultivated microbial populations within these diverse benthic communities, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we applied H218O quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP) in order to quantify the growth of diverse, uncultured bacterial populations in response to low oxygen concentrations in estuarine sediments. Over the course of 7- and 28-day incubations with redox conditions spanning from hypoxia to euxinia (sulfidic), 18O labeling of bacterial populations exhibited different patterns consistent with micro-aerophilic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant anaerobic growth. 18O-labeled populations displaying anaerobic growth had a significantly non-random phylogenetic distribution, exhibited by numerous clades currently lacking cultured representatives within the Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Latescibacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Acidobacteria. Genes encoding the beta-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsrB) became 18O labeled only during euxinic conditions. Sequencing of these 18O-labeled dsrB genes showed that Acidobacteria were the dominant group of growing sulfate-reducing bacteria, highlighting their importance for sulfur cycling in estuarine sediments. Our findings provide the first experimental constraints on the redox conditions underlying increased growth in several groups of “microbial dark matter”, validating hypotheses put forth by earlier metagenomic studies.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant OR 417/1-1 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and a Junior Researcher Fund grant from LMU Munich to WDO. This work was performed in part, through the Master’s Program in Geobiology and Paleontology (MGAP) at LMU Munich.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Gruen, D. S., Wolfe, J. M., & Fournier, G. P.. Paleozoic diversification of terrestrial chitin-degrading bacterial lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, (2019): 34, doi:10.1186/s12862-019-1357-8.
    Description: Background Establishing the divergence times of groups of organisms is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This is especially challenging for microbial lineages due to the near-absence of preserved physical evidence (diagnostic body fossils or geochemical biomarkers). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can serve as a temporal scaffold between microbial groups and other fossil-calibrated clades, potentially improving these estimates. Specifically, HGT to or from organisms with fossil-calibrated age estimates can propagate these constraints to additional groups that lack fossils. While HGT is common between lineages, only a small subset of HGT events are potentially informative for dating microbial groups. Results Constrained by published fossil-calibrated studies of fungal evolution, molecular clock analyses show that multiple clades of Bacteria likely acquired chitinase homologs via HGT during the very late Neoproterozoic into the early Paleozoic. These results also show that, following these HGT events, recipient terrestrial bacterial clades likely diversified ~ 300–500 million years ago, consistent with established timescales of arthropod and plant terrestrialization. Conclusions We conclude that these age estimates are broadly consistent with the dispersal of chitinase genes throughout the microbial world in direct response to the evolution and ecological expansion of detrital-chitin producing groups. The convergence of multiple lines of evidence demonstrates the utility of HGT-based dating methods in microbial evolution. The pattern of inheritance of chitinase genes in multiple terrestrial bacterial lineages via HGT processes suggests that these genes, and possibly other genes encoding substrate-specific enzymes, can serve as a “standard candle” for dating microbial lineages across the Tree of Life.
    Description: This work was supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program Award to DSG., and Simons Collaboration on the Origins of Life Award #339603 and NSF Integrated Earth Systems Program Award #1615426 to GPF. The funding agencies for this study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, or in writing the manuscript.
    Keywords: Horizontal gene transfer ; Chitinase ; Chitin ; Bacteria ; Fungi ; Arthropods
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2019. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer Nature for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Zakroff, C., Mooney, T.A. & Wirth, C. Ocean acidification responses in paralarval squid swimming behavior using a novel 3D tracking system. Hydrobiologia, 808(1),(2018):83-106, doi:10.1007/s10750-017-3342-9.
    Description: Chronic embryonic exposure to ocean acidification (OA) has been shown to degrade the aragonitic statolith of paralarval squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a key structure for their swimming behavior. This study examined if day-of-hatching paralarval D. pealeii from eggs reared under chronic OA demonstrated measurable impairments to swimming activity and control. This required the development of a novel, cost-effective, and robust method for 3D motion tracking and analysis. Squid eggs were reared in pCO2 levels in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 400 - 2200 ppm. Initial 2D experiments showed paralarvae in higher acidification environments spent more time at depth. In 3D experiments, velocity, particularly positive and negative vertical velocities, significantly decreased from 400 to 1000 ppm pCO2, but showed non-significant decreases at higher concentrations. Activity and horizontal velocity decreased linearly with increasing pCO2, indicating a subtle impact to paralarval energetics. Patterns may have been obscured by notable individual variability in the paralarvae. Responses were also seen to vary between trials on cohort or potentially annual scales. Overall, paralarval swimming appeared resilient to OA, with effects being slight. The newly developed 3D tracking system provides a powerful and accessible method for future studies to explore similar questions in the larvae of aquatic taxa.
    Description: We thank D. Remsen, the MBL Marine Resources Center staff, and MBL Gemma crew for their support in acquiring squid. R. Galat and the facilities staff of the WHOI ESL provided system support. D. McCorkle, KYK Chan, and M. White provided valuable insight on the OA system. E. Moberg, A. Beet, and A. Solow assisted in the development and coding of the 3D model system. We also thank E. Bonk, K. Hoering, M. Lee, D. Weiler, and A. Schlunk for their assistance and input with the experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374. This project is funded by NSF Grant No. 1220034.
    Keywords: Hypercapnia ; Cephalopod ; Larvae ; Movement analysis ; Stress physiology
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: An approach is presented for high-field MRI studies of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of a marine crustacean, the edible crab Cancer pagurus, submerged in highly conductive seawater. Structure and function of the CVS were investigated at 9.4 T. Cardiac motion was studied using self-gated CINE MRI. Imaging protocols and radio-frequency coil arrangements were tested for anatomical imaging. Haemolymph flow was quantified using phase-contrast angiography. Signal-to-noise-ratios and flow velocities in afferent and efferent branchial veins were compared with Student’s t test (n = 5). Seawater induced signal losses were dependent on imaging protocols and RF coil setup. Internal cardiac structures could be visualized with high spatial resolution within 8 min using a gradient-echo technique. Variations in haemolymph flow in different vessels could be determined over time. Maximum flow was similar within individual vessels and corresponded to literature values from Doppler measurements. Heart contractions were more pronounced in lateral and dorso-ventral directions than in the anterior–posterior direction. Choosing adequate imaging protocols in combination with a specific RF coil arrangement allows to monitor various parts of the crustacean CVS with exceptionally high spatial resolution despite the adverse effects of seawater at 9.4 T.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets—a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated through strong visually-based assortative mating. Using full-genome analysis, we identify four narrow genomic intervals that are consistently differentiated among sympatric species in a backdrop of extremely low genomic divergence. These four intervals include genes involved in pigmentation (sox10), axial patterning (hoxc13a), photoreceptor development (casz1) and visual sensitivity (SWS and LWS opsins) that develop islands of long-distance and inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium as species diverge. The relatively simple genomic architecture of species differences facilitates the evolution of linkage disequilibrium in the presence of gene flow.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Organisms in shallow waters at high latitudes are under pressure due to climate change. These areas are typically inhabited by microphytobenthos (MPB) communities, composed mainly of diatoms. Only sparse information is available on the ecophysiology and acclimation processes within MPBs from Arctic regions. The physico-chemical environment and the ecology and ecophysiology of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) are addressed in this review. MPB biofilms cover extensive areas of sediment. They show high rates of primary production, stabilise sediment surfaces against erosion under hydrodynamic forces,and affect the exchange of oxygen and nutrients across the sediment-water interface. Additionally, this phototrophic community represents a key component in the functioning of the Kongsfjorden trophic web, particularly as a major food source for benthic suspension- or deposit-feeders. MPB in Kongsfjorden is confronted with pronounced seasonal variations in solar radiation, low temperatures, and hyposaline (meltwater) conditions in summer, as well as long periods of ice and snow cover in winter. From the few data available, it seems that these organisms can easily cope with these environmental extremes. The underlying physiological mechanisms that allow growth and photosynthesis to continue under widely varying abiotic parameters, along with vertical migration and heterotrophy, and biochemical features such as a pronounced fatty-acid metabolism and silicate incorporation are discussed. Existing gaps in our knowledge of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden, such as the chemical ecology of biotic interactions, need to be filled. In addition, since many of the underlying molecular acclimation mechanisms are poorly understood, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics, in conjunction with cell biological and biochemical techniques, are urgently needed. Climate change models for the Arctic predict other multifactorial stressors, such as an increase in precipitation and permafrost thawing, with consequences for the shallow-water regions. Both precipitation and permafrost thawing are likely to increase nutrient-enriched, turbid freshwater runoff and may locally counteract the expected increase in coastal radiation availability. So far, complex interactions among factors, as well as the full genetic diversity and physiological plasticity of Arctic benthic diatoms, have only rarely been considered. The limited existing information is described and discussed in this review.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica | Springer Nature
    In:  Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 52 (3). pp. 225-233.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: There were several anomalously cold winter weather regimes in Russia in the early 21st century. These regimes were usually associated with a blocking anticyclone south of the Barents Sea. Numerical simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) using prescribed sea-ice concentration (SIC) data for different periods during the last 50 years showed that a rapid sea-ice area decline in the Barents Sea in the last decade could bring about the formation of such a blocking anticyclone and cooling over northern Eurasia. The SIC reduction in the former period, from the second half of the 1960s to the first half of the 1990s, results in a weaker response of opposite sign. This suggests a nonlinear atmospheric circulation response to the SIC reduction in the Barents Sea, which has been previously found in the idealized AGCM simulations. An impact of the Barents Sea SIC reduction on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in particular, on the formation of the anomalously low NAO index, is found. The results indicate an important role that the Barents Sea, a region with the largest variability of the ocean–atmosphere heat exchange in the Arctic in wintertime, plays in generating anomalous weather regimes in Russia.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: Water strongly influences the physical properties of the mantle and enhances its ability to melt or convect. Its presence can also be used to trace recycling of surface reservoirs down to the deep mantle1, which makes knowledge of the water content in the Earth's interior and its evolution crucial for understanding global geodynamics. Komatiites (MgO-rich ultramafic magmas) result from a high degree of mantle melting at high pressures2 and thus are excellent probes of the chemical composition and water contents of the deep mantle. An excess of water over elements that show similar geochemical behaviour during mantle melting (for example, cerium) was recently found in melt inclusions in the most magnesium-rich olivine in 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from Canada3 and Zimbabwe4. These data were taken as evidence for a deep hydrated mantle reservoir, probably the transition zone, in the Neoarchaean era (2.8 to 2.5 billion years ago). Here we confirm the mantle source of this water by measuring deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios in these melt inclusions and present similar data for 3.3-billion-year-old komatiites from the Barberton greenstone belt. From the hydrogen isotope ratios, we show that the mantle sources of these melts contained excess water, which implies that a deep hydrous mantle reservoir has been present in the Earth's interior since at least the Palaeoarchaean era (3.6 to 3.2 billion years ago). The reconstructed initial hydrogen isotope composition of komatiites is more depleted in deuterium than surface reservoirs or typical mantle but resembles that of oceanic crust that was initially altered by seawater and then dehydrated during subduction. Together with an excess of chlorine and depletion of lead in the mantle sources of komatiites, these results indicate that seawater-altered lithosphere recycling into the deep mantle, arguably by subduction, started before 3.3 billion years ago.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: other
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: Iron (Fe) bioavailability limits phytoplankton growth in vast ocean regions. Iron-rich dust uplifted from deserts is transported in the atmosphere and deposited on the ocean surface. However, this dust is a poor source of iron for most phytoplankton since dust-bound Fe is poorly soluble in seawater and dust rapidly sinks out of the photic zone. An exception is Trichodesmium, a globally important, N2 fixing, colony forming, cyanobacterium, which efficiently captures and shuffles dust to its colony core. Trichodesmium and bacteria that reside within its colonies carry out diverse metabolic interactions. Here we show evidence for mutualistic interactions between Trichodesmium and associated bacteria for utilization of iron from dust, where bacteria promote dust dissolution by producing Fe-complexing molecules (siderophores) and Trichodesmium provides dust and optimal physical settings for dissolution and uptake. Our results demonstrate how intricate relationships between producers and consumers can influence productivity in the nutrient starved open ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: The in situ effects of ocean acidification on zooplankton communities remain largely unexplored. Using natural volcanic CO2 seep sites around tropical coral communities, we show a threefold reduction in the biomass of demersal zooplankton in high-CO2 sites compared with sites with ambient CO2. Differences were consistent across two reefs and three expeditions. Abundances were reduced in most taxonomic groups. There were no regime shifts in zooplankton community composition and no differences in fatty acid composition between CO2 levels, suggesting that ocean acidification affects the food quantity but not the quality for nocturnal plankton feeders. Emergence trap data show that the observed reduction in demersal plankton may be partly attributable to altered habitat. Ocean acidification changes coral community composition from branching to massive bouldering coral species, and our data suggest that bouldering corals represent inferior daytime shelter for demersal zooplankton. Since zooplankton represent a major source of nutrients for corals, fish and other planktivores, this ecological feedback may represent an additional mechanism of how coral reefs will be affected by ocean acidification.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: Rhodophyta (red algae) is one of three lineages of Archaeplastida1, a supergroup that is united by the primary endosymbiotic origin of plastids in eukaryotes2,3. Red algae are a diverse and species-rich group, members of which are typically photoautotrophic, but are united by a number of highly derived characteristics: they have relatively small intron-poor genomes, reduced metabolism and lack cytoskeletal structures that are associated with motility, flagella and centrioles. This suggests that marked gene loss occurred around their origin4; however, this is difficult to reconstruct because they differ so much from the other archaeplastid lineages, and the relationships between these lineages are unclear. Here we describe the novel eukaryotic phylum Rhodelphidia and, using phylogenomics, demonstrate that it is a closely related sister to red algae. However, the characteristics of the two Rhodelphis species described here are nearly opposite to those that define red algae: they are non-photosynthetic, flagellate predators with gene-rich genomes, along with a relic genome-lacking primary plastid that probably participates in haem synthesis. Overall, these findings alter our views of the origins of Rhodophyta, and Archaeplastida evolution as a whole, as they indicate that mixotrophic feeding—that is, a combination of predation and phototrophy—persisted well into the evolution of the group.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-09-20
    Description: The cycling of carbon on Earth exerts a fundamental influence upon the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, and hence global climate over millennia. Until recently, ice sheets were viewed as inert components of this cycle and largely disregarded in global models. Research in the past decade has transformed this view, demonstrating the existence of uniquely adapted microbial communities, high rates of biogeochemical/physical weathering in ice sheets and storage and cycling of organic carbon (〉104 Pg C) and nutrients. Here we assess the active role of ice sheets in the global carbon cycle and potential ramifications of enhanced melt and ice discharge in a warming world.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-09-17
    Description: Ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying organisms, yet we lack understanding of their acclimation potential in the natural environment. Here we measured geochemical proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) in Porites astreoides corals that have been growing for their entire life under low aragonite saturation (Ωsw: 0.77–1.85). This allowed us to assess the ability of these corals to manipulate the chemical conditions at the site of calcification (Ωcf), and hence their potential to acclimate to changing Ωsw. We show that lifelong exposure to low Ωsw did not enable the corals to acclimate and reach similar Ωcf as corals grown under ambient conditions. The lower Ωcf at the site of calcification can explain a large proportion of the decreasing P. astreoides calcification rates at low Ωsw. The naturally elevated seawater dissolved inorganic carbon concentration at this study site shed light on how different carbonate chemistry parameters affect calcification conditions in corals.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: other
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Extreme, abrupt Northern Hemisphere climate oscillations during the last glacial cycle (140,000 years ago to present) were modulated by changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing. However, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which has a role in controlling heat transport from low to high latitudes and in ocean CO2 storage, is still poorly constrained beyond the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we show that a deep and vigorous overturning circulation mode has persisted for most of the last glacial cycle, dominating ocean circulation in the Atlantic, whereas a shallower glacial mode with southern-sourced waters filling the deep western North Atlantic prevailed during glacial maxima. Our results are based on a reconstruction of both the strength and the direction of the AMOC during the last glacial cycle from a highly resolved marine sedimentary record in the deep western North Atlantic. Parallel measurements of two independent chemical water tracers (the isotope ratios of 231Pa/230Th and 143Nd/144Nd), which are not directly affected by changes in the global cycle, reveal consistent responses of the AMOC during the last two glacial terminations. Any significant deviations from this configuration, resulting in slowdowns of the AMOC, were restricted to centennial-scale excursions during catastrophic iceberg discharges of the Heinrich stadials. Severe and multicentennial weakening of North Atlantic Deep Water formation occurred only during Heinrich stadials close to glacial maxima with increased ice coverage, probably as a result of increased fresh-water input. In contrast, the AMOC was relatively insensitive to submillennial meltwater pulses during warmer climate states, and an active AMOC prevailed during Dansgaard–Oeschger interstadials (Greenland warm periods).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor volcanic chain has been linked to changes in the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate, movement of the Hawaiian plume, or a combination of both. However, these links are uncertain because there is no independent record that precisely dates tectonic events that affected the Pacific Plate. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of lava samples collected from the Musicians Ridges, lines of volcanic seamounts formed close to the Hawaiian–Emperor bend. We find that the geochemical signature of these lavas is unlike typical ocean island basalts and instead resembles mid-ocean ridge basalts. We infer that the seamounts are unrelated to mantle plume activity and instead formed in an extensional setting, due to deformation of the Pacific Plate. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the Musicians Ridges formed during two time windows that bracket the time of formation of the Hawaiian–Emperor bend, 53–52 and 48–47 million years ago. We conclude that the Hawaiian–Emperor bend was formed by plate–mantle reorganization, potentially triggered by a series of subduction events at the Pacific Plate margins.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: archive
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: archive
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles(1,2). Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods(3,4). A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in situ imaging survey of plankton larger than 600 mu m, we show that a substantial part of the biomass of this size fraction consists of giant protists belonging to the Rhizaria, a super-group of mostly fragile unicellular marine organisms that includes the taxa Phaeodaria and Radiolaria ( for example, orders Collodaria and Acantharia). Globally, we estimate that rhizarians in the top 200 m of world oceans represent a standing stock of 0.089 Pg carbon, equivalent to 5.2% of the total oceanic biota carbon reservoir(5). In the vast oligotrophic intertropical open oceans, rhizarian biomass is estimated to be equivalent to that of all other mesozooplankton ( plankton in the size range 0.2-20 mm). The photosymbiotic association of many rhizarians with microalgae may be an important factor in explaining their distribution. The previously overlooked importance of these giant protists across the widest ecosystem on the planet(6) changes our understanding of marine planktonic ecosystems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Greenland ice sheet has experienced increasing mass loss since the 1990s1, 2. The enhanced freshwater flux due to both surface melt and outlet glacier discharge is assuming an increasingly important role in the changing freshwater budget of the subarctic Atlantic3. The sustained and increasing freshwater fluxes from Greenland to the surface ocean could lead to a suppression of deep winter convection in the Labrador Sea, with potential ramifications for the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation4, 5, 6. Here we assess the impact of the increases in the freshwater fluxes, reconstructed with full spatial resolution3, using a global ocean circulation model with a grid spacing fine enough to capture the small-scale, eddying transport processes in the subpolar North Atlantic. Our simulations suggest that the invasion of meltwater from the West Greenland shelf has initiated a gradual freshening trend at the surface of the Labrador Sea. Although the freshening is still smaller than the variability associated with the episodic ‘great salinity anomalies’, the accumulation of meltwater may become large enough to progressively dampen the deep winter convection in the coming years. We conclude that the freshwater anomaly has not yet had a significant impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Current climate models systematically underestimate the strength of oceanic fronts associated with strong western boundary currents, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Extensions, and have difficulty simulating their positions at the mid-latitude ocean’s western boundaries1. Even with an enhanced grid resolution to resolve ocean mesoscale eddies—energetic circulations with horizontal scales of about a hundred kilometres that strongly interact with the fronts and currents—the bias problem can still persist2; to improve climate models we need a better understanding of the dynamics governing these oceanic frontal regimes. Yet prevailing theories about the western boundary fronts are based on ocean internal dynamics without taking into consideration the intense air–sea feedbacks in these oceanic frontal regions. Here, by focusing on the Kuroshio Extension Jet east of Japan as the direct continuation of the Kuroshio, we show that feedback between ocean mesoscale eddies and the atmosphere (OME-A) is fundamental to the dynamics and control of these energetic currents. Suppressing OME-A feedback in eddy-resolving coupled climate model simulations results in a 20–40 per cent weakening in the Kuroshio Extension Jet. This is because OME-A feedback dominates eddy potential energy destruction, which dissipates more than 70 per cent of the eddy potential energy extracted from the Kuroshio Extension Jet. The absence of OME-A feedback inevitably leads to a reduction in eddy potential energy production in order to balance the energy budget, which results in a weakened mean current. The finding has important implications for improving climate models’ representation of major oceanic fronts, which are essential components in the simulation and prediction of extratropical storms and other extreme events3, 4, 5, 6, as well as in the projection of the effect on these events of climate change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0–1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at 〉6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500–24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (〉6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer Nature
    In:  Scientific Reports, 7 . Art. Nr. 44952.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions of many deep-sea pelagic organisms are still unknown. This is also true for pelagic cephalopods, some of which are very abundant in oceanic ecosystems and which are known for their elaborate behaviors and central role in many foodwebs. We report on the first observations of the giant deep-sea octopus Haliphron atlanticus with prey. Using remotely operated vehicles, we saw these giant octopods holding medusae in their arms. One of the medusae could be identified as Phacellophora camtschatica (the egg-yolk jelly). Stomach content analysis confirmed predation on cnidarians and gelatinous organisms. The relationship between medusae and H. atlanticus is discussed, also in comparison with other species of the Argonautoidea, all of which have close relationships with gelatinous zooplankton
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are a class of marine gel particles and important links between surface ocean biology and atmospheric processes. Derived from marine microorganisms, these particles can facilitate the biological pumping of carbon dioxide to the deep sea, or act as cloud condensation and ice nucleation particles in the atmosphere. Yet, environmental controls on TEP abundance in the ocean are poorly known. Here, we investigated some of these controls during the first multiyear time-series on TEP abundance for the Fram Strait, the Atlantic gateway to the Central Arctic Ocean. Data collected at the Long-Term Ecological Research observatory HAUSGARTEN during 2009 to 2014 indicate a strong biological control with highest abundance co-occurring with the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii. Higher occurrence of P. pouchetii in the Arctic Ocean has previously been related to northward advection of warmer Atlantic waters, which is expected to increase in the future. Our study highlights the role of plankton key species in driving climate relevant processes; thus, changes in plankton distribution need to be accounted for when estimating the ocean’s biogeochemical response to global change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Paleo-climate records and geodynamic modelling indicate the existence of complex interactions between glacial sea level changes, volcanic degassing and atmospheric CO2, which may have modulated the climate system's descent into the last ice age. Between ∼85 and 70 kyr ago, during an interval of decreasing axial tilt, the orbital component in global temperature records gradually declined, while atmospheric CO2, instead of continuing its long-term correlation with Antarctic temperature, remained relatively stable. Here, based on novel global geodynamic models and the joint interpretation of paleo-proxy data as well as biogeochemical simulations, we show that a sea level fall in this interval caused enhanced pressure-release melting in the uppermost mantle, which may have induced a surge in magma and CO2 fluxes from mid-ocean ridges and oceanic hotspot volcanoes. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized negative feedback between glaciation and atmospheric CO2 predominantly controlled by marine volcanism on multi-millennial timescales of ∼5,000-15,000 years.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L−1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we report the first evidence for potential N2O cycling via the denitrification pathway in the open Atlantic Ocean. Finally, we consider the implications of low oxygen eddies for bulk, upper water column N2O at the regional scale, and point out the possible need for a reevaluation of how we view N2O cycling in the ETNA.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Large amounts of methane are stored in continental margins as gas hydrates. They are stable under high pressure and low temperature, but react sensitively to environmental changes. Bottom water temperature and sea level changes were considered as main contributors to gas hydrate dynamics after the last glaciation. However, here we show with numerical simulations that pulses of increased sedimentation dominantly controlled hydrate stability during the end of the last glaciation offshore mid-Norway. Sedimentation pulses triggered widespread gas hydrate dissociation and explains the formation of ubiquitous blowout pipes in water depths of 600 to 800 m. Maximum gas hydrate dissociation correlates spatially and temporally with the formation or reactivation of pockmarks, which is constrained by radiocarbon dating of Isorropodon nyeggaensis bivalve shells. Our results highlight that rapid changes of sedimentation can have a strong impact on gas hydrate systems affecting fluid flow and gas seepage activity, slope stability and the carbon cycle.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability