Lifelines, such as pipelines, roads, and tunnels, are critical infrastructure and when crossing active tectonic faults, a reliable estimation of the fault displacement in case of an earthquake is required. The first and simplest approach is to use empirical fault scaling relations to compute the design fault displacement, but this may result in an unknown level of safety. Thus, the probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA) is the appropriate tool to assess the fault displacement hazard within a performance-based framework. Based upon an established PFDHA model, we present a simplified approach for engineering applications focusing on the lifeline–fault crossing along with appropriate simplifications and assumptions to extend its applicability to numerous faults. The aim is to provide a structure-independent approach of PFDHA that can be used when a site-specific study is not required, not possible (e.g., absence of recent sediments for dating past events), or too cumbersome, e.g., for lifeline route selection. Additionally, an in-depth investigation is presented on the key parameters, such as maximum earthquake magnitude, fault length, recurrence rate of all earthquakes above a minimum magnitude, and lifeline-fault crossing site, and how they affect the hazard level. This approach will be the basis for deriving hazard-consistent expressions to approximate fault displacement for use within the Eurocodes. The latter is intended to serve as a compromise between hazard-agnostic fault scaling relations and a comprehensive PFDHA, which requires detailed calculations and site-specific seismological data.
Open access funding provided by HEAL-Link Greece. The current work has been undertaken as part of the Horizon 2020 Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance in Europe (SERA, Grant Agreement No. 730900). The first and the third author have received partial funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “METIS-Seismic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Safety” under Grant Agreement No. 945121. Also, the financial support provided by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (H.F.R.I.) under the “2nd Call for H.F.R.I. Research Projects to support Faculty Members & Researchers”, Project "TwinCity—Climate-Aware Risk and Resilience Assessment of Urban Areas under Multiple Environmental Stressors via Multi-Tiered Digital City Twinning ", (Number: 2515) is gratefully acknowledged.
2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)