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  • Articles  (17)
  • Nicaragua
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (11)
  • Springer  (6)
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  • Articles  (17)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper utilizes a unique three-wave panel of household data from Nicaragua, which allows a thorough exploration of the relationships between migration, remittances and household consumption. The paper distinguishes between the effects of emigration and the impacts of remittances received. There is a self-selection bias in the decision to send a migrant, as well as in the decision to receive remittances. To adequately correct for these selection biases, we develop a bivariate selection correction procedure. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that households do not benefit (in terms of higher consumption growth) from receiving remittances, but rather from having migrants abroad. This suggests that not only money are remitted from abroad, but also something more subtle, which could be business ideas, belief systems, aspirations, patterns of social interaction, and other intangibles, which have been dubbed social remittances.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Migration, Remittances ; Social Remittances ; Nicaragua ; Bivariate Selection Correction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El presente estudio analiza la hipótesis según la cual, las condiciones empresariales externas adversas a las que deben hacer frente las compañías en los países pobres de América Latina, podrían constituir una importante explicación de los generalmente bajos niveles de productividad de estos países. Sin embargo, resultados empíricos basados en una encuesta realizada a más de 1300 empresas en Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua, no confirma esta hipótesis. Comparadas con todas las variables bajo el control de las empresas, como lo son la intensidad del capital, el uso de la energía, y la calificación de los empleados, las condiciones económicas externas (inestabilidad macroeconómica y regulaciones laborales) ejercen muy poco impacto sobre la productividad.
    Description: This paper uses firm level surveys from Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the determinants of labor productivity. This study started out with the hypothesis that the adverse external business conditions that firms in poor Latin American countries face, may be an important explication of the generally low levels of productivity. However, the empirical results, based on the survey of more than 1300 businesses, do not confirm this hypothesis. Compared to all the variables that are under the firms control, such as capital intensity, energy use, and worker skills, the external business environment (macroeconomic instability and labor regulations) has very little impact on productivity.
    Keywords: O12 ; ddc:330 ; Productividad laboral ; Ecuador ; Guatemala ; Honduras ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este informe analiza los cambios en población, pobreza y movilidad económica en Nicaragua entre los periodos 1998-2001 y 2001-2005, y usa los resultados para hacer proyecciones simultáneas de pobreza y población para Nicaragua hasta 2025. Además, el estudio hace proyecciones del gasto público en servicios básicos necesario para lograr las metas nacionales e internacionales.
    Keywords: J11 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; Población ; Pobreza ; Movilidad Económica ; Migración ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento elabora proyecciones simultaneas de población y pobreza en Nicaragua para el periodo 1995 2015 tomando en cuenta las relaciones que existen entre factores demográficos, pobreza y movilidad económica. Simulaciones hechas con el modelo de proyección muestra que los cambios esperados en los comportamientos reproductivos tienen más impacto sobre la pobreza que todos los otros variables investigados, como crecimiento económico, políticas redistributivas, migración rural-urbana, migración international, y mejoras en los niveles de educación.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Movilidad económica ; pobreza ; fecundidad ; educación ; migración ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Remittances are a very important source of income for many Nicaraguan families. More than 40% of all households receive remittances that on average amount to 12-15% of total household income in these households. More than 30% of these households receive remittances at least monthly, implying that it is a relatively stable source of income. This paper shows that remittances do tend to reduce the vulnerability of households and increase their upward social mobility, at least as long as the households do not depend too heavily on remittances. However, remittances also cause moral hazard problems. Nicaraguans tend to reduce their labor supply in response to more remittances, and they also tend to reduce their savings rates, both of which are detrimental to long run economic growth.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Remittances ; aid ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper uses firm level surveys from Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the determinants of labor productivity. This study started out with the hypothesis that the adverse external business conditions that firms in poor Latin American countries face, may be an important explication of the generally low levels of productivity. However, the empirical results, based on the survey of more than 1300 businesses, do not confirm this hypothesis. Compared to all the variables that are under the firms control, such as capital intensity, energy use, and worker skills, the external business environment (macroeconomic instability and labor regulations) has very little impact on productivity.
    Description: El presente estudio analiza la hipótesis según la cual, las condiciones empresariales externas adversas a las que deben hacer frente las compañías en los países pobres de América Latina, podrían constituir una importante explicación de los generalmente bajos niveles de productividad de estos países. Sin embargo, resultados empíricos basados en una encuesta realizada a más de 1300 empresas en Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua, no confirma esta hipótesis. Comparadas con todas las variables bajo el control de las empresas, como lo son la intensidad del capital, el uso de la energía, y la calificación de los empleados, las condiciones económicas externas (inestabilidad macroeconómica y regulaciones laborales) ejercen muy poco impacto sobre la productividad.
    Keywords: O12 ; ddc:330 ; Labor productivity ; Ecuador ; Guatemala ; Honduras ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper makes detailed population and poverty projections that take into account expected demographic changes (in terms of fertility, mortality, migration, and education) as well as differentials in social mobility by household type. Such projections could be useful for a variety of purposes ranging from assessment of necessary social investments (education facilities, health facilities, pension systems, etc), projections of the size of the working age population who will demand jobs, targeting of poverty alleviation policies, projections of migration flows, to negotiations with external donors and creditors.
    Description: Este documento presenta proyecciones detalladas de población y pobreza que consideren los cambios demográficos y económicos esperados (esto último en términos de fecundidad, mortalidad, migración, educación y crecimiento del PIB) y sus reflejos en la movilidad económica por tipo de hogar. Las proyecciones de este tipo podrían ser útiles por una variedad de razones: desde la previsión de inversiones sociales necesarias (facilidades en educación y salud, sistema de pensiones, etc), las proyecciones del tamaño de la población en edad laboral en busca de empleo (por condición de pobreza y educación), la focalización de políticas de reducción de la pobreza, la proyección de flujos migratorios, hasta las negociaciones con donantes y acreedores externos.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Population projections ; poverty projections ; social mobility ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento presenta proyecciones detalladas de población y pobreza que consideren los cambios demográficos y económicos esperados (esto último en términos de fecundidad, mortalidad, migración, educación y crecimiento del PIB) y sus reflejos en la movilidad económica por tipo de hogar. Las proyecciones de este tipo podrían ser útiles por una variedad de razones: desde la previsión de inversiones sociales necesarias (facilidades en educación y salud, sistema de pensiones, etc), las proyecciones del tamaño de la población en edad laboral en busca de empleo (por condición de pobreza y educación), la focalización de políticas de reducción de la pobreza, la proyección de flujos migratorios, hasta las negociaciones con donantes y acreedores externos.
    Description: This paper makes detailed population and poverty projections that take into account expected demographic changes (in terms of fertility, mortality, migration, and education) as well as differentials in social mobility by household type. Such projections could be useful for a variety of purposes ranging from assessment of necessary social investments (education facilities, health facilities, pension systems, etc), projections of the size of the working age population who will demand jobs, targeting of poverty alleviation policies, projections of migration flows, to negotiations with external donors and creditors.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Proyecciones de población ; proyecciones de pobreza ; Movilidad social ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Anthropogenic disturbance ; Costa Rica ; Nicaragua ; Plant species richness ; Tropical dry forest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tropical dry forests have been reduced to less than 0.1% of their original expanse on the Pacific side of Central America and are considered by some to be the most endangered ecosystem in the lowland tropics. Plots 1000 m2 were established in seven tropical dry forests in Costa Rica and Nicaragua in order to compare levels of species richness to other Neotropical dry forest sites and to identify environmental variables associated with species richness and abundance. A total of 204 species and 1484 individuals ≥ 2.5 cm were encountered. Santa Rosa National Park was the richest site with the highest family (33), genera (69), and species (75) diversity of all sites. Species richness and forest structure were significantly different between sites. Fabaceae was the dominant tree and shrub family at most sites, but no species was repeatably dominant based on number of stems in all fragments of tropical dry forest. Central American dry forests had similar species richness when compared to other Neotropical forests. There was no correlation between forest cover within reserves, or precipitation and plant species richness. There was a significant correlation between anthropogenic disturbance (intensity and frequency of fire, wood collection, grazing) and total species richness, tree and shrub species richness, and liana abundance. These results suggest controlling levels on anthropogenic disturbance within reserves should be a high priority for resource managers in Central America. Further research in forest fragments which examine individual and a combination of disturbance agents would help clarify the importance of anthropogenic disturbance on species richness and abundance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Natural hazards 13 (1996), S. 179-202 
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Central America ; Nicaragua ; intensity attenuation ; seismogenic regions ; destructive crustal events ; macroseismic hazard
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A probabilistic macroseismic hazard assessment has been done for Nicaragua. For this, the most complete catalogue for Central America, compiled by NORSAR in Norway has been used. In this catalogue, empirical intensity attenuation relations were found. Using these empirical relations, magnitudes were changed to epicentral intensities expected in sites where no intensities had been reported. The calculated intensities from a polygon surrounding Nicaragua were used to assess the macroseismic hazard in the region. For the whole polygon, the cumulative intensity frequency was calculated resulting in a b-value of 0.60 for an intensity interval of V–IX. The time completeness was also studied indicating that, for strong events causing higher intensities (I 0 ≥ VII), the catalogue is complete for events that have been recorded since 1840. The whole polygon was cut into independent seismotectonic regions where the statistical procedure (intensity frequency and time completeness) was done.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Keywords: non-timber forest products ; biological sustainability ; forest valuation ; foraging ; economic development ; Sumu Indians ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract We use microeconomic theory to frame hypotheses about the effects of income on the use of non-timber rain forest products. We hypothesize that an increase in income: (a) encourages foraging specialization, resulting in the extraction of fewer goods; (b) increases the share of household income from occupations besides foraging; (c) produces a yearly value from the extraction of nontimber forest goods of about $50 per hectare; and (d) produces depletion of forest goods entering commercial channels and sustainable extraction of goods facing cheaper industrial substitutes. To examine these hypotheses we present worldwide ethnographic information and preliminary findings from field work carried out among the Sumu Indians of Nicaragua. Field work suggests that higher income produces: (a) foraging specialization with animals rather than with plants; (b) a decline in the economic importance of forest goods in household income; (c) and a rise in the value of non-timber goods removed from the forest to about $35/ha/year. We did not have time to test hypothesis “d.”
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aquatic ecology 25 (1991), S. 105-109 
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Keywords: Nicaragua ; Xolotlán ; tropical lake ; scientific cooperation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A general view of Lake Xolotlán (known also as Lake Managua) and the research carried out during the Project Limnology Applied to Lake Managua (PLALM) are reported here. A summarized account of the results, given in details as seperated papers elsewhere in the same volume, is also presented.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amelanism ; Aggression ; Assessing mates ; Assortative mating ; Cheaters ; Chemical communication ; Coloration ; Context model ; Dominance ; Dummies ; Genetics ; Inhibition model ; Metamorphosis ; Nicaragua ; Parental care ; Polymorphism ; Sexual imprinting ; Visual communication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis The midas cichlid,Cichlasoma citrinellum, occurs in the lakes of Nicaragua. In semi-turbid to turbid lakes about 8% of the adults are amelanic, having lost their melanophores at various ages, and are thus yellow through red and sometimes white. The commonest hues are yellow through orange, called gold. Gold morphs ought to be selected against because they are probably conspicuous to predators and they cannot communicate by changing markings. To maintain the polymorphism, gold coloration must have offsetting advantages. Gold morphs dominate normal ones of equal size, and that improves their access to limiting resources. Gold morphs, however, do not seem to be intrinsically more aggressive but rather attain dominance through the effect of their color on their opponents. This gold effect is affected by experience; it is enhanced by sharing the color of the dominant fish in a group, and by being rare. The midas cichlid mates assortatively but imperfectly. Choice of mate is influenced by color of self and of parents and can be constrained by size-color relationship.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Batoids ; Chondrichthyes ; Costa Rica ; Elasmobranchs ; Euryhalinity ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Isolation of population ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Of a total of 377 Pristis perotteti tagged in the Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan System, 214 (56.8% were recovered. Eighty were recovered at the original tagging site; four moved downstream the full length of the river; and 127 tagged at the source of the river were recovered in all parts of the lake. Only one was recovered in a different river system, 58 km down the coast from the main mouth of the Río San Juan. A life span of 30 years is suggested, with rapid growth (30–40 cm per year) in the first three years, slowing to about 4 or 5 cm per year in the later years of life. Maximum sizes collected were 384 cm for males, 429 cm for females, smaller than maximum lengths reported elsewhere. The lake sawfish are not physically landlocked, but individuals remain in fresh water for very long periods; parturition takes place in fresh water; all sizes are found in the lake; and it appears that this stock finds all of its ecological needs met in the lake. Individuals may spend all of their lives in fresh water, although, as a species, P. perotteti has not completely abandoned the sea, since some are known to occur in salt water. The Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan sawfish are a discrete stock, with only limited gene flow with neighboring stocks. P. perotteti is farther along in its adaptation to fresh water, in being able both to osmoregulate and reproduce there, than other known euryhaline elasmobranchs, except for the African stingray, Dasyatis garouaensis, of the Niger-Benue System, and the completely adapted South American freshwater rays (family Potamotrygonidae).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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