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  • 1
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    Springer
    In:  Karst Water Environment : Advances in Research, Management and Policy | The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Examination of microbial communities within karst aquifers is an important aspect of determining the quality of the drinking water obtained from groundwater. While past work has been based on culture-based assays, a more complete view of the microbial community within karst aquifers can be achieved using molecular approaches based on DNA sequencing. Due to a reduced cell number when compared to surface environments, collecting sufficient microbial cells for analysis in karst aquifers can be problematic. In addition to issues of cell density, particulates due to the geologic location, technological limitations of equipment that can be hand-carried and work for extended periods underground, and even the physical access to some of these subsurface sites, all contribute to making examination of the microbiology in karst aquifers a challenge. This chapter highlights some of the approaches we have used to successfully isolate microbial cells for DNA extraction from an aquifer accessed in a remote cave location. The methods we developed can aid other researchers to evaluate the microbiology of similar isolated karst aquifers.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 2
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    In:  Natural Gas Engines: For Transportation and Power Generation | Energy, Environment, and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Lean-burn natural gas engines can be used to reduce exhaust emissions significantly. However, as the mixture is leaned out, the occurrence of extinction and incomplete combustion increases, resulting in poor performance and stability, as well as elevated levels of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The partially stratified charge (PSC) method can be used to mitigate these issues, while extending the lean misfire limit (LML) beyond its equivalent, homogeneous level. In this chapter, the PSC ignition and combustion processes are examined following a comprehensive experimental and numerical approach. Experiments are conducted in an idealized PSC configuration, using a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), to identify the principle enabling mechanisms of the PSC methodology. Engine tests conducted in a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) demonstrate the feasibility of various PSC implementations in improving performance and emission characteristics in real-world settings. Complementary numerical analyses for the CVCC are obtained through large eddy simulations (LES), while Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted for SCRE with reduced chemical kinetics. The corresponding simulated results provide additional insights in characterizing the effect of fuel stratification on flame kernel maturation and flame propagation, the interplay between chemistry and turbulence at different overall air–fuel ratios, as well as formation of major pollutant species.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 3
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    In:  In: Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer Oceanography Series . Springer, Cham, pp. 185-194.
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea are unusual extreme environments and form characteristically steep gradients across the brine-seawater interfaces. Due to their unusual nature and unique combination of physical-chemical conditions these interfaces provide an interesting source of new findings in the fields of geochemistry, geology, microbiology, biotechnology, virology, and general biology. The current chapter summarizes recent and new results in the study of geochemistry and life at the interfaces of brine-filled deeps of the Red Sea.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  In: Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 401-418. ISBN 978-3-319-99416-1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Coral reefs in the Red Sea belong to the most diverse and productive reef ecosystems worldwide, although they are exposed to strong seasonal variability, high temperature, and high salinity. These factors are considered stressful for coral reef biota and challenge reef growth in other oceans, but coral reefs in the Red Sea thrive despite these challenges. In the central Red Sea high temperatures, high salinities, and low dissolved oxygen on the one hand reflect conditions that are predicted for ‘future oceans’ under global warming. On the other hand, alkalinity and other carbonate chemistry parameters are considered favourable for coral growth. In coral reefs of the central Red Sea, temperature and salinity follow a seasonal cycle, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients mostly vary spatially, and dissolved oxygen and pH fluctuate on the scale of hours to days. Within these strong environmental gradients micro- and macroscopic reef communities are dynamic and demonstrate plasticity and acclimatisation potential. Epilithic biofilm communities of bacteria and algae, crucial for the recruitment of reef-builders, undergo seasonal community shifts that are mainly driven by changes in temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. These variables are predicted to change with the progression of global environmental change and suggest an immediate effect of climate change on the microbial community composition of biofilms. Corals are so-called holobionts and associate with a variety of microbial organisms that fulfill important functions in coral health and productivity. For instance, coral-associated bacterial communities are more specific and less diverse than those of marine biofilms, and in many coral species in the central Red Sea they are dominated by bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas. Generally, coral microbiomes align with ecological differences between reef sites. They are similar at sites where these corals are abundant and successful. Coral microbiomes reveal a measurable footprint of anthropogenic influence at polluted sites. Coral-associated communities of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in central Red Sea corals are dominated by Symbiodinium from clade C. Some corals harbour the same specific symbiont with a high physiological plasticity throughout their distribution range, while others maintain a more flexible association with varying symbionts of high physiological specificity over depths, seasons, or reef locations. The coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis drives calcification of the coral skeleton, which is a key process that provides maintenance and formation of the reef framework. Calcification rates and reef growth are not higher than in other coral reef regions, despite the beneficial carbonate chemistry in the central Red Sea. This may be related to the comparatively high temperatures, as indicated by reduced summer calcification and long-term slowing of growth rates that correlate with ocean warming trends. Indeed, thermal limits of abundant coral species in the central Red Sea may have been exceeded, as evidenced by repeated mass bleaching events during previous years. Recent comprehensive baseline data from central Red Sea reefs allow for insight into coral reef functioning and for quantification of the impacts of environmental change in the region.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    In:  Springer Oceanography Book series . Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 550 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-99417-8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This book includes invited contributions presenting the latest research on the oceanography and environment of the Red Sea. In addition to covering topics relevant to research in the region and providing insights into marine science for non-experts, it is also of interest to those involved in the management of coastal zones and encourages further research on the Red Sea
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-06
    Description: Diseases increasingly threaten aquaculture of kelps and other seaweeds. At the same time, protection concepts that are based upon application of biocides are usually not applicable, as such compounds would be rapidly diluted in the sea, causing ecological damage. An alternative concept could be the application of immune stimulants to prevent and control diseases in farmed seaweeds. We here present a pilot study that investigated the effects of oligoalginate elicitation on juvenile and adult sporophytes of Saccharina japonica cultivated in China and on adult sporophytes of Saccharina latissima cultivated in Germany. In two consecutive years, treatment with oligoalginate clearly reduced the detachment of S. japonica juveniles from their substrate curtains during the nursery stage in greenhouse ponds. Oligoalginate elicitation also decreased the density of endobionts and the number of bacterial cells on sporophytes of S. latissima that were cultivated on sea-based rafts. However, the treatment increased the susceptibility of kelp adults to settlement of epibionts (barnacles in Germany and filamentous algal epiphytes in China). In addition, oligoalginate elicitation accelerated the aging of S. japonica adults. Based upon these findings, oligoalginate elicitation could be a feasible way to provide “environmentally friendly” protection of kelp juveniles in nurseries. The same treatment causes not only beneficial, but also unwanted effects in adult kelp sporophytes. Therefore, it is not recommended as a treatment after the juvenile stage is completed. Future tests with other elicitors and other cultivated seaweed species may allow for the development of more feasible applications of targeted defense elicitation in seaweed aquaculture.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Description: The present study details the effects of basin-scale hydrographic characteristics of the Red Sea on the macroecology of Chaetognatha, a major plankton component in the pelagic realm. The hydrographic attributes and circulation of the Red Sea as a result of its limited connection with the northern Indian Ocean make it a unique ecohydrographic region in the world ocean. Here, we aimed to identify the prime determinants governing the community structure and vertical distribution of the Cheatognatha in this ecologically significant world ocean basin. The intrusion of Gulf of Aden Water influenced the Chaetognatha community composition in the south, whereas the overturning circulation altered their vertical distribution in the north. The existence of hypoxic waters (〈 100 µmol kg−1) at mid-depth also influenced their vertical distribution. The detailed evaluation of the responses of the different life stages of Chaetognatha revealed an increased susceptibility of adult individuals to hypoxic waters compared to immature stages. Higher oxygen demands of the adults for the egg and sperm production might have prevented them from inhabiting the oxygen-deficient mid-depth zones. The carbon and nitrogen content of the Copepoda and Chaetognatha communities and the quantification of the predation impact of Chaetognatha on Copepoda based on the feeding rate helped in corroborating the significant trophic link between these two prey–predator taxa. The observed influences of physical and chemical attributes on the distribution of Chaetognatha can be used as a model example for the role of the hydrography on the zooplankton community of the Red Sea.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Dosidicus gigas (the Humboldt squid) is a widely distributed and ecologically important predator in the eastern Pacific Ocean, but its mating behaviour is poorly understood. Individuals of this species have undergone a drastic change in size at maturity in the last years. We investigated mating activity of Humboldt squid in the Gulf of California in 2013, 2014, and 2015 by quantifying spermatangia deposited in the tissue of the buccal area. In 2015, we encountered the smallest mean mantle length of mature specimens recorded to date in the Gulf of California. In all years, numerous males were encountered that had been mated by other males. Spermatangia in males were deposited on the tissue in similar numbers and in the same location as normally occurs in females (the buccal area), suggesting that male-to-male mating behaviour is similar to male-to-female. This behaviour is referred to as same-sex sexual behaviour and has been described for various taxa, including other cephalopods. Overall similarity in mating frequency between males and females and in body size of mated individuals (in 2015) suggests non-discriminative and brief encounters with body size being a cue for mating. This mating strategy may be beneficial for males, as Humboldt squid live in groups where competition for mates is likely high. The energetic costs of male-to-male mating events may be counterbalanced by the fitness profits of indiscriminate mating behaviour.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-03-04
    Description: Many marine gastropods show species-specific behavioral responses to different predators, but less is known about the mechanisms influencing differences or similarities in specific responses. Herein, we examined whether two limpet species, Scurria viridula (Lamarck, 1819) and Fissurella latimarginata (Sowerby, 1835), show species- and size-specific similarities or differences in their reaction to predatory seastars and crabs. Both S. viridula and F. latimarginata reacted to their main seastar predators with escape responses. In contrast, both limpets did not flee from common crab predators, but, instead, fastened to the rock. All tested size classes of both limpet species reacted in a similar way, escaping from seastars, but clamping onto the rock in response to crabs. Limpets could reach velocities sufficient to outrun their specific seastar predators, but they were not fast enough to escape crabs. Experiments with limpets of different shell conditions (with and without shell damage) indicated that F. latimarginata with a damaged shell showed “accommodation movements” (slow movements away from stimulus) in response to predatory crabs. In contrast, intact F. latimarginata and all S. viridula (intact and damaged) clamped the shell down to the substratum. The response details suggest that the keyhole limpet F. latimarginata is more sensitive to predators (faster reaction time, longer escape distances, and higher proportion of reacting individuals) than S. viridula, possibly because the morphology of F. latimarginata (the relationship of its shell size and structure to its total body size) makes this species more vulnerable to predation. Our study suggests that chemically mediated effects of seastar and crab predators result in contrasting behavioral responses of both limpet species, independent of their habitat and morphology. Despite the different characteristics of the limpet species and the identity of predators, the limpets react in comparable ways to similar predator types.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-03-04
    Description: Climate engineering (CE) deployment would alter prevailing relationships between Earth system variables, making indicators and metrics used so far in the climate change assessment context less appropriate to assess CE measures. Achieving a comprehensive CE assessment requires a systematic and transparent reevaluation of the indicator selection process from Earth system variables. Here, we provide a first step towards such a systematic assessment of changes in correlations between Earth system variables following simulated deployment of different CE methods. We therefore analyze changes in the correlation structure of a broad set of Earth system variables for two conventional climate change scenarios without CE and with three idealized CE model experiments: (i) solar radiation management, (ii) large-scale afforestation, and (iii) ocean alkalinity enhancement. First, we investigate how the three CE scenarios alter prevailing correlations between Earth system variables when compared to an intermediate-high and a business-as-usual future climate change scenario. Second, we contrast the indicators identified for the non-CE climate change scenarios and the indicators identified when all five scenarios are considered. Finally, we use the identified indicator sets for an evaluation of the five climate change scenarios. We find that the additional indicators provide valuable information for the assessment of the CE measures, and their application hence allows for a more comprehensive and a comparative assessment of the mitigation and CE deployment scenarios.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: Differences in habitat and diet between species are often associated with morphological differences. Habitat and trophic adaptation have therefore been proposed as important drivers of speciation and adaptive radiation. Importantly, habitat and diet shifts likely impose changes in exposure to different parasites and infection risk. As strong selective agents influencing survival and mate choice, parasites might play an important role in host diversification. We explore this possibility for the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika (LT) cichlids. We first compare metazoan macroparasites infection levels between cichlid tribes. We then describe the cichlids’ genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which plays a key role in vertebrate immunity. Finally, we evaluate to what extent trophic ecology and morphology explain variation in infection levels and MHC, accounting for phylogenetic relationships. We show that different cichlid tribes in LT feature partially non-overlapping parasite communities and partially non-overlapping MHC diversity. While morphology explained 15% of the variation in mean parasite abundance, trophic ecology accounted for 16% and 22% of the MHC variation at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level, respectively. Parasitism and immunogenetic adaptation may thus add additional dimensions to the LT cichlid radiation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 12
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: A long-standing difficulty of climate models is to capture the annual cycle (AC) of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) sea surface temperature (SST). In this study, we first examine the EEP SST AC in a set of integrations of the coupled Kiel Climate Model, in which only atmosphere model resolution differs. When employing coarse horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution, significant biases in the EEP SST AC are observed. These are reflected in an erroneous timing of the cold tongue’s onset and termination as well as in an underestimation of the boreal spring warming amplitude. A large portion of these biases are linked to a wrong simulation of zonal surface winds, which can be traced back to precipitation biases on both sides of the equator and an erroneous low-level atmospheric circulation over land. Part of the SST biases also is related to shortwave radiation biases related to cloud cover biases. Both wind and cloud cover biases are inherent to the atmospheric component, as shown by companion uncoupled atmosphere model integrations forced by observed SSTs. Enhancing atmosphere model resolution, horizontal and vertical, markedly reduces zonal wind and cloud cover biases in coupled as well as uncoupled mode and generally improves simulation of the EEP SST AC. Enhanced atmospheric resolution reduces convection biases and improves simulation of surface winds over land. Analysis of a subset of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) reveals that in these models, very similar mechanisms are at work in driving EEP SST AC biases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 15
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    In:  Climate Dynamics, 52 (5-6). pp. 3223-3239.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: The Earth will exhibit continued global surface warming in response to a sustained increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Massive meltwater input from the Antarctic ice sheet into the Southern Ocean could be one consequence of this warming. Here we investigate the impacts which this meltwater input may have on Earth’s surface climate and ocean circulation in a warming world. To this end a set of ensemble experiments has been conducted with a global climate model forced by increasing atmospheric CO2-concentration and an idealized Antarctic meltwater input to the Southern Ocean with varying amplitude and spatial pattern. As long as the atmospheric CO2-concentration stays moderate, i.e. below approximately twice the preindustrial concentration, and if a strong meltwater forcing of either 0.05 or 0.1 Sv is applied, enhanced Antarctic sea–ice cover and surface air temperature cooling over most parts of the Southern Ocean is observed. When the atmospheric CO2-concentration becomes larger than twice the preindustrial concentration, the meltwater only plays a minor role. The Antarctic meltwater drives significant slowing of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Again, the meltwater influence only is detectable as long as the CO2-forcing is moderate. Much larger MOC changes develop in response to highly elevated atmospheric CO2-levels independent of whether or not a meltwater forcing is applied. The response of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is nonlinear. Substantial and persistent ACC slowing is simulated when solely the meltwater forcing of 0.1 Sv is applied, which is due to the halt of Weddell Sea deep convection and subsequent collapse of the Southern Ocean MOC. When the increasing atmospheric CO2-concentration additionally drives the model the ACC partly recovers in the long run. The partial recovery is due to strengthening westerly wind stress over the Southern Ocean, which intensifies the Ekman Cell. This study suggests that Southern Hemisphere climate projections for the twenty-first century could benefit from incorporating interactive Antarctic ice sheet.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Climate model components involve both high-dimensional input and output fields. It is desirable to efficiently generate spatio-temporal outputs of these models for applications in integrated assessment modelling or to assess the statistical relationship between such sets of inputs and outputs, for example, uncertainty analysis. However, the need for efficiency often compromises the fidelity of output through the use of low complexity models. Here, we develop a technique which combines statistical emulation with a dimensionality reduction technique to emulate a wide range of outputs from an atmospheric general circulation model, PLASIM, as functions of the boundary forcing prescribed by the ocean component of a lower complexity climate model, GENIE-1. Although accurate and detailed spatial information on atmospheric variables such as precipitation and wind speed is well beyond the capability of GENIE-1’s energy-moisture balance model of the atmosphere, this study demonstrates that the output of this model is useful in predicting PLASIM’s spatio-temporal fields through multi-level emulation. Meaningful information from the fast model, GENIE-1 was extracted by utilising the correlation between variables of the same type in the two models and between variables of different types in PLASIM. We present here the construction and validation of several PLASIM variable emulators and discuss their potential use in developing a hybrid model with statistical components.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-03-18
    Description: The spatial pattern of the first mode of interannual variability associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), obtained from a multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Functions (MV-EOF) analysis, corresponds to the Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern and is referred to as the PJ-mode. The present study investigates the interannual variation of the PJ-mode from the perspective of the intraseasonal timescale. In particular, the impact of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) on the interannual variation of the PJ-mode is investigated. The results show that the MJO has a significant influence on the interannual variation of the PJ-mode mainly in the lower troposphere (850 hPa) and that the former accounts for approximately 11% of the amplitude of the latter. The major part of the contribution comes from a change in frequency of the different phases of the MJO, especially that of MJO phase 6. This suggests that intraseasonal variation of the convection anomalies over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans plays an important role in the interannual variation of the PJ-mode. In addition, MJO phase 7 also contributes to the interannual variability of the PJ-mode, in this case induced by both the change in frequency and the change in circulation anomalies associated with MJO phase 7.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model’s atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or ”warming hole”—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of the local SST pattern changes on regions outside the North Atlantic is small in our setup.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Sharp changes in the biodiversity of fossil organisms in the Upper Vendian of the East European Platform are considered as the manifestation of global crisis immediately prior to the “Cambrian Explosion.” However, they could be caused by local environmental perturbations. Variations of some lithogeochemical indicators of depositional environment (indicators of paleoclimate, exhalation activity, redox settings, and paleobioproductivity) were analyzed in order to establish the possible influence of sedimentary systems on evolutionary processes in the Late Vendian and at the boundary with the Cambrian. The applied algorithm of lithogeochemical studies revealed no significant perturbations in physical properties of the environment on a scale of sedimentary basins. The obtained data suggest that local factors did not affect the evolution of Ediacaran biota on the East European Platform and confirm the global nature of transitions between the Redkinian, Belomorian, and Kotlinian biotas.〈/p〉 〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0024-4902
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-3229
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The paper addresses regularities in the location of mud volcanoes and their spatial association with tectonic faults, anticlinal uplifts, and oil-and-gas fields. The mud volcanic activity is linked with superhigh pressures developed in the stratospheric clayey sequences owing to phase transformations of clay minerals and organic matter. Earthquakes play a crucial role in the fracturing of clays, as well as increase of their permeability and formation of mud breccias. With the Aligul mud volcano (Turkmenistan) as example, the paper discusses processes of the liquefaction of sandstones and clays and the consequent formation of mud volcanic breccias.〈/p〉 〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0024-4902
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Main regularities in the manifestation of epigenetic processes in Lower Vendian terrigenous rocks of the Nepa–Botuoba anteclise are established. Evolution of the processes of mineral formation is reflected in the sequential replacement of mineral assemblages formed at different stages of the regional background lithogenesis related to subsidence: diagenesis, early and late catagenesis, as well as superimposement of local processes (cataclastic, hydrothermal-metasomatic, and dynamothermal activation) probably related to the Permo-Triassic trap magmatism. High degree of the alteration of Early Vendian terrigenous rocks in the Nepa–Botuoba anteclise is responsible for their specific texture, composition, and physical properties that should be taken into consideration during geological explorations aimed at prospecting for various mineral resources.〈/p〉 〈/span〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1608-3229
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Based on the study of separate areas of Lake Baikal (depth from 14 to 250 m), influence of the grain size composition of bottom sediments on the distribution of methane and sulfide sulfur is examined. Concentrations of the components varied, respectively, from 〈0.01 to 1.81 µg/g d.s. (average 0.21 µg/g d.s.) and from 0.002 to 0.384 mg/g d.s. (average 0.027 mg/g d.s.). Comparison of the distribution of methane and sulfide sulfur concentrations testifies to active sulfate reduction at the same stations, where methane concentrations are highest, precisely in the northern area of the lake marked by the inflow of the Verkhnyaya Angara and Kichera rivers, as well as at some stations of the profile deployed along the estuarine zone of the Selenga River and stations located in the sublacustrine wastewater discharge zone of the town of Baikal’sk and the Baikal’sk Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM), which was closed in 2013. Depending on the study area and sampling point depth, the share of the sand fraction (0.05–2.0 mm) in bottom sediments varies from 23 to 99% (average 57%); the silt fraction (0.05–0.005 mm), from 1 to 73% (average 39%), and the pelite fraction (〈0.005 mm), from 0.0 to 8.7% (average 4%). Increase of the concentration of reduced gases in sediments correlates tightly with increase of the share of the fine-grained (silt and pelite) fractions. It is concluded that high or low concentrations of methane and sulfide sulfur at the studied upper intervals of sediments in Lake Baikal are caused not only by differences in the thickness of sediments subjected to the anthropogenic impact, but also by variations in depositional conditions that govern the grain size composition and, consequently, the content of organic matter and intensity of methane genesis and sulfate reduction〈em〉.〈/em〉〈/p〉 〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0024-4902
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-3229
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Oxidation zone of the Yubileinoe massive sulfide deposit, South Urals, is buried beneath Jurassic sediments containing coalified plant remains. Mineralogy of gossan of this deposit is marked by the abundance of siderite. The carbon isotope composition (δ〈sup〉13〈/sup〉C) in siderite varies from –20.0 to –23.4‰ PDB, which is close to δ〈sup〉13〈/sup〉C variation in coals from the overlying sediments (‒23.5 to ‒26.2‰ PDB). The formation of siderite is likely related to interaction between solutions of the Triassic oxidation zone and fermentation products of the organic matter.〈/p〉 〈/span〉
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Climate change has the potential to substantially impact groundwater recharge, groundwater/surface-water dynamics, and surface-water quality. Changes in climate could be manifested as decreasing overall snowpack or an increase in the variability of snowpack year-to-year, and may affect wildfire occurrence and severity. Observed climatic extremes, including abnormal seasonal snowfall (both drought and extreme precipitation) and wildfires, have occurred in recent years in a semi-arid region of the Great Basin in the western United States. These climatic extremes have caused focused groundwater recharge following winters with elevated snowfall (2011 and 2017). Groundwater recharge calculated using the water-table fluctuation method, for periods following the elevated snowfall, was more than 10 times greater than previous studies in the basin that utilized distributed recharge calculation methods. Caution must be exercised when using results of these calculations in subsequent analyses such as groundwater flow modeling, to assure that all required assumptions are met and that calculated recharge rates are spatially applicable. Although water-quality changes due to the elevated snowfall were not evident in the surface-water data, several geochemical constituents (Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, pH, and specific conductance) indicated statistically significant concentration differences following a downstream wildfire in the watershed (representing the climatic extreme of drought). Both recharge calculations and statistical evaluations of water chemistry were completed using an easily modified Python script, which could be utilized by water managers to aid in water-resource planning under potentially variable future climatic conditions.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1431-2174
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-0157
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Prepotential formulation of gauge theories on honeycomb lattice yields local loop states, which are exact and orthonormal being free from any spurious loop degrees of freedom. We illustrate that, the dynamics of orthonormal loop states are exactly same in both the square and honeycomb lattices. We further extend this construction to arbitrary dimensions. Utilizing this result, we make a mean field ansatz for loop configurations for SU(2) lattice gauge theory in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(2+1\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 dimension contributing to the low energy sector of the spectrum. Using variational analysis, we show that, this type of mean loop configurations has two distinct phases in the strong and weak coupling regime and shows a first order transition at 〈span〉 〈span〉\(g=1\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉. We also propose a reduced Hamiltonian to describe the dynamics of the theory within the mean field ansatz. We further work with the mean loop configuration obtained towards the weak coupling limit and analytically calculate the spectrum of the reduced Hamiltonian. The spectrum matches with that of the existing literature in this regime, establishing our ansatz to be a valid alternate one which is far more easier to handle for computation.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1434-6044
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-6052
    Topics: Physics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The evaporation of a single n-pentane drop in another warm flowing liquid (water) medium has been studied experimentally. A Perspex column with an internal diameter of 10 cm and height of 150 cm was used throughout the experiments. N-pentane liquid at its saturation temperature and warm flowing water with flow rate of 10, 20, 30 and 40 L/h were employed as the dispersed and continuous phases, respectively. The active height of the continuous phase in the column (i.e. the level of the continuous phase in the column) covered only 100 cm of the column’s height. A Photron FASTCAM high-speed camera (~ 65,000 f/s) was used to film the evaporation of the drop, while AutoCAD was used to analyse the images from the camera. The diameter ratio (diameter of growing two-phase bubble to initial drop diameter) of the two-phase bubble formed because of the evaporation of the pentane drop in direct contact with the water was measured. Also, the vaporisation ratio (x), the open angle of vapour (〈em〉β〈/em〉), the total height for complete evaporation and the total evaporation time were measured. The effects of the continuous phase flow rate and the temperature difference between the contacting phases, in terms of Jakob number (〈em〉Ja〈/em〉), on the measured parameters were investigated. Furthermore, a statistical model to fit the experimental data was developed. The experimental results showed that the diameter of the two-phase bubble is strongly influenced by varying the continuous phase flow rate. The final size of the evaporated vapour bubble was unaffected by the flow rate of the continuous phase, while both the total height required for complete evaporation and hence the time required was significantly influenced. A similar impact was observed for the vaporisation ratio and the open angle of vapour.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0947-7411
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1181
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Today, the realistic simulation of complex industrial problems requires using industrial codes. For the simulation of failure in quasi-static, and if making use of implicit schemes, the convergence is often problematic. In order to ensure convergence and robustness, explicit algorithms are often used. In this case, mass and time scalings are used to allow for quasi-static simulations. How these techniques affect the failure prediction is nevertheless unclear. Moreover, in the case of damage model another difficulty arises, the one of spurious mesh dependency. In order to avoid this problem, the use of non-local models, as for example gradient ones, is the dominant approach. The implementation of such models in industrial software is cumbersome. A simpler possibility is to rely on bounded rate approaches (Allix in Int J Damage Mech 22:808–828, 〈span〉2013〈/span〉). In fact, these approaches require only local modifications of the constitutive relation. Nevertheless, they have been much less studied and require dynamic analyses to ensure adapted regularisation effects. Considering these two issues, we study, in this paper, the possibility of combining explicit simulations with bounded rate models with damage. The aim is to enable relevant quasi-static damage simulations to perform up to failure. In this context, one main issue concerns the proposal of adapted scaling techniques. This problem is addressed through examples concerning the simulation of failure and the computation of the burst rotating speed of an axisymmetric disk.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0376-9429
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2673
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉First results on 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {K}/\pi \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉, 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {p}/\pi \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and K/p fluctuations are obtained with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC as a function of centrality in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\text{ Pb--Pb }\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 collisions at 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\sqrt{s_\mathrm{{NN}}} =2.76\hbox { TeV}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉. The observable 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\nu _{\mathrm{dyn}}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉, which is defined in terms of the moments of particle multiplicity distributions, is used to quantify the magnitude of dynamical fluctuations of relative particle yields and also provides insight into the correlation between particle pairs. This study is based on a novel experimental technique, called the Identity Method, which allows one to measure the moments of multiplicity distributions in case of incomplete particle identification. The results for 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {p}/\pi \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 show a change of sign in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\nu _{\mathrm{dyn}}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 from positive to negative towards more peripheral collisions. For central collisions, the results follow the smooth trend of the data at lower energies and 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\nu _{\mathrm{dyn}}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 exhibits a change in sign for 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {p}/\pi \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and K/p.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1434-6044
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-6052
    Topics: Physics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉In the era of nanotechnology, nanoparticles (NPs) of metals and metal oxides/chalcogenides are widely been used in medical applications where antibiotic-resistant microorganisms become a serious threat to the human health. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉) NPs, synthesized by a simple and cost-effective sol–gel auto-combustion method are envisaged for in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (〈em〉Bacillus subtilis; Staphylococcus aureus〈/em〉) and Gram-negative bacteria (〈em〉Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa〈/em〉). The structure, morphology, elemental analyses and surface area of CoFe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 NPs are initially screened. The antimicrobial efficiency of CoFe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 NPs is found to be optimum against the Gram-negative bacteria 〈em〉Escherichia coli〈/em〉 (15 mm). In addition, membrane leakage assays performed to evaluate the intracellular cytoplasmic leakage with CoFe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 NPs demonstrate the ability to destroy the bacterial membrane integrity, confirming their antimicrobial potential.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 2008-9295
    Electronic ISSN: 2228-5326
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The contamination of the Sonora River with 40,000 m〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 of toxic leachate released from a copper mine on August 6, 2014, was considered the worst environmental disaster of the mining industry in Mexico, exceeding safety levels in the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. To explore the potential association of the toxic release with subfecundity, by comparing time to pregnancy (TTP) of women with different levels of exposure at municipalities located along the Sonora River watershed, just 35 km south of the Arizona–Mexico border. Data from 235 pregnancies were included in a retrospective cohort study. Exposure was measured whether pregnancy occurred before or after the disaster and included a non-exposed community outside the watershed. Pregnancies were also compared between communities according to the concentration-level gradient of water pollutants found in the river. Fecundability odds ratios (fORs) were calculated using discrete time analogue of Cox’s proportional hazard models. Multiple analysis included all pregnancies with TTP of no more than 12 months, only first-time pregnancy, or excluding women with TTP = 1. The probability for pregnancy decreased after the disaster (fOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31, 0.97), when the residency was located mid-or-downstream the watershed (fOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.91), when reported chicken consumption, when mining was the father’s occupation, and when surface water was reported to be used for crop irrigation and for animal consumption. There was a decrease in fecundity on women exposed to the contaminated river. There is a need for more studies to prove these findings and to broaden the knowledge of other possible adverse health effects associated with this environmental disaster.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0269-4042
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2983
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Probabilistic methods are the most efficient methods to account for different types of uncertainties encountered in the estimated rock properties required for the stability analysis of rock slopes and tunnels. These methods require estimation of various parameters of probability distributions like mean, standard deviation (SD) and distributions types of rock properties, which requires large amount of data from laboratory and field investigations. However, in rock mechanics, the data available on rock properties for a project are often limited since the extents of projects are usually large and the test data are minimal due to cost constraints. Due to the unavailability of adequate test data, parameters (mean and SD) of probability distributions of rock properties themselves contain uncertainties. Since traditional reliability analysis uses these uncertain parameters (mean and SD) of probability distributions of rock properties, they may give incorrect estimation of the reliability of rock slope stability. This paper presents a method to overcome this limitation of traditional reliability analysis and outlines a new approach of rock mass characterization for the cases with limited data. This approach uses Sobol’s global sensitivity analysis and bootstrap method coupled with augmented radial basis function based response surface. This method is capable of handling the uncertainties in the parameters (mean and SD) of probability distributions of rock properties and can include their effect in the stability estimates of rock slopes. The proposed method is more practical and efficient, since it considers uncertainty in the statistical parameters of most commonly and easily available rock properties, i.e. uniaxial compressive strength and Geological Strength Index. Further, computational effort involved in the reliability analysis of rock slopes of large dimensions is comparatively smaller in this method. Present study also demonstrates this method through reliability analysis of a large rock slope of an open pit gold mine in Karnataka region of India. Results are compared with the results from traditional reliability analysis to highlight the advantages of the proposed method. It is observed that uncertainties in probability distribution type and its parameters (mean and SD) of rock properties have considerable effect on the estimated reliability index of the rock slope and hence traditional reliability methods based on the parameters of probability distributions estimated using limited data can make incorrect estimation of rock slope stability. Further, stability of the rock slope determined from proposed approach based on bootstrap method is represented by confidence interval of reliability index instead of a fixed value of reliability index as in traditional methods, providing more realistic estimates of rock slope stability.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Along the rugged coast of Big Sur, California, the Mud Creek landslide failed catastrophically on May 20, 2017, and destroyed over 400 m of scenic California State Highway 1. We collected structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data using airborne platforms that, when combined with existing airborne lidar data, revealed that the area exhibited significant topographic change and displacement before, during, and after the catastrophic failure. Before the catastrophic failure, we document two areas of elevated change in the zone of depletion, which aligned with the double-peaked head scarp produced by the catastrophic failure. The catastrophic failure extended from 337-m elevation to at least 8 m below sea level, was 490 m wide, displaced ~ 3 million m〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 of earth and rock, and deposited landslide debris at least 175 m seaward of the original shoreline. The failure was not a complete slope-clearing event, however, and several upslope and lateral regions that did not slip into the ocean exhibited significant displacement and topographic change during the days and months after the catastrophic failure. Additionally, we use the post-slide data to quantify several other processes, including the time-varying rates of talus accumulation and coastal erosion of the landslide toe. We conclude that repeat SfM surveys from aerial imagery can provide valuable information about landslide evolution and the potential for deep-seated landslide hazards—especially in the lead up to catastrophic failure—if photos are collected and processed regularly.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1612-510X
    Electronic ISSN: 1612-5118
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉This article has been retracted by the Editors-in-Chief.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1439-0108
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7480
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Genetic variation in reproductive phenology among clones in a seed orchard affects the genetic efficiency of the orchard. Our objective was to evaluate genetic variation in reproductive phenology of 〈em〉Pinus patula〈/em〉 clones in a seed orchard and the amount of overlap with pollen dispersal in natural stands. In 2014 and 2015, phenology of female and male strobili was recorded on 31 clones in the orchard, and phenology of male strobili was measured on 10 trees in each of four nearby natural stands along an elevational transect. Onset and end dates, and length of female receptivity (F_onset, F_end and F_length) and pollen dispersal (M_onset, M_end and M_length) were calculated, and genetic parameters were estimated. Differences between years in M_onset were larger in the natural stands than in the orchard, but there was a large overlap between the orchard and natural stands. A negative linear relationship with elevation was found for M_end and M_length in natural stands along the elevation transect. Genetic variation was detected for most reproductive phenology traits in the orchard. Genetic control was stronger for M_onset and M_length (〈span〉 〈span〉\(H_{c}^{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 ≥ 0.54) than for female receptivity traits (〈span〉 〈span〉\(H_{c}^{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 ≤ 0.38). Most phenological traits showed high genetic stability in both years (〈em〉r〈/em〉〈sub〉〈em〉B〈/em〉〈/sub〉 ≥ 0.76). We found a positive genetic correlation (〈em〉r〈/em〉 = 0.67) between F_onset and M_onset, suggesting there is a risk of selfing among clonal ramets. Moreover, the overlap between female receptivity in the orchard and pollen dispersal in neighboring natural stands indicates a risk of genetic contamination in the orchard, particularly for late-phenology clones.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-4286
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-5095
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉We studied Earth–Moon transfer trajectories in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) from the viewpoint of families and considered their applications in transferring a spacecraft from the Earth to periodic orbits around Sun–Earth libration point 〈span〉 〈span〉\(L_{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 (SE–L2). Initially, twelve families of trajectories with transfer time shorter than fifty days are identified in the Earth–Moon system. By connecting these transfers with stable manifolds of the target orbit, low-energy transfers from the low Earth orbit to a small-amplitude periodic orbit around SE–L2 are determined in two separate CRTBPs (Earth–Moon and Sun–Earth CRTBPs). Then, taking the patched trajectories as initial guesses and introducing a small maneuver at the perilune, we optimize the whole transfer trajectories in the Sun–Earth–Moon–Spacecraft system. Results indicate that it is possible to realize low-energy transfers to small-amplitude orbits around SE–L2 by patching the Earth–Moon transfers with stable manifolds of the target orbits.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0004-640X
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-946X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Based on microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses, the relationship between the characteristics of pore structure and fluid flow behavior was investigated through the single-phase flow experiment. The macroscopic bulk fluid seepage behavior was fundamentally explained by the microscale flow mechanism considering all the porous microstructure analysis of artificial cores. The results indicate that the pore size and connectivity have significant effects on the initial permeability of the rock cores. The permeabilities obtained from different methods have a linear law relationship with porosities in tested artificial cores. The results also suggest that the permeability of core decreases exponentially with the increase in effective stress. The inner different pore structures have an important influence on the stress-dependent fluid flow in synthetic porous rocks. The polynomial equation yields well fittings of the artificial core which has the poor pore sorting characteristic. The permeabilities of the artificial core are more significantly affected by changes in the low effective stress range. The larger the pore channel of the artificial core is, the greater influence on permeability the pressure will have. The stress sensitivity of artificial core increases as the grain diameter decreases. The heterogeneous coefficient and the stress sensitivity of permeability are positively correlated.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-3913
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1634
    Topics: Geosciences , Technology
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Mitigating climate change will require the participation of citizens and consumers. A recent study in 〈em〉Climatic Change〈/em〉 by Obradovich and Guenther reported that framing responsibility for climate change in terms of collective—as opposed to personal—behaviors generated greater donations to environmental groups as well as higher self-reported levels of willingness to adopt environmentally-friendly behaviors. As East Asia is the leading emitter of greenhouse gases globally, these findings are or clear relevance to the region. Nonetheless, recent findings in cultural psychology suggest that this framing intervention may not have the same results in an East Asian cultural context. We therefore sought to determine whether these findings could be replicated in East Asia. For this study, 2085 university students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to receive either a collective responsibility priming task, a personal responsibility priming task, or a daily routine priming task (control). They were then given the opportunity to donate to a climate-related cause and asked to report on their likelihood of changing their personal behaviors to reduce carbon emissions. Participants in the collective and personal conditions donated significantly more than those in the control condition and those in the personal responsibility condition reported significantly lower probabilities of changing their behaviors than those in both the control and collective responsibility conditions. Our study provides a partial replication with a different demographic group and in a different cultural setting, strengthening the argument for collective responsibility framing and setting the stage for research into practical implementations.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) elliptic polarization due to the Cotton–Mouton (CM) effect in a cosmic magnetic field is studied. We concentrate on the generation of CMB circular polarization and on the rotation angle of the CMB polarization plane from the decoupling time until at present. For the first time, a rather detailed analysis of the CM effect for an arbitrary direction of the cosmic magnetic field with respect to photon direction of propagation is done. Considering the CMB linearly polarized at the decoupling time, it is shown that the CM effect is one of the most substantial effects in generating circular polarization especially in the low part of the CMB spectrum. It is shown that in the frequency range 〈span〉 〈span〉\(10^8\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 Hz 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\le \nu _0\le 10^9\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 Hz, the degree of circular polarization of the CMB at present for perpendicular propagation with respect to the cosmic magnetic field is in the range 〈span〉 〈span〉\( 10^{-13}\lesssim P_C(t_0)\lesssim 7.65\times 10^{-7}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 or Stokes circular polarization parameter 〈span〉 〈span〉\(2.7 \times 10^{-13}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 K 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\lesssim |V(t_0)|\lesssim 2 \times 10^{-6}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 K for values of the cosmic magnetic field amplitude at present in the range 〈span〉 〈span〉\(10^{-9}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 G 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\lesssim B\lesssim 8\times 10^{-8}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 G. On the other hand, for not perpendicular propagation with respect to the cosmic magnetic field we find 〈span〉 〈span〉\(10^{-15}\lesssim P_C(t_0)\lesssim 6\times 10^{-12}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 or 〈span〉 〈span〉\(2.72 \times 10^{-15}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 K 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\lesssim |V(t_0)| \lesssim 10^{-11}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 K, for the same values of the cosmic magnetic field amplitude and same frequency range. Estimates on the rotation angle of the CMB polarization plane 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\delta \psi _0\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 due to the CM effect and constraints on the cosmic magnetic field amplitude from current constraints on 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\delta \psi _0\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 due to a combination of the CM and Faraday effects are found.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1434-6044
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-6052
    Topics: Physics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉〈em〉Rhizophora mucronata〈/em〉 is a common mangrove growing in habitats subjected to heavy metal (HM) contamination. Understanding their physiological responses to copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) excess and underlying tolerance mechanisms is crucial to assess impacts of metal pollution on mangrove community. Seedlings were treated with Cu or Zn (0, 50 or 100 mg per plant) by means of a single addition. At day 3 and 7, Cu and Zn accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, non-protein thiols, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves were measured. 〈em〉R. mucronata〈/em〉 restricted Cu and Zn translocation, thus accumulated HM mainly in roots while kept the leaves unaffected. However, high root HM did not induce oxidative stress nor anti-oxidative defense as HM were largely deposited in cell wall. We concluded that HM tolerance strategies of 〈em〉R. mucronata〈/em〉 seedlings are exclusion and restriction of translocation to the vital photosynthetic tissue.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0007-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0800
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Four cutinase genes are encoded in the genome of the saprophytic fungus 〈em〉Aspergillus nidulans〈/em〉, but only two of them have proven to codify for active cutinases. However, their overall roles in cutin degradation are unknown, and there is scarce information on the regulatory effectors of their expression. In this work, the expression of the cutinase genes was assayed by multiplex qRT-PCR in cultures grown in media containing both inducer and repressor carbon sources. The genes 〈em〉ancut1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉ancut2〈/em〉 were induced by cutin and its monomers, while 〈em〉ancut3〈/em〉 was constitutively expressed. Besides, cutin induced 〈em〉ancut4〈/em〉 only under oxidative stress conditions. An in silico analysis of the upstream regulatory sequences suggested binding regions for the lipid metabolism transcription factors (TF) FarA for 〈em〉ancut1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉ancut2〈/em〉 while FarB for 〈em〉ancut3〈/em〉. For 〈em〉ancut4〈/em〉, the analysis suggested binding to NapA (the stress response TF). These binding possibilities were experimentally tested by transcriptional analysis using the 〈em〉A〈/em〉. 〈em〉nidulans〈/em〉 mutants ANΔ〈em〉farA〈/em〉, ANΔ〈em〉farB〈/em〉, and ANΔnapA. Regarding cutin degradation, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods showed similar products from ANCUT1 and ANCUT3. In addition, ANCUT1 produced 9,10-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid, suggesting an endo-cleavage action of this enzyme. Regarding ANCUT2 and ANCUT4, they produced omega fatty acids. Our results confirmed the cutinolytic activity of the four cutinases, allowed identification of their specific roles in the cutinolytic system and highlighted their differences in the regulatory mechanisms and affinity towards natural substrates. This information is expected to impact the cutinase production processes and broaden their current biotechnological applications.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0340-2118
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0614
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Lacto-pickles are tangy, crisp, and definitely not intimidating to eat. We previously standardized fermentations of elephant foot yam (EFY) into lacto-pickle using different fermentation specifications. The aims of this work were to perform the effect of starter culture strain 〈em〉Lactobacillus plantarum〈/em〉 (MTCC-1325) on chemical and biochemical properties of EFY lacto-pickle. In this study, we conducted the preprocessing of blanched EFY blocks/cubes in brine (NaCl, 8%, 〈em〉w〈/em〉/〈em〉v〈/em〉) and inoculated with the starter culture (〈em〉L. plantarum〈/em〉 MTCC-1325). The impact of 〈em〉L. plantarum〈/em〉 (MTCC-1325) during lacto-pickle fermentation and its effect on the antioxidant property, structural characterization (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), sensory analysis, and volatilome profile (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) of EFY lacto-pickle were determined. Inoculated samples showed significantly higher acidification of the brine, reaching a pH of 2.67 and titratable acidity (TA) of 2.8 g/L within 42 days of fermentation, suggesting potential antioxidant activity. The FTIR technique revealed the changes/deformation of functional groups and SEM study suggested the interaction/adhesion between starter culture 〈em〉L. plantarum〈/em〉 (MTCC 1325) on EFY lacto-pickle. The starter culture used clearly influenced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles of EFY lacto-pickle. Moreover, EFY lacto-pickle produced with the starter culture significantly perceived a positive response in the overall acceptance. Overall results indicated the successful and accelerated EFY lacto-pickle was achieved when using 〈em〉L. plantarum〈/em〉 (MTCC-1325) as starter culture and thus the possible use of this fortified product by the consumers in their diet.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1590-4261
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-2044
    Topics: Biology
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract.〈/h3〉 〈p〉The discoloration of paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation of works of art on paper. By adopting a diagnostic method based on 〈em〉in situ〈/em〉 non-invasive optical reflectance spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory 〈em〉ab initio〈/em〉 calculations, it is possible to describe and quantify the chromophores in cellulose fibers in a non-destructive way. In order to recover the absorption coefficient of cellulose fibers from reflectance measurements a specific approach based on the Kubelka-Munk theory was applied. The concentrations of carbonyl groups acting as chromophores were obtained by fitting the experimental optical absorption spectra to those simulated by using 〈em〉ab initio〈/em〉 calculations. This method was applied for monitoring the restoration interventions of two great format engravings 〈em〉Le Nozze di Psiche〈/em〉 and 〈em〉Gesù Cristo e l’adultera〈/em〉 by Diana Scultori (1547-1612), as well as a contemporary artwork by Renato Guttuso, 〈em〉Bozzetto per Crocifissione〈/em〉 (dated 1940). All artefacts were affected by chromatic deterioration due to a strong oxidation of the paper. Results quantified the decreasing of chromophores concentration after washing and reducing treatments evidencing the different behavior of the carbonyl groups as a function of the specific protocol performed.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-5444
    Topics: Physics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Rockbolts are widely used as an underground support element to resist the convergence and maintain the stability of excavations. However, shear failure of rockbolts is increasingly observed in jointed rock mass of underground tunnels, especially after being subjected to seismic events. At present, understanding of the mechanical response of rockbolts subjected to seismic or dynamic loading in shear is still unclear. To investigate the shear performance of rockbolts under dynamic loading condition, a series of tests were conducted using a drop mass of up to185 kg from a maximum height of 3 m based on a double shear test (DST) system. Three variables were examined in the laboratory test including rockbolt diameter (8 mm and 16 mm), installation angle (90° and 45°) and input energy (drop height). The duration of the impact was 10–12 ms from release of the drop mass to first contact. By evaluating the DST system’s displacement/velocity/acceleration–time characteristic and the amount of energy absorption, the shear performance of rockbolt was assessed. When sufficient energy is applied into the DST system, the deformation of the rockbolt is dominated by localized shear force. The transient force can rupture the rockbolt with little bending and without any obvious tensile elongation. It was found that the averaged dynamic shear load is less than the peak static shear load whether horizontally installed or installed at an angle. In conclusion, the effectiveness of rockbolts in resisting shear stress can differ significantly under static loading and dynamic loading condition; the difference is reflected in the level of shear deformation and amount of energy absorption. The shear capacity of a rockbolt under 1 s〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 strain rate can be determined by the energy absorbed and average dynamic load. This approach can be applied to the support system design in rockburst-prone condition.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Refining (i.e., mechanical beating of pulp) is a common procedure that is used in paper-making to improve the mechanical properties of the final product. The improvements caused by refining are mainly attributed to increased density and to a better bonding between fibers. In this work, we study how various mechanisms that can be triggered by refining affect the tensile behavior of the sheets. Consequently, we use direct numerical simulations of fiber networks. We relate our finding to the experimental measurements that we conducted on handsheets. We have found that fibrillar fines with size distributions below the resolution of modern state-of-the art pulp characterization tools have a substantial contribution to the increased strength and stiffness of the sheets.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0969-0239
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-882X
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Although the concept of modularity is pervasive across fields and disciplines, philosophers and scientists use the term in a variety of different ways. This paper identifies two distinct ways of thinking about modularity, and considers what makes them similar and different. For philosophers of mind and cognitive science, 〈em〉cognitive modularity〈/em〉 helps explain the capacities of brains to process sundry and distinct kinds of informational input. For philosophy of biology and evolutionary science, 〈em〉biological modularity〈/em〉 helps explain the capacity of random evolutionary processes to give rise to highly complex and sophisticated biological systems. Although these different ways of thinking about modularity are largely distinct, this paper proposes a unifying feature common to both: 〈em〉isolability,〈/em〉 or the capacity of subsystems to undergo changes without resulting in substantial changes to neighboring or interconnected subsystems.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0169-3867
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-8404
    Topics: Biology , Philosophy
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉We investigate surface-layer characteristics over a mountainous ridge in the Central Himalayas, utilizing tower-based fast-response micrometeorological observations (at 12 and 27 m above ground level) for the winter months November 2013–January 2014. During this period, the site generally experienced clear skies and weak synoptic flow (wind speed 〈 2 m s〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉), favouring a strong diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer. The observations show a regular change in wind direction from north-easterly during the night-time to westerly during the daytime throughout the season, indicating the systematic development of a mountain circulation due to changes in heating of the mountain slopes as the day advances. Considering the variations in wind direction and topography of the site, the tilt corrections are implemented sector-wise by segregating the data into three sectors, thus estimating three sets of coefficients for the tilt correction. Observations during fair-weather conditions (59 days only) are analyzed with the sensible heat flux (〈em〉H〈/em〉) showing large diurnal variations, which are in-phase with the mean vertical velocity. The afternoon peak value of 〈em〉H〈/em〉 is found to be ≈ 116 ± 80 W m〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉. In contrast, diurnal variations of momentum flux and turbulent kinetic energy are less prominent with rather weak maxima occurring between 0900 and 1300 IST, the period when wind direction changes over the ridge. Variations of the dimensionless standard deviations of the vertical velocity component and temperature are found to scale with the stability parameter 〈em〉z〈/em〉/〈em〉L〈/em〉 under convective conditions, while taking into account the effect of self-correlation. The constancy of fluxes with height, slope-flow buoyancy and stress divergence are also analyzed to provide a rigorous evaluation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory based on two-level turbulence measurements.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0006-8314
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1472
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉A comprehensive theoretical screening of functional monomers, structural optimization, interaction energies (Δ〈em〉E〈/em〉), and Gibbs free energy changes (Δ〈em〉G〈/em〉) calculations of the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) were performed using density functional theory (DFT) method. Based on the thermodynamic and interaction energy calculations, it is found that acrylamide (AAm) as a functional monomer candidate has the potential to interact with glucose more efficiently for the preparation of MIP. In this work, on the basis of the theoretical calculations for the functional monomer selection in the MIP preparation, an electrochemical impedance sensor based on porous Ni foam modified with MIP (MIP@Ni) was developed for the glucose detection. The morphology and the electrochemical characteristics of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The linear range and limit of detection were in the range of 0.8–4.0 mM and 0.45 mM with a signal to noise ratio of three in alkaline medium. Common interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA), D-fructose, and 4-acetaminophenol (AP) were demonstrated have less effects on the glucose determination. The MIP@Ni foam exhibited better selectivity, which has a potential application in the advanced non-enzymatic glucose monitoring device.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1432-8488
    Electronic ISSN: 1433-0768
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉As part of the overall management of a Hospital, the Hygiene Unit has specific tasks including the improvement in the levels of hospital safety by air quality monitoring in hospital environments to control the sources of infection and assessing the healthiness of hospital facilities. Operating theaters (OTs) and cleanrooms air quality control can represent a focal point considering that environmental contamination depends on not only factors such as characteristics and level of maintenance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC), but it also depends on the number of people present, their behavioral habits, sanitation and disinfection procedures adopted. Several studies demonstrate a high variability in microbial air contamination in different OTs with similar HVAC, suggesting the need for achieving strict control over the factors affecting air quality. The control of air contamination, as an indicator of the quality care provided, therefore sets precise objectives, accuracy from a scientific point of view including planning, analysis and interpretation of results to propose corrective actions. However, there are no generally accepted standards for sampling nor threshold values on microbial air contamination. Aerobiology skills can improve the approach to involved issues. The monitoring plan of air quality assessment at the Parma University Hospital, by the Laboratory of Aerobiology, involves approximately 80 environments equipped with turbulent or mixed air flow. This paper describes the practical approach to air contamination control of the Hospital Hygiene Department at the Parma University Hospital as an example of how Health Departments can improve safety standards for patients and operators.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0393-5965
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
    Topics: Biology
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉On December 19, 2017, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced the official launch of the much-anticipated national emissions trading system (ETS), which is a critical period for the transition from the eight carbon emission trading pilot projects to the national market at this stage. Comprehensively evaluating the efficiency of China’s eight carbon trading pilots is vital for strengthening the construction of its national ETS. This paper investigates the weak-form efficiency of eight carbon trading markets in China. We use a series of variance ratio tests to identify the efficiency from the market set up to the May 4, 2018, of all markets. The results indicate that the majority of the carbon trading markets are inefficient and only Beijing, Hubei, and Fujian markets are efficient. The China’s carbon trading market is gradually maturing and implemented. In addition, we analyze the factors have impact on the market efficiency. It shows that the liquidity, volume, allocation allowance, and transparency in information are significant factors; meanwhile, the regional policy and cross cooperation also are important factors. Finally, this paper puts forward several policy recommendations on how to strengthen the effectiveness of China carbon trading markets based on the empirical results.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0944-1344
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7499
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Body size and age are crucial factors influencing reproductive capacity and success. As females grow, their reproductive investment and success often increase due to improved overall physiological condition and experience gained through successive reproductive events. While much of this work has been conducted on birds and mammals, surprisingly little is known on how body size affects nesting decisions in other long-lived vertebrates. We monitored the movements and nesting behaviour of 57 wild female estuarine crocodiles 〈em〉Crocodylus porosus〈/em〉 over a 10-year period (and across consecutive nesting seasons) using externally mounted satellite tags, implanted acoustic transmitters and a network of submerged acoustic receivers. Applying Hidden Markov models to the telemetry-derived location data revealed that female nesting behaviours could be split into three distinct states: (i) ranging movements within home ranges and at nesting sites; (ii) migrations to and from nesting sites; (iii) and nesting/nest guarding. We found that during migration events, larger females migrated further and remained away from dry season territories for longer periods than smaller individuals. Furthermore, not only were migratory movements stimulated by increases in rainfall, larger females migrated to nest sites at lower rainfall thresholds than smaller females. We provide some of the first evidence of body size influencing nesting decisions in an ectothermic vertebrate, with shifts likely resulting from an increased willingness to invest in nest protection among larger and more experienced females.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0029-8549
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1939
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉In addition to aggregates, cement, and water, reinforcing steel is one of the key building components of precast products. Steel price fluctuations observed on global markets have a large impact on the cost of production of precast products made of reinforced and prestressed concrete. An important issue is, therefore, the proper planning of steel orders and deliveries to the precast concrete plants. A significant number of competing warehouses and construction warehouses offer diversified steel prices, which are subject to frequent changes in relatively short periods. This results in a problem in the selection of an appropriate procurement strategy by precast concrete plants. An additional unfavorable factor is the ordering of reinforcing steel that is too large in relation to the demands of the precast concrete plants, resulting in high costs of its storage in the warehouses or storage yards. In this paper, the issues of optimal planning and delivery of plain, ribbed, and prestressing steel were discussed. For the research and calculation purposes, supplies of steel from four wholesalers to four different precast concrete plants were assumed. In addition, the types of steel and the class of bars used to reinforce the elements were discussed. A different level of unit prices for the purchase and delivery of steel in each warehouse and a different demand for each of the four concrete plants were also assumed. As a result of the analyses carried out, a model was developed, including the strategy of purchasing and supplying plain, ribbed, and prestressing steel with the assumption of minimum costs.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1866-7511
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-7538
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Pyoluteorin (Plt) is a PKS-NRPS hybrid antibiotic that is produced by 〈em〉Pseudomonas〈/em〉 spp. and shows strong antifungal and antibacterial activities. 〈em〉Pseudomonas protegens〈/em〉 H78, which was isolated from the rape rhizosphere in Shanghai, can produce a large array of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and siderophores. Plt is produced at low levels in the H78 wild-type strain. This study aimed to improve Plt production through combinatory genetic engineered strategies. Plt production was significantly enhanced (by14.3-fold) in the strain engineered by the following steps: (1) deletion of the translational repressor gene 〈em〉rsmE〈/em〉 in the Gac/Rsm-RsmE pathway; (2) deletion of the ATP-dependent protease gene 〈em〉lon〈/em〉 that encodes a potential enzyme that degrades positive regulators; (3) deletion of the negative regulatory gene 〈em〉pltZ〈/em〉 of the Plt ABC-type transporter operon 〈em〉pltIJKNOP〈/em〉; (4) deletion of an inhibitory sequence within the operator of the transcriptional activator gene 〈em〉pltR〈/em〉; and (5) overexpression of the 〈em〉pltIJKNOP〈/em〉 transport operon. The Plt production of the final engineered strain was increased to 214 from 15 μg ml〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 in the H78 wild-type strain. In addition, the 〈em〉pltA〈/em〉 gene in the 〈em〉pltLABCDEFG〈/em〉 biosynthetic operon was characterized as the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the Plt biosynthetic pathway of H78. However, overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme gene 〈em〉pltA〈/em〉 or the transcriptional activator gene 〈em〉pltR〈/em〉 did not further improve Plt biosynthesis in the above multiple-gene knockout strains.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0340-2118
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0614
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The review outlines the basic principles of operation of resonant-tunnelling diodes (RTDs) and RTD oscillators followed by an overview of their development in the last decades. Further, we discuss different types of RTDs and RTD oscillators, the limitations of RTDs due to parasitics, inherent limitations of RTDs and operation of RTDs as detectors. We also give an overview of the present status of sub-THz and THz RTD oscillators and give several examples of their applications.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1866-6892
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-6906
    Topics: Physics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉This study attempts to make comparison between different parametric regressive models for the bivariate binary data with a machine learning technique. The data on sequential occurrence of rainfall in consecutive days is considered. The outcomes are classified as rainfall in both days, rainfall in one of the consecutive days, and no rainfall in both days. The occurrence of rainfall in consecutive days is analyzed by using statistical models with covariate dependence and classification tree for the period from 1980 to 2014. We have used relative humidity, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, sea level pressure, sunshine hour, and cloud cover in the model as covariates. The binary outcome variable is defined as the occurrence or non-occurrence of rainfall. Five regions of Bangladesh are considered in this study and one station from each region is selected on the basis of two criteria: (i) contains fewer missing values and (ii) representative of the regional characteristics geographically. Several measures are used to compare the models based on Markov chain and classification tree. It is found that for yearly data, both the Markov model and classification tree performed satisfactorily. However, the seasonal data show variation of rainfall. In some seasons, both models perform equally good such as monsoon, pre-monsoon, and post-monsoon, but in the winter season, the Markov model works poorly whereas classification tree fails to work. Additionally, we also observe that the Markov model performed consistently for each season and performs better compared with the classification tree. It has been demonstrated that the covariate-dependent Markov models can be used as classifiers alternative to the classification tree. It is revealed that the predictive ability of the covariate-dependent Markov model based on Markovian assumption performs either better or equally good compared with the classification tree. The joint models also consistently showed better predictive performance compared with regressive model for whole year data as well as for several seasonal data.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0177-798X
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The Subei Shoal is a special coastal area with complex physical oceanographic properties in the Yellow Sea. In the present study, the distribution of phytoplankton and its correlation with environmental factors were studied during spring and summer of 2012 in the Subei Shoal of the Yellow Sea. Phytoplankton species composition and abundance data were accomplished by Utermöhl method. Diatoms represented the greatest cellular abundance during the study period. In spring, the phytoplankton cell abundance ranged from 1.59×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 to 269.78×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 cell/L with an average of 41.80×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 cell/L, and 〈em〉Skeletonema〈/em〉 sp. and 〈em〉Paralia sulcata〈/em〉 was the most dominant species. In summer, the average phytoplankton cell abundance was 72.59×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 cell/L with the range of 1.78×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 to 574.96×10〈sup〉3〈/sup〉 cell/L, and the main dominant species was 〈em〉Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Skeletonema〈/em〉 sp., 〈em〉Dactyliosolen fragilissima〈/em〉 and 〈em〉Chaetoceros curvisetus〈/em〉. The results of a redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that turbidity, temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to silicate and SiO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉-Si (DIN/SiO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉-Si) were the most important environmental factors controlling phytoplankton assemblages in spring or summer in the Subei Shoal of the Yellow Sea.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0253-505X
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1099
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Society of Oceanography.
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Let 〈em〉P〈/em〉(〈em〉z〈/em〉) be a polynomial of degree 〈em〉n〈/em〉 which does not vanish in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(|z|〈1\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉. Then it was proved by Hans and Lal (Anal Math 40:105–115, 〈span〉2014〈/span〉) that 〈span〉 〈span〉$$\begin{aligned} \Bigg |z^s P^{(s)}+\beta \dfrac{n_s}{2^s}P(z)\Bigg |\le \dfrac{n_s}{2}\Bigg (\bigg |1+\dfrac{\beta }{2^s}\bigg |+\bigg | \dfrac{\beta }{2^s}\bigg |\Bigg )\underset{|z|=1}{\max }|P(z)|, \end{aligned}$$〈/span〉 〈/span〉for every 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\beta \in \mathbb C\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 with 〈span〉 〈span〉\(|\beta |\le 1,1\le s\le n\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and 〈span〉 〈span〉\(|z|=1.\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉〈/p〉 〈p〉The 〈span〉 〈span〉\(L^{\gamma }\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 analog of the above inequality was recently given by Gulzar (Anal Math 42:339–352, 〈span〉2016〈/span〉) who under the same hypothesis proved 〈span〉 〈span〉$$\begin{aligned}&\Bigg \{\int _0^{2\pi }\Big |e^{is\theta }P^{(s)}(e^{i\theta })+\beta \dfrac{n_s}{2^s}P(e^{i\theta })\Big |^ {\gamma } \mathrm{d}\theta \Bigg \}^\frac{1}{\gamma }\\&\quad \le n_s\Bigg \{\int _0^{2\pi }\Big |\Big (1+\dfrac{\beta }{2^s}\Big )e^{i\alpha }+\dfrac{\beta }{2^s}\Big |^{\gamma } \mathrm{d}\alpha \Bigg \}^\frac{1}{\gamma }\dfrac{\Bigg \{\int _0^{2\pi }\big |P(e^{i\theta })\big |^{\gamma } \mathrm{d}\theta \Bigg \}^\frac{1}{\gamma }}{\Bigg \{\int _{0}^{2\pi }\big |1+e^{i\alpha }\big |^\gamma \mathrm{d}\alpha \Bigg \}^\frac{1}{\gamma }}, \end{aligned}$$〈/span〉 〈/span〉where 〈span〉 〈span〉\(n_s=n(n-1)\ldots (n-s+1)\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and 〈span〉 〈span〉\(0\le \gamma 〈\infty \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉.〈/p〉 〈p〉In this paper, we generalize this and some other related results.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 2193-5343
    Electronic ISSN: 2193-5351
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉This study was conducted to determine the relationship between rectal temperature (〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉REC〈/sub〉) and rumen temperature (〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉) and to assess if 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 could be used as a proxy measure of core body temperature (〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉CORE〈/sub〉) in feedlot cattle. Eighty Angus steers (388.8 ± 2.1 kg) were orally administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures were recorded at 10-min intervals over 128 days from all 80 steers. To define the suitability of 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 as an estimation of 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉CORE〈/sub〉, 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉REC〈/sub〉 were obtained from all steers at 7-day intervals (〈em〉n〈/em〉 = 16). Eight feedlot pens were used where there were 10 steers per pen (162 m〈sup〉2〈/sup〉). Shade was available in each pen (1.8 m〈sup〉2〈/sup〉/animal; 90% solar block). Climatic data were recorded at 30-min intervals, including ambient temperature (〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉A〈/sub〉; °C); relative humidity (RH; %); wind speed (WS; 〈em〉m〈/em〉/〈em〉s〈/em〉) and direction; solar radiation (SR; W/m〈sup〉2〈/sup〉); and black globe temperature (BGT; °C). Rainfall (mm) was recorded daily at 0900 h. From these data, temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI) and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual 10-min 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 data were converted to an individual hourly average. Pooled mean hourly 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 data from the 128-day data were used to establish the diurnal rhythm of 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 where the mean minimum (39.19 ± 0.01 °C) and mean maximum (40.04 ± 0.01 °C) were observed at 0800 h and 2000 h respectively. A partial correlation coefficient indicated that there were moderate to strong relationships between 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 and 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉REC〈/sub〉 using both real-time (〈em〉r〈/em〉 = 0.55; 〈em〉P〈/em〉 〈 0.001) and hourly mean (〈em〉r〈/em〉 = 0.51; 〈em〉P〈/em〉 〈 0.001) 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 data. The mean difference between 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉REC〈/sub〉 and 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 was small using both real-time (0.16 ± 0.02 °C) and hourly mean 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 (0.13 ± 0.02 °C) data. Data from this study supports the hypothesis that 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 can be used as an estimate of 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉CORE〈/sub〉, suggesting that 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉RUM〈/sub〉 can be used to measure and quantify heat load in feedlot cattle.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0367-8253
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1254
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The authors describe the preparation of two kinds of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs). The first kind is monofunctional and has a bridged alkyl imidazolium framework (PMO-IL). The other is a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica (BFPMO) with bridged IL-phenyl or -ethyl units. The CPMOs were utilized as highly sensitive and stable sorbents for microextraction by packed sorbent. The materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 adsorption–desorption analysis. The adsorption capacities of the sorbents were investigated by using phenoxy acid herbicides as model analytes. The effects of bifunctionality and type of additional surface groups (phenyl or ethyl) on the efficiency of the extraction is emphasized. Three kinds of environmental contaminants, viz. phenoxy acid herbicides (CPAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorophenols were then studied with respect to their extraction by the sorbents. The interactions between the CPAs and the sorbents were evaluated by pH-changing processes to explore the interactions that play a major role. The selectivity of the sorbents was investigated by extraction of other types of analytes of with various polarity and charge. The BFPMOs display the typical good chemical stability of silica materials. The extraction properties are much better compared to commercial silicas. This is assumed to be due to the highly ordered mesoporous structures and the different types of probable interactions with analytes. The performance of the method was evaluated by extraction of CPAs as model analytes from aqueous samples, and quantification by GC with FID detection. Under optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.1–0.5 μg.L〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉) and a wide linearity (0.5–200 μg.L〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉) were obtained. The method was applied to the trace analysis of CPAs in farm waters and rice samples.〈/p〉 〈p〉 〈span〉 〈caption〉 〈strong〉Graphical abstract〈/strong〉 〈em〉 〈div〉Monofunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica with bridged alkyl imidazolium frameworks and bi-functional periodic mesoporous organosilica containing bridged ionic liquids and phenyl or -ethyl, have been successfully synthesized and utilized in microextractions by packed sorbent sorbents.〈/div〉 〈/em〉 〈/caption〉 〈span〉 〈img alt="" src="https://static-content.springer.com/image/MediaObjects/604_2019_3355_Figa_HTML.png"〉 〈/span〉 〈/span〉 〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0369-2795
    Electronic ISSN: 1436-5073
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 59
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉One of the most interesting astrophysical phenomenon is the astrophysical flow near a 3〈em〉D〈/em〉 black hole. In this paper, we have adopted the Hamiltonian approach to investigate the matter accretion onto Einstein-power-Maxwell black hole in the presence of cosmological parameter 〈em〉l〈/em〉 and the charge parameter 〈em〉Q〈/em〉. We analyze the accretion process for the case of isothermal flow when different test fluids are falling onto this black hole. Further, we calculate the general solution of equation of motion for the axial symmetric static black hole. The most interesting aspect of this paper is to discuss the effects parameters of black hole on the mass accretion rate, which we discussed by the graphical analysis. Moreover, it has been shown that the parameters 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\Lambda \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and 〈em〉Q〈/em〉 play a dominant role for the maximum accretion rate.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0001-7701
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9532
    Topics: Physics
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019
    Print ISSN: 1387-3547
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1464
    Topics: Biology
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) concentrations were evaluated in sediment, soil and surface water of the Msunduzi River as well as the influent, effluent and biosolids from the Darvill wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane using an ultra-sonication method, and cleaned up using multilayered silica gel and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that all 13 selected OCPs were detected in all the environmental media as well as in the wastewater treatment plant samples. The results revealed that the OCP concentrations along the sites varied based on the anthropogenic activities of the area. The influent of the Darvill WWTP and Du Toit (DUT) site were found to be the most polluted sites. The results from the winter sampling showed highest concentrations of OCPs compared to the spring season. Sediment was found to contain significant amounts of all the selected OCPs with water samples containing the lowest concentrations for both winter and spring seasons. Among the OCPs evaluated, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were predominant in all.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1866-6280
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-6299
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉The original publication of this paper contain typographical mistakes.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0944-1344
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7499
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈span〉 〈h3〉Purpose〈/h3〉 〈p〉Hypovascularization of cervical tumors, coupled with intrinsic and acquired drug resistance, has contributed to marginal therapeutic outcomes by hindering chemotherapeutic transport and efficacy. Recently, the heterogeneous penetration and distribution of cell penetrating peptide (CPP, here MPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated as a function of tumor type and morphology in cervical cancer spheroids modeling hypovascularized tumor nodules. Building upon this work, this study investigates the efficacy imparted by surface-modified Doxorubicin-loaded NPs transported into hypovascularized tissue.〈/p〉 〈/span〉 〈span〉 〈h3〉Methods〈/h3〉 〈p〉NP efficacy was measured in HeLa, CaSki, and SiHa cells. NP internalization and association, and associated cell viability, were determined in monolayer and spheroid models.〈/p〉 〈/span〉 〈span〉 〈h3〉Results〈/h3〉 〈p〉MPG and PEG-NP co-treatment was most efficacious in HeLa cells, while PEG NPs were most efficacious in CaSki cells. NP surface-modifications were unable to improve efficacy, relative to unmodified NPs, in SiHa cells.〈/p〉 〈/span〉 〈span〉 〈h3〉Conclusions〈/h3〉 〈p〉The results highlight the dependence of efficacy on tumor type and the associated microenvironment. The results further relate previous NP transport studies to efficacy, as a function of surface-modification and cell type. Longer-term, this information may help guide the design of NP-mediated strategies to maximize efficacy based on patient-specific cervical tumor origin and characteristics.〈/p〉 〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0724-8741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-904X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Root knot nematodes are serious threats to growth and yield of solaneous crops including tomato. In this study, a binary vector carrying 〈em〉Remusatia vivipara〈/em〉 (〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉) and 〈em〉Sclerotium rolfsii〈/em〉 (〈em〉srl1〈/em〉) lectin genes were introduced independently into 〈em〉Lycopersicon esculentum〈/em〉 cv. Pusa Ruby via 〈em〉Agrobacterium tumefaciens〈/em〉 for resistance against root knot nematode, 〈em〉Meloidogyne incognita〈/em〉. In total, one hundred and one 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉-transformed plants exhibiting kanamycin resistance were confirmed to carry transgenes as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 4.59% transformation efficiency. Genetic analysis of T〈sub〉1〈/sub〉 progeny confirmed Mendelian segregation of the introduced genes. Three events each of 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉 transgenic tomato were randomly selected for further confirmation by Southern and TAIL-PCR analyses. All three events of 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉 transgenics showed single copy transgene, whereas two 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 transgenic events showed single copy of transgene, while remaining event showed two copies of transgenes. Site of integration obtained for 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉 transgenic events by TAIL-PCR revealed that all the three events of 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉 transgenics differed for their site of integration and insertion sites did not contain any predicted gene. Moreover, expression of the 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉 transgenes was detected by haemagglutination assay in all three events of 〈em〉rvl1〈/em〉 and 〈em〉srl1〈/em〉, but not in non-transgenic tomato plant. Homozygous progenies of these events were grown and inoculated with 〈em〉M. incognita〈/em〉. Development and reproduction of 〈em〉M. incognita〈/em〉 was severely affected in transgenic tomato plants expressing RVL1 and SRL1 exhibiting the high levels of resistance compared to non-transgenic plants. Therefore, these transgenic lines demonstrate a promising potential for variety development of tomato lines with enhanced resistance against 〈em〉M. incognita.〈/em〉〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0962-8819
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-9368
    Topics: Biology
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Highly ordered ZnO-doped WO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 thin films with good crystalline quality are prepared using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique, and its morphological and structural properties are studied using various characterization tools such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction technique, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Morphological analysis shows a smooth surface for pure film, whereas the ZnO-doped films presents a dense distribution of grains of larger sizes with well-defined grain boundary. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the enhancement of crystalline quality of the films with increase in ZnO doping concentration up to 5 wt.%, beyond which the crystalline quality gets deteriorated. A phase modification from a single monoclinic WO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 phase to mixed monoclinic WO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and W〈sub〉18〈/sub〉O〈sub〉49〈/sub〉 phases is observed for films with higher ZnO doping concentrations.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1047-4838
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1851
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is one of the most important thermal-physical parameters in heat conduction problem. To solve the IHTC in gas cooling, a 304 stainless steel sample is heated up to 800 °C by an induction heating device and then cooled by a high-pressure gas source. The IHTC between the high-pressure gas and the sample is evaluated by ZFA-FEM (normal distribution method, firefly algorithm (FA) and finite element method (FEM)) and ZGFA-FEM (normal distribution method, global optimization factor (G), firefly algorithm and finite element method) according to the temperature curve attained in the experiment. The research results show that, these IHTCs attained in the solution of IHCP according to those temperature curves of CFD simulation and the experiment are consistent, and the trend of IHTC attained in the experiment is consistent with that in the literature. The group scale of fireflies in ZGFA is much smaller than that in ZFA. Only 20 fireflies in ZGFA can ensure all fireflies move to the optimal position due to global optimization factor used in ZGFA. The convergence, iteration and CPU time of ZGFA are better than ZFA.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0947-7411
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1181
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉California bearing ratio (CBR) is an important property used to express the quality and strength of the unbound granular materials and subgrade soils. It is one of the material inputs for the American Association State Highway Transportation Officials 1993 guide, and the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide for the structural design of flexible pavements in case of the resilient modulus is not known. CBR is also conducted on the unbound materials for the quality control/quality assurance during construction. Because of its importance, this paper presents an attempt to develop simple and reliable CBR models based on routine material properties such as gradation, Atterberg limits and compaction properties using regression analysis (RA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Database of 207 CBR values was collected from the quality control reports prepared at the Highway and Airport Engineering Laboratory, Mansoura University. The collected CBR values were found to range between 26 and 98%. About 80% of the collected data were used for model development, while the remaining 20% were used for model validation in addition to 11 laboratory tested specimens. The developed model by RA and ANNs correlates CBR values with maximum dry density and diameter at 60% passing (D60). The prediction accuracy in terms of coefficient of determination (〈span〉 〈span〉\({R}^{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉) for the developed CBR model by both techniques was excellent, and the validation of the suggested model was satisfactory.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1319-8025
    Electronic ISSN: 2191-4281
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Technology
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Late Proterozoic–Early Cambrian magmatic rocks that range in composition from mafic to felsic have intruded into the Hour region of the central Iranian micro-continent. The Hour lamprophyres are alkaline, being characterized by low contents of 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {SiO}_{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and high 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {TiO}_{2}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉, Mg# values, high contents of compatible elements, and are enriched in LREE and LILE but depleted in HFSE. Mineral chemistry studies reveal that the lamprophyres formed within a temperature range of 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\sim \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉1200〈span〉 〈span〉\(^{\circ }\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 to 〈span〉 〈span〉\(1300^{\circ }\hbox {C}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and relatively moderate pressure in subvolcanic levels. The Hour lamprophyres have experienced weak fractional crystallization and insignificant crustal contamination with more primitive mantle signatures. They were derived from low degree partial melting (1–5%) of the enriched mantle characterized by phlogopite/amphibole bearing lherzolite in the spinel-garnet transition zone at 75–85 km depth, and with an addition of the asthenospheric mantle materials. We infer the Hour lamprophyres to be part of the alkaline rock spectrum of the Tabas block and their emplacement, together with that of other alkaline complexes in the central Iran, was strongly controlled by pre-existing crustal weakness followed by the asthenosphere-lithospheric mantle interaction during the Early Cambrian.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0370-0089
    Electronic ISSN: 0973-774X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉The authors would like to call the reader’s attention to the fact that unfortunately the formula for the O17 correction parameter “a” is reported incorrectly as.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1618-2642
    Electronic ISSN: 1618-2650
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Zusammenfassung〈/h3〉 〈p〉In großen luftgekühlten Hydrogeneratoren in Synchronmaschinen-Ausführung werden die anfallenden Verluste über einen erzwungenen Kühlluftstrom gekühlt. Zur Vermeidung hoher Ventilationsverluste, die durch Luftreibung und den entsprechenden Aufwand für die Druckerzeugung entstehen, werden die Kühlluftströme derart dimensioniert, dass diese die Verlustquellen – also vor allem die Aktivteile – forciert kühlen. Dazu muss der Generator als Ganzes betrachtet und optimiert werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Berechnungsverfahren zur Ermittlung des dreidimensionalen Temperaturfelds in Wasserkraftgeneratoren hoher Leistung vorgestellt und anhand von Berechnungs- und Messergebnissen evaluiert.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0932-383X
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-7620
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Computer Science
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Portuguese forest sustainability is currently threatened by forecasted climate changes and inappropriate management practices. Specifically, large cork oak woodland areas (〈em〉montados〈/em〉) are subjected to soil degradation and tree recruitment impeachment. A study was developed to compare soil properties in cork oak woodlands with improved pastures (IP) grazed by cattle and natural understorey management (NU) without grazing. The IP system did not lead to soil organic C concentration increase, soil organic C stock being 0.7 kg m〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉 lower in the upper 30 cm soil layer, compared to the NU system. Under the IP management, soil N content was 39.7 g m〈sup〉−2〈/sup〉 higher up to 30 cm depth, and N mineralization potential was increased by 50% in the 10 cm top soil layer. Soil bulk density and C mineralization potential were similar in both systems. Sowing legume-rich pastures can result in an immediate soil quality improvement, especially regarding N availability, although grazing may hamper tree recruitment. Managing the natural understorey appears suitable for soil organic C maintenance, and also allows tree recruitment, while soil N availability limitation could be overcome by fertilizer applications.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0167-4366
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9680
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Biochar has a propitious role in the agricultural lands as a sustainable soil management and drought mitigation approach. The present research work aims at evaluating the structural characteristics of wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, and wood shaving biochar in clay loam and sandy loam soil at a rate of 0, 10, and 20 tons ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 and their comparative role for improving soybean growth, biomass water content, apparent water productivity, Zn, Mn, and Fe status under three moisture conditions (75%, 50%, and 40% of field capacity). Wood shaving and sugarcane bagasse biochar amendments in sandy loam soils caused favorable adjustments in the BET surface area, pore surface area, pore volume, pore radius, water-holding capacity, EC, and pH. However, in clay loam soil, there was traced a decline in BET (N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) surface area and other pore properties, while the highest soybean shoot and leaf fresh and dry biomass were recorded with 10 tons ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 wood biochar in both types of soils under optimum and moisture-deficit conditions. Apparent water productivity with 10 tons ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 wood biochar in soybean plants under 75%, 50%, and 40% moisture was 77%, 137%, and 157% higher, respectively, than that in control in the clay loam soil, while 153%, 149% and 135% higher, respectively, than that in control in the sandy loam soil. In both types of soils, soybean leaves with 10 tons ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 sugarcane bagasse biochar under all three moisture regimes had the highest Zn concentration. Under deficit moisture leaf, Mn concentration was found to be increased in wood biochar amendments and the highest Fe concentration was found with 20 tons ha〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 rice straw biochar amendments in both types of soils, while under 40% moisture with most biochar treatments, leaves had high Fe concentration.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1866-7511
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-7538
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Opening up knowledge–action systems to a wider range of disciplinary and societal actors is considered to be a necessary step in achieving transformative change for sustainability. In science for sustainability, there is a growing body of experience and literature of putting this ‘co-production’ into action. However, there is an opportunity to strengthen the application of analytical resources for more explicitly recognising and accounting for the power relations embedded in these initiatives. This paper deploys social theory from science and technology studies to develop an approach to perceive power relations between the participants, processes and products of co-production. This necessitates paying attention to the multiple and distributed organisational spaces where co-production takes place to discern: who participates; who (and what) is represented; how deliberations are structured; and how outcomes are circulated. This paper shows that these organisational dimensions of participation, representation, deliberation, and circulation not only give structure to co-productive forums, but can also define the power relations between their participants, processes and products. The paper then illustrates the applicability of this approach using the case of a current global expert process for biodiversity: The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). This case study offers insights on the challenges and opportunities for designing and evaluating co-production initiatives for sustainability.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1862-4065
    Electronic ISSN: 1862-4057
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Rotenone (ROT) was shown to affect cerebral ganglions (CGs) of 〈em〉Lumbricus terrestris〈/em〉 as a pioneering observation in our earlier investigation. Though ROT is a well-known neurotoxin causing neurodegeneration (ND), the precipitation of movement dysfunction remains largely unknown. We have designed the current study to analyze motor abnormalities in worms by exposing them to different concentrations (0.0–0.4 ppm) of ROT for 7 days. GABA, cholinergic receptor, serotonin transporter (SERT), acetylcholine esterase (AchE), and dopamine–β-hydroxylase that are well known for their involvement in neuromuscular junctions were investigated by qRT-PCR. Further, neuronal mitochondrial genes (cytochrome C oxidase-2, NADH deydrogenase-1, cytochrome-b) and actin-1 that are essential for regeneration and calreticulin (phagocytosis) were investigated. The levels of neurotransmitters, lipids, ATPase, neuronal behavior analyses, and fluorescence analysis (lipid droplets) were performed in CGs which showed significant variations at 0.3 ppm. Ultrastructural changes in lipid droplet and neuromelatonin were prominent in 0.3 ppm. Dose-dependent effect of ROT on behavior alteration and expression of 〈em〉m-RNAs〈/em〉 studied suggested that at 0.3 ppm, it could deteriorate motor and cognitive functions. We predict that perhaps, by virtue of its effect on cerebral ganglionic genes and their neurotransmitting potential, ROT may cause morbidities that resemble features characteristic of hemiparkinsonic degeneration.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0944-1344
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7499
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈h3〉ABSTRACT〈/h3〉 〈p〉Assessment of the factors that regulate antibody exposure–response relationships in the relevant animal models is critical for the design of successful translational strategies from discovery to the clinic. Depending on the specific clinical indication, preclinical development paradigms may require that the efficacy or dosing-related attributes for the existing antibody be assessed in various species when cross-reactivity of the lead antibody to the intended species is justified. Additionally, with the success of monoclonal antibodies for management of various human conditions, a parallel interest in therapeutic use of these novel modalities in various veterinary species has followed. The protective role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulation of IgG homeostasis and clearance is now well recognized and the “nonspecific clearance” of antibodies through bone marrow-derived phagocytic and vascular endothelial cells (via lysosomal processes) is modulated by interactions with FcRn receptors. In this study, we have attempted to examine the PK properties of human IgG antibodies in dog and monkey. These studies establish a translational framework for evaluation of IgG antibody PK properties across species.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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