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  • Springer  (31,095)
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  • Springer  (31,095)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract NiTi shape memory alloys showing pseudoelastic behaviour have great potential in dental and orthopaedic applications where constant correcting loads may be required. In most of the clinical applications the device may have been heat treated and during its life in service it will be cyclically deformed. It is therefore important to investigate the effect of cyclic straining and heat treatments upon the transformation stresses and temperatures of the material. The aim of this work is to study the thermal and mechanical ageing of a pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloy, as well as the environmental in vitro degradation of the alloy due to the effect of artificial saliva.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract In this study hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed Ti-6Al-4V was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) after being cyclically loaded, while immersed in two different testing environments: Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and an isotonic saline solution (0.15 m NaCl). An original method was developed to test these systems under cyclic bending, while immersed in the testing solution. The crystallinity of the coating was calculated, before and after testing. Crystallinity changes were related to coating dissolution rates, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and by a photocolourimetric method using ascorbic acid. Structural changes induced either by the plasma-spraying procedure or due to corrosion-fatigue tests, namely a preferential dissolution of the coating's amorphous phase, were also found in X-ray diffraction patterns. Long-term immersion tests, without any applied load, were carried out for assessing cyclic loading effects. An immersion for 2 years in static conditions was found to be equivalent to a cyclic test of 27.8 h in the same solution, as measured by the changes on the coating structure and by the amount of coating material lost to the solution.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) incorporation parameters were evaluated after immobilization in polyisobutylcyanoaclylate (PIBCA) nanoparticles. After initialization of the anionic mechanism of polymerization, pH was increased and its effect on the characteristics of PIBCA nanoparticles analysed. Our goal included optimization of enzyme activity during incorporation into nanoparticles and the influence on size distribution. Unloaded nanoparticles were not significantly affected by the pH increase. At pH 3 the size distribution indicates a bimodal distribution: 58 nm (63%) and 146 nm (37%). When pH was increased to 5 after 1 h of polymerization the size distribution is: 57 nm (70%) and 125 nm (30%). When pH was increased to 5, after 2 h of polymerization, the size distribution is 67 nm (56%) and 160 nm (44%). Meanwhile, the retention of activity of SOD in polymerization medium is 49% at pH 3, and 98% at pH 5. The effect of pH increase from 3 to 5, after 1 h of polymerization, on the characteristics of loaded nanoparticles is an increase of retention of enzyme activity (18 to 30%); and the evidence of a pH-dependent smaller size population of loaded nanoparticles. In fact at pH 3 the size distribution is 83 nm (15%), 195 nm (15%), 440 nm (70%) and when pH is increased from 3 to 5 the size distribution becomes 55 nm (30%); 170 nm (30%); 430 nm (40%).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) was investigated by the secretion of cellular FN during 72 h incubation of fibroblasts on defined hydrophilic glass and hydrophobic octadecyl glass (ODS). It was found, that the ability of fibroblasts to form their own ECM was inhibited on the hydrophobic ODS in comparison to glass, where significant amounts of FN were deposited in fibrils and clusters. This result was corroborated by the impaired morphology of cells on ODS, visualized by staining of actin micro-filaments and the FN receptor. Moreover, it was found that cell growth was significantly inhibited on the hydrophobic surface. In contrast to these findings, cell morphology and proliferation was not impaired on glass. Precoating of both substrata with FN could restore the cell morphology and enhanced the proliferation on the hydrophobic ODS. ELISA for FN binding using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies revealed that under these circumstances total FN adsorption, as well as the presence of cell- and heparin-binding domains was much higher on ODS in comparison to glass.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The clinical use of glass ionomers is well established in the odontological field. In particular; (i) high biocompatibility (unincreased macrophages activity), and consquently no inflammation in post-operative course; (ii) total non-toxicity of components; (iii) absence of mutagenic consequence on osteoblasts; (iv) dimensional stability and absence of macroscopic changes after very long implantation times; (v) stability to water and biological compounds, make these materials attractive for further clinical applications. The high adhesion both to metallic or ceramic surfaces and bone tissue makes this materials excellently usable for the adjustment of bone defects. This goal necessitates suitable knowledge of the mechanical, chemical, physical and biological properties of commercial materials so that the most suitable product can be identified. The characterization of representative products of each of the principal classes of glass ionomers material is reported.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Tissue reactions to rat lead samples, modelling for clinically used leads, were investigated in a late infection model, in which injection of bacteria was performed after a 3-week encapsulation process. At the site of injection, detachment of the original fibrous capsule, wound fluid infiltration, fibrin formation and granulocyte and macrophage infiltrations, occurred. Spreading of infection did not occur via the generally assumed direct bacterial adhesion to materials, but through blood vessels at the outside of capsules and through wound fluid passage at the interface and in the lumen of the lead sample. At day 5, infection had spread all over, but, apart from two small abscesses, seemed to be suppressed at day 10. However, probably due to luminal bacterial growth, at weeks 3 and 6 the reaction intensified showing larger abscesses with accumulations of lymphocytes. The results of this study represent a good basis for further studies aimed at developing infection-resistent lead material. Research efforts are first directed on modification of material surfaces to provide controlled release of antimicrobial agents.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Transparent hydroxyapatite (HA), 99.6% relative density, was prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Optical transmittance of 1 mm thick HA was greater than 60% at 700 nm. Twenty transparent HA plates (10×7×1 mm) were implanted into the medullary cavities of two dogs' femora. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation the bone marrow derived cells that adhered to the HA surfaces were histochemically examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Four types of enzymatic reactions were employed to identify cell types. Alkaline phosphatase was used as a marker for osteoblasts, acid phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker for osteoclasts and non-specific esterase as a marker for macrophages. Cells adhered to the HA surfaces were a mixed population of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and macrophages. By 2 weeks, the number of osteoblasts increased and formed a bone-like matrix. A small number of osteoclasts formed resorption lacunae on the HA after 2 weeks. By utilizing the transparency of the HA, whole-view of bone matrix formation by osteoblasts and simultaneous resorption of HA by osteoclasts was observed simply and dynamically by light microscopy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of a dental gallium alloy have been carried out. This commercial Ga alloy was made by triturating a Ag-Sn-Cu-rich alloy powder with a liquid Ga alloy containing Ga, In and Sn. Ga alloys are of increasing interest as an alternative to amalgam. The dental material studied in the present work was found to be a composite consisting of remaining, undissolved particles from the Ag-based alloy powder in a matrix of reaction products with the liquid Ga alloy. The phases in the matrix and the remaining Ag-based alloy particles have been identified by electron diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. the following phases were identified: orthorhombic Ag3Sn, cubic γ-Cu9Ga4, cubic Ag9In4, tetragonal β-Sn and hexagonal Ag2Ga. In addition to these well-known phases Ga-rich regions of Cu-Ga were observed consisting of an intergrowth of the tetragonal CuGa2 and one of the cubic γ-Cu9Ga4 phases.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of synthesis conditions on the quantitative preparation of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) have been investigated. The following parameters of the synthesis were considered: nature of the starting material-Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite, DAP, versus hydroxyapatite-anhydrous dicalcium phosphate mixtures (HAP-DCPA); Ca/P atomic ratio of the mixture, calcination temperature and time, and cooling rate. The yield and crystallinity of the final product have been estimated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid state 31P magic angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) techniques. The results show that pure, well-crystallized α-TCP powders exhibiting nearly ideal MAS-NMR spectra, can be obtained by reactive sintering of HAP-DCPA (Ca/P=1.50...1.52) mixtures, at 1400°C for 8 h. The broadening of MAS-NMR spectra can be used as an indicator of structural order in the final product. The α-TCP yield with DAP was always less than 50%.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Abstracts are not published in this journal
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