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  • Springer Nature  (1,028,429)
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  • 1
    Journal cover
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3669
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 32.2003 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 0093-7355
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-4475
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3366
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2157-846X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 5
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2520-1158
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-5839
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 7
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-5276
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 50.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2510-2788
    Electronic ISSN: 1802-9698
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 9
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2522-8986
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-8994
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
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  • 10
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2398-9629
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Formerly as: Nature Reports  (2007–2010)
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Acronym: NCC
    Abbreviation: Nat Clim Change
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  • 12
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-334X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 13
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2520-1131
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 14
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7546
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Keywords: energy ; photovoltaics ; fuel cells
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  • 15
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2008 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
    Abbreviation: Nat Geosci
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  • 16
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-5812
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 18
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4648
    Topics: Physics
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  • 19
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2020 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2661-8907
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 20
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3650
    Topics: Physics
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  • 21
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 16.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-336X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 22
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2019 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2522-5820
    Topics: Physics
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  • 23
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3374
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Psychology
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  • 24
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1749-4885
    Electronic ISSN: 1749-4893
    Topics: Physics
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  • 25
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-7132
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 26
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-2106
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 27
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    Springer Nature | Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 28
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    Springer Nature | formerly Wiley
    Online: 26.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , formerly Wiley
    Print ISSN: 1671-4083
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-7254
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 29
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2018 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2399-3642
    Topics: Biology
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  • 30
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2006 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 2524-4892
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-4387
    Topics: Political Science , Economics
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  • 31
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1(1).2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-3358
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 32
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
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  • 33
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 2017 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2397-4621
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 34
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    Springer Nature
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-4463
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Keywords: Forschungsdatenmanagement
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  • 35
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    Springer Nature
    In:  In: Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems. , ed. by Breitkreuz, C. and Rocchi, S. Advances in Volcanology . Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 119-130.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Subvolcanic systems are characterized by complex combinations of intrusive units (dykes, sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets, etc.) for which genetic relationships are unclear. This chapter explains how whole-rock geochemistry may be used to resolve the genetic relationships of such subvolcanic (and volcanic) systems. We start with a short introduction of the geochemical fingerprinting method with particular emphasis on the statistical refinement method called Forward Stepwise-Discriminant Function Analysis (FS-DFA). Combined with field mapping and structural analysis, geochemical fingerprinting based on major and trace elements and isotope ratios, is a very powerful tool to distinguish between igneous units (lavas, sills, dykes) with subtle (or not so subtle) geochemical differences. Different geochemical fingerprinting or signatures indicate derivation from distinct magma batches. The results from FS-DFA analyses may be used to reveal genetic relationships between geological units, or lack of such, which again may be used to throw light on subvolcanic plumbing systems, the feeding system in sill-dyke complexes, as well as other problems. The method is illustrated by studies of the Golden Valley Sill Complex in the Karoo Basin (South Africa).
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-03-23
    Description: At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Description: Currently there is a scarcity of paleo-records related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly in East-Central Europe (ECE). Here we report δ15N analysis of guano from a cave in NW Romania with the intent of reconstructing past variation in ECE hydroclimate and examine NAO impacts on winter precipitation. We argue that the δ15N values of guano indicate that the nitrogen cycle is hydrologically controlled and the δ15N values likely reflect winter precipitation related to nitrogen mineralization prior to the growing season. Drier conditions indicated by δ15N values at AD 1848–1852 and AD 1880–1930 correspond to the positive phase of the NAO. The increased frequency of negative phases of the NAO between AD 1940–1975 is contemporaneous with higher δ15N values (wetter conditions). A 4‰ decrease in δ15N values at the end of the 1970’s corresponds to a strong reduction in precipitation associated with a shift from negative to positive phase of the NAO. Using the relationship between NAO index and δ15N values in guano for the instrumental period, we reconstructed NAO-like phases back to AD 1650. Our results advocate that δ15N values of guano offer a proxy of the NAO conditions in the more distant past, helping assess its predictability.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-04-08
    Description: The deglacial history of CO2 release from the deep North Pacific remains unresolved. This is due to conflicting indications about subarctic Pacific ventilation changes based on various marine proxies, especially for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS-1) when a rapid atmospheric CO2 rise occurs. Here, we use a complex Earth System Model to investigate the deglacial North Pacific overturning and its control on ocean stratification. Our results show an enhanced intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification coeval with intensified North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation during HS-1, compared to the Last Glacial Maximum. The stronger NPIW formation causes lower salinities and higher temperatures at intermediate depths. By lowering NPIW densities, this enlarges vertical density gradient and thus enhances intermediate-to-deep ocean stratification during HS-1. Physically, this process prevents the North Pacific deep waters from a better communication with the upper oceans, thus prolongs the existing isolation of glacial Pacific abyssal carbons during HS-1.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-05-03
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2017-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Subglacial lakes are widespread beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet but their control on ice-sheet dynamics and their ability to harbour life remain poorly characterized. Here we present evidence for a palaeo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continental shelf. A distinct sediment facies recovered from a bedrock basin in Pine Island Bay indicates deposition within a low-energy lake environment. Diffusive-advection modelling demonstrates that low chloride concentrations in the pore water of the corresponding sediments can only be explained by initial deposition of this facies in a freshwater setting. These observations indicate that an active subglacial meltwater network, similar to that observed beneath the extant ice sheet, was also active during the last glacial period. It also provides a new framework for refining the exploration of these unique environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)—one of the most abundant animal species on Earth—exhibits a five to six year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modelling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales. Our model indicates that the cycle amplitude increases with reduction of krill loss rates. Thus, a decline of apex predators is likely to increase the oscillation amplitude, potentially destabilizing the marine food web, with drastic consequences for the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-09-24
    Description: We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as sea oor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean ecosystem where it plays a central role in the Antarctic food web. Available information supports the existence of an endogenous timing system in krill enabling it to synchronize metabolism and behavior with an environment characterized by extreme seasonal changes in terms of day length, food availability, and surface ice extent. A screening of our transcriptome database “KrillDB” allowed us to identify the putative orthologues of 20 circadian clock components. Mapping of conserved domains and phylogenetic analyses strongly supported annotations of the identi ed sequences. Luciferase assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments allowed us to de ne the role of the main clock components. Our ndings provide an overall picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of the endogenous circadian clock in the Antarctic krill and shed light on their evolution throughout crustaceans speciation. Interestingly, the core clock machinery shows both mammalian and insect features that presumably contribute to an evolutionary strategy to cope with polar environment’s challenges. Moreover, despite the extreme variability characterizing the Antarctic seasonal day length, the conserved light mediated degradation of the photoreceptor EsCRY1 suggests a persisting pivotal role of light as a Zeitgeber.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-03-04
    Description: There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra landscapes are composed of a complex mosaic of patterned ground features, varying in soil moisture, vegetation composition, and surface hydrology over small spatial scales (10–100 m). The importance of microtopography and associated geomorphic landforms in influencing ecosystem structure and function is well founded, however, spatial data products describing local to regional scale distribution of patterned ground or polygonal tundra geomorphology are largely unavailable. Thus, our understanding of local impacts on regional scale processes (e.g., carbon dynamics) may be limited. We produced two key spatiotemporal datasets spanning the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km2) to evaluate climate-geomorphological controls on arctic tundra productivity change, using (1) a novel 30m classification of polygonal tundra geomorphology and (2) decadal-trends in surface greenness using the Landsat archive (1999–2014). These datasets can be easily integrated and adapted in an array of local to regional applications such as (1) upscaling plot-level measurements (e.g., carbon/energy fluxes), (2) mapping of soils, vegetation, or permafrost, and/or (3) initializing ecosystem biogeochemistry, hydrology, and/or habitat modeling.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 47
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1 (11). pp. 1600-1601.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Comb jellies are remarkably different from other animals. Phylogenetic analyses of broadly sampled ctenophore transcriptome data provide additional evidence that they are the sister group to all other animals and reveal details of their evolutionary relationships to each other.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: A paradigm shift is underway in wastewater treatment as the industry heads toward ~3% of global electricity consumption and contributes ~1.6% of greenhouse gas emissions. Although incremental improvements to energy efficiency and renewable energy recovery are underway, studies considering wastewater for carbon capture and utilization are few. This Review summarizes alternative wastewater treatment pathways capable of simultaneous CO2 capture and utilization, and demonstrates the environmental and economic benefits of microbial electrochemical and phototrophic processes. Preliminary estimates demonstrate that re-envisioning wastewater treatment may entirely offset the industry’s greenhouse gas footprint and make it a globally significant contributor of negative carbon emissions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-12-16
    Description: Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2017-07-05
    Description: Little is known about the production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the anoxic oceanic sediments. In this study, sediment pore waters were sampled from four different sites in the Chukchi-East Siberian Seas area to examine the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their optical properties. The production of FDOM, coupled with the increase of nutrients, was observed above the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). The presence of FDOM was concurrent with sulfate reduction and increased alkalinity (R2 〉 0.96, p 〈 0.0001), suggesting a link to organic matter degradation. This inference was supported by the positive correlation (R2 〉 0.95, p 〈 0.0001) between the net production of FDOM and the modeled degradation rates of particulate organic carbon sulfate reduction. The production of FDOM was more pronounced in a shallow shelf site S1 with a total net production ranging from 17.9 to 62.3 RU for different FDOM components above the SMTZ depth of ca. 4.1 mbsf, which presumably underwent more accumulation of particulate organic matter than the other three deeper sites. The sediments were generally found to be the sources of CDOM and FDOM to the overlying water column, unearthing a channel of generally bio-refractory and pre-aged DOM to the oceans.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice habitats are, however, vital for larval krill when water column productivity is limited by light, by providing structures that offer protec- tion from predators and to collect organic material released from the ice. The larvae feed on this sparse ice-associated food during the day. After sunset, they migrate into the water below the ice (upper 20 m) and drift away from the ice areas where they have previously fed. Model analyses indicate that this behaviour increases both food uptake in a patchy food environment and the likelihood of overwinter transport to areas where feeding conditions are more favourable in spring.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-04-15
    Description: Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity. We analyzed the spatial variability of decadal-scale trends in surface greenness across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km²) using the Landsat archive (1999–2014), in combination with novel 30 m classifications of polygonal tundra and regional watersheds, finding landscape heterogeneity and regional climate change to be the most important factors controlling historical greenness trends. Browning was linked to increased temperature and precipitation, with the exception of young landforms (developed following lake drainage), which will likely continue to green. Spatiotemporal model forecasting suggests carbon uptake potential to be reduced in response to warmer and/or wetter climatic conditions, potentially increasing the net loss of carbon to the atmosphere, at a greater degree than previously expected.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: Lagoon development in ice-rich permafrost environments such as the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coastline and the Yedoma coastlines of northern Siberia represents a key mechanism of marine inundation of permafrost along the Arctic coastal plains. Here we show lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeastern Siberia. This study extends previous studies of the Ivashkina Lagoon, and provides a first dated geochronological context for sedimentation and lithological characteristics. In addition, we report ground temperature measurements from different borehole sites in and around the lagoon to support our analysis of the thermokarst lagoon environment. Furthermore, a change detection study was carried out using historical aerial photography and modern satellite imagery for the 1982 to 2016 period. Several stages of landscape dynamics were reconstructed, starting with an initial Yedoma Ice Complex that covered the area during the late Pleistocene and which was locally thawed by thermokarst lake development during the Late Glacial with subsequent lacustrine sedimentation. A final stage completed the landscape dynamics during the last few hundreds of years. This stage was characterized by lake drainage and lagoon development, including strong reworking of surface sediments. By extrapolating the organic carbon data from Ivashkina Lagoon to the lagoons of the Bykovsky Peninsula, we estimate that lagoons contain 1.68 ± 0.04 Mt of organic carbon in their upper 6 m.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2017-10-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Glaciological and oceanographic observations coupled with numerical models show that warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) incursions onto the West Antarctic continental shelf cause melting of the undersides of floating ice shelves. Because these ice shelves buttress glaciers feeding into them, their ocean-induced thinning is driving Antarctic ice-sheet retreat today. Here we present a multi-proxy data based reconstruction of variability in CDW inflow to the Amundsen Sea sector, the most vulnerable part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, during the Holocene epoch (from 11.7 thousand years ago to the present). The chemical compositions of foraminifer shells and benthic foraminifer assemblages in marine sediments indicate that enhanced CDW upwelling, controlled by the latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, forced deglaciation of this sector from at least 10,400 years ago until 7,500 years ago—when an ice-shelf collapse may have caused rapid ice-sheet thinning further upstream—and since the 1940s. These results increase confidence in the predictive capability of current ice-sheet models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: The field of Arctic sea ice prediction on “weather time scales” is still in its infancy with little existing understanding of the limits of predictability. This is especially true for sea ice deformation along so-called Linear Kinematic Features (LKFs) including leads that are relevant for marine operations. Here the potential predictability of the sea ice pack in the wintertime Arctic up to ten days ahead is determined, exploiting the fact that sea ice-ocean models start to show skill at representing sea ice deformation at high spatial resolutions. Results are based on ensemble simulations with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model driven by atmospheric ensemble forecasts. The predictability of LKFs as measured by different metrics drops quickly, with predictability being almost completely lost after 4–8 days. In contrast, quantities such as sea ice concentration or the location of the ice edge retain high levels of predictability throughout the full 10-day forecast period. It is argued that the rapid error growth for LKFs is mainly due to the chaotic behaviour of the atmosphere associated with the low predictability of near surface wind divergence and vorticity; initial condition uncertainty for ice thickness is found to be of minor importance as long as LKFs are initialized at the right locations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Stable water isotope records from Antarctica are key for our understanding of Quaternary climate variations. However, the exact quantitative interpretation of these important climate proxy records in terms of surface temperature, ice sheet height and other climatic changes is still a matter of debate. Here we report results obtained with an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water isotopes, run at a high-spatial horizontal resolution of one-by-one degree. Comparing different glacial maximum ice sheet reconstructions, a best model data match is achieved for the PMIP3 reconstruction. Reduced West Antarctic elevation changes between 400 and 800 m lead to further improved agreement with ice core data. Our modern and glacial climate simulations support the validity of the isotopic paleothermometer approach based on the use of present-day observations and reveal that a glacial ocean state as displayed in the GLAMAP reconstruction is suitable for capturing the observed glacial isotope changes in Antarctic ice cores.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in ISME Journal (2019), doi:10.1038/s41396-019-0373-4.
    Description: The benthos in estuarine environments often experiences periods of regularly occurring hypoxic and anoxic conditions, dramatically impacting biogeochemical cycles. How oxygen depletion affects the growth of specific uncultivated microbial populations within these diverse benthic communities, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we applied H218O quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP) in order to quantify the growth of diverse, uncultured bacterial populations in response to low oxygen concentrations in estuarine sediments. Over the course of 7- and 28-day incubations with redox conditions spanning from hypoxia to euxinia (sulfidic), 18O labeling of bacterial populations exhibited different patterns consistent with micro-aerophilic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant anaerobic growth. 18O-labeled populations displaying anaerobic growth had a significantly non-random phylogenetic distribution, exhibited by numerous clades currently lacking cultured representatives within the Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Latescibacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Acidobacteria. Genes encoding the beta-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsrB) became 18O labeled only during euxinic conditions. Sequencing of these 18O-labeled dsrB genes showed that Acidobacteria were the dominant group of growing sulfate-reducing bacteria, highlighting their importance for sulfur cycling in estuarine sediments. Our findings provide the first experimental constraints on the redox conditions underlying increased growth in several groups of “microbial dark matter”, validating hypotheses put forth by earlier metagenomic studies.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant OR 417/1-1 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and a Junior Researcher Fund grant from LMU Munich to WDO. This work was performed in part, through the Master’s Program in Geobiology and Paleontology (MGAP) at LMU Munich.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Gruen, D. S., Wolfe, J. M., & Fournier, G. P.. Paleozoic diversification of terrestrial chitin-degrading bacterial lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, (2019): 34, doi:10.1186/s12862-019-1357-8.
    Description: Background Establishing the divergence times of groups of organisms is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This is especially challenging for microbial lineages due to the near-absence of preserved physical evidence (diagnostic body fossils or geochemical biomarkers). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can serve as a temporal scaffold between microbial groups and other fossil-calibrated clades, potentially improving these estimates. Specifically, HGT to or from organisms with fossil-calibrated age estimates can propagate these constraints to additional groups that lack fossils. While HGT is common between lineages, only a small subset of HGT events are potentially informative for dating microbial groups. Results Constrained by published fossil-calibrated studies of fungal evolution, molecular clock analyses show that multiple clades of Bacteria likely acquired chitinase homologs via HGT during the very late Neoproterozoic into the early Paleozoic. These results also show that, following these HGT events, recipient terrestrial bacterial clades likely diversified ~ 300–500 million years ago, consistent with established timescales of arthropod and plant terrestrialization. Conclusions We conclude that these age estimates are broadly consistent with the dispersal of chitinase genes throughout the microbial world in direct response to the evolution and ecological expansion of detrital-chitin producing groups. The convergence of multiple lines of evidence demonstrates the utility of HGT-based dating methods in microbial evolution. The pattern of inheritance of chitinase genes in multiple terrestrial bacterial lineages via HGT processes suggests that these genes, and possibly other genes encoding substrate-specific enzymes, can serve as a “standard candle” for dating microbial lineages across the Tree of Life.
    Description: This work was supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program Award to DSG., and Simons Collaboration on the Origins of Life Award #339603 and NSF Integrated Earth Systems Program Award #1615426 to GPF. The funding agencies for this study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, or in writing the manuscript.
    Keywords: Horizontal gene transfer ; Chitinase ; Chitin ; Bacteria ; Fungi ; Arthropods
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2019. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer Nature for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Zakroff, C., Mooney, T.A. & Wirth, C. Ocean acidification responses in paralarval squid swimming behavior using a novel 3D tracking system. Hydrobiologia, 808(1),(2018):83-106, doi:10.1007/s10750-017-3342-9.
    Description: Chronic embryonic exposure to ocean acidification (OA) has been shown to degrade the aragonitic statolith of paralarval squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a key structure for their swimming behavior. This study examined if day-of-hatching paralarval D. pealeii from eggs reared under chronic OA demonstrated measurable impairments to swimming activity and control. This required the development of a novel, cost-effective, and robust method for 3D motion tracking and analysis. Squid eggs were reared in pCO2 levels in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 400 - 2200 ppm. Initial 2D experiments showed paralarvae in higher acidification environments spent more time at depth. In 3D experiments, velocity, particularly positive and negative vertical velocities, significantly decreased from 400 to 1000 ppm pCO2, but showed non-significant decreases at higher concentrations. Activity and horizontal velocity decreased linearly with increasing pCO2, indicating a subtle impact to paralarval energetics. Patterns may have been obscured by notable individual variability in the paralarvae. Responses were also seen to vary between trials on cohort or potentially annual scales. Overall, paralarval swimming appeared resilient to OA, with effects being slight. The newly developed 3D tracking system provides a powerful and accessible method for future studies to explore similar questions in the larvae of aquatic taxa.
    Description: We thank D. Remsen, the MBL Marine Resources Center staff, and MBL Gemma crew for their support in acquiring squid. R. Galat and the facilities staff of the WHOI ESL provided system support. D. McCorkle, KYK Chan, and M. White provided valuable insight on the OA system. E. Moberg, A. Beet, and A. Solow assisted in the development and coding of the 3D model system. We also thank E. Bonk, K. Hoering, M. Lee, D. Weiler, and A. Schlunk for their assistance and input with the experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374. This project is funded by NSF Grant No. 1220034.
    Keywords: Hypercapnia ; Cephalopod ; Larvae ; Movement analysis ; Stress physiology
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: An approach is presented for high-field MRI studies of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of a marine crustacean, the edible crab Cancer pagurus, submerged in highly conductive seawater. Structure and function of the CVS were investigated at 9.4 T. Cardiac motion was studied using self-gated CINE MRI. Imaging protocols and radio-frequency coil arrangements were tested for anatomical imaging. Haemolymph flow was quantified using phase-contrast angiography. Signal-to-noise-ratios and flow velocities in afferent and efferent branchial veins were compared with Student’s t test (n = 5). Seawater induced signal losses were dependent on imaging protocols and RF coil setup. Internal cardiac structures could be visualized with high spatial resolution within 8 min using a gradient-echo technique. Variations in haemolymph flow in different vessels could be determined over time. Maximum flow was similar within individual vessels and corresponded to literature values from Doppler measurements. Heart contractions were more pronounced in lateral and dorso-ventral directions than in the anterior–posterior direction. Choosing adequate imaging protocols in combination with a specific RF coil arrangement allows to monitor various parts of the crustacean CVS with exceptionally high spatial resolution despite the adverse effects of seawater at 9.4 T.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Organisms in shallow waters at high latitudes are under pressure due to climate change. These areas are typically inhabited by microphytobenthos (MPB) communities, composed mainly of diatoms. Only sparse information is available on the ecophysiology and acclimation processes within MPBs from Arctic regions. The physico-chemical environment and the ecology and ecophysiology of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) are addressed in this review. MPB biofilms cover extensive areas of sediment. They show high rates of primary production, stabilise sediment surfaces against erosion under hydrodynamic forces,and affect the exchange of oxygen and nutrients across the sediment-water interface. Additionally, this phototrophic community represents a key component in the functioning of the Kongsfjorden trophic web, particularly as a major food source for benthic suspension- or deposit-feeders. MPB in Kongsfjorden is confronted with pronounced seasonal variations in solar radiation, low temperatures, and hyposaline (meltwater) conditions in summer, as well as long periods of ice and snow cover in winter. From the few data available, it seems that these organisms can easily cope with these environmental extremes. The underlying physiological mechanisms that allow growth and photosynthesis to continue under widely varying abiotic parameters, along with vertical migration and heterotrophy, and biochemical features such as a pronounced fatty-acid metabolism and silicate incorporation are discussed. Existing gaps in our knowledge of benthic diatoms in Kongsfjorden, such as the chemical ecology of biotic interactions, need to be filled. In addition, since many of the underlying molecular acclimation mechanisms are poorly understood, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics, in conjunction with cell biological and biochemical techniques, are urgently needed. Climate change models for the Arctic predict other multifactorial stressors, such as an increase in precipitation and permafrost thawing, with consequences for the shallow-water regions. Both precipitation and permafrost thawing are likely to increase nutrient-enriched, turbid freshwater runoff and may locally counteract the expected increase in coastal radiation availability. So far, complex interactions among factors, as well as the full genetic diversity and physiological plasticity of Arctic benthic diatoms, have only rarely been considered. The limited existing information is described and discussed in this review.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: The in situ effects of ocean acidification on zooplankton communities remain largely unexplored. Using natural volcanic CO2 seep sites around tropical coral communities, we show a threefold reduction in the biomass of demersal zooplankton in high-CO2 sites compared with sites with ambient CO2. Differences were consistent across two reefs and three expeditions. Abundances were reduced in most taxonomic groups. There were no regime shifts in zooplankton community composition and no differences in fatty acid composition between CO2 levels, suggesting that ocean acidification affects the food quantity but not the quality for nocturnal plankton feeders. Emergence trap data show that the observed reduction in demersal plankton may be partly attributable to altered habitat. Ocean acidification changes coral community composition from branching to massive bouldering coral species, and our data suggest that bouldering corals represent inferior daytime shelter for demersal zooplankton. Since zooplankton represent a major source of nutrients for corals, fish and other planktivores, this ecological feedback may represent an additional mechanism of how coral reefs will be affected by ocean acidification.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Restructure data-gathering and evaluation networks to address climate change, energy, food, health and water provision, say Yonglong Lu and colleagues.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important carbon pool, similar in magnitude to atmospheric CO2, but the fate of its oldest forms is not well understood. Hot hydrothermal circulation may facilitate the degradation of otherwise un-reactive dissolved organic matter, playing an important role in the long-term global carbon cycle. The oldest, most recalcitrant forms of DOC, which make up most of oceanic DOC, can be recovered by solid-phase extraction. Here we present measurements of solid-phase extractable DOC from samples collected between 2009 and 2013 at seven vent sites in the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans, along with magnesium concentrations, a conservative tracer of water circulation through hydrothermal systems. We find that magnesium and solid-phase extractable DOC concentrations are correlated, suggesting that solid-phase extractable DOC is almost entirely lost from solution through mineralization or deposition during circulation through hydrothermal vents with fluid temperatures of 212-401°C. In laboratory experiments, where we heated samples to 380°C for four days, we found a similar removal efficiency. We conclude that thermal degradation alone can account for the loss of solid-phase extractable DOC in natural hydrothermal systems, and that its maximum lifetime is constrained by the timescale of hydrothermal cycling, at about 40 million years
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes
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  • 67
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature, 534 (7607). pp. 320-322.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30–50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: During the last deglaciation, the opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) suggest the release of 14C-depleted CO2 from old carbon reservoirs. Although evidences point to the deep Pacific as a major reservoir of this 14C-depleted carbon, its extent and evolution still need to be constrained. Here we use sediment cores retrieved along a South Pacific transect to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of Δ14C over the last 30,000 years. In ∼2,500–3,600 m water depth, we find 14C-depleted deep waters with a maximum glacial offset to atmospheric 14C (ΔΔ14C=−1,000‰). Using a box model, we test the hypothesis that these low values might have been caused by an interaction of aging and hydrothermal CO2 influx. We observe a rejuvenation of circumpolar deep waters synchronous and potentially contributing to the initial deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. These findings constrain parts of the glacial carbon pool to the deep South Pacific.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: A sustainable global ocean observation system requires timely implementation of the framework for ocean observing. The recent Qingdao Global Ocean Summit highlighted the need for a more coherent institutional response to maintain an integrated ocean-observing system.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and a key compound in stratospheric ozone depletion. In the ocean, nitrous oxide is produced at intermediate depths through nitrification and denitrification, in particular at low oxygen concentrations. Although a third of natural emissions of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere originate from the ocean, considerable uncertainties in the distribution and magnitude of the emissions still exist. Here we present high-resolution surface measurements and vertical profiles of nitrous oxide that include the highest reported nitrous oxide concentrations in marine surface waters, suggesting that there is a hotspot of nitrous oxide emissions in high-productivity upwelling ecosystems along the Peruvian coast. We estimate that off Peru, the extremely high nitrous oxide supersaturations we observed drive a massive efflux of 0.2–0.9 Tg of nitrogen emitted as nitrous oxide per year, equivalent to 5–22% of previous estimates of global marine nitrous oxide emissions. Nutrient and gene abundance data suggest that coupled nitrification–denitrification in the upper oxygen minimum zone and transport of resulting nitrous oxide to the surface by upwelling lead to the high nitrous oxide concentrations. Our estimate of nitrous oxide emissions from the Peruvian coast surpasses values from similar, highly productive areas.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth’s mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source1, 2. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes3, 4, 5, 6 while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes7, 8, 9. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone10. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth’s history.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia1. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic, freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Current climate models systematically underestimate the strength of oceanic fronts associated with strong western boundary currents, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Extensions, and have difficulty simulating their positions at the mid-latitude ocean’s western boundaries1. Even with an enhanced grid resolution to resolve ocean mesoscale eddies—energetic circulations with horizontal scales of about a hundred kilometres that strongly interact with the fronts and currents—the bias problem can still persist2; to improve climate models we need a better understanding of the dynamics governing these oceanic frontal regimes. Yet prevailing theories about the western boundary fronts are based on ocean internal dynamics without taking into consideration the intense air–sea feedbacks in these oceanic frontal regions. Here, by focusing on the Kuroshio Extension Jet east of Japan as the direct continuation of the Kuroshio, we show that feedback between ocean mesoscale eddies and the atmosphere (OME-A) is fundamental to the dynamics and control of these energetic currents. Suppressing OME-A feedback in eddy-resolving coupled climate model simulations results in a 20–40 per cent weakening in the Kuroshio Extension Jet. This is because OME-A feedback dominates eddy potential energy destruction, which dissipates more than 70 per cent of the eddy potential energy extracted from the Kuroshio Extension Jet. The absence of OME-A feedback inevitably leads to a reduction in eddy potential energy production in order to balance the energy budget, which results in a weakened mean current. The finding has important implications for improving climate models’ representation of major oceanic fronts, which are essential components in the simulation and prediction of extratropical storms and other extreme events3, 4, 5, 6, as well as in the projection of the effect on these events of climate change.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Microbial dinitrogen (N2) fixation, the nitrogenase enzyme-catalysed reduction of N2 gas into biologically available ammonia, is the main source of new nitrogen (N) in the ocean. For more than 50 years, oceanic N2 fixation has mainly been attributed to the activity of the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium1,2. Other smaller N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs)—in particular the unicellular cyanobacteria group A (UCYN-A)—are, however, abundant enough to potentially contribute significantly to N2 fixation in the surface waters of the oceans3,​4,​5,​6. Despite their abundance, the contribution of UCYN-A to oceanic N2 fixation has so far not been directly quantified. Here, we show that in one of the main areas of oceanic N2 fixation, the tropical North Atlantic7, the symbiotic cyanobacterium UCYN-A contributed to N2 fixation similarly to Trichodesmium. Two types of UCYN-A, UCYN-A1 and -A2, were observed to live in symbioses with specific eukaryotic algae. Single-cell analyses showed that both algae–UCYN-A symbioses actively fixed N2, contributing ∼20% to N2 fixation in the tropical North Atlantic, revealing their significance in this region. These symbioses had growth rates five to ten times higher than Trichodesmium, implying a rapid transfer of UCYN-A-fixed N into the food web that might significantly raise their actual contribution to N2 fixation. Our analysis of global 16S rRNA gene databases showed that UCYN-A occurs in surface waters from the Arctic to the Antarctic Circle and thus probably contributes to N2 fixation in a much larger oceanic area than previously thought. Based on their high rates of N2 fixation and cosmopolitan distribution, we hypothesize that UCYN-A plays a major, but currently overlooked role in the oceanic N cycle.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5 degrees N, 21-27 degrees C) and southern (16.5 degrees N, 28-33 degrees C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29 degrees C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor volcanic chain has been linked to changes in the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate, movement of the Hawaiian plume, or a combination of both. However, these links are uncertain because there is no independent record that precisely dates tectonic events that affected the Pacific Plate. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of lava samples collected from the Musicians Ridges, lines of volcanic seamounts formed close to the Hawaiian