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  • Springer  (77,293)
  • Essen : Verl. Glückauf
  • Krefeld : Geologischer Dienst Nordhein-Westfalen
  • 2005-2009  (77,296)
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  • 1
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    In:  Marine Geophysical Research, 30 (3). pp. 207-214.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-22
    Description: The continental margin of SW Africa is typical of a volcanic rifted margin associated with a hotspot trail characterized by a large volcanic ridge, the Walvis Ridge, defining the hotspot migration, and extensive extrusive volcanism that produced seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR). Previously unpublished seismic data show two significant anomalies of the SW African Margin when compared to other typical volcanic rifted margins: (1) Hyaloclastitic outer highs are rare, and (2) the SDR in the North dip towards the Walvis Ridge. We explain these anomalies by a major transform segment close to the centre of volcanism combined with pulsed volcanism. The Walvis Ridge represents an east-west striking extrusive centre which produced a SDR sequence. Following break-up the northern boundary of the Walvis Ridge became a left lateral transform fault. Our data support the idea that a transform fault system interacting with a ridge jump were responsible for the accretion of the São Paulo Plateau to the American plate.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: We examine the relationship between three tropical and two subtropical western Indian Ocean coral oxygen isotope time series to surface air temperatures (SAT) and rainfall over India, tropical East Africa and southeast Africa. We review established relationships, provide new concepts with regard to distinct rainfall seasons, and mean annual temperatures. Tropical corals are coherent with SAT over western India and East Africa at interannual and multidecadal periodicities. The subtropical corals correlate with Southeast African SAT at periodicities of 16–30 years. The relationship between the coral records and land rainfall is more complex. Running correlations suggest varying strength of interannual teleconnections between the tropical coral oxygen isotope records and rainfall over equatorial East Africa. The relationship with rainfall over India changed in the 1970s. The subtropical oxygen isotope records are coherent with South African rainfall at interdecadal periodicities. Paleoclimatological reconstructions of land rainfall and SAT reveal that the inferred relationships generally hold during the last 350 years. Thus, the Indian Ocean corals prove invaluable for investigating land–ocean interactions during past centuries.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-05
    Description: The species diversity of the pelagic microcopepod family Oncaeidae collected with nets of 0.1-mm mesh size was studied at 6 stations along a west-to-east transect in the Mediterranean Sea down to a maximum depth of 1,000 m. A total of 27 species and two form variants have been identified, including three new records for the Mediterranean. In addition, about 20, as yet undescribed, new morphospecies were found (mainly from the genera Epicalymma and Triconia) which need to be examined further. The total number of identified oncaeid species was similar in the Western and Eastern Basins, but for some cooccurring sibling species, the estimated numerical dominance changed. The deep-sea fauna of Oncaeidae, studied at selected depth layers between 400 m and the near-bottom layer at 〉4,200 m depth in the eastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea), showed rather constant species numbers down to ∼3,000 m depth. In the near-bottom layers, the diversity of oncaeids declined and species of Epicalymma strongly increased in numerical importance. The taxonomic status of all oncaeid species recorded earlier in the Mediterranean Sea is evaluated: 19 out of the 46 known valid oncaeid species are insufficiently described, and most of the taxonomically unresolved species (13 species) have originally been described from this area (type locality). The deficiencies in the species identification of oncaeids cast into doubt the allegedly cosmopolitan distribution of some species, in particular those of Mediterranean origin. The existing identification problems even of well-described oncaeid species are exemplified for the Oncaea mediacomplex, including O. media Giesbrecht, O. scottodicarloi Heron & Bradford-Grieve, and O. waldemari Bersano & Boxshall, which are often erroneously identified as a single species (O. media). The inadequacy in the species identification of Oncaeidae, in particular those from the Atlantic and Mediterranean, is mainly due to the lack of reliable identification keys for Oncaeidae in warm-temperate and/or tropical seas. Future efforts should be directed to the construction of identification keys that can be updated according to the latest taxonomic findings, which can be used by the non-expert as well as by the specialist. The adequate consideration of the numerous, as yet undescribed, microcopepod species in the world oceans, in particular the Oncaeidae, is a challenge for the study of the structure and function of plankton communities as well as for global biodiversity estimates.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-23
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  • 6
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    In:  Environmental Earth Sciences, 59 (2). pp. 485-487.
    Publication Date: 2018-09-12
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
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  • 8
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    In:  Climate Dynamics, 33 (4). pp. 535-547.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-13
    Description: Whereas the predominance of El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) mode in the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability is well established, no such consensus seems to have been reached by climate scientists regarding the Indian Ocean. While a number of researchers think that the Indian Ocean SST variability is dominated by an active dipolar-type mode of variability, similar to ENSO, others suggest that the variability is mostly passive and behaves like an autocorrelated noise. For example, it is suggested recently that the Indian Ocean SST variability is consistent with the null hypothesis of a homogeneous diffusion process. However, the existence of the basin-wide warming trend represents a deviation from a homogeneous diffusion process, which needs to be considered. An efficient way of detrending, based on differencing, is introduced and applied to the Hadley Centre ice and SST. The filtered SST anomalies over the basin (23.5N-29.5S, 30.5E-119.5E) are then analysed and found to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis on intraseasonal and interannual timescales. The same differencing method is then applied to the smaller tropical Indian Ocean domain. This smaller domain is also inconsistent with the null hypothesis on intraseasonal and interannual timescales. In particular, it is found that the leading mode of variability yields the Indian Ocean dipole, and departs significantly from the null hypothesis only in the autumn season.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-21
    Description: Continental shelf systems are highly dynamic sedimentary environments, where sediments from biogenic production as well as from terrigenous sources are redistributed in the shelf depositional system, and partly exported off the shelf to the slope and the deep sea. The Golfe d’Arguin (Mauritania, NW Africa) is dominated by such redistribution processes, involving clastic silt imported as dust from the Sahara desert and biogenic carbonates of marine origin. Indeed, surface-sediment grain size and mineralogy show a clear north–south partitioning of sediment type. Fine material is winnowed from the northern part of the gulf, and transported toward the southern part off the Banc d’Arguin, where coarse silt settles on the outer shelf and upper slope, at least down to 600 m water depth. Particles of the fine silt fraction, estimated in terms of eolian material collected aboard the research vessel, are thought to be exported further offshore as they correspond to grain sizes previously reported from adjacent deep-sea sediments. These findings suggest that the interpretation of dust records from the continental slope and rise off NW Africa must consider reworking and partitioning processes active on the Mauritanian shelf.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-09-19
    Description: The published mean δ34S values of ore-related pyrites from orogenic gold deposits of the Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton lie between −4‰ and +4‰. As for orogenic gold deposits worldwide, most deposits have positive means and a restricted range of δ34S values, but some have negative means and wider ranges of δ34S values. Wall-rock carbonation and back-mixing of similar-source fluids with different fluid pathways can explain some of the more negative δ34S signatures. However, structural setting appears to be the most important factor controlling ore-fluid oxidation state and hence the distribution of δ34S values in gold-related pyrites. Shear-hosted deposits appear to have experienced fluid-dominated processes such as phase separation, whereas stockwork, vein-hosted or disseminated deposits formed under conditions of greater rock buffering. At Victory-Defiance, in particular, negative δ34S values are more common in gently dipping dilational structures, compared to more compressional steeply dipping structures. It appears most likely that fluid-pressure fluctuations during fault-valve cycles establish different fluid-flow regimes in structures with different orientations. Rapid fluid-pressure fluctuations in dilational structures during seismic activity can cause partitioning of reduced gas phases from the ore fluid during extreme phase separation and hence are an effective method of ore-fluid oxidation, leading to large, local fluctuations in oxidation state. It is thus not necessary to invoke mixing with oxidised magmatic fluids to explain δ34S signatures indicative of oxidation. In any case, available, robust geochronology in the Eastern Goldfields Province does not support the direct involvement of oxidised magmatic fluids from adjacent granitic intrusions in orogenic gold genesis. Thus, negative mean δ34S values and large variations in δ34S values of ore-related pyrites in world-class orogenic gold deposits are interpreted to result from multiple mechanisms of gold precipitation from a single, ubiquitous ore fluid in varying structural settings, rather than from the involvement of oxidised ore fluids from a different source. Such signatures are indicative, but not diagnostic, of anomalously large orogenic gold systems.
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  • 11
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    In:  Surveys in Geophysics, 30 (6). pp. 617-618.
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2009-10-05
    Type: inbook
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  • 13
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    In:  Public participation and better environmental decisions : The promise and limits of participatory processes for the quality of environmentally related decision-making
    Publication Date: 2009-01-19
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  • 14
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    In:  MATHKNOW: Mathematics, Applied Science and Real Life
    Publication Date: 2009-05-11
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  • 15
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    In:  The New Middle Classes: Globalizing Lifestyles, Consumerism and Environmental Concern
    Publication Date: 2009-10-05
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  • 16
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    In:  Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 1 (2). pp. 92-96.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: Semi Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) was deployed on an experimental basis for five days inside an Environmental Chemistry Laboratory and two sites outside the building in Kiel, Germany to understand the time-averaged contaminant profiles and concentrations of PCBs. Multi Dimensional High Resolution Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection technique and high resolution clean up techniques were employed to SPMD derived triolein samples. Air concentrations were derived from well established mass transfer coefficients or rate constants for PCBs in SPMD. PCBs profiles in indoor and outdoor samples were distinctly different, exemplified by a particle free clean-up laboratory facility where particle associated higher chlorinated congeners were absent. SPMDs revealed the ‘occupational hazard’ to workers inside the building from chemical contamination derived from both building materials and chemicals used in the laboratory. Finger printing technique using principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that PCB contamination was derived from German commercial PCB mixtures. SPMD derived air concentrations in outdoor samples resembled levels recorded by similar devices in Europe. Ultimately, a simple sampling technique in combination with high resolution analytical techniques demonstrated the uptake of more than 60 PCB congeners within a short period of time.
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  • 17
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    In:  In: Marine Hard Bottom Communities: patterns, dynamics, diversity, and change. , ed. by Wahl, M. Springer Series: Ecological Studies, 206 . Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 7-17. ISBN 978-3-540-92703-7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-05
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  • 18
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    In:  In: Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences. , ed. by Mosher, D. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, 28 . Springer, Berlin, pp. 279-287. ISBN 978-90-481-3070-2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Otolith microchemistry is widely used as a tool to track individual migration pathways of diadromous fish under the assumption that the elemental composition of fish otoliths is directly influenced by the physicochemical properties of the surrounding water. Nevertheless, several endogenous factors are reported to affect element incorporation into fish otoliths and might lead to misinterpretations of migration studies. This study experimentally examined the influence of eight different diets on the microchemical composition of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) otoliths using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Seven natural prey types and one artificial diet were fed during 8 weeks in freshwater circuits. Results show for the first time that food has no significant influence on the incorporation of Na, Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn, Cu and Y into European eel otoliths. This indicates that the incorporation of elements usually chosen for migration studies is not affected by diet and that individual feeding behaviour of A. anguilla will not lead to any misinterpretation of migration pathways.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-09-21
    Description: Harzburgitic xenoliths cut by pyroxenite veins from Avachinsky volcano, Kamchatka, are derived from the sub-arc mantle and record element transfer from the slab to the arc. Olivine and orthopyroxene in the harzburgites have Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li = +2.8 to +5.6) comparable to estimates of the upper mantle (δ7Li ~ +4 ± 2). The pyroxenite veins, which represent modal metasomatism and may therefore provide information about the metasomatic agent, have mantle-normalized trace element characteristics that suggest overprinting of their mantle source by an aqueous, slab-derived fluid. These include relative enrichments of Pb over Ce, U over Th and Sr over Nd. Li is enriched relative to the HREE, and ortho- and clinopyroxene from the veins are in Li elemental and isotopic equilibrium with each other and the surrounding harzburgite. Vein samples (δ7Li = +3.0 to +5.0) do not record a significant slab-derived δ7Li signature. These observations can be reconciled if slab Li diffusively re-equilibrates in the mantle wedge. Modeling demonstrates that Li equilibration of small (1–2 cm width) veins or melt conduits is achieved at mantle wedge temperatures within 101–105 years. We conclude that strongly fractionated Li isotopic signatures cannot be sustained for long periods in the sub-arc mantle, at least at shallow (〈70 km) depths.
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  • 21
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    In:  , ed. by Wahl, M. Ecological Studies, 206 . Springer, Berlin [u.a.], 420 pp. ISBN 978-3-540-92703-7
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2017-08-09
    Description: The construction of S-wave velocity models of marine sediments down to hundreds of meters below the seafloor is important in a number of disciplines. One of the most significant trends in marine geophysics is to use interface waves to estimate shallow shear velocities which play an important role in determining the shallow crustal structure. In marine settings, the waves trapped near the fluid-solid interface are called Scholte waves, and this is the subject of the study. In 1998, there were experiments on the Ninetyeast Ridge (Central Indian Ocean) to study the shallow seismic structure at the drilled site. The data were acquired by both ocean bottom seismometer and ocean bottom hydrophone. A new type of seafloor implosion sources has been used in this experiment, which successfully excited fast and high frequency (> 500 Hz) body waves and slow, intermediate frequency (〈 20 Hz) Scholte waves. The fundamental and first higher mode Scholte waves have both been excited by the implosion source. Here, the Scholte waves are investigated with a full waveform modeling and a group velocity inversion approach. Shear wave velocities for the uppermost layers of the region are inferred and results from the different methods are compared. We find that the full waveform modeling is important to understand the intrinsic attenuation of the Scholte waves between 1 and 20 Hz. The modeling shows that the S-wave velocity varies from 195 to 350 m/s in the first 16 m of the uppermost layer. Depths levels of high S-wave impedance contrasts compare well to the layer depth derived from a P-wave analysis as well as from drilling data. As expected, the P- to S-wave velocity ratio is very high in the uppermost 16 m of the seafloor and the Poisson ratio is nearly 0.5. Depth levels of high S-wave impedance contrasts are comparable to the layer depth derived from drilling data.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: The Mediterranean Sea is located in a crossroad of mid-latitude and subtropical climatic modes that enhance contrasting environmental conditions over both latitudinal and longitudinal ranges. Here, we show that the large-scale environmental forcing is reflected in the basin scale trends of the adult population of the calanoid copepod Centropages typicus. The species is distributed over the whole Mediterranean basin, and maximal abundances were found in the north-western basin associated to oceanic fronts, and in the Adriatic Sea associated to shallow and semi enclosed waters. The peak of main abundances of C. typicus correlates with the latitudinal temperature gradient and the highest seasonal abundances occurred in spring within the 14-18A degrees C temperature window. Such thermal cline may define the latitudinal geographic region where C. typicus seasonally dominates the > 200 mu m-sized spring copepod community in the Mediterranean Sea. The approach used here is generally applicable to investigate the large-scale spatial patterns of other planktonic organisms and to identify favourable environmental windows for population development.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-09-13
    Description: During the twentieth century sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean exhibited prominent multidecadal variations. The source of such variations has yet to be rigorously established—but the question of their impact on climate can be investigated. Here we report on a set of multimodel experiments to examine the impact of patterns of warming in the North Atlantic, and cooling in the South Atlantic, derived from observations, that is characteristic of the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The experiments were carried out with six atmospheric General Circulation Models (including two versions of one model), and a major goal was to assess the extent to which key climate impacts are consistent between the different models. The major climate impacts are found over North and South America, with the strongest impacts over land found over the United States and northern parts of South America. These responses appear to be driven by a combination of an off-equatorial Gill response to diabatic heating over the Caribbean due to increased rainfall within the region and a Northward shift in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) due to the anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient. The majority of the models show warmer US land temperatures and reduced Mean Sea Level Pressure during summer (JJA) in response to a warmer North Atlantic and a cooler South Atlantic, in line with observations. However the majority of models show no significant impact on US rainfall during summer. Over northern South America, all models show reduced rainfall in southern hemisphere winter (JJA), whilst in Summer (DJF) there is a generally an increase in rainfall. However, there is a large spread amongst the models in the magnitude of the rainfall anomalies over land. Away from the Americas, there are no consistent significant modelled responses. In particular there are no significant changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the North Atlantic and Europe in Winter (DJF). Additionally, the observed Sahel drying signal in African rainfall is not seen in the modelled responses. Suggesting that, in contrast to some studies, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation was not the primary driver of recent reductions in Sahel rainfall.
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  • 25
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    In:  International Journal of Earth Sciences, 98 (1). pp. 41-52.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: We investigate Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals recorded by two bimonthly resolved coral δ18O series from La Réunion and Ifaty (West Madagascar), Indian Ocean from 1882 to 1993. To isolate the main PDO frequencies, we apply a band pass filter to the time series passing only periodicities from 16 to 28 years. We investigate the covariance patterns of the coral time series with sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In addition, the empirical orthogonal functions of the filtered SST and SLP fields (single and coupled) are related to the filtered coral times series. The covariance maps show the typical PDO pattern for SST and SLP, confirming the coupling between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Both corals show the strongest signal in boreal summer. The La Réunion (Ifaty) coral better records SST (SLP) than SLP (SST) pattern variability. We suggest that the filtered La Réunion coral δ18O represents δ18O of seawater that varies with the South Equatorial Current, which, in turn, is linked with the SST PDO. The filtered Ifaty coral δ18O represents SST and is remotely linked with the SLP PDO variability. A combined coral record of the Ifaty and La Réunion boreal summer δ18O series explains about 64% of the variance of the coupled SST/SLP PDO time series.
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  • 26
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    In:  In: High Performance Computing on Vector Systems 2009. , ed. by Resch, M., Roller, S., Benkert, K., Galle, M., Bez, W. and Kobayashi, H. Springer, Berlin, pp. 191-198. ISBN 978-3642039126
    Publication Date: 2012-07-05
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: A thermobarometric and petrologic study of basanites erupted from young volcanic cones along the submarine portions of the three El Hierro rift zones (NE-Rift, NW-Rift and S-Ridge) has been performed to reconstruct magma plumbing and storage beneath the island. Mineral-melt thermobarometry applied to naturally quenched glass and clinopyroxene rims yields pressures ranging from 350 to 1070 MPa with about 80% of the calculated pressures being in the range of 600–800 MPa. This corresponds to a depth range of 19–26 km, implying that the main level of final crystal fractionation is within the uppermost mantle. No systematic dependence between sample locality and fractionation pressures could be observed. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystals in the rocks are complexly zoned and have, on an inter-sample as well as on an intra-sample scale, highly variable core and rim compositions. This can best be explained by mixing of multiply saturated (olivine, magnetite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite), moderately evolved magmas with more mafic magmas being either only saturated with olivine + spinel or with olivine + spinel + clinopyroxene. The inter-sample differences indicate derivation from small, isolated magma chambers which have undergone distinct fractionation and mixing histories. This is in contrast to oceanic intraplate volcanoes situated on plumes with high melt supply rates, e.g. Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where magma is mainly transported through a central conduit system and stored in a shallow magma chamber prior to injection into the rift zones. The plumbing system beneath El Hierro rather resembles the magma storage systems beneath, e.g. Madeira or La Palma, indicating that small, intermittent magma chambers might be a common feature of oceanic islands fed by plumes with relatively low fluxes, which results in only limited and periodic magma supply.
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  • 28
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    In:  In: Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 653 . Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 35-47. ISBN 978-1-4419-0900-8
    Publication Date: 2013-02-18
    Description: NOD-like receptors (NLRs) exert pivotal roles in innate immunity as sensors of exogenous or endogenous cellular danger signals. The NLR protein family has a characteristic domain architecture comprising a central nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD), an N-terminal effector binding domain and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Mutations in NLR genes are genetically associated with a number of chronic inflammatory diseases of barrier organs. In this chapter, we focus on the influence of NLR regulation and function in the complex pathophysiology of mucosal homeostasis. The understanding of NLR biology may guide our future understanding of how the interaction between the human genome and the metagenome of transient and resident microbiota precipitates into chronic inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn's disease or atopy.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: Carbonate precipitates recovered from 2,000 m water depth at the Dolgovskoy Mound (Shatsky Ridge, north eastern Black Sea) were studied using mineralogical, geochemical and lipid biomarker analyses. The carbonates differ in shape from simple pavements to cavernous structures with thick microbial mats attached to their lower side and within cavities. Low δ13C values measured on carbonates (−41 to −32‰ V-PDB) and extracted lipid biomarkers indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) played a crucial role in precipitating these carbonates. The internal structure of the carbonates is dominated by finely laminated coccolith ooze and homogeneous clay layers, both cemented by micritic high-magnesium calcite (HMC), and pure, botryoidal, yellowish low-magnesium calcite (LMC) grown in direct contact to microbial mats. δ18O measurements suggest that the authigenic HMC precipitated in equilibrium with the Black Sea bottom water while the yellowish LMC rims have been growing in slightly 18O-depleted interstitial water. Although precipitated under significantly different environmental conditions, especially with respect to methane availability, all analysed carbonate samples show lipid patterns that are typical for ANME-1 dominated AOM consortia, in the case of the HMC samples with significant contributions of allochthonous components of marine and terrestrial origin, reflecting the hemipelagic nature of the primary sediment.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Description: Ponta de São Lourenço is the deeply eroded eastern end of Madeira’s east–west trending rift zone, located near the geometric intersection of the Madeira rift axis with that of the Desertas Islands to the southeast. It dominantly consists of basaltic pyroclastic deposits from Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions, lava flows, and a dike swarm. Main differences compared to highly productive rift zones such as in Hawai’i are a lower dike intensity (50–60 dikes/km) and the lack of a shallow magma reservoir or summit caldera. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that volcanic activity at Ponta de São Lourenço lasted from 〉5.2 to 4 Ma (early Madeira rift phase) and from 2.4 to 0.9 Ma (late Madeira rift phase), with a hiatus dividing the stratigraphy into lower and upper units. Toward the east, the distribution of eruptive centers becomes diffuse, and the rift axis bends to parallel the Desertas ridge. The bending may have resulted from mutual gravitational influence of the Madeira and Desertas volcanic edifices. We propose that Ponta de São Lourenço represents a type example for the interior of a fading rift arm on oceanic volcanoes, with modern analogues being the terminations of the rift zones at La Palma and El Hierro (Canary Islands). There is no evidence for Ponta de São Lourenço representing a former central volcano that interconnected and fed the Madeira and Desertas rifts. Our results suggest a subdivision of volcanic rift zones into (1) a highly productive endmember characterized by a central volcano with a shallow magma chamber feeding one or more rift arms, and (2) a less productive endmember characterized by rifts fed from deep-seated magma reservoirs rather than from a central volcano, as is the case for Ponta de São Lourenço.
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  • 31
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    In:  In: Marine Hard Bottom Communities: patterns, dynamics, diversity, and change. , ed. by Wahl, M. Springer Series: Ecological Studies, 206 . Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 61-72. ISBN 978-3-540-92703-7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-05
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2017-01-31
    Description: The feeding selectivity and the growth and reproductive success of the copepod Acartia tonsa have been studied in mesocosms fertilized at different Si:N ratios (0-1.75:1) and, therefore, at different compositions of the phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton composition showed a strong response to nutrient ratios, with diatoms comprising > 90% at Si:N ratios > 1:1 of total biomass as opposed to 〈 20% at the lowest ratio. A. tonsa strongly preferred feeding on motile prey (flagellates and ciliates) to feeding on diatoms. Nevertheless, diatoms comprised a substantial part of the diet at the highest Si:N ratios. A. tonsa egg production and the final (after 4 weeks) abundance of adults and copepodites showed no response to Si:N ratios while nauplii production slightly increased with Si:N ratios. It is concluded that the frequently reported deleterious effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction is rather unusual when copepods are confronted with a naturally diverse phytoplankton assemblage instead of clonal cultures in the laboratory.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: Spatial and temporal changes of the copepod community have been investigated and related to the environmental variability of the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean). The period studied spans from 1994 to 1999 during which we analyzed the abundance and structure copepod variability over a cross-shore transect. Results showed a close link between hydrological changes and the variations of copepod abundance. The synchronous variability of copepods and hydrography indicated the rapid response of this zooplankton group to the inflow of cold and warm water masses coming through the study area. Cluster analysis revealed four main copepod assemblages that distinguished the coastal from the oceanic species and those species with different water masses preference. The copepod assemblage composed of Calanus helgolandicus, Clausocalanus arcuicornis, C. pergens, C. paululus, Calocalanus tenuis and Pleuromamma gracilis was associated with cool salty waters, whereas the assemblage formed by Temora stylifera, C. pavo, C. styliremis, Centropages bradyi and Acartia danae was related to warmer less saline Mediterranean waters. Moreover, it is suggested that changes in sea water temperature and salinity are linked to large-scale changes likely occurring at a basin scale, which is reflected in the Western Mediterranean mesoscale hydrographic changes. Therefore, it is stressed that changes in the Balearic copepod community can be used as potential tracers of the western Mediterranean water masses
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-09-21
    Description: Klyuchevskoy volcano, in Kamchatka’s subduction zone, is one of the most active arc volcanoes in the world and contains some of the highest δ18O values for olivines and basalts. We present an oxygen isotope and melt inclusion study of olivine phenocrysts in conjunction with major and trace element analyses of 14C- and tephrochronologically-dated tephra layers and lavas spanning the eruptive history of Klyuchevskoy. Whole-rock and groundmass analyses of tephra layers and lava samples demonstrate that both high-Mg (7–12.5 wt% MgO) and high-Al (17–19 wt% Al2O3, 3–6.5 wt% MgO) basalt and basaltic andesite erupted coevally from the central vent and flank cones. Individual and bulk olivine δ18O range from normal MORB values of 5.1‰ to values as high as 7.6‰. Likewise, tephra and lava matrix glass have high-δ18O values of 5.8–8.1‰. High-Al basalts dominate volumetrically in Klyuchevskoy’s volcanic record and are mostly high in δ18O. High-δ18O olivines and more normal-δ18O olivines occur in both high-Mg and high-Al samples. Most olivines in either high-Al or high-Mg basalts are not in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with their host glasses, and Δ18Oolivine–glass values are out of equilibrium by up to 1.5‰. Olivines are also out of Fe–Mg equilibrium with the host glasses, but to a lesser extent. Water concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five tephra samples range from 0.4 to 7.1 wt%. Melt inclusion CO2 concentrations vary from below detection (〈50 ppm) to 1,900 ppm. These values indicate depths of crystallization up to ~17 km (5 kbar). The variable H2O and CO2 concentrations likely reflect crystallization of olivine and entrapment of inclusions in ascending and degassing magma. Oxygen isotope and Fe–Mg disequilibria together with melt inclusion data indicate that olivine was mixed and recycled between high-Al and high-Mg basaltic melts and cumulates, and Fe–Mg and δ18O re-equilibration processes were incomplete. Major and trace elements in the variably high-δ18O olivines suggest a peridotite source for the parental magmas. Voluminous, highest in the world with respect to δ18O, and hydrous basic volcanism in Klyuchevskoy and other Central Kamchatka depression volcanoes is explained by a model in which the ascending primitive melts that resulted from the hydrous melt fluxing of mantle wedge peridotite, interacted with the shallow high-δ18O lithospheric mantle that had been extensively hydrated during earlier times when it was part of the Kamchatka forearc. Following accretion of the Eastern Peninsula terrains several million years ago, a trench jump eastward caused the old forearc mantle to be beneath the presently active arc. Variable interaction of ascending flux-melting-derived melts with this older, high-δ18O lithospheric mantle has produced mafic parental magmas with a spectrum of δ18O values. Differentiation of the higher δ18O parental magmas has created the volumetrically dominant high-Al basalt series. Both basalt types incessantly rise and mix between themselves and with variable in δ18O cumulates within dynamic Klyuchevskoy magma plumbing system, causing biannual eruptions and heterogeneous magma products.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Preselected cyanobacterial strains (available from culture collections and our own isolates), belonging primarily to the heterocystous cluster, were screened for inhibitors against butyrylcholinesterase. About one-half of the extracts exhibited inhibitory activity. Nostocarboline, the responsible metabolite in Nostoc 78–12A, was studied in more detail as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. The compound showed potent activity against this enzyme (IC50 = 5.3 µM), and the Michaelis-Menten kinetics indicated a non-competitive component in the inhibitory mechanism. In addition, nostocarboline turned out to be a potent inhibitor of trypsin (IC50 = 2.8 µM), and thus is the first described cyanobacterial serine protease inhibitor of an alkaloid structure. The function of nostocarboline in aquatic ecosystems and its potential as a lead compound for the development of useful therapeutic AChE inhibitors is discussed.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2014-09-05
    Description: The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean with its adjacent Nansen and Amundsen Basins is a key region for the study of mantle melting and crustal generation at ultraslow spreading rates. We use free-air gravity anomalies in combination with seismic reflection and wide-angle data to compute 2-D crustal models for the Nansen and Amundsen Basins in the Arctic Ocean. Despite the permanent pack-ice cover two geophysical transects cross both entire basins. This means that the complete basin geometry of the world’s slowest spreading system can be analysed in detail for the first time. Applying standard densities for the sediments and oceanic crystalline crust, the gravity models reveal an unexpected heterogeneous mantle with densities of 3.30 × 103, 3.20 × 103 and 3.10 × 103 kg/m3 near the Gakkel Ridge. We interpret that the upper mantle heterogeneity mainly results from serpentinisation and thermal effects. The thickness of the oceanic crust is highly variable throughout both transects. Crustal thickness of less than 1 km dominates in the oldest parts of both basins, increasing to a maximum value of 6 km near the Gakkel Ridge. Along-axis heat flow is highly variable and heat flow amplitudes resemble those observed at fast or intermediate spreading ridges. Unexpectedly, high heat flow along the Amundsen transect exceeds predicted values from global cooling curves by more than 100%.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Newly isolated strains Bacillus sp. FME 1 and FME 2 were evaluated for the cellulolytic enzymes production during submerged fermentation (SmF) of different substrates including rice husk, Whatman filter paper and cellulose powder CF 11. Extracellular enzyme assays for CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase were examined up to 8 days of submerged fermentation. Among the three substrates, rice husk was the most suitable substrate for higher production of cellulolytic enzymes. Maximum titers of 100, 45, and 3.5 U/mL in respect of CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase in Bacillus sp. FME 2 were recovered as against 45, 12, and 0.39 U/mL in Bacillus sp. FME 1 respectively, at their respective peak time intervals. Bacillus sp. FME 2 was found to produce higher cellulolytic enzyme activities than Bacillus sp. FME 1.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2017-06-07
    Description: Live-collected samples of four common reefbuilding coral genera (Acropora, Pocillopora, Goniastrea, Porites) from subtidal and intertidal settings of Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, show extensive early marine diagenesis where parts of the coralla less than 3 years old contain abundant macro- and microborings and aragonite, high-Mg calcite, low-Mg calcite, and brucite cements. Many types of cement are associated directly with microendoliths and endobionts that inhabit parts of the corallum recently abandoned by coral polyps. The occurrence of cements that generally do not precipitate in normal shallow seawater (e.g., brucite, low-Mg calcite) highlights the importance of microenvironments in coral diagenesis. Cements precipitated in microenvironments may not reXect ambient seawater chemistry. Hence, geochemical sampling of these cements will contaminate trace-element and stable-isotope inventories used for palaeoclimate and dating analysis. Thus, great care must be taken in vetting samples for both bulk and microanalysis of geochemistry. Visual inspection using scanning electron microscopy may be required for vetting in many cases.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Jamaica Bay, NY, is a highly urbanized estuary within the boroughs of New York City conspicuously lacking published information on dissolved trace metal concentrations. The current study examines the distribution and cycling of trace metals in that embayment with data gathered during cruises in November 2004, April 2005, and June 2006. Most of the metal distributions (Fe, Zn, Co, Ag, Cu, Pb, Ni) in the water column are explained by the input of substantial volumes of treated wastewater effluent. However, several lines of evidence suggest that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is also an important source of dissolved Fe, Zn, Co, Ni, and isotopically distinct stable Pb ratios (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in the Bay. Conversely, the recirculated seawater component of SGD is an apparent sink for dissolved Mo. This study provides the first measurements of dissolved trace metals in the Jamaica Bay water column and subterranean estuary and provides evidence for trace metal input due to SGD.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean with its adjacent Nansen and Amundsen Basins is a key region for the study of mantle melting and crustal generation at ultraslow spreading rates. We use free-air gravity anomalies in combination with seismic reflection and wide-angle data to compute 2-D crustal models for the Nansen and Amundsen Basins in the Arctic Ocean. Despite the permanent pack-ice cover two geophysical transects cross both entire basins. This means that the complete basin geometry of the world’s slowest spreading system can be analysed in detail for the first time. Applying standard densities for the sediments and oceanic crystalline crust, the gravity models reveal an unexpected heterogeneous mantle with densities of 3.30 × 103, 3.20 × 103 and 3.10 × 103 kg/m3 near the Gakkel Ridge. We interpret that the upper mantle heterogeneity mainly results from serpentinisation and thermal effects. The thickness of the oceanic crust is highly variable throughout both transects. Crustal thickness of less than 1 km dominates in the oldest parts of both basins, increasing to a maximum value of 6 km near the Gakkel Ridge. Along-axis heat flow is highly variable and heat flow amplitudes resemble those observed at fast or intermediate spreading ridges. Unexpectedly, high heat flow along the Amundsen transect exceeds predicted values from global cooling curves by more than 100%.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2015-01-29
    Description: Lipid content, fatty acid composition, and feeding activity of the dominant Antarctic copepods, Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, and Metridia gerlachei, were studied at a quasi-permanent station in the eastern Weddell Sea in December 2003. During 3 weeks of the spring phytoplankton development, total lipid levels of females and copepodite stages V (CVs) of C. acutus were almost doubled. Meanwhile, only a slight increase in total lipid content occurred in M. gerlachei, and no clear trend was observed in lipids of C. propinquus females. The pronounced increase of lipids in C. acutus was due to an accumulation of wax esters. The proportion of wax esters in the lipids of M. gerlachei was clearly lower, while triacylglycerols played a more important role. In C. propinquus, triacylglycerols were the only neutral lipid class. There were no pronounced changes in the feeding activity of M. gerlachei, whereas the feeding activity of C. acutus had rapidly increased with the development of the phytoplankton bloom in December, which explains its rapid lipid accumulation. The combination of gut content and fatty acid trophic marker analyses showed that C. acutus was feeding predominantly on diatoms. The typical diatom fatty acid marker, 16:1(n-7), slightly decreased and the tracer for flagellates, 18:4(n-3), increased in females and CVs of C. acutus. This shift indicates the time, when the significance of flagellates started to increase. The three copepod species exhibited different patterns of lipid accumulation in relation to their trophic niches and different duration of their active phases. The investigations filled a crucial data gap in the seasonal lipid dynamics of dominant calanoid copepods in the Weddell Sea in December and support earlier hypotheses on their energetic adaptations and life cycle strategies.
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  • 42
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    In:  Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, 96 (4). pp. 405-411.
    Publication Date: 2015-07-03
    Description: Palytoxin (PTX), one of the most potent and chemically complex marine toxins, is predominantly found in zoanthid corals and sporadically in dinoflagellates. Its biosynthesis and metabolic pathways are largely unknown. However, the widespread occurrence of the toxin in phylogenetically distinct marine organisms is consistent with its production by microorganisms and subsequent accumulation in the food chain. To investigate a possible microbial origin, bacteria from two zoanthid corals (Palythoa caribaeorum, Zoanthus pulchellus) and one sponge (Neofibularia nolitangere) were isolated. More than 250 bacteria were screened for hemolysis using a newly developed PTX-screening assay of which 7% showed PTX-like hemolytic activity. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that these bacterial isolates belonged to strains of Bacillus cereus group (n = 11) as well as the genera Brevibacterium (n = 4) and Acinetobacter (n = 2). The results indicate the presence of Na+/K+-ATPase toxins and possibly PTX in hemolytic bacteria from P. caribaeorum.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-10-05
    Description: Silicon is one of the most important elements in the current age of the anthropocene. It has numerous industrial applications, and supports a high-tech multi-billion Euro industry. Silicon has a fascinating biological and geological cycle, interacting with other globally important biogeochemical cycles. In this review, we bring together both biological and geological aspects of the silicon cycle to provide a general, comprehensive review of the cycling of silicon in the environment. We hope this review will provide inspiration for researchers to study this fascinating element, as well as providing a background environmental context to those interested in silicon.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Analysis of ten- and four-year datasets for the large, shallow, subtropical, and eutrophic Lakes Okeechobee (USA) and Taihu (China), respectively, suggest that resource-ratio explanations for cyanobacteria dominance may not apply to these two lakes. Datasets were examined to identify relationships between nutrient ratios [total nitrogen (TN):total phosphorus (TP) and ammonium (NH4+):oxidized N (NOx)] and phytoplankton community structure (as proportions of cyanobacteria and diatoms to total phytoplankton biomass). Datasets were pooled by sampling month, averaged lake-wide, and analyzed with linear regression. In Okeechobee, the cyanobacteria proportion increased and the diatom proportion decreased with increasing TN:TP. In Taihu, cyanobacteria decreased with increasing TN:TP, but the opposite trend observed for diatoms was marginally significant. Okeechobee cyanobacteria increased and diatoms decreased with increasing NH4+:NOx, but no significant relationships between phytoplankton and NH4+:NOx were observed in Taihu. Both lakes had significant relationships between phytoplankton community structure and total nutrients, but these relationships were the opposite of those expected. Relationships between phytoplankton community structure and water quality parameters from the previous month resulted in improved relationships, suggesting a predictive capability. Statistical analysis of the entire datasets (not pooled) supported these and additional relationships with other parameters, including temperature and water clarity.
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  • 45
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    In:  Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, 57 (6). pp. 393-407.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: The complement system has long been known to be a major element of innate immunity. Traditionally, it was regarded as the first line of defense against invading pathogens, leading to opsonization and phagocytosis or the direct lysis of microbes. However, from the second half of the twentieth century on, it became clear that complement is also intimately involved in the induction and “fine tuning” of adaptive B- and T-cell responses as well as lineage commitment. This growing recognition of the complement system’s multifunctional role in immunity is consistent with the recent paradigm that complement is also necessary for the successful contraction of an adaptive immune response. This review aims at giving a condensed overview of complement’s rise from a simple innate stop-and-go system to an essential and efficient participant in general immune homeostasis and acquired immunity.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Dissolved and particulate metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn) and nutrients (PO4, NO3, and H4SiO4) were measured in Todos Santos Bay (TSB) in August 2005. Two sources producing local gradients were identified: one from a dredge discharge area (DDA) and another south of the port and a creek. The average concentrations of dissolved Cd and Zn (1.3 and 15.6 nM, respectively) were higher by one order of magnitude than the surrounding Pacific waters, even during upwelling, and it is attributed to the presence of a widespread and long-lasting red tide coupled with some degree of local pollution. A clear spatial gradient (10 to 6 pM), from coast to offshore, of dissolved Ag was evident, indicating the influence of anthropogenic inputs. The particulate fraction of all metals, except Cu, showed a factor of ~3 decrease in concentrations from the DDA to the interior of the bay. The metal distributions were related to the bay’s circulation by means of a numerical model that shows a basically surface-wind-driven offshore current with subsurface compensation currents toward the coast. Additionally, the model shows strong vertical currents over the DDA. Principal component analysis revealed three possible processes that could be influencing the metal concentrations within TSB: anthropogenic inputs (Cd, Ag, and Co), biological proceses (NO3, Zn, and Cu), and upwelling and mixing (PO4, H4SiO4, Cd, and Ni). The most striking finding of this study was the extremely high Cd concentrations, which have been only reported in highly contaminated areas. As there was a strong red tide, it is hypothesized that the dinoflagellates are assimilating the Cd, which is rapidly remineralized and being concentrated on the stratified surface layers.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2009 The Authors. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License. The definitive version was published in Marine Biology 156 (2009): 1049-1056, doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1149-6.
    Description: Behavioral observations using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) in the Gulf of California in March, 2003, provided insights into the vertical distribution, feeding and anatomy of the rare and delicate ctenophore Thalassocalyce inconstans. Additional archived ROV video records from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute of 288 sightings of T. inconstans and 2,437 individual observations of euphausiids in the Gulf of California and Monterey Canyon between 1989 and 2005 were examined to determine ctenophore and euphausiid prey depth distributions with respect to temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration [dO]. In the Gulf of California most ctenophores (96.9%) were above 350 m, the top of the oxygen minimum layer. In Monterey Canyon the ctenophores were more widely distributed throughout the water column, including the hypoxic zone, to depths as great as 3,500 m. Computer-aided behavioral analysis of two video records of the capture of euphausiids by T. inconstans showed that the ctenophore contracted its bell almost instantly (0.5 s), transforming its flattened, hemispherical resting shape into a closed bi-lobed globe in which seawater and prey were engulfed. Euphausiids entrapped within the globe displayed a previously undescribed escape response for krill (‘probing behavior’), in which they hovered and gently probed the inner surfaces of the globe with antennae without stimulating further contraction by the ctenophore. Such rapid bell contraction could be effected only by a peripheral sphincter muscle even though the presence of circumferential ring musculature was unknown for the Phylum Ctenophora. Thereafter, several live T. inconstans were collected by hand off Barbados and microscopic observations confirmed that assumption.
    Description: Supported by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and NOAA Grant #NA06OAR4600091.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: © 2009 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License. The definitive version was published in JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 10 (2009): 497-509, doi:10.1007/s10162-009-0174-y.
    Description: The dynamic displacement of the semicircular canal cupula and modulation of afferent nerve discharge were measured simultaneously in response to physiological stimuli in vivo. The adaptation time constant(s) of normal cupulae in response to step stimuli averaged 36 s, corresponding to a mechanical lower corner frequency for sinusoidal stimuli of 0.0044 Hz. For stimuli equivalent to 40–200 deg/s of angular head velocity, the displacement gain of the central region of the cupula averaged 53 nm per deg/s. Afferents adapted more rapidly than the cupula, demonstrating the presence of a relaxation process that contributes significantly to the neural representation of angular head motions by the discharge patterns of canal afferent neurons. We also investigated changes in time constants of the cupula and afferents following detachment of the cupula at its apex—mechanical detachment that occurs in response to excessive transcupular endolymph pressure. Detached cupulae exhibited sharply reduced adaptation time constants (300 ms–3 s, n = 3) and can be explained by endolymph flowing rapidly over the apex of the cupula. Partially detached cupulae reattached and normal afferent discharge patterns were recovered 5–7 h following detachment. This regeneration process may have relevance to the recovery of semicircular canal function following head trauma.
    Description: Financial support was provided by the NIDCD R01 DC06685 (Rabbitt) and NASA GSRP 56000135 & NSF IGERT DGE- 9987616 (Breneman).
    Keywords: Vestibular ; Inner ear micromechanics ; Cupula regeneration ; Angular motion sensation ; Afferent response dynamics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Geo-Marine Letters 29 (2009): 395-404, doi:10.1007/s00367-009-0159-1.
    Description: A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ~6,400 and ~2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ~5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2008 The Author. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Fluid Mechanics 8 (2008): 551-560, doi:10.1007/s10652-008-9076-5.
    Description: Experiments are reviewed in which a two-layer salt-stratified tank of water was mixed by turbulence. The density profile began as a single step and evolved to a smooth mixed profile. The turbulence was generated by many excursions of a horizontally moving vertical rod with Richardson number Ri 〉 0.9 and Reynolds Number Re 〉 600. There was almost perfect collapse of all the profiles to one universal profile as a function of a similarity variable. We develop a theoretical model for a simple mixing law with a buoyancy flux that is a function of internal Richardson number Rii. A similarity equation is found. A flux law that increases with small Rii and decreases with large Rii is considered next. Since no analytical solution is known, the similarity concept is tested by numerically integrating the equations in space and time. With buoyancy flux monotonically increasing with internal Richardson number, the similarity approach is valid for a profile starting from a slightly smoothed step. However, a shock forms for a mixing law with higher initial Rii (so that buoyancy flux decreases with Richardson number) and the similarity approach is invalid for those initial conditions.
    Keywords: Turbulence ; Mixing ; Stratified ; Similarity solution ; Layered fluid
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-12-08
    Description: © 2009 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License. The definitive version was published in Coral Reefs 28 (2009): 327-337, doi:10.1007/s00338-009-0466-z.
    Description: Design and decision-making for marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs require prediction of MPA effects with population models. Modeling of MPAs has shown how the persistence of metapopulations in systems of MPAs depends on the size and spacing of MPAs, and levels of fishing outside the MPAs. However, the pattern of demographic connectivity produced by larval dispersal is a key uncertainty in those modeling studies. The information required to assess population persistence is a dispersal matrix containing the fraction of larvae traveling to each location from each location, not just the current number of larvae exchanged among locations. Recent metapopulation modeling research with hypothetical dispersal matrices has shown how the spatial scale of dispersal, degree of advection versus diffusion, total larval output, and temporal and spatial variability in dispersal influence population persistence. Recent empirical studies using population genetics, parentage analysis, and geochemical and artificial marks in calcified structures have improved the understanding of dispersal. However, many such studies report current self-recruitment (locally produced settlement/settlement from elsewhere), which is not as directly useful as local retention (locally produced settlement/total locally released), which is a component of the dispersal matrix. Modeling of biophysical circulation with larval particle tracking can provide the required elements of dispersal matrices and assess their sensitivity to flows and larval behavior, but it requires more assumptions than direct empirical methods. To make rapid progress in understanding the scales and patterns of connectivity, greater communication between empiricists and population modelers will be needed. Empiricists need to focus more on identifying the characteristics of the dispersal matrix, while population modelers need to track and assimilate evolving empirical results.
    Description: Work by CB Paris was supported by the National Science Foundation grant NSF-OCE 0550732. Work by M-A Coffroth and SR Thorrold was supported by the National Science Foundation grant NSF-OCE 0424688. Work by TL Shearer was supported by an International Cooperative Biodiversity Group grant R21 TW006662-01 from the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health.
    Keywords: Connectivity ; Larval dispersal ; Marine protected areas ; Resilience ; Replacement ; Genetics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2008 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Fluid Mechanics 8 (2008): 495-509, doi:10.1007/s10652-008-9107-2.
    Description: Estuarine turbulence is notable in that both the dissipation rate and the buoyancy frequency extend to much higher values than in other natural environments. The high dissipation rates lead to a distinct inertial subrange in the velocity and scalar spectra, which can be exploited for quantifying the turbulence quantities. However, high buoyancy frequencies lead to small Ozmidov scales, which require high sampling rates and small spatial aperture to resolve the turbulent fluxes. A set of observations in a highly stratified estuary demonstrate the effectiveness of a vessel-mounted turbulence array for resolving turbulent processes, and for relating the turbulence to the forcing by the Reynolds-averaged flow. The observations focus on the ebb, when most of the buoyancy flux occurs. Three stages of mixing are observed: (1) intermittent and localized but intense shear instability during the early ebb; (2) continuous and relatively homogeneous shear-induced mixing during the mid-ebb, and weakly stratified, boundary-layer mixing during the late ebb. The mixing efficiency as quantified by the flux Richardson number Rf was frequently observed to be higher than the canonical value of 0.15 from Osborn (J Phys Oceanogr 10:83–89, 1980). The high efficiency may be linked to the temporal–spatial evolution of shear instabilities.
    Description: The funding for this research was obtained from ONR Grant N00014-06-1-0292 and NSF Grant OCE-0729547.
    Keywords: Turbulence ; Estuaries ; Shear instability ; Buoyancy flux
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: Amphipods living at the underside of Arctic sea ice are exposed to varying salinities due to freezing and melting, and have to cope with the resulting osmotic stress. Extracellular osmotic and ionic regulation at different salinities, thermal hysteresis, and supercooling points (SCPs) were studied in the under-ice amphipod Apherusa glacialis. The species is euryhaline, capable to regulate hyperosmotically at salinities S R 〈 30 g/kg, and osmoconforms at salinities S R ≥ 30 g/kg. Hyperosmotic regulation is an adaptation to thrive in low-salinity meltwater below the ice. Conforming to the ambient salinity during freezing reduces the risk of internal ice formation. Thermal hysteresis was not observed in the haemolymph of A. glacialis. The SCP of the species was −7.8 ± 1.9°C. Several ions were specifically downregulated ([Mg2+], [SO4 2−]), or upregulated ([K+], [Ca2+]) in comparison to the medium. Strong downregulation of [Mg2+], is probably necessary to avoid an anaesthetic effect at low temperatures.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: Various cnidarians have adapted their life style to interstitial habitats of marine sediments. Recently, for the first time a hydroid was reported from the interstitial brine channel system of Arctic fast ice. Due to its derived features, the new genus and species Sympagohydra tuuli was introduced. Here we describe findings of S. tuuli in sea ice at several sites within the central Arctic Ocean. In our view the results of this study do not allow assignment of Sympagohydra to any known family and we, therefore, suggest the introduction of a new family Sympagohydridae which is placed within the hydrozoan subclass Hydroidolina, order Anthomedusae, suborder Capitata. A first detailed histological analysis of S. tuuli is presented. In vivo analysis of locomotion and reproduction revealed a remarkable convergent evolution in S. tuuli and distant meiobenthic relatives. Shared traits are a flagellated epidermis enabling the animals to glide within small interstices by means of flagellar beating as well as an internalised embryogenesis. In S. tuuli gametogenesis occurs in the absence of gonophores inbetween gastro- and epidermis clearly separated from the epidermis. Budding was observed as the vegetative mode of reproduction. Documentation of feeding behaviour identified copepod nauplii and rotifers as prey items and demonstrates a high trophical position of the hydroids within the sympagic food web. Occurrence of reproducing individuals and pronounced tolerances towards changing temperatures and salinities indicate S. tuuli as a truly sympagic species.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-08-29
    Description: Four Paraeuchaeta species and three aetideids were frequently encountered along 51°30′S in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Paraeuchaeta antarctica was most abundant close to the Antarctic Polar Front. Within the genera Paraeuchaeta and Gaetanus, congeners usually partitioned the water column. Euchaetidae had high lipid (≤37% dry mass, DM in adult females) and wax ester contents (≤22% DM). Fatty acid composition of Paraeuchaeta spp. was dominated by monounsaturated moieties, especially 16:1(n-7) and 18:1(n-9), while fatty alcohols were mainly saturated. Surprisingly, only the bathypelagic P. barbata contained moderate amounts of 20:1(n-9) and 22:1(n-11) fatty acids (≤14%) and high levels of the respective fatty alcohols (≤50%), generally considered trophic biomarkers for calanid copepods as prey. Thus, herbivorous calanid copepods seem to be a readily available prey source at bathypelagic depths, indicating that their seasonal vertical migration provides a “trophic shortcut” from primary production at the surface to the interior of the ocean. Aetideidae also contained substantial levels of total lipid (14–36% DM), but wax esters contributed only up to 12% DM in copepodite stages C5 of Gaetanus spp., whereas other stages of Gaetanus and Aetideopsis minor only contained ≤6% DM of wax esters. The fatty acid compositions of Aetideidae were more balanced with 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 20:5(n-3), and 22:6(n-3) as important components, indicating a generally omnivorous feeding behaviour.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: New geochemical data from the Cocos Plate constrain the composition of the input into the Central American subduction zone and demonstrate the extent of influence of the Galapagos Hotspot on the Cocos Plate. Samples include sediments and basalts from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1256 outboard of Nicaragua, gabbroic sills from ODP Sites 1039 and 1040, tholeiitic glasses from the Fisher Ridge off northwest Costa Rica, and basalts from the Galapagos Hotspot Track outboard of Central Costa Rica. Site 1256 basalts range from normal to enriched MORB in incompatible elements and have Pb and Nd isotopic compositions within the East Pacific Rise MORB field. The sediments have similar Pb-206/Pb-204 and only slightly more radiogenic Pb-207/Pb-204 and Pb-208/Pb-204 isotope ratios than the basalts. Altered samples from the subducting Galapagos Hotspot Track have similar Nd and Pb isotopic compositions to fresh Galapagos samples but have significantly higher Sr isotopic composition, indicating that the subduction input will have a distinct geochemical signature from Galapagos-type mantle material that may be present in the wedge beneath Costa Rica. Gabbroic sills from Sites 1039 and 1040 in East Pacific Rise (EPR) crust show evidence for influence of the Galapagos Hotspot similar to 100 km beyond the morphological hotspot track
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The dramatic loss of biodiversity and its consequences for ecosystem processes have been of considerable interest in recent ecological studies. However, the complex and interacting processes influencing diversity effects in multitrophic systems are still poorly understood. We used an experimental eelgrass system to study the effects of changing richness of three consumer species on the biomass, diversity and taxonomic composition of both epiphytic and benthic microalgal assemblages. After 1 week, consumer richness enhanced the grazing impact on epiphyte biomass relative to single consumer treatments and a positive effect of consumer richness on prey diversity was found. Moreover, strong effects of consumer species identity on taxonomic composition were found in both microalgal assemblages. However, the effects of consumer richness were not consistent over time. The consequences of high nutrient availability seemed to have masked consumer richness effects.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Fontana Lapilli deposit was erupted in the late Pleistocene from a vent, or multiple vents, located near Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) and is the product of one of the largest basaltic Plinian eruptions studied so far. This eruption evolved from an initial sequence of fluctuating fountain-like events and moderately explosive pulses to a sustained Plinian episode depositing fall beds of highly vesicular basaltic-andesite scoria (SiO2 〉 53 wt%). Samples show unimodal grain size distribution and a moderate sorting that are uniform in time. The juvenile component predominates (〉 96 wt%) and consists of vesicular clasts with both sub-angular and fluidal, elongated shapes. We obtain a maximum plume height of 32 km and an associated mass eruption rate of 1.4 × 108 kg s−1 for the Plinian phase. Estimates of erupted volume are strongly sensitive to the technique used for the calculation and to the distribution of field data. Our best estimate for the erupted volume of the majority of the climactic Plinian phase is between 2.9 and 3.8 km3 and was obtained by applying a power-law fitting technique with different integration limits. The estimated eruption duration varies between 4 and 6 h. Marine-core data confirm that the tephra thinning is better fitted by a power-law than by an exponential trend.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Precise U–Pb geochronology, Hf isotope compositions and trace element distributions in zircons are combined in the present study to define the timing and sources of the magmatism forming the Medet porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. ID-TIMS U–Pb-zircon dating demonstrates that ore-bearing magmatism extended for less than 1.12 Ma. As inferred from the field relationships, it started with the intrusion of a quartz-monzodiorite at 90.59 ± 0.29 Ma followed by granodiorite porphyries at 90.47 ± 0.30 and 90.27 ± 0.60 Ma and by crosscutting aplite dykes at 90.12 ± 0.36 Ma. These units were overprinted by potassic alteration and host economic copper-(Mo–Au) mineralization. The main magmatic–hydrothermal activity ceased after that, and a later quartz-granodiorite porphyry dyke, dated at 89.26 ± 0.32 Ma, only contains an uneconomic quartz–pyrite mineralization. Assimilation of Lower Paleozoic rocks with a mantle to mantle–crust signature is characteristic of the fertile magma in the Medet deposit, as defined by positive ɛ-Hf values of the inherited zircons. The positive Ce-anomalies and the higher Eu/Eu* ratios of the zircons in the mineralized Cretaceous rocks of Medet deposit argue for crystallization from a generally more oxidized magma compared to the later quartz-granodiorite porphyry dyke. A change in paleostress conditions occurred during the intrusion of the Medet pluton and its dykes. The initial stage reveals E–W extension associated with N–S compression, whereas the younger granodiorite dyke was emplaced during subsequent N–S extension. The large-scale switch of the extensional stress regime during the mineralization was favourable for ore deposition by channelling the fluids and increasing the effective permeability.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We analyzed the seasonal variations of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi weekly collected since its first record in the western Baltic Sea in October 2006. The distribution pattern together with the seasonal dynamics and population outbreaks in late summer 2007 indicate recent successfully establishment of M. leidyi in this area. Seasonal changes showed two periods of high reproductive activity characterized by a population structure dominated by small size classes, followed by an increase of larger ones. These results further revealed that the bulk of the population remains in deep layers during the periods of low population density, whereas it appeared situated in upper layers during the proliferation of the species. We further emphasized the strength of the population outbreaks, which can reach abundances 〉10-fold higher in time periods shorter than a week. The predatory impact this species may have in pelagic ecosystems warns on the importance of its recent range of expansion.
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  • 61
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  In: High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '08. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 471-477613. ISBN 978-3-540-88301-2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Bacteria associated with the marine macroalga Laminaria saccharina, collected from the Kiel Fjord (Baltic Sea, Germany), were isolated and tested for antimicrobial activity. From a total of 210 isolates, 103 strains inhibited the growth of at least one microorganism from the test panel including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as a yeast. Most common profiles were the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis only (30%), B. subtilis and Staphylococcus lentus (25%), and B. subtilis, S. lentus, and Candida albicans (11%). In summary, the antibiotic-active isolates covered 15 different activity patterns suggesting various modes of action. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >99%, 45 phylotypes were defined, which were classified into 21 genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that four isolates possibly represent novel species or even genera. In conclusion, L. saccharina represents a promising source for the isolation of new bacterial taxa and antimicrobially active bacteria.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In order to assess the fidelity of coral Sr/Ca for quantitative reconstructions of sea surface temperature variations, we have generated three monthly Sr/Ca time series from Porites corals from the lagoon of Peros Banhos (71°E, 5°S, Chagos Archipelago). We find that all three coral Sr/Ca time series are well correlated with instrumental records of sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature. However, the intrinsic variance of the single-core Sr/Ca time series differs from core to core, limiting their use for quantitative estimates of past temperature variations. Averaging the single-core data improves the correlation with instrumental temperature (r 〉 0.7) and allows accurate estimates of interannual temperature variations (~0.35°C or better). All Sr/Ca time series indicate a shift towards warmer temperatures in the mid-1970s, which coincides with the most recent regime shift in the Pacific Ocean. However, the magnitude of the warming inferred from coral Sr/Ca differs from core to core and ranges from 0.26 to 0.75°C. The composite Sr/Ca record from Peros Banhos clearly captures the major climatic signals in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, i.e. the El Niño–southern oscillation and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Moreover, composite Sr/Ca is highly correlated with tropical mean temperatures (r = 0.7), suggesting that coral Sr/Ca time series from the tropical Indian Ocean will contribute to multi-proxy reconstructions of tropical mean temperatures.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The genes and intergenic regions of the amoCAB operon were analyzed to establish their potential as molecular markers for analyzing ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacterial (beta-AOB) communities. Initially, sequence similarity for related taxa, evolutionary rates from linear regressions, and the presence of conserved and variable regions were analyzed for all available sequences of the complete amoCAB operon. The gene amoB showed the highest sequence variability of the three amo genes, suggesting that it might be a better molecular marker than the most frequently used amoA to resolve closely related AOB species. To test the suitability of using the amoCAB genes for community studies, a strategy involving nested PCR was employed. Primers to amplify the whole amoCAB operon and each individual gene were tested. The specificity of the products generated was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and sequencing. The fragments obtained showed different grades of sequence identity to amoCAB sequences in the GenBank database. The nested PCR approach provides a possibility to increase the sensitivity of detection of amo genes in samples with low abundance of AOB. It also allows the amplification of the almost complete amoA gene, with about 300 bp more sequence information than the previous approaches. The coupled study of all three amo genes and the intergenic spacer regions that are under different selection pressure might allow a more detailed analysis of the evolutionary processes, which are responsible for the differentiation of AOB communities in different habitats.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Low pO(2) values have been measured in the perivitelline fluids (PVF) of marine animal eggs on several occasions, especially towards the end of development, when embryonic oxygen consumption is at its peak and the egg case acts as a massive barrier to diffusion. Several authors have therefore suggested that oxygen availability is the key factor leading to hatching. However, there have been no measurements of PVF pCO(2) so far. This is surprising, as elevated pCO(2) could also constitute a major abiotic stressor for the developing embryo. As a first attempt to fill this gap in knowledge, we measured pO(2), pCO(2) and pH in the PVF of late cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) eggs. We found linear relationships between embryo wet mass and pO(2), pCO(2) and pH. pO(2) declined from 〉 12 kPa to less than 5 kPa, while pCO(2) increased from 0.13 to 0.41 kPa. In the absence of active accumulation of bicarbonate in the PVF, pH decreased from 7.7 to 7.2. Our study supports the idea that oxygen becomes limiting in cephalopod eggs towards the end of development; however, pCO(2) and pH shift to levels that have caused significant physiological disturbances in other marine ectothermic animals. Future research needs to address the physiological adaptations that enable the embryo to cope with the adverse abiotic conditions in their egg environment.
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  • 66
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 174 (1). pp. 99-111.
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: We examine a statistical model for the description of the seasonal variation of extreme daily precipitation at 689 stations across the UK. The probability distribution for monthly maximum precipitation intensity is modelled with a generalised extreme-value distribution (GEV). Instead of modelling the distribution of precipitation maxima separately for every month, we propose an overall model with seasonally-varying location and scale parameters and a constant shape parameter. This model is tested against an augmented version with the shape parameter allowed to vary as well. Furthermore, we compare model adequacy for block length of one and two month and found no major improvements for the longer block-length. Based on this model, the 10 and 100-year return levels are calculated conditioned on the month of the year. The interpolation of return levels to a complete coverage of the UK allows for an identification of spatial patterns and their temporal evolution. These patterns suggest that different mechanisms for extreme precipitation are dominant in different regions of the UK.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2009-09-02
    Print ISSN: 1570-761X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1456
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2009-10-14
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2009-10-27
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2009-10-24
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2009-10-23
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2009-07-24
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2009-03-27
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2009-05-23
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2009-01-09
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2009-08-15
    Print ISSN: 1420-2026
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-2967
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer