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  • 1
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    In:  EPIC3Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, Springer, 3(6)
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Despite global warming and Arctic sea-ice loss, on average the Antarctic sea-ice extent has not declined since 1979 when satellite data became available. In contrast, climate model simulations tend to exhibit strong negative sea-ice trends for the same period. This Antarctic sea-ice paradox leads to low confidence in 21st-century sea-ice projections. Here we present multi-resolution climate change projections that account for Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies. The high-resolution configuration simulates stable September Antarctic sea-ice extent that is not projected to decline until the mid-21st century. We argue that one reason for this finding is a more realistic ocean circulation that increases the equatorward heat transport response to global warming. As a result, the ocean becomes more efficient at moderating the anthropogenic warming around Antarctica and hence at delaying sea-ice decline. Our study suggests that explicitly simulating Southern Ocean eddies is necessary for providing Antarctic sea-ice projections with higher confidence.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: Coastal dynamics are the result of several processes controlling the balance between sediment input and output over time. The beach system is not always able to maintain a neutral coastal balance due to natural and anthropogenic causes. We present an integrated marine geology, geomorphological and sea-level rise analysis in the coastal sector between Torre delle Ciavole and Capo Calavà (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy).This sector is characterized by high uplift rates and frequent seismicity (mainly generated by the very active Vulcano-Tindari Fault System), promoting the development of mass-wasting processes in the coastal and offshore sectors. A main erosive feature observed in the area is the head of the Gioiosa Marea submarine canyon, located at some meters of depth, few hundred meters far the coastline. The main morphological features of the canyon were reconstructed through the analysis of high-resolution multibeam data, indicating that the canyon is active, as also testified by the comparison of time-lapse aerial photos. Due to this active setting, the study area is exposed to multiple geohazards, among which we deal with: (1) retrogressive instability at the head of the Gioiosa Marea submarine canyon, (2) coastal erosion favored by the downlope funnelling of littoral drift at the canyon head, (3) flooding scenario at 2100 using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and Rahmstorf sea-level projections. The consequences associated with these geohazards are amplified by the strong anthropization pressures occurring along in this sector. Our results provide key insights regarding the future scenarios of this coastal sector, revealing the effects of the retrogressive activity associated with the canyon head on the coastal strip. We also present the first management tool for the application of forecasting studies by local administrations.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Submarine canyon · Sicily continental margin · Uplift rate · Coastal erosion · Relative sea-level projections · Coastal flooding ; Geohazard assessment
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-03-14
    Description: Natural gas hazard was assessed at Cava dei Selci, a residential neighbourhood of Marino (Rome) by a joint study of gas emissions and related health problems. Here a densely urbanized zone with 4000 residents surrounds a dangerous natural gas discharge where, along the years, dozens of animals were killed by the gas. Gas originates from Colli Albani volcano and consists mostly of CO2 with ~1 vol.% of H2S. In recent years, several gas-related accidents occurred in the urbanized zone (gas blowouts and road collapses). Some houses were evacuated because of hazardous indoor air gas concentration. Gas hazard was assessed by soil CO2 flux and concentration surveys and indoor and outdoor air CO2 and H2S concentration measurements. Open fields and house gardens release a high quantity of CO2 (32.23 tonnes*day-1). Inside most houses, CO2 air concentration exceeds 0.1 vol.%, the acceptable long-term exposure range. In several houses both CO2 and H2S exceed the IDLH level (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health). An epidemiological cohort study was carried out on the residents of two Cava dei Selci zones with high (ZoneA) and medium (ZoneB) gas hazard exposure, using the rest of Marino as reference zone. We found excess mortality and Emergency Room Visits (ERV) related to high exposure to CO2 and H2S; in particular , an increased risk of mortality and ERV for diseases of central nervous system (HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.76-3.25 and HR 5.82, 95% CI 1.27-26.56 respectively) was found among men living in Zone A.
    Description: In press
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Cava dei Selci (Rome) · Gas hazard assessment ; Soil CO2 flux surveys ; Indoor concentration of CO2 and H2S ; Gas-related health problems ; Epidemiologic study on mortality and ERV ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Description: This book outlines the current development of geoethical thinking, proposing to the general public reflections and categories useful for understanding the ethical, cultural, and societal dimensions of anthropogenic global changes. Geoethics identifies and orients responsible behaviors and actions in the management of natural processes, redefining the human interaction with the Earth system based on a critical, scientifically grounded, and pragmatic approach. Solid scientific knowledge and a philosophical reference framework are crucial to face the current ecological disruption. The scientific perspective must be structured to help different human contexts while respecting social and cultural diversity. It is impossible to respond to global problems with disconnected local actions, which cannot be proposed as standard and effective operational models. Geoethics tries to overcome this fragmentation, presenting Earth sciences as the foundation of responsible human action toward the planet. Geoethics is conceived as a rational and multidisciplinary language that can bind and concretely support the international community, engaged in resolving global environmental imbalances and complex challenges, which have no national, cultural, or religious boundaries that require shared governance. Geoethics is proposed as a new reading key to rethinking the Earth as a system of complex relationships, in which the human being is an integral part of natural interactions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1TM. Formazione
    Description: 2TM. Divulgazione Scientifica
    Description: 3TM. Comunicazione
    Keywords: geoethics ; responsibility ; social-ecological systems ; Earth ; environmental ethics ; Anthropocene ; ecological humanism ; global anthropogenic changes ; 05.03. Educational, History of Science, Public Issues ; 05.09. Miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-05-04
    Description: The availability of computer tools able to describe the behavior of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) with uncertainty quantification is of primary importance for the assessment of volcanic hazard. A common strategy to assess the intrinsic variability of these phenomena is based on the analysis of large sets of numerical simulations with variable input parameters. The use of models fast enough to allow for a large number of simulations, such as the so-called kinetic energy models, is thus advantageous. Due to the sensitivity of kinetic energy models to poorly constrained input parameters, the definition of their variation ranges is a critical step in the construction of hazard maps and a numerical calibration becomes necessary. We present a set of reproducible and structured calibration procedures of numerical models based either on a reference deposit or on the distribution of runout distance or inundation area of documented PDCs. In the first case, various metrics can be adopted to compare the model results with the reference PDC deposit (root mean square distance, Hausdorff distance, and Jaccard index), facilitating the development of scenario-based hazard assessments. Calibrations based on the distribution of runout distance or inundation area allow the construction of probabilistic hazard maps that are not conditioned on the occurrence of a specific scenario, but rather reflect the variability of the documented PDCs during the time window considered. Importantly, our calibration strategies allow one to set the input parameters considering their potential statistical dependence. These procedures have been implemented on the user-friendly versions of two kinetic energy models: ECMapProb 2.0 and BoxMapProb 2.0, whose functionalities are presented for the first time in this paper. The different calibration strategies and the functionalities of the two programs are illustrated by considering three case studies: El Misti (Peru), Merapi (Indonesia), and Campi Flegrei (Italy).
    Description: Published
    Description: 29
    Description: 6V. Pericolosità vulcanica e contributi alla stima del rischio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: The increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities traps heat within the climate system and increases ocean heat content (OHC). Here, we provide the first analysis of recent OHC changes through 2021 from two international groups. The world ocean, in 2021, was the hottest ever recorded by humans, and the 2021 annual OHC value is even higher than last year’s record value by 14 ± 11 ZJ (1 zetta J = 1021 J) using the IAP/CAS dataset and by 16 ± 10 ZJ using NCEI/NOAA dataset. The long-term ocean warming is larger in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans than in other regions and is mainly attributed, via climate model simulations, to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. The year-to-year variation of OHC is primarily tied to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the seven maritime domains of the Indian, Tropical Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northwest Pacific, North Pacific, Southern oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea, robust warming is observed but with distinct inter-annual to decadal variability. Four out of seven domains showed record-high heat content in 2021. The anomalous global and regional ocean warming established in this study should be incorporated into climate risk assessments, adaptation, and mitigation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 373–385
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: ocean warming
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: Physics of earthquake source can be investigated by monitoring active faults from borehole observatory in reservoirs (Maxwell et al. 2010) or by interpretation of seismic waves at the earth’s surface (Shearer 2019). Indeed, most information on earthquake mechanics is retrieved from seismology (e.g., Lee et al. 2002). However, the low resolution of these indirect techniques (cm to km scale) yields limited information on the physical and chemical deformation mechanisms active during earthquake rupture nucleation and propagation (Kanamori and Anderson 1975). Experimental studies of frictional instabilities on fault gouge material or pre-existing surfaces (e.g., Brace and Byerlee 1966) may overcome those limitations (Scholz 1998; Marone 1998; Persson 2013). For instance, friction controls earthquake nucleation and propagation, the static and dynamic stress drops, the frictional heat generated during slip, and consequently the energy budget of earthquakes (Scholz 2019; Di Toro et al. 2011). All these processes can be investigated and monitored through laboratory experiments. In the last decades, rock friction properties have long been investigated using triaxial apparatuses in saw-cut configuration (e.g., Jaeger 1959; Byerlee 1967; Handin 1969), in which the fault is loaded at low velocities, typically orders of µm/s, and accumulates small displacements, typically few mm. In a seminal paper, Brace and Byerlee (1966) suggested that the stick–slip phenomenon observed in these rock friction experiments is analogous to natural earthquakes. Furthermore, to address the problem of earthquakes nucleation, biaxial apparatuses were developed and have long been used to study frictional properties of experimental faults under sub-seismic slip velocities in double-direct shear configuration (e.g., Dieterich 1972; Mair et al. 2002; Collettini et al. 2014; Giorgetti et al. 2015). The biaxial apparatus developed at USGS (USA) is amongst the first biaxial apparatuses used to investigate rock frictional properties (e.g., Dieterich 1972). Other pioneering biaxial apparatuses are the one in the Rock and Sediment Mechanics Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University (USA) (e.g., Mair et al. 2002) and BRAVA (Brittle Rock deformAtion Versatile Apparatus) installed at INGV in Rome (Italy) (Collettini et al. 2014). Although the biaxial apparatuses developed in the past 50 years are characterized by different boundary conditions in terms of forces, pressures, temperatures and size of the samples, all of them take advantages from the double-direct shear configuration that allows good control of the normal and shear forces acting of the fault, accurate measurements of fault slip and dilation/compaction, and constant contact area. Friction studies conducted with triaxial and biaxial deformation apparatuses are characterized by sub-seismic slip velocities and a limited amount of slip, 〈 10–3 m/s and few cm, respectively (e.g., Jaeger 1959; Byerlee 1967,1978; Brace and Byerlee 1966; Handin 1969; Paterson and Wong 2005; Lockner and Beeler 2002; Mair et al. 2002; Savage and Marone 2007; Samuelson et al. 2009; Carpenter et al. 2016). These experiments showed that the apparent static friction coefficient μ (i.e., μ = τ/σneff, where τ is the shear stress and σneff the effective normal stress acting on the fault) is between 0.60 and 0.85 for most rocks (Byerlee’s rule; except for phyllosilicates-rich rocks [Byerlee 1978]), for normal stresses up to 2 GPa, and temperatures up to 780 K. The apparent friction can thus be expressed as a function of slip velocity and a state variable, and modelled with the empirical rate- and state-dependent friction law (Dieterich 1979; Ruina 1983). Additionally, at velocities typical of earthquake nucleation phase, the apparent friction varies only a few percents for small changes in slip velocity, determining if a fault is or not prone to nucleate earthquakes. Although Byerlee’s rule and the rate-and-state law have many applications in earthquake mechanics (inter-seismic and nucleation phase of earthquakes), these experiments were performed at slip velocities and displacements orders of magnitude smaller than those of earthquakes. Therefore, these experiments are unable to characterize the propagation phase of earthquakes. In the last 15 years, the multiplication of the rotary shear apparatus, designed to achieve slip velocities higher than 1 m/s and infinite displacement, overcome those limitations and produced unexpected results (Di Toro et al. 2010). A pioneering rotary shear apparatus capable of achieving seismic slip velocities up to 1.3 m/s were built and installed in Japan (Shimamoto 1994). Amongst others (see Di Toro et al. 2010 and references therein), a state-of-art rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA, Slow to High-Velocity Shear Apparatus) capable of deforming samples at slip rates up to 9 m/s has been installed at INGV in Rome (Italy) (Di Toro et al. 2010). Studies performed with these rotary shear apparatuses have shown a significant decrease in fault strength with increasing slip and slip velocity. They also reveal various dynamic fault‐weakening mechanisms (frictional melting, thermal pressurization, silica gel, elastohydrodynamic lubrication) that are likely active during earthquakes, including mechanisms that were unknown before conducting these experiments. Though this new frontier is promising, key aspects of earthquake mechanics laboratory investigation, like being able to conduct high slip velocity experiments on rocks under elevated pore fluid pressure and temperatures characteristic of natural and induced earthquakes, remain beyond current experimental capabilities. Furthermore, studying links between pore‐fluid pressure, permeability, and frictional properties remains a challenge. To date, very few high-velocity friction experiments have been performed in presence of pore fluid pressure (Tanikawa 2012a, b, 2014; Violay et al. 2014, 2015, 2019; Cornelio et al. 2019a, b). In this paper, we present a new state-of-art apparatus combining the advantages of biaxial apparatuses, i.e., simple geometry, high normal forces, confining pressure and pore fluid pressure, and the advantages of the rotary shear apparatuses, i.e. high slip velocity implemented thanks to the presence of electromagnetic motors. Building on the design of recent low-velocity biaxial machines implemented with pressure vessels (Samuelson et al. 2009; Collettini et al. 2014) and implementing the system with powerful linear motors (Di Toro et al. 2010), the new HighSTEPS (High Strain TEmperature Pressure Speed) apparatus is able to reproduce the deformation conditions typical of the seismogenic crust, i.e., confining pressure up to 100 MPa, slip velocity from 10–5 to 0.25 m/s, temperature up to 120 °C, pore pressure up to 100 MPa. Under these unique boundary conditions, the new apparatus allows the investigation of the entire seismic cycle (inter-seismic, nucleation and propagation).
    Description: Published
    Description: 2039–2052
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Biaxial friction apparatus ; Low to high slip velocity ; Deformation conditions of the seismogenic upper crust
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Description: Endemic Antarctic macroalgae are especially adapted to live in extreme Antarctic conditions. Their potential biogeographic distribution niche is primarily controlled by the photoperiodic regime and seawater temperatures, since these parameters regulate growth, reproduction, and survival during the entire life cycle. Here we analyzed the upper survival temperature (UST) of juvenile sporophytes and the temperature range for sporophyte formation from gametophytes of Desmarestia menziesii, one of the dominant endemic Antarctic brown algal species. This process is a missing link to better evaluate the full biogeographical niche of this species. Two laboratory experiments were conducted. First, growth and maximum quantum yield of juvenile sporophytes were analyzed under a temperature gradient (0, 5, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 °C) in a 16:8 h light:dark (LD) regime (Antarctic spring condition) for 2 weeks. Second, the formation of sporophytes from gametophytes (as a proxy of gametophyte reproduction) was evaluated during a 7 weeks period under a temperature gradient (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 °C), and two different photoperiods: 6:18 h LD regime simulating winter conditions and a light regime simulating the Antarctic shift from winter to spring by gradually increasing the light period from 7.5:16.5 h LD (late winter) to 18.5:5.5 h LD (late spring). Sporophytes of D. menziesii were able to grow and survive up to 14 °C for 2 weeks without visible signs of morphological damage. Thus, this species shows the highest UST of all endemic Antarctic Desmarestiales species. In turn, gametophyte reproduction solely took place at 0 °C but not at 4–8 °C. The number of emerging sporophytes was six times higher under the light regime simulating the transition from winter to spring than under constant short day winter conditions. There was a negative relationship between the number of sporophytes formed and the gametophyte density at the beginning of the experiment, which provides evidence that gametophyte density exerts some control upon reproduction in D. menziesii. Results strongly indicate that although sporophytes and gametophytes may survive in warmer temperatures, the northernmost distribution limit of D. menziesii in South Georgia Islands is set by the low temperature requirements for gametophyte reproduction. Hence, global warming could have an impact on the distribution of this and other Antarctic species, by influencing their growth and reproduction.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: On 30 October 2020 a MW 7.0 earthquake occurred in the eastern Aegean Sea, between the Greek island of Samos and Turkey’s Aegean coast, causing considerable seismic damage and deaths, especially in the Turkish city of Izmir, approximately 70 km from the epicenter. In this study, we provide a detailed description of the Samos earthquake, starting from the fault rupture to the ground motion characteristics. We first use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to constrain the source mechanisms. Then, we utilize this information to analyze the ground motion characteristics of the mainshock in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral pseudo-accelerations. Modelling of geodetic data shows that the Samos earthquake ruptured a NNE-dipping normal fault located offshore north of Samos, with up to 2.5-3 m of slip and an estimated geodetic moment of 3.3 ⨯ 1019 Nm (MW 7.0). Although low PGA were induced by the earthquake, the ground shaking was strongly amplified in Izmir throughout the alluvial sediments. Structural damage observed in Izmir reveals the potential of seismic risk due to the local site effects. To better understand the earthquake characteristics, we generated and compared stochastic strong ground motions with the observed ground motion parameters as well as the ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), exploring also the efficacy of the region-specific parameters which may be used to better predict the expected ground shaking from future large earthquakes in the region.
    Description: Published
    Description: 4745–4771
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), China’s first satellite to measure geophysical fields with scientific goals in both space and solid earth physics, was launched successfully in February 2018. It carries high-precision magnetometers to measure the geomagnetic field. In this study, the CSES magnetic data were used to extract the signal of the lithospheric magnetic field caused by magnetized rocks in the crust and uppermost mantle. First, an along-track analysis of the CSES magnetic data was undertaken near the Bangui magnetic anomaly in central Africa and the Tarim magnetic anomaly in China, demonstrating that the CSES magnetic data are indeed sensitive to the lithospheric magnetic anomaly field. Then a lithospheric magnetic anomaly map over China and surrounding regions was derived. This map is consistent with the lithospheric part of the CHAOS-7 model. In particular, it clearly reveals four major magnetic anomalies containing long-wavelength signals at the altitude of Low-Earth-Orbiting satellites. Three magnetic highs are located over the Tarim, Sichuan and Songliao basin, the origins of which could be related to large-scale tectonic-magmatic activities during geological history. A prominent magnetic low is otherwise found in the southern Himalayan-Tibetan plateau, possibly caused by the shallow Curie depth in this region. To further improve the precision of the lithospheric magnetic field model, more detailed data processing and multi-source data merging are needed.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1118–1126
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: Porous carbons are materials of wide application and their request is more and more increasing in the last years: Properly designed synthesis is presently available for the preparation of materials to be used in several fields (e.g.: adsorption, molecular separation, and catalysis). The characterization of the porous carbons is usually carried out using different techniques such as thermogravimetric analyses, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, etc. In this work, the micro-Raman technique is adopted in combination with N2 physisorption at 77 K to monitor how the synthetic approach influences the presence of either amorphous or ordered regions in porous carbons. The typical D and G Raman bands of activated carbons have been carefully deconvoluted in six different components by a fitting procedure, and the determined R1 = ID1/IG ratio correlated to their specific surface area.
    Description: Published
    Description: 419–431
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: The petrological study of volcanic products emitted during the paroxysmal events of December 2015 from the summit craters of Mount Etna allow us to constrain T-P-XH2O phase stability, crystallization conditions, and mixing processes along the main open-conduit feeding system. In this study, we discuss new geochemical, thermo-barometric data and related Rhyolite- MELTS modelling of the eruptive activity that involved the concomitant activation of all summit craters. The results, in comparison with the previous paroxysmal events of the 2011–2012, reinforce the model of a vertically extended feeding system and highlight that the activity at the New South-East Crater was fed by magma residing at a significantly shallower depth with respect to the Central Craters (CC) and North-East Crater (NEC), even if all conduits were fed by a common deep (P = 530–440 MPa) basic magmatic input. Plagioclase dissolution, resorption textures, and the Rhyolite-MELTS stability model corroborate its dependence on H2O content; thus, suggesting that further studies on the effect that flushing from fluids with different H2O/ CO2 ratio are needed to understand the eruption-triggering mechanisms for high energetic strombolian paroxysmal episodes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 88
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-02-16
    Description: Validation and benchmarking of pyroclastic current (PC) models is required to evaluate their performance and their reliability for hazard assessment. Here, we present results of a benchmarking initiative built to evaluate four models commonly used to assess concentrated PC hazard: SHALTOP, TITAN2D, VolcFlow, and IMEX_SfloW2D. The benchmark focuses on the simulation of channelized flows with similar source conditions over five different synthetic channel geometries: (1) a flat incline plane, (2) a channel with a sharp 45° bend, (3) a straight channel with a break-in-slope, (4) a straight channel with an obstacle, and (5) a straight channel with a constriction. Several outputs from 60 simulations using three different initial volume fluxes were investigated to evaluate the performance of the four models when simulating valley-confined PC kinematics, including overflows induced by topographic changes. Quantification of the differences obtained between model outputs at t = 100 s allowed us to identify (1) issues with the Voellmy-Salm implementation of TITAN2D and (2) small discrepancies between the three other codes that are either due to various curvature and velocity formulations and/or numerical frameworks. Benchmark results were also in agreement with field observations of natural PCs: a sudden change in channel geometries combined with a high-volume flux is key to generate overflows. The synthetic benchmarks proved to be useful for evaluating model performance, needed for PC hazard assessment. The overarching goal is to provide an interpretation framework for volcanic mass flow hazard assessment studies to the geoscience community.
    Description: Published
    Description: 75
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: benchmarking ; pyroclastic current ; numerical modeling ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-02-21
    Description: Deciphering magma evolution below ocean basaltic volcanoes is all the more challenging because magma mixing is a common process tending to modify the pristine geochemical diversity during magma ascent. On the western flank of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, transitional basalts have compositions that testify to origins down to the upper mantle and display a widespread geochemical diversity ranging from a tholeiitic affinity to an alkaline one. There, we show that evolved melt inclusions and matrix glasses (MgO 〈 9 wt%) record an alkali enrichment coupled with a Ca/Al ratio decrease, which tracks the effect of clinopyroxene crystallization at the depth of the mantle-crust underplating layer. At this depth and shallower, reverse zoning of olivine crystals, clinopyroxene dissolution, and hybrid melt compositions testify to extensive mixing processes leading to a homogenization of the pristine geochemical footprint of melts upon ascent. Enrichment in incompatible trace elements in some evolved melt inclusions suggests that magma ponding at the depth of the mantle-crust underplating layer favours also assimilation of melts originating from low degrees of partial melting of cumulates (wehrlites, dunites). Conversely, the most primitive melt inclusions documented so far at La Réunion Island (MgO up to 11.2 wt%) better preserve a pristine geochemical variability related to partial melting of a slightly heterogeneous mantle source. We suggest that these slightly distinct source components may mirror the compositions of recent melts from the two closely located Piton de la Fournaise and Piton des Neiges volcanoes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 84
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-02-24
    Description: We used 1029 earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from M 3.0 to M 6.5, located in central Apennines, Italy, and recorded by 414 local stations to study the variation of the quality factor QS of shear waves with depth. We first determined average nonparametric attenuation functions in the frequency band from 0.5 to 20 Hz and hypocenter distances less than 155 km to correct the observed acceleration spectra for attenuation effects. Then, we separated source and site effects from the corrected spectral records to determine the changes of QS with depth. We used a 1D local shear-wave velocity model to calculate the travel times of the source-station paths, and we inverted the observed spectra to determine QS in three different depth intervals (0–4 km, 4–10 km and 10–15 km) and five frequencies (0.5, 1, 4, 10 and 20 Hz). We found that QS increases with frequency at all depths considered and tends to have lower values at shallow depths. The average value of QS is consistent with previous studies made in central Italy and can be approximated by QS = 43f0.94. To describe the frequency dependence of QS with depth (H), we determine the following relations: QS = 5.5f1.39, 0.5 ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz and QS = 151.5, f 〉 10 Hz for 0–4 km, QS = 52f0.87 for 4 〈 H 〈 10 km and QS = 51f0.92 for 10 ≤ H ≤ 15 km. We conclude that the Q-depth-dependent model can be useful to improve estimates of source parameters and ground motion prediction in the central Apennines region of Italy.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2059–2075
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Solid earth
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-02-24
    Description: Correction to: Natural Hazards https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04675-z
    Description: Correction to: Natural Hazards https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04675-z
    Description: Published
    Description: 203
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: Physics-based broadband ground-motion simulations are generated for the strong mainshocks that occurred in the region of the Central Ionian Islands, on 26th January 2014 in Kefalonia (Mw6.1) and 17th November 2015 in Lefkas (Mw6.5). The study area is associated with frequent strong earthquakes both in the historical and instrumental eras. During the last decades, the network of strong-motion accelerographs in the area has been densified, and thus provided an adequate number of strong ground-motion records as a means to better examine the related ground-motion characteristics. In the present study, broadband ground motions for the two case studies are simulated both at selected sites and at a dense grid of points covering the affected areas. The low-frequency part of the synthetics is computed using a discrete wavenumber finite element method by convolving Green’s functions with a kinematic slip model in the frequency domain. A stochastic finite fault model approach based on a dynamic corner frequency is considered to calculate the ground motions for the higher frequencies. The broadband synthetic time series are generated after merging the results obtained from the two separate techniques, by performing a weighted summation at intermediate frequencies. The simulated values are validated by comparison with both recorded Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and PeakGround Velocity (PGV) values and the estimated ones by using widely accepted Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). Our results indicate that both the spatial distribution and the amplification pattern of the simulated ground motions, in the near-field, in terms of PGA and PGV are highly influenced by the slip heterogeneity and the maximum slip patches within the seismic source.
    Description: Published
    Description: 3505–3527
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: seismic hazard ; Strong ground motion ; near-source ground motion ; Ionian Islands ; stochastic finite-fault method ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: Stromboli is an active, open conduit mafic volcano, whose persistent mild Strombolian activity is occasionally punctuated by much stronger explosions, known as paroxysms. During summer 2019, the volcano unexpectedly produced one such paroxysm on July 3, followed by intense explosive and intermittent effusive activity culminating in a second paroxysm on August 28. Visual observations and the analysis of the fall deposits associated with the two paroxysms allowed us to reconstruct ballistic exit velocities of up to 160 m s−1. Plume heights of ~ 8.4 km and 6.4 km estimated for the two events correspond to mass eruption rates of 1.1 x 10 6 kg s−1 and 3.6 x 105 kg s−1, respectively. This is certainly an underestimate as directional pyroclastic flows into which mass was partitioned immediately formed, triggering small tsunamis at the sea entrance. The mass of ballistic spatters and blocks erupted during the July 3 event formed a continuous cover at the summit of the volcano, with a mass calculated at ~ 1.4 x 10 8 kg. The distribution of fall deposits of both the July 3 and August 28 events suggests that pyroclasts characterized by terminal fall velocities 〈 10–20 m s−1 remained fully suspended within the convective region of the plume and did not fall at distances closer than ca 1700 m to the vent. Based on the impulsive, blast-like phenomenology of paroxysms as well as the deposit distribution and type, paroxysms are classified as basaltic Vulcanian in style. The evolution of the summer 2019 eruptive events was not properly captured within the framework of the alert level system which is focused on tsunamigenic processes, and this is discussed so as to provide elements for the implementation of the reference scenarios and an upgrade of the system to take into account such events. In particular we find that, although still largely unpredictable, at least at operational time scales, and not necessarily tsunamigenic, Vulcanian eruptions and the subsequent evolution of the eruptive phenomena should be considered for the alert level system. This serves as a warning to the implementation of alert systems where the unexpected needs to be taken into account, even at systems that are believed to be relatively “predictable” as is the case at many persistently active, open vent mafic systems.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Vulcanian eruptions ; Paroxysm ; Strombolian eruptions ; Ballistic ejecta ; Eruption plume ; Volcanic hazard
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-02-25
    Description: This paper reports on experiments devoted to explore the role of specific attributes of humanoid virtual agents that may influence elderly users’ perception and attitude, determining their acceptance and adoption as assistive devices. In particular, it investigates elderly preference on agents’ gender and the role of the agents’ ability to use voice during the interaction. To this aim two different groups of seniors were involved in the experiments. The first group evaluated talking virtual agents, the second one the same virtual agents, but silenced. The data shows that elderly users, independently from their gender, prefer to interact with female agents, especially when they are able to talk to them, revealing the role played by the voice. Furthermore, it was found a significant effect of the elderly level of experience with technology: when interacting with agents with voice, elderly users with high technological experience were less interested and considered the proposed agents less attractive and appealing, while just the opposite occurred when interacting with silenced agents.
    Description: Published
    Description: 4429–4436
    Description: 5TM. Informazione ed editoria
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2022-01-10
    Description: Allometric relationships between body properties of animals are useful for a wide variety of purposes, such as estimation of biomass, growth, population structure, bioenergetic modelling and carbon flux studies. This study summarizes allometric relationships of zooplankton and nekton species that play major roles in polar marine food webs. Measurements were performed on 639 individuals of 15 species sampled during three expeditions in the Southern Ocean (winter and summer) and 2374 individuals of 14 species sampled during three expeditions in the Arctic Ocean (spring and summer). The information provided by this study fills current knowledge gaps on relationships between length and wet/dry mass of understudied animals, such as various gelatinous zooplankton, and of animals from understudied seasons and maturity stages, for example, for the krill Thysanoessa macrura and larval Euphausia superba caught in winter. Comparisons show that there is intra-specific variation in length–mass relationships of several species depending on season, e.g. for the amphipod Themisto libellula. To investigate the potential use of generalized regression models, comparisons between sexes, maturity stages or age classes were performed and are discussed, such as for the several krill species and T. libellula. Regression model comparisons on age classes of the fish E. antarctica were inconclusive about their general use. Other allometric measurements performed on carapaces, eyes, heads, telsons, tails and otoliths provided models that proved to be useful for estimating length or mass in, e.g. diet studies. In some cases, the suitability of these models may depend on species or developmental stages.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , peerRev
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2022-02-15
    Description: Correction to: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-021-01077-1
    Description: Published
    Description: 3317
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-02-14
    Description: Recent studies point to the sensitivity of mid-latitude winter climate to Arctic sea ice variability. However, there remain contradictory results in terms of character and timing of Northern Hemisphere large-scale circulation features to Arctic sea ice changes. This study assesses the impact of realistic late autumn eastern Arctic sea ice anomalies on atmospheric wintertime circulation at mid-latitudes, pointing to a hidden potential for seasonal predictability. ​Using a dynamical seasonal prediction system, an ensemble of seasonal forecast simulations of 23 historical winter seasons is run with reduced November sea ice cover in the Barents-Kara Seas, and is compared to the respective control seasonal hindcast simulations set. ​A non energy-conserving approach is adopted for achieving the desired sea ice loss, with artificial heat being added conditionally to the ocean surface heat fluxes so as to inhibit the formation of sea ice during November. Our results point to a robust atmospheric circulation response in the North Pacific sector, similar to previous findings on the multidecadal timescale. Specifically, an anticyclonic anomaly at upper and lower levels is identified over the eastern midlatitude North Pacific, leading to dry conditions over the North American southwest coast. The responses are related to a re-organization (weakening) of west-Pacific tropical convection and interactions with the tropical Hadley circulation. ​A possible interaction of the poleward-shifted Pacific eddy-driven jet stream and the Hadley cell is discussed​. ​The winter circulation response in the Euro-Atlantic sector is ephemeral in character and statistically significant in January only, corroborating previous findings of an intermittent and non-stationary Arctic sea ice-NAO link during boreal winter. These results ​aid our understanding of the seasonal impacts of reduced eastern Arctic sea ice on the midlatitude atmospheric circulation with implications for seasonal predictability in wintertime.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2687–2700
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 01.01. Atmosphere
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Farfan, G. A., Apprill, A., Cohen, A., DeCarlo, T. M., Post, J. E., Waller, R. G., & Hansel, C. M. Crystallographic and chemical signatures in coral skeletal aragonite. Coral Reefs. (2121), https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-021-02198-4.
    Description: Corals nucleate and grow aragonite crystals, organizing them into intricate skeletal structures that ultimately build the world’s coral reefs. Crystallography and chemistry have profound influence on the material properties of these skeletal building blocks, yet gaps remain in our knowledge about coral aragonite on the atomic scale. Across a broad diversity of shallow-water and deep-sea scleractinian corals from vastly different environments, coral aragonites are remarkably similar to one another, confirming that corals exert control on the carbonate chemistry of the calcifying space relative to the surrounding seawater. Nuances in coral aragonite structures relate most closely to trace element chemistry and aragonite saturation state, suggesting the primary controls on aragonite structure are ionic strength and trace element chemistry, with growth rate playing a secondary role. We also show how coral aragonites are crystallographically indistinguishable from synthetic abiogenic aragonite analogs precipitated from seawater under conditions mimicking coral calcifying fluid. In contrast, coral aragonites are distinct from geologically formed aragonites, a synthetic aragonite precipitated from a freshwater solution, and mollusk aragonites. Crystallographic signatures have future applications in understanding the material properties of coral aragonite and predicting the persistence of coral reefs in a rapidly changing ocean.
    Description: This project was funded by the Mineralogical Society of America Edward H. Kraus Crystallographic Research Fund and the WHOI Ocean Ventures Fund. G. Farfan was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Grant No. 1122374 and a Ford Foundation Dissertation Fellowship. Sample collections from R. Waller were funded under NSF Grant Numbers 1245766, 1127582 and NOAA Ocean Exploration Deep Atlantic Stepping Stones. The authors thank Erik Cordes for the samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico, which were supported by NSF BIO-OCE Grant # 1220478. STZC collections from A. Apprill were funded by a Dalio Foundation (now ‘OceanX’) and a KAUST-WHOI Special Academic Partnership Funding Reserve with Christian Voolstra. Research and coral collections in Cuba were conducted under the LH112 AN (25) 2015 license granted by the Cuban Center for Inspection and Environmental Control with the assistance of Patricia Gonzalez and Michael Armenteros. Corals from Western Australia were collected under license number SF009558 obtained by M. McCulloch, and from the Maldives Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture with collection permits (No. (OTHR)30-D/INDIV/2013/359). Matthew Neave assisted with the collections.
    Keywords: Aragonite ; Crystallography ; Geochemistry ; Biomineralization ; Environmental mineralogy ; Coral skeleton
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bernhard, A. E., Beltz, J., Giblin, A. E., & Roberts, B. J. Biogeography of ammonia oxidizers in New England and Gulf of Mexico salt marshes and the potential importance of comammox. ISME Communications, 1, (2021): 9, https://doi.org/10.1038./s43705-021-00008-0
    Description: Few studies have focused on broad scale biogeographic patterns of ammonia oxidizers in coastal systems, yet understanding the processes that govern them is paramount to understanding the mechanisms that drive biodiversity, and ultimately impact ecosystem processes. Here we present a meta-analysis of 16 years of data of ammonia oxidizer abundance, diversity, and activity in New England (NE) salt marshes and 5 years of data from marshes in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Potential nitrification rates were more than 80x higher in GoM compared to NE marshes. However, nitrifier abundances varied between regions, with ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and comammox bacteria significantly greater in GoM, while ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were more than 20x higher in NE than GoM. Total bacterial 16S rRNA genes were also significantly greater in GoM marshes. Correlation analyses of rates and abundance suggest that AOA and comammox are more important in GoM marshes, whereas AOB are more important in NE marshes. Furthermore, ratios of nitrifiers to total bacteria in NE were as much as 80x higher than in the GoM, suggesting differences in the relative importance of nitrifiers between these systems. Communities of AOA and AOB were also significantly different between the two regions, based on amoA sequences and DNA fingerprints (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). Differences in rates and abundances may be due to differences in salinity, temperature, and N loading between the regions, and suggest significantly different N cycling dynamics in GoM and NE marshes that are likely driven by strong environmental differences between the regions.
    Description: This research was made possible by grants from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative to the Coastal Waters Consortium (CWC) to A.E.B., A.E.G., and B.J.R. Additional funding to A.E.B. came from the National Science Foundation awards MCB-0457183 and DEB-0814586. The funders had no role in the design, execution, or analyses of this project. Data are publicly available through the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) at https://doi.org/10.7266/N7T43R0G (GoM gene abundance 2012), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7WH2MXZ (GoM AOA TRFLP 2012), N7RR1W6N (GoM AOB TRFLP 2012), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7X63JVT (GoM gene abundance 2013), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7SF2T4H (GoM AOB TRFLP 2013), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7NP22D5 (GoM AOA TRFLP 2013), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7D50JXK (GoM gene abundance 2014), https://doi.org/10.7266/N78C9T6Q (GoM AOB TRFLP 2014), https://doi.org/10.7266/N74M92HT (GoM AOA TRFLP 2014), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7319SXQ (GoM gene abundance 2015–2016), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7Z899FT (GoM AOB TRFLP 2015–2016), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7TH8JQ3 (GoM AOA TRFLP 2015–2016), https://doi.org/10.7266/N70Z715C (GoM 2012 nitrification rates and sediment characteristics), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7Z31WJF (GoM 2013–2014 nitrification rates and sediment characteristics), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7-0SVP-NN22 (GoM 2015–2016 nitrification rates and sediment characteristics), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7-MJPN-EQ50 (NE gene abundance, rates, and sediment chemistry), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7-QSRR-0A74 (NE AOB TRFLP), https://doi.org/10.7266/N7-4FSS-EK19 (NE AOA TRFLP). Sediment chemistry data from PIE marshes is available at https://pie-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/data.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Schaafsma, F. L., David, C. L., Kohlbach, D., Ehrlich, J., Castellani, G., Lange, B. A., Vortkamp, M., Meijboom, A., Fortuna-Wunsch, A., Immerz, A., Cantzler, H., Klasmeier, A., Zakharova, N., Schmidt, K., Van de Putte, A. P., van Franeker, J. A., & Flores, H. Allometric relationships of ecologically important Antarctic and Arctic zooplankton and fish species. Polar Biology 45, (2022): 203–224, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02984-4.
    Description: Allometric relationships between body properties of animals are useful for a wide variety of purposes, such as estimation of biomass, growth, population structure, bioenergetic modelling and carbon flux studies. This study summarizes allometric relationships of zooplankton and nekton species that play major roles in polar marine food webs. Measurements were performed on 639 individuals of 15 species sampled during three expeditions in the Southern Ocean (winter and summer) and 2374 individuals of 14 species sampled during three expeditions in the Arctic Ocean (spring and summer). The information provided by this study fills current knowledge gaps on relationships between length and wet/dry mass of understudied animals, such as various gelatinous zooplankton, and of animals from understudied seasons and maturity stages, for example, for the krill Thysanoessa macrura and larval Euphausia superba caught in winter. Comparisons show that there is intra-specific variation in length–mass relationships of several species depending on season, e.g. for the amphipod Themisto libellula. To investigate the potential use of generalized regression models, comparisons between sexes, maturity stages or age classes were performed and are discussed, such as for the several krill species and T. libellula. Regression model comparisons on age classes of the fish E. antarctica were inconclusive about their general use. Other allometric measurements performed on carapaces, eyes, heads, telsons, tails and otoliths provided models that proved to be useful for estimating length or mass in, e.g. diet studies. In some cases, the suitability of these models may depend on species or developmental stages.
    Description: The Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) funded this research under its Statutory Research Task Nature & Environment WOT-04-009-047.04. This research was further supported by the Netherlands Polar Programme (NPP), managed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO) under project nr. ALW 866.13.009 (ICEFLUX-NL). The study is associated with the Helmholtz Association Young Investigators Group ICEFLUX: Ice-ecosystem carbon flux in polar oceans (VH-NG-800) and contributes to the Helmholtz (HGF) research Programme Changing Earth – Sustaining our Future, Research Field Earth & Environment, Topic 6.1 and 6.3. NZ was supported by the GEOMAR project CATS: The Changing Arctic Transpolar System (BMBF-FK2 CATS). Contributions by KS were funded by the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council MOSAiC-Thematic project SYM-PEL: “Quantifying the contribution of sympagic versus pelagic diatoms to Arctic food webs and biogeochemical fluxes: application of source-specific highly branched isoprenoid biomarkers” (NE/S002502/1). BAL was further supported by the Norwegian Polar Institute and funding to M. Granskog from the Research Council of Norway to projects CAATEX (280531) and HAVOC (280292). DK was further funded by the Research Council of Norway through the project The Nansen Legacy (RCN # 276730) at the Norwegian Polar Institute. GC was further funded by the project EcoLight (03V01465) as part of the joint NERC/BMBF programme Changing Arctic Ocean. AVdP received support from Belspo in the framework the EU Lifewatch ERIC (Grant agreement FR/36/AN3) and the FEDTwin. Expedition Grant Numbers: ARK XVII/3 (PS80), AWI-PS81_01 (WISKY), ANT-XXIX/9 (PS82), AWI-PS89_02 (SIPES), AWI_PS92_00 (TRANSSIZ) and AWI_PS106/1_2-00 (SIPCA).
    Keywords: Arctic Ocean ; Southern Ocean ; Length ; Mass ; Zooplankton ; Fish ; Regression models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Ferrick, A., Wright, V., Manga, M., & Sitar, N. Microstructural differences between naturally-deposited and laboratory beach sands. Granular Matter, 24(1), (2022): 9, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10035-021-01169-4.
    Description: The orientation of, and contacts between, grains of sand reflect the processes that deposit the sands. Grain orientation and contact geometry also influence mechanical properties. Quantifying and understanding sand microstructure thus provide an opportunity to understand depositional processes better and connect microstructure and macroscopic properties. Using x-ray computed microtomography, we compare the microstructure of naturally-deposited beach sands and laboratory sands created by air pluviation in which samples are formed by raining sand grains into a container. We find that naturally-deposited sands have a narrower distribution of coordination number (i.e., the number of grains in contact) and a broader distribution of grain orientations than pluviated sands. The naturally-deposited sand grains orient inclined to the horizontal, and the pluviated sand grains orient horizontally. We explain the microstructural differences between the two different depositional methods by flowing water at beaches that re-positions and reorients grains initially deposited in unstable grain configurations.
    Description: MM is supported by National Science Foundation (No. 1615203). NS is supported by National Science Foundation (No. CMMI-1853056).
    Keywords: Microstructure ; X-ray computed microtomography ; Coordination number ; Pluviation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Aguado, M. T., Ponz-Segrelles, G., Glasby, C. J., Ribeiro, R. P., Nakamura, M., Oguchi, K., Omori, A., Kohtsuka, H., Fisher, C., Ise, Y., Jimi, N., & Miura, T. Ramisyllis kingghidorahi n. Sp., a new branching annelid from Japan. Organisms Diversity & Evolution. (2022), https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-021-00538-4.
    Description: Among over 20,000 species of Annelida, only two branching species with a highly modified body-pattern are known until now: the Syllidae Syllis ramosa McIntosh, 1879, and Ramisyllis multicaudata Glasby et al. (Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164, 481–497, 2012). Both have unusual ramified bodies with one head and multiple branches and live inside the canals of host sponges. Using an integrative approach (combining morphology, internal anatomy, ecology, phylogeny, genetic divergence, and the complete mitochondrial genome), we describe a new branching species from Japan, Ramisyllis kingghidorahi n. sp., inhabiting an undescribed species of Petrosia (Porifera: Demospongiae) from shallow waters. We compare the new species with its closest relative, R. multicaudata; emend the diagnosis of Ramisyllis; and discuss previous reports of S. ramosa. This study suggests a much higher diversity of branching syllids than currently known. Finally, we discuss possible explanations for the feeding behaviour in the new species in relation to its highly ciliated wall of the digestive tubes (especially at the distal branches and anus), and provide a hypothesis for the evolution of branching body patterns as the result of an adaptation to the host sponge labyrinthic canal system.
    Description: Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. This study was financed by the Biodiversitätsmuseum (PI:MTA), Georg August University, Göttingen, and by Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research A (No. 18H04006) (PI:TM) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. GP-S was supported by the “Contratos Predoctorales para la Formación de Doctores 2016” program of MINECO, Spain (code: BES-2016–076419), co-financed by the European Social Found. RPR was supported by the program “Contratos predoctorales para Formación de Personal Investigador, FPI-UAM,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Keywords: Mitochondrial genome ; Phylogenetics ; Sponge ; Syllidae ; Symbiosis ; Morphology ; Anatomy ; Ecology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-06-10
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Sigler, W. A., Ewing, S. A., Wankel, S. D., Jones, C. A., Leuthold, S., Brookshire, E. N. J., & Payn, R. A. Isotopic signals in an agricultural watershed suggest denitrification is locally intensive in riparian areas but extensive in upland soils. Biogeochemistry, 158, (2022): 251–268, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-022-00898-9.
    Description: Nitrogen loss from cultivated soils threatens the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Nitrate (NO3−) derived from nitrification of nitrogen fertilizer and ammonified soil organic nitrogen may be lost from soils via denitrification, producing dinitrogen gas (N2) or the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrate that accumulates in soils is also subject to leaching loss, which can degrade water quality and make NO3− available for downstream denitrification. Here we use patterns in the isotopic composition of NO3− observed from 2012 to 2017 to characterize N loss to denitrification within soils, groundwater, and stream riparian corridors of a non-irrigated agroecosystem in the northern Great Plains (Judith River Watershed, Montana, USA). We find evidence for denitrification across these domains, expressed as a positive linear relationship between δ15N and δ18O values of NO3−, as well as increasing δ15N values with decreasing NO3− concentration. In soils, isotopic evidence of denitrification was present during fallow periods (no crop growing), despite net accumulation of NO3− from the nitrification of ammonified soil organic nitrogen. We combine previous results for soil NO3− mass balance with δ15N mass balance to estimate denitrification rates in soil relative to groundwater and streams. Substantial denitrification from soils during fallow periods may be masked by nitrification of ammonified soil organic nitrogen, representing a hidden loss of soil organic nitrogen and an under-quantified flux of N to the atmosphere. Globally, cultivated land spends ca. 50% of time in a fallow condition; denitrification in fallow soils may be an overlooked but globally significant source of agricultural N2O emissions, which must be reduced along-side other emissions to meet Paris Agreement goals for slowing global temperature increase.
    Description: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011–51130-31121, S. A. Ewing, 2011, S. A. Ewing, 2016–67026-25067, S. A. Ewing, Montana State University Extension, Montana Fertilizer Advisory Committee, Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, Montana State University Vice President of Research, Montana State University College of Agriculture, Montana Institute on Ecosystems, NSF EPSCoR, OIA-1757351, S. A. Ewing, OIA-1443108, S. A. Ewing, EPS-110134, S. A. Ewing.
    Keywords: Nitrogen ; Agriculture ; Soil ; Water ; Leaching ; Fallow
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-06-27
    Description: © The Author(s), (2022). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Ahmed, D. A., Hudgins, E. J., Cuthbert, R. N., Kourantidou, M., Diagne, C., Haubrock, P. J., Leung, B., Liu, C., Leroy, B., Petrovskii, S., Beidas, A., & Courchamp, F. Managing biological invasions: the cost of inaction. Biological Invasions. (2022), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-022-02755-0.
    Description: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts from biological invasions are rapidly escalating worldwide. While effective management underpins impact mitigation, such actions are often delayed, insufficient or entirely absent. Presently, management delays emanate from a lack of monetary rationale to invest at early invasion stages, which precludes effective prevention and eradication. Here, we provide such rationale by developing a conceptual model to quantify the cost of inaction, i.e., the additional expenditure due to delayed management, under varying time delays and management efficiencies. Further, we apply the model to management and damage cost data from a relatively data-rich genus (Aedes mosquitoes). Our model demonstrates that rapid management interventions following invasion drastically minimise costs. We also identify key points in time that differentiate among scenarios of timely, delayed and severely delayed management intervention. Any management action during the severely delayed phase results in substantial losses (〉50% of the potential maximum loss). For Aedes spp., we estimate that the existing management delay of 55 years led to an additional total cost of approximately $ 4.57 billion (14% of the maximum cost), compared to a scenario with management action only seven years prior (〈 1% of the maximum cost). Moreover, we estimate that in the absence of management action, long-term losses would have accumulated to US$ 32.31 billion, or more than seven times the observed inaction cost. These results highlight the need for more timely management of invasive alien species—either pre-invasion, or as soon as possible after detection—by demonstrating how early investments rapidly reduce long-term economic impacts.
    Description: The authors acknowledge the French National Research Agency (ANR-14-CE02-0021) and the BNP-Paribas Foundation Climate Initiative for funding the InvaCost project that allowed the construction of the InvaCost database. The present work was conducted following a workshop funded by the AXA Research Fund Chair of Invasion Biology and is part of the AlienScenarios project funded by BiodivERsA and Belmont-Forum call 2018 on biodiversity scenarios. DAA is funded by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS), grant no. PR1914SM-01 and the Gulf University for Science and Technology (GUST) internal seed fund, grant no. 234597. EJH is supported by a Fonds de recherche du Québec—nature et téchnologies B3X fellowship. RNC acknowledges funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. CL was sponsored by the PRIME programme of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) with funds from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
    Keywords: InvaCost ; Invasive alien species ; Logistic growth ; Socioeconomic impacts ; Prevention and biosecurity ; Long-term management
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-06-15
    Description: This paper presents a comprehensive geological and geotechnical study of the whole area affected by liquefaction following the 2012 Emilia earthquakes, including all the available information from the field reconnaissance surveys, in situ tests, and laboratory analyses. The compilation was performed at 120 liquefied sites to verify and validate the reliability of liquefaction charts in alluvial sediments, and to assess liquefaction induced by the 2012 seismic sequence in the Emilia plain. The results reveal a wide range of grain sizes (from clean sands to sandy silts) and compositional characteristics (quartz-rich to litharenitic) in the 2012 ejecta, and show a strong relationship between the liquefaction and stratigraphic architecture of the subsurface. The availability of in situ tests at the liquefied sites makes it possible to verify and validate the reliability of the liquefaction charts in alluvial sediments with respect to the real observations. For the analyzed Emilia case studies, the use of non-liquefiable crust provides better estimations of the liquefaction manifestations when coupled with the thickness of the liquefiable layer rather than with the liquefaction potential index. Altogether, this work makes available to the international scientific community a consistent liquefaction database for in-depth earthquake studies
    Description: In press
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-06-23
    Description: The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (τ ) is a parameter characterizing both the distribution of the plasma in the ionosphere and the shape of the corresponding vertical electron density profile. It is calculated as the ratio of the vertical total electron content (vTEC) to the ionospheric F2-layer electron density maximum (NmF2). Since its definition dated back in the 60s, a lot of information on the behavior of τ for different helio-geophysical conditions has been cumulated and the connection with several plasma properties has been also demonstrated. The beginning of the Global Positioning System (GPS) era in the 90s had a strong effect on the studies about τ because GPS signals allow to obtain the vTEC up to about 20000 km of altitude. Recently, τ has also found application in many data-assimilation methodologies, especially for the improvement of empirical ionospheric models based on near real-time data. All of these topics are reviewed and discussed in this paper based on the literature published in the last sixty years. Moreover, to highlight and summarize the main global climatological features of τ, in this work we selected thirty-two ionospheric stations globally distributed and co-located with ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, for the last two solar cycles. This allowed to collect a dataset of NmF2 and vTEC that represents the largest and most complete ever analyzed for studies concerning τ , which gave the chance to deeply investigate its spatial, diurnal, seasonal, and solar activity variations. The corresponding results are presented and discussed in the light of the existing literature.
    Description: Published
    Description: 37
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: This paper reviews current knowledge about the Earth’s core and the overlying deep mantle in terms of structure, chemical and mineralogical compositions, physical properties, and dynamics, using information from seismology, geophysics, and geochemistry. Highpressure experimental techniques that can help to interpret and understand observations of these properties and compositions in the deep interior are summarized. The paper also examines the consequences of core flows on global observations such as variations in Earth’s rotation and orientation or variations in the Earth’s magnetic field. Processes currently active at the core-mantle boundary and the various coupling mechanisms between the core and the mantle are discussed, together with some evidence from magnetic field observations.
    Description: Published
    Description: 263–302
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: An integrated approach using chemical and microbial indicators has been tested in two different sites of the Campania Plain (Southern Italy) with different land use covering and different hydrogeological features in order: (1) to define the water-rock interaction processes, (2) to differentiate sources of pollution in a detailed way (3) to evaluate the degree of water quality in the studied alluvial aquifer and (4) to identify the most worrying elements for human's health. Groundwater have showed a HCO3-Ca signature for both investigated sites, and a progressive enrichment in alkali ions has been highlighted moving from the boundary of the plain toward the coastal areas, due to groundwater interaction with volcanic rocks along the flow path. The application of the Factor Analysis allowed to identify different sources of pollution, which were attributed to (a) leaks in the sewer system for the Agro-Aversano Area and also the spreading of manure as fertilizers in agricultural activities for the Caiazzo Plain. Furthermore, it has been highlighted that the use of major elements, trace elements and microbiological indicators, allows to accurately differentiate contamination processes in progress. In fact, from the results of the Factor Analysis applied in the Agro-Aversano area, no significant statistically relationships between major elements and microbiological indicators of fecal contamination were highlighted, unlike the Caiazzo plain where statistically significant correlations have been found between major and trace elements and microbiological indicators. The use of a Groundwater Quality Index has shown general poor water quality for the majority of analyzed samples due to the high amount of Nitrate and Fecal indicators. The use of a Health Risk Assessment highlighted that Nitrate coupled with Fluoride represent the most important concern for human health compared to the all investigated parameters in both sites.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2083–2099
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Alluvial aquifer; Factor analysis; Fecal pollution; GQI; HRA; Trace elements
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: The predictability of the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere and its underlying dynamics are investigated in five state-of-the-art seasonal prediction systems from the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) multi-model database. Special attention is devoted to the connection between the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) and lower-stratosphere wave activity (LSWA). We find that in winter (December to February) dynamical forecasts initialised on the first of November are considerably more skilful than empirical forecasts based on October anomalies. Moreover, the coupling of the SPV with mid-latitude LSWA (i.e., meridional eddy heat flux) is generally well reproduced by the forecast systems, allowing for the identification of a robust link between the predictability of wave activity above the tropopause and the SPV skill. Our results highlight the importance of November-to-February LSWA, in particular in the Eurasian sector, for forecasts of the winter stratosphere. Finally, the role of potential sources of seasonal stratospheric predictability is considered: we find that the C3S multi-model overestimates the stratospheric response to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and underestimates the influence of the Quasi–Biennial Oscillation (QBO).
    Description: Published
    Description: 2109–2130
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 01.01. Atmosphere
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) represents the major driver of interannual climate variability at global scale. Observational and model-based studies have fostered a long-standing debate on the shape and intensity of the ENSO influence over the Euro-Mediterranean sector. Indeed, the detection of this signal is strongly affected by the large internal variability that characterizes the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic–European (NAE) region. This study explores if and how the low-frequency variability of North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) may impact the El Niño-NAE teleconnection in late winter, which consists of a dipolar pattern between middle and high latitudes. A set of idealized atmosphere-only experiments, prescribing different phases of the anomalous SST linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) superimposed onto an El Niño-like forcing in the tropical Pacific, has been performed in a multi-model framework, in order to assess the potential modulation of the positive ENSO signal. The modelling results suggest, in agreement with observational estimates, that the PDO negative phase (PDO−) may enhance the amplitude of the El Niño-NAE teleconnection, while the dynamics involved appear to be unaltered. On the other hand, the modulating role of the PDO positive phase (PDO+) is not reliable across models. This finding is consistent with the atmospheric response to the PDO itself, which is robust and statistically significant only for PDO−. Its modulation seems to rely on the enhanced meridional SST gradient and the related turbulent heat-flux released along the Kuroshio–Oyashio extension. PDO− weakens the North Pacific jet, whereby favoring more poleward propagation of wave activity, strengthening the El Niño-forced Rossby wave-train. These results imply that there might be conditional predictability for the interannual Euro-Mediterranean climate variability depending on the background state.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2009–2029
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 01.01. Atmosphere
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: Land surface and atmosphere are interlocked by the hydrological and energy cycles and the effects of soil water-air coupling can modulate near-surface temperatures. In this work, three paired experiments were designed to evaluate impacts of different soil moisture initial and boundary conditions on summer temperatures in the Mediterranean transitional climate regime region. In this area, evapotranspiration is not limited by solar radiation, rather by soil moisture, which therefore controls the boundary layer variability. Extremely dry, extremely wet and averagely humid ground conditions are imposed to two global climate models at the beginning of the warm and dry season. Then, sensitivity experiments, where atmosphere is alternatively interactive with and forced by land surface, are launched. The initial soil state largely affects summer near-surface temperatures: dry soils contribute to warm the lower atmosphere and exacerbate heat extremes, while wet terrains suppress thermal peaks, and both effects last for several months. Land-atmosphere coupling proves to be a fundamental ingredient to modulate the boundary layer state, through the partition between latent and sensible heat fluxes. In the coupled runs, early season heat waves are sustained by interactive dry soils, which respond to hot weather conditions with increased evaporative demand, resulting in longer-lasting extreme temperatures. On the other hand, when wet conditions are prescribed across the season, the occurrence of hot days is suppressed. The land surface prescribed by climatological precipitation forcing causes a temperature drop throughout the months, due to sustained evaporation of surface soil water. Results have implications for seasonal forecasts on both rain-fed and irrigated continental regions in transitional climate zones.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1943–1963
    Description: 4A. Oceanografia e clima
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 01.01. Atmosphere ; 03.02. Hydrology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 38
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 451-461.
    Publication Date: 2022-01-06
    Description: The Black Sea has undergone several limnic and marine stages due to fluctuations in the global sea level. The exchange of saline water from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea through the Bosporus Strait was interrupted when the sea level dropped below the Bosporus sill. This induced limnic conditions, while marine conditions were established after the reconnection to saline Mediterranean seawater. Extended river fan systems developed during sea level low-stands, providing large amounts of organic material being buried by rapid sedimentation on the slopes of the Black Sea margins. The biogenic degradation of this material produces most of the methane gas expelled into the anoxic water column today. This largely happens by ubiquitous cold vents at ~700 m water depth (i.e. at the stability boundary of methane hydrates) and by mud volcanoes in ~2000 m water depth. A significant amount of gas is expected to accumulate in the sediment within the methane hydrate stability zone. However, bottom-simulating reflectors, the seismic indicator for gas hydrates, are not found everywhere along the margin. Recent analyses of the Danube and Dniepr fans have revealed a discontinuous gas hydrate formation in an area with no active seeps, while areas of active seepage located in the vicinity of BSR reflections held no gas hydrates. In addition, the ongoing diffusion of salt into the uppermost Black Sea sediment pore space since the last glacial maximum further reduces the volume of the gas hydrate stability zone. Estimates of the total amount of gas stored in gas hydrates therefore require a detailed structural analysis prior to regional- or basin-scale modelling attempts.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-01-06
    Description: Human activities are changing the Arctic environment at an unprecedented rate resulting in rapid warming, freshening, sea ice retreat and ocean acidification of the Arctic Ocean. Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) play important roles in both the atmospheric reactivity and radiative budget of the Arctic and thus have a high potential to influence the region's climate. However, little is known about how these rapid physical and chemical changes will impact the emissions of major climate-relevant trace gases from the Arctic Ocean. The combined consequences of these stressors present a complex combination of environmental changes which might impact on trace gas production and their subsequent release to the Arctic atmosphere. Here we present our current understanding of nitrous oxide and methane cycling in the Arctic Ocean and its relevance for regional and global atmosphere and climate and offer our thoughts on how this might change over coming decades.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-01-10
    Description: Climate change alters species distributions by shifting their fundamental niche in space through time. Such effects may be exacerbated by increased inter-specific competition if climate alters species dominance where competitor ranges overlap. This study used census data, telemetry and stable isotopes to examine the population and foraging ecology of a pair of Arctic and temperate congeners across an extensive zone of sympatry in Iceland, where sea temperatures varied substantially. The abundance of Arctic Brünnich’s guillemot Uria lomvia declined with sea temperature. Accessibility of refugia in cold water currents or fjords helped support higher numbers and reduce rates of population decline. Competition with temperate Common guillemots Uria aalge did not affect abundance, but similarities in foraging ecology were sufficient to cause competition when resources are limiting. Continued warming is likely to lead to further declines of Brünnich’s guillemot, with implications for conservation status and ecosystem services
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: In addition to being a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, biological invasions also have profound impacts on economies and human wellbeing. However, the threats posed by invasive species often do not receive adequate attention and lack targeted management. In part, this may result from different or even ambivalent perceptions of invasive species which have a dual effect for stakeholders—being simultaneously a benefit and a burden. For these species, literature that synthesizes best practice is very limited, and analyses providing a comprehensive understanding of their economics are generally lacking. This has resulted in a critical gap in our understanding of the underlying trade-offs surrounding management efforts and approaches. Here, we explore qualitative trends in the literature for invasive species with dual effects, drawing from both the recently compiled InvaCost database and international case studies. The few invasive species with dual roles in InvaCost provide evidence for a temporal increase in reporting of costs, but with benefits relatively sporadically reported alongside costs. We discuss methods, management, assessment and policy frameworks dedicated to these species, along with lessons learned, complexities and persisting knowledge gaps. Our analysis points at the need to enhance scientific understanding of those species through inter- and cross-disciplinary efforts that can help advance their management.
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  • 42
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 415-424.
    Publication Date: 2022-01-14
    Description: New Zealand’s large offshore region is dominated by the collision of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Gas hydrates have been identified in three areas: the Hikurangi Margin, the Taranaki and Northland Basins, and the Fiordland-Puysegur Margin. The Hikurangi Margin subduction margin to the east of the North Island stands out, displaying numerous indications of highly-concentrated gas hydrate occurrences. This subduction zone constitutes an environment with high fluid flow and rapidly changing pressure–temperature conditions, leading to anomalies such as the occurrence of double-bottom simulating reflections (BSRs). The Taranaki and Northland Basins west of the North Island is New Zealand’s most prominent petroleum province. So far, however, only limited evidence for hydrate occurrence has been found there. BSRs have also been detected south of the South Island along the Fiordland-Puysegur Margin, an incipient subduction zone. It is likely that gas hydrates are present elsewhere along New Zealand’s vast continental margins.
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  • 43
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 73-85.
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: Marine electromagnetic methods provide useful and independent measures for the identification and quantification of submarine gas hydrates. The resistivity of seafloor sediments, drawn from area-wide electromagnetic data, mainly depends on the sediment porosity and the nature of the pore fluid. Gas hydrates and free gas are both electrically resistive. The replacement of saline water, thus conductive pore water with resistive gas hydrate or free gas, increases the sediment resistivity and can be used to provide accurate saturation estimates if the background lithology is known. While seismic methods are predominantly used to study the distribution of submarine gas hydrates, a growing number of global field studies have demonstrated that the joint interpretation of marine seismic and electromagnetic methods improves the evaluation of submarine gas hydrate targets. This article discusses the relationship between resistivity and free gas/gas hydrate saturation levels, how the resistivity of the sediment may be measured and summarizes the status and results of current and past field studies.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: Biological hard tissues are a rich source of design concepts for the generation of advanced materials. They represent the most important library of information on the evolution of life and its environmental conditions. Organisms produce soft and hard tissues in a bottom-up process, a construction principle that is intrinsic to biologically secreted materials. This process emerged early on in the geological record, with the onset of biological mineralization. The phylum Brachiopoda is a marine animal group that has an excellent and continuous fossil record from the early Cambrian to the Recent. Throughout this time interval, the Brachiopoda secreted phosphate and carbonate shells and populated many and highly diverse marine habitats. This required great flexibility in the adaptation of soft and hard tissues to the different marine environments and living conditions. This review presents, juxtaposes and discusses the main modes of mineral and biopolymer organization in Recent, carbonate shell-producing, brachiopods. We describe shell tissue characteristics for taxa of the orders Rhynchonellida, Terebratulida, Thecideida and Craniida. We highlight modes of calcite and organic matrix assembly at the macro-, micro-, and nano-scales based on results obtained by Electron Backscatter Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. We show variation in composite hard tissue organization for taxa with different lifestyles, visualize nanometer-scale calcite assemblies for rhynchonellide and terebratulide fibers, highlight thecideide shell microstructure, texture and chemistry characteristics, and discuss the feasibility to use thecideide shells as archives of proxies for paleoenvironment and paleoclimate reconstructions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
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    Springer
    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 33-52.
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: For the past 50 years, gas hydrates have been regarded by scientists as part of the hydrocarbon reserves, particularly at governmental institutions. A better understanding of the processes controlling the distribution and dynamics of gas hydrates in nature, especially their sensitivity to changes in gas composition, pressure and temperature, requires both theoretical knowledge of their stability and dynamic behavior and knowledge of how gas hydrates form and where they occur in the sediment. Geophysical data, geochemical data and thermodynamic models indicate that both the rate of response and the total integrated response to climate change in the ocean depend on the location and forms in which hydrates are distributed. Thus, mapping gas hydrates by indirect geophysical methods or through dedicated drilling campaigns is fundamental to all research involving gas hydrates. This includes studies of their role in climate change, their consequences for slope stability, their role at the base of the food web for benthic ecosystems and their potential as a future energy resource. Here we provide a brief introduction to the occurrence of gas hydrates on Earth, and how this information may assist in detecting them on other planetary bodies.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-02-04
    Description: Biological invasions are one of the main threats to biodiversity within protected areas (PAs) worldwide. Meanwhile, the resilience of PAs to invasions remains largely unknown. Consequently, providing a better understanding of how they are impacted by invasions is critical for informing policy responses and optimally allocating resources to prevention and control strategies. Here we use the InvaCost database to address this gap from three perspectives: (i) characterizing the total reported costs of invasive alien species (IAS) in PAs; (ii) comparing mean observed costs of IAS in PAs and non-PAs; and (iii) evaluating factors affecting mean observed costs of IAS in PAs. Our results first show that, overall, the reported economic costs of IAS in PAs amounted to US$ 22.24 billion between 1975 and 2020, of which US$ 930.61 million were observed costs (already incurred) and US$ 21.31 billion were potential costs (extrapolated or predicted). Expectedly, most of the observed costs were reported for management (73%) but damages were still much higher than expected for PAs (24%); in addition, the vast majority of management costs were reported for reactive, post-invasion actions (84% of management costs, focused on eradication and control). Second, differences between costs in PAs and non-PAs varied among continents and environments. We found significantly higher IAS costs in terrestrial PA environments compared to non-PAs, while regionally, Europe incurred higher costs in PAs and Africa and Temperate Asia incurred higher costs in non-PAs. Third, characterization of drivers of IAS costs within PAs showed an effect of environments (higher costs in terrestrial environments), continents (higher in Africa and South America), taxa (higher in invertebrates and vertebrates than plants) and Human Development Index (higher in more developed countries). Globally, our findings indicate that, counterintuitively, PAs are subject to very high costs from biological invasions. This highlights the need for more resources to be invested in the management of IAS to achieve the role of PAs in ensuring the long term conservation of nature. Accordingly, more spatially-balanced and integrative studies involving both scientists and stakeholders are required.
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 173-181.
    Publication Date: 2022-02-07
    Description: Well-constrained and widely distributed bottom simulating reflectors in various geological settings across both passive and active margins make the area offshore southwestern Taiwan an excellent location to study gas hydrate dynamics and fluid flow systems. Seismic data reveal the presence of subsurface fluid flow systems and ubiquitous free gas and gas hydrates. This article aims to summarize and map the different types of seismic observations related to the gas hydrate system. The spatial distribution of seismic indicators for gas accumulation, fluid migration, and the presence of gas hydrates suggests that topographic highs on both passive and active margins are sites of particularly efficient free gas accumulation and gas hydrate formation. Seismic indicators observed in fold and thrust structures suggest that the fluid system in the active margin is structurally controlled and that the highest gas hydrate saturation levels are found in the cores of thrust anticlines on the lower slope of the active margin area.
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  • 48
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    In:  , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, 514 pp. ISBN 978-3-030-81186-0
    Publication Date: 2022-02-07
    Description: This world atlas presents a comprehensive overview of the gas-hydrate systems of our planet with contributions from esteemed international researchers from academia, governmental institutions and hydrocarbon industries. The book illustrates, describes and discusses gas hydrate systems, their geophysical evidence and their future prospects for climate change and continental margin geohazards from passive to active margins. This includes passive volcanic to non-volcanic margins including glaciated and non-glaciated margins from high to low latitudes. Shallow submarine gas hydrates allow a glimpse into the past from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to modern environmental conditions to predict potential changes in future stability conditions while deep submarine gas hydrates remained more stable. This demonstrates their potential for rapid reactions for some gas hydrate provinces to a warming world, as well as helping to identify future prospects for environmental research. Three-dimensional and high-resolution seismic imaging technologies provide new insights into fluid flow systems in continental margins, enabling the identification of gas and gas escape routes to the seabed within gas hydrate environments, where seabed habitats may flourish. The volume contains a method section detailing the seismic imaging and logging while drilling techniques used to characterize gas hydrates and related dynamic processes in the sub seabed. This book is unique, as it goes well beyond the geophysical monograph series of natural gas hydrates and textbooks on marine geophysics. It also emphasizes the potential for gas hydrate research across a variety of disciplines. Observations of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in 2D and 3D seismic reflection data combined with velocity analysis, electromagnetic investigations and gas-hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) modelling, provide the necessary insights for academic interests and hydrocarbon industries to understand the potential extent and volume of gas hydrates in a wide range of tectonic settings of continental margins. Gas hydrates control the largest and most dynamic reservoir of global carbon. Especially 4D, 3D seismic but also 2D seismic data provide compelling sub-seabed images of their dynamical behavior. Sub-seabed imaging techniques increase our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the distribution and migration of gas before it enters the gas-hydrate stability zone. As methane hydrate stability depends mainly on pressure, temperature, gas composition and pore water chemistry, gas hydrates are usually found in ocean margin settings where water depth is more than 300 m and gas migrates upward from deeper geological formations. This highly dynamic environment may precondition the stability of continental slopes as evidenced by geohazards and gas expelled from the sea floor. This book provides new insights into variations in the character and existence of gas hydrates and BSRs in various geological environments, as well as their dynamics. The potentially dynamic behavior of this natural carbon system in a warming world, its current and future impacts on a variety of Earth environments can now be adequately evaluated by using the information provided in the world atlas.
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  • 49
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert , J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 323-329.
    Publication Date: 2022-02-07
    Description: The gas hydrate system off Mauritania is characterized by the undulating landward termination of a gas hydrate-related bottom simulating reflector (BSR). Some of the most landward sections of this BSR reach up to within 6 m of the seafloor. This suggests a shallow sulphate-methane-interface over an unusually large area. We attribute this to the presence of large amounts of methane due to the efficient burial of organic matter in a high-productivity oceanographic region, and the efficient channelling of methane along permeable turbidite beds towards the feather edge of the gas hydrate stability zone. This is consistent with the observation of steps in the BSR, where it cross-cuts other inferred permeable horizons. The high thermal conductivity of a salt dome in the southern part of the study area distorts the subsurface temperature field, giving the base of the hydrate stability zone a concave-down shape. Within this anticline of the BSR, high amplitudes and a horizontal reflection that crosses the sedimentary strata indicate the entrapment of free gas. We interpret this as a direct indication of a reduced hydraulic permeability of the hydrate-bearing sediment.
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  In: World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins. , ed. by Mienert, J., Berndt, C. 〈https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5055-0180〉, Tréhu, A. M., Camerlenghi, A. and Liu, C. S. Springer, Cham, pp. 109-120.
    Publication Date: 2022-02-07
    Description: This article reviews extensive geophysical survey data, ocean drilling results and long-term seafloor monitoring that constrain the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within the accretionary prism of the northern Cascadia subduction margin, located offshore Vancouver Island in Canada. Seismic surveys and geologic studies conducted since the 1980s have mapped the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), detected gas hydrate occurrence and estimated gas hydrate and free gas concentrations. Additional constraints were obtained from seafloor-towed, controlled-source electromagnetic surveying. A component of these studies has been the examination of low-temperature seafloor vents and seeps that emit gas and fluids into the ocean. These features are identified seismically as chimney-like zones of reduced acoustic reflectivity within the sediment stratigraphy, functioning as conduits for gas and fluid migration from below the BSR to the seafloor. Gas hydrates have been recovered from the seafloor and from sediment cores at vent sites, mostly in massive (nodular) form and as a vein-like fracture filling. The Ocean Networks Canada cabled NEPTUNE observatory has gathered extensive continuous, long-term observations on gas hydrate dynamics at the seafloor and in boreholes at two nodes on the continental slope featuring high gas hydrate concentrations. Measurements taken at the observatory include a time-series of gas bubble emission rates, changes in the near-seafloor electromagnetic structure and seafloor compliance linked to gas hydrate formation and dissociation. Two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expeditions collected cores, measured downhole properties and deployed downhole instruments within the central accretionary prism. At IODP Site U1364, pore pressures are being monitored above and below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at a slope setting using an “Advanced Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit” (A-CORK). Downhole pore pressures, temperatures and electrical resistivities also are being monitored at IODP Site U1416 using the “Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In Situ” (SCIMPI) tool at a vent site from near-seafloor to just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-03-04
    Description: Tertiary subvolcanic basic rocks are found as sills, dykes, and stocks in the southern flanks of the Central Alborz Magmatic Belt, north of Tehran. The rocks can be divided into two subvolcanic rock groups based on their geographic locations: (1) the western Kiga group and (2) an eastern group. The eastern group range from micromonzogabbro/diorite to microgabbro, whereas the Kiga group consists of micromozodiorite to micromonzogabbro. Mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace elements show that these rocks have calc-alkaline affinities. The eastern group extends to higher MgO (4–10wt%) than the Kiga group (MgO= 4–5 wt%). With decreasing MgO, the contents of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, and P2O5 increase and the contents of CaO and compatible trace elements (e.g., Co, Ni, Cr) decrease, consistent with olivine and clinopyroxene fractionation. At a given MgO, the Kiga rocks have higher FeOt, K2O, and P2O5 and extend to higher overall highly to moderately incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, Nb, Ta, LREE, Sr, and Zr) and lower Al2O3 and Na2O. The depletion in Nb and Ta but enrichments in Rb, Ba, Th, U, K, Pb, and Sr, compared to N-MORB as well as high Th/Yb (at a given Nb/Yb or Ta/Yb), indicates a subduction zone origin for both subvolcanic groups of rocks. The initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of the subvolcanic rocks vary from 0.7048 to 0.7064 and 0.5126 to 0.5128, respectively. Furthermore, εNd (50 Ma) values (+0.64 to +5.19) associated with the two-stage model ages (0.42 to 0.78 Ga) of the samples infer a contribution of Cadomian-enriched lithospheric mantle in their source for this melt. The most evolved sample from the Kiga group has the lowest 143Nd/144Nd and highest 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. The isotope correlations could be explained by upper crustal assimilation/contamination by the more evolved samples or reflect source differences (i.e., higher amount of subducted sediments) in the Kiga source. In conclusion, we interpret that the subvolcanic rocks have formed in an active continental margin.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: This article presents the first evidence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) on the continental margin of the western Indian Ocean, offshore Tanzania. The analysis of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data revealed two different types of BSRs. The Type 1 BSR, identified in water depths of 2250–2370 m west of the Seagap fault, shows a continuous reflection that mimics the seafloor, has a reverse polarity with respect to the seafloor and crosscuts the stratigraphy. Type 2 BSRs have been identified on the slope of the Tanzanian margin in water depths less than 1500 m. They are represented by a phase-reversed reflection that mimics the seafloor topography, revealing lateral variations in amplitude that are expressed as changes from high to moderate brightness. Modelling results show that gas hydrates of microbial origin (100% CH4) are stable in a minimum water depth of 740 m and a bottom water temperature of 9 °C, thus indicating a possible microbial origin for the type 2 BSRs. The thickest gas hydrate stability zone is observed within the Kerimbas Graben at water depths of up to 3621 m, with values ranging from 321.4–383.4 m for geothermal gradients of 5.4 °C/100 m and 6.4 °C/100 m, respectively. We suggest that the type 1 BSR may have a thermogenic gas source, as the observed BSR depths are deeper than the calculated base of the gas hydrate stability zone for 100% methane. The interpreted faults that crosscut the stratigraphy may have facilitated gas transport from deeper source rocks.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-03-18
    Description: Climate change and deoxygenation are affecting fish stocks on a global scale, but disentangling the impacts of these stressors from the effects of overfishing is a challenge. This study was conducted to distinguish between climate change and mismanagement as possible causes for the drastic decline in spawning stock size and reproductive success in cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea, when compared with the good or satisfactory status and reproductive success of the other commercial species in the area. Available data on water temperature, wind speed, and plankton bloom during the spawning season did not reveal conclusive correlations between years with good and bad reproductive success of cod or herring. Notably, the other commercial species in the area have very similar life history traits suggesting similar resilience against stress caused by climate change or fishing. The study concludes that severe, sustained overfishing plus inappropriate size selectivity of the main fishing gears have caused the decline in spawning stock biomass of cod and herring to levels that are known to have a high probability of impaired reproductive success. It is pointed out that allowed catches were regulated by management and adhered to by the fishers, meaning that unregulated fishing did not occur. Thus, mismanagement (quotas that were too high and gears that selected too small sizes) and not climate change appears to be the primary cause of the bad status of cod and herring in the Western Baltic Sea.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-03-31
    Description: In its Sixth Assessment Report Cycle (AR6), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) aims to strengthen the communication of its products. As the only mandatory part of IPCC reports specifically targeting a lay audience, the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) provide an opportunity for broader communication of key IPCC topics. AR6 has released three Special Reports that include FAQs, varying in number and structure, as well as the approach taken to develop them. Using these Special Report FAQs, in this essay, we take stock of current efforts to co-develop IPCC FAQs and provide recommendations to strengthen the impact of these highly useful yet currently under-utilised resources. Building on evidence from a user survey, text analysis and social media statistics, we find that bringing together IPCC authors and communication specialists to jointly develop the text and graphics increases the accessibility and usefulness of the FAQs. Efforts made for informative visuals additionally increase their impact on social media. To maximise the potential and impact of the IPCC FAQs, we recommend involving communication experts from the beginning of the drafting process to share responsibility, which requires sufficient resources to be allocated to the FAQs. We also suggest developing common FAQ guidelines across Working Groups so future assessment reports can ensure all FAQs are an effective and useful tool for IPCC communication. We also hope that other scientific institutions and projects that wish to summarise scientific content for diverse audiences can benefit from our lessons learned.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-04-06
    Description: Biological invasions are one of the top drivers of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. An underestimated consequence of invasions is the enormity of their economic impacts. Knowledge gaps regarding economic costs produced by invasive alien species (IAS) are pervasive, particularly for emerging economies such as India—the fastest growing economy worldwide. To investigate, highlight and bridge this gap, we synthesised data on the economic costs of IAS in India. Specifically, we examine how IAS costs are distributed spatially, environmentally, sectorally, taxonomically, temporally, and across introduction pathways; and discuss how Indian IAS costs vary with socioeconomic indicators. We found that IAS have cost the Indian economy between at least US$ 127.3 billion to 182.6 billion (Indian Rupees ₹ 8.3 trillion to 11.9 trillion) over 1960–2020, and these costs have increased with time. Despite these massive recorded costs, most were not assigned to specific regions, environments, sectors, cost types and causal IAS, and these knowledge gaps are more pronounced in India than in the rest of the world. When costs were specifically assigned, maximum costs were incurred in West, South and North India, by invasive alien insects in semi-aquatic ecosystems; they were incurred mainly by the public and social welfare sector, and were associated with damages and losses rather than management expenses. Our findings indicate that the reported economic costs grossly underestimate the actual costs, especially considering the expected costs given India’s population size, gross domestic product and high numbers of IAS without reported costs. This cost analysis improves our knowledge of the negative economic impacts of biological invasions in India and the burden they can represent for its development. We hope this study motivates policymakers to address socio-ecological issues in India and launch a national biological invasion research programme, especially since economic growth will be accompanied by greater impacts of global change.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-04-26
    Description: Background: Elucidating the spatial structure of host-associated microbial communities is essential for understanding taxon-taxon interactions within the microbiota and between microbiota and host. Macroalgae are colonized by complex microbial communities, suggesting intimate symbioses that likely play key roles in both macroalgal and bacterial biology, yet little is known about the spatial organization of microbes associated with macroalgae. Canopy-forming kelp are ecologically significant, fixing teragrams of carbon per year in coastal kelp forest ecosystems. We characterized the micron-scale spatial organization of bacterial communities on blades of the kelp Nereocystis luetkeana using fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging with a probe set combining phylum-, class-, and genus-level probes to localize and identify 〉 90% of the microbial community. Results: We show that kelp blades host a dense microbial biofilm composed of disparate microbial taxa in close contact with one another. The biofilm is spatially differentiated, with clustered cells of the dominant symbiont Granulosicoccus sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) close to the kelp surface and filamentous Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria relatively more abundant near the biofilm-seawater interface. A community rich in Bacteroidetes colonized the interior of kelp tissues. Microbial cell density increased markedly along the length of the kelp blade, from sparse microbial colonization of newly produced tissues at the meristematic base of the blade to an abundant microbial biofilm on older tissues at the blade tip. Kelp from a declining population hosted fewer microbial cells compared to kelp from a stable population. Conclusions: Imaging revealed close association, at micrometer scales, of different microbial taxa with one another and with the host. This spatial organization creates the conditions necessary for metabolic exchange among microbes and between host and microbiota, such as provisioning of organic carbon to the microbiota and impacts of microbial nitrogen metabolisms on host kelp. The biofilm coating the surface of the kelp blade is well-positioned to mediate interactions between the host and surrounding organisms and to modulate the chemistry of the surrounding water column. The high density of microbial cells on kelp blades (10(5)-10(7) cells/cm(2)), combined with the immense surface area of kelp forests, indicates that biogeochemical functions of the kelp microbiome may play an important role in coastal ecosystems.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-04-25
    Description: Visual systems are receiving increasing attention in underwater applications. While the photogrammetric and computer vision literature so far has largely targeted shallow water applications, recently also deep sea mapping research has come into focus. The majority of the seafloor, and of Earth’s surface, is located in the deep ocean below 200 m depth, and is still largely uncharted. Here, on top of general image quality degradation caused by water absorption and scattering, additional artificial illumination of the survey areas is mandatory that otherwise reside in permanent darkness as no sunlight reaches so deep. This creates unintended non-uniform lighting patterns in the images and non-isotropic scattering effects close to the camera. If not compensated properly, such effects dominate seafloor mosaics and can obscure the actual seafloor structures. Moreover, cameras must be protected from the high water pressure, e.g. by housings with thick glass ports, which can lead to refractive distortions in images. Additionally, no satellite navigation is available to support localization. All these issues render deep sea visual mapping a challenging task and most of the developed methods and strategies cannot be directly transferred to the seafloor in several kilometers depth. In this survey we provide a state of the art review of deep ocean mapping, starting from existing systems and challenges, discussing shallow and deep water models and corresponding solutions. Finally, we identify open issues for future lines of research.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-04-29
    Description: Every year, vast quantities of plastic debris arrive at the ocean surface. Nevertheless, our understanding of plastic movements is largely incomplete and many of the processes involved with the horizontal and vertical displacement of plastics in the ocean are still basically unknown. In this chapter we review the dynamics associated with the transport of plastics and other pollutants at oceanic fronts. Fronts had been historically defined as simple barriers to exchange, but here we show that the role of these structures in influencing the transport of plastics is more complex. The tools used to investigate the occurrence of frontal structures at various spatial scales are reviewed in detail, with a particular focus on their potential applications to the study of plastic pollution. Three selected case studies are presented to better describe the role of fronts in favoring or preventing plastic exchanges: the large-scale Antarctic Circumpolar Current, a Mediterranean mesoscale front, and the submesoscale fronts in the Gulf of Mexico. Lastly, some aspects related to the vertical subduction of plastic particles at oceanic fronts are discussed as one of the most promising frontiers for future research. The accumulation of floating debris at the sea surface is mainly affected by the horizontal components of frontal dynamics. At the same time, vertical components can be relevant for the export of neutrally buoyant particles from the surface into the deep sea. Based on these evidences, we propose that submesoscale processes can provide a fast and efficient route of plastic transport within the mixed layer, while mesoscale instabilities and associated vertical velocities might be the dominant mechanism to penetrate the deeper ocean on slower but broader scales. We conclude that given the ubiquitous presence of fronts in the world’s ocean, their contribution to the global plastic cycle is probably not negligible and the role of these processes in vertically displacing neutrally buoyant microplastics should be investigated in more detail.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-05-09
    Description: Interactive computer simulations and hands-on experiments are important teaching methods in modern science education. Especially for the communication of complex current topics with social relevance (socioscientific issues), suitable methods in science education are of great importance. However, previous studies could not sufficiently clarify the educational advantages and disadvantages of both methods and often lack adequate comparability. This paper presents two studies of direct comparisons of hands-on experiments and interactive computer simulations as learning tools in science education for secondary school students in two different learning locations (Study I: school; Study II: student laboratory). Using a simple experimental research design with type of learning location as between-subjects factor (NStudy I = 443, NStudy II = 367), these studies compare working on computer simulations versus experiments in terms of knowledge achievement, development of situational interest and cognitive load. Independent of the learning location, the results showed higher learning success for students working on computer simulations than while working on experiments, despite higher cognitive load. However, working on experiments promoted situational interest more than computer simulations (especially the epistemic and value-related component). We stated that simulations might be particularly suitable for teaching complex topics. The findings reviewed in this paper moreover imply that working with one method may complement and supplement the weaknesses of the other. We conclude that that the most effective way to communicate complex current research topics might be a combination of both methods. These conclusions derive a contribution to successful modern science education in school and out-of-school learning contexts
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2022-05-09
    Description: Maio Island (Cabo Verde Archipelago) is composed of uplifted Early Mesozoic MORB-type pillow lavas and deep-sea sediments, unconformably overlain and intruded by Miocene igneous rocks. Combined structural analyses and 40Ar–39Ar dating were used to constrain the Miocene evolution of Maio. Structures and ages of uplifted Mesozoic sequences and crosscutting Miocene dykes showed that numerous intrusive events were associated with the intense growth of an igneous core complex in the middle to upper crust, causing semi-circular doming and partial disruption of the Mesozoic strata. Two nosean nephelinite dykes cut the Valanginian Batalha Formation and yielded phlogopite 40Ar–39Ar ages of 10.405 ± 0.033 Ma and 10.570 ± 0.053 Ma (2σ errors). A nosean nephelinite dyke that cuts the overlying Valanginian to Early Aptian Morro Formation yielded an age of 9.273 ± 0.020 Ma. Combined with existing K–Ar and 40Ar–39Ar ages, this confirmed a main period of island growth between ~ 16 and 8.7 Ma. We re-interpreted extensive polymict conglomerates, which occur below the Late Miocene Monte Penoso Formation, as landslide deposits. A nephelinite lava clast yielded a phlogopite 40Ar–39Ar age of 8.666 ± 0.0274 Ma, which represents a maximum age for these landslides and thus confined a period of large-scale flank collapses and erosion to between 8.7 and 6.7 Ma. Flank collapses and further mass wasting during this period may have rejuvenated the igneous activity, i.e., resulting in the formation of the Tortonian/Messinian Monte Penoso and Malhada Pedra Formations, due to decompression-induced melting at upper mantle depths. Such interaction between flank collapses and rejuvenated volcanism may be a key to better understand ocean island evolution worldwide.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2022-05-20
    Description: The Barents Sea, located close to the Arctic Ocean, is a petroleum province featuring an extensive occurrence of gas hydrates and shallow gas in compacted sediments. Glacial erosion and uplift have contributed to the migration of gas originating from deeper rocks to the shallow sediments of this region, resulting in hydrates with higher-order hydrocarbons in addition to methane. This article documents reported gas hydrate indications and major controls on hydrate stability in the Barents Sea.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Similar to their tropical counterparts, cold-water corals (CWCs) are able to build large three-dimensional reef structures. These unique ecosystems are at risk due to ongoing climate change. In particular, ocean warming, ocean acidification and changes in the hydrological cycle may jeopardize the existence of CWCs. In order to predict how CWCs and their reefs or mounds will develop in the near future one important strategy is to study past fossil CWC mounds and especially shallow CWC ecosystems as they experience a greater environmental variability compared to other deep-water CWC ecosystems. We present results from a CWC mound off southern Norway. A sediment core drilled from this relatively shallow (~ 100 m) CWC mound exposes in full detail hydrographical changes during the late Holocene, which were crucial for mound build-up. We applied computed tomography, 230Th/U dating, and foraminiferal geochemical proxy reconstructions of bottom-water-temperature (Mg/Ca-based BWT), δ18O for seawater density, and the combination of both to infer salinity changes. Our results demonstrate that the CWC mound formed in the late Holocene between 4 kiloannum (ka) and 1.5 ka with an average aggradation rate of 104 cm/kiloyears (kyr), which is significantly lower than other Holocene Norwegian mounds. The reconstructed BWTMg/Ca and seawater density exhibit large variations throughout the entire period of mound formation, but are strikingly similar to modern in situ observations in the nearby Tisler Reef. We argue that BWT does not exert a primary control on CWC mound formation. Instead, strong salinity and seawater density variation throughout the entire mound sequence appears to be controlled by the interplay between the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow and the overlying, outflowing Baltic-Sea water. CWC growth and mound formation in the NE Skagerrak was supported by strong current flow, oxygen replenishment, the presence of a strong boundary layer and larval dispersal through the AW, but possibly inhibited by the influence of fresh Baltic Water during the late Holocene. Our study therefore highlights that modern shallow Norwegian CWC reefs may be particularly endangered due to changes in water-column stratification associated with increasing net precipitation caused by climate change.
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