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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge represents a major but poorly constrained component of coastal marine chemical budgets. In the current study, the geochemical behavior of 224Ra, inorganic nitrogen species, and Fe in shallow coastal groundwater was characterized to improve estimates of chemical flux via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at a site in the York River estuary, VA (USA). Directly measured SGD rates varied between 3.9 ± 1.2 cm day−1 offshore, and 8.9 ± 2.6 cm day−1 close to shore. A clear inverse relationship was observed between SGD and tidal height, reflecting the hydraulic gradient between groundwater and surface water. Discharge rates varied spatially in conjunction with the subterranean estuary location, and there was a strong inverse correlation between seepage rates and seepage salinity. Dissolved 224Ra activity in the mixing zone reached levels up to 6 dpm L−1 and co-varied with salinity in the groundwater but not in the surface water or seepage water. Instead, a consistent sigmoidal trend of Ra with pH was observed, which matched previous laboratory experiment results. Dissolved NH4 + reached concentrations up to 120 μM in the groundwater and appeared to mix conservatively with respect to salinity in the subterranean estuary. In contrast, NOx (NO2 − + NO3 −) was low in both fresh groundwater and surface water and showed non-conservative enrichment (up to 23 μM) within the subterranean estuary. Dissolved Fe also showed non-conservative excess in the subterranean estuary, reaching concentrations up to 50 μM. SGD-derived chemical fluxes were estimated using several different commonly used approaches: average groundwater concentrations, pore water constituent-salinity trends coupled with directly collected seepage salinity, constituent concentrations in directly collected seepage, and concentrations in shallowest groundwater samples. Different flux estimates were compared with a “variable endmember” approach based on the observed geochemical distribution and inferred behavior.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: Escalation theory proposes enemy-related selection as the most relevant factor of natural selection among individual organisms. When hazardous to predators, prey might be considered enemies that influence predator evolution. Opisthobranch molluscs that prey on chemically defended prey are an interesting study case on this subject. Predation on chemically defended species paved the way for opisthobranchs to enter in an arms race, developing means to detoxify and/or excrete harmful compounds, which led to the sequestration of those compounds and their self-defensive use, an escalation of defenses. Here we aim to understand whether the opisthobranch predator is better protected than its chemically defended prey, using as predator–prey model, a nudibranch (Hypselodoriscantabrica) and the sponge it preys upon (Dysidea fragilis), and from which it obtains deterrent chemical compounds. Specimens of both species were collected on the Portuguese coast, and their crude extracts were analyzed and used in palatability tests. Nudibranchs revealed a higher natural concentration of crude extract, probably due to a progressive accumulation of the compounds. Both predator and prey extracts revealed similar mixtures of deterrent metabolites (furanosesquiterpenes). Palatability tests revealed a more effective deterrence in the nudibranch extracts because significant rejection rates were observed at lower concentrations than those necessary for the sponge extracts to have the same effect. We concluded that the predator is chemically better protected than its prey, which suggests that its acquisition of chemical defenses reveals a defensive escalation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Springer
    In:  In: The Prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin, pp. 439-512. ISBN 978-3-642-30196-4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: The family Rhodobacteraceae can be considered a paradigm of modern taxonomy of prokaryotes. Taking into account the number of species and genera that conforms the family, together with the knowledge about their abundance and vast global distribution, it surprises that most of them have been described relatively recent to our days. Two notable exceptions are Rhodonostoc capsulatum (Molisch, Die purpurbakterien nach neuen untersuchungen, vols i–vii. G. Fischer, Jena, pp 1–95, 1907) and Micrococcus denitrificans Beijerinck and Minkman (Zentbl Bakteriol, Parasitenkd, Infektionskr Hyg. Abt II 25:30–63, 1910), early basonyms of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Paracoccus denitrificans, respectively. The fact that so many descriptions within this family are recent means that some studies have been concomitant and pose a challenge not only for pure taxonomic studies but also for interpreting other studies in which a rapidly evolving nomenclature had to be used anyway. The metabolic and ecological diversity of the group adds further complexity. In spite of all these difficulties, the picture is far from being a chaos and it can be considered an exciting and important bacterial group to study. Rhodobacteraceae are, fundamentally, aquatic bacteria that frequently thrive in marine environments. They comprise mainly aerobic photo- and chemoheterotrophs but also purple non-sulfur bacteria which perform photosynthesis in anaerobic environments. They are deeply involved in sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling and symbiosis with aquatic micro- and macroorganisms. One hundred genera are currently recognized as members of the family although the Stappia group, Ahrensia, Agaricicola, and Rhodothalassium do not belong, phylogenetically, to the family. The 90 other genera are distributed in 5 phylogenetic groups (the Rhodobacter, the Paracoccus, the Rhodovulum, the Amaricoccus, and the Roseobacter clades) that might be considered a family on its own.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    Springer
    In:  In: The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. , ed. by Petraglia, M. D. and Allchin, B. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 173-200.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Springer
    In:  Marine Geophysical Researches, 20 (3). pp. 239-247.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Bottom shots have been used for a number of years in seismic studies on the ocean floor. Most experiments utilized explosives as the energy source, though researchers have recognized the usefulness of collapsing water voids to produce seismoacoustic signals. Implosive sources, however, suffered generally from a lack of control of source depth. We present a new experimental tool, called SEEBOSEIS, to carry out seismic experiments on the seafloor utilizing hollow glass spheres as controlled implosive sources. The source is a 10-inch BENTHOS float with penetrator. Inside the sphere we place a small explosive charge (two detonators) to destabilize the glass wall. The time of detonation is controlled by an external shooting device. Test measurements on the Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean, show that the implosive sources can be used in seismic refraction experiments to image the subbottom P- wave velocity structure in detail beyond that possible with traditional marine seismic techniques. Additionally, the implosions permit the efficient generation of dispersed Scholte waves, revealing upper crustal S-wave velocities. The frequency band of seismic energy ranges from less than 1 Hz for Scholte modes up to 1000 Hz for diving P-waves. Therefore, broadband recording units with sampling rates 〉2000 Hz are recommended to sample the entire wave field radiated by implosive sources.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Springer
    In:  In: Volcanoes of the Azores. , ed. by Kueppers, U. and Beier, C. Volcanoes of the World . Springer, Berlin, pp. 251-280.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: The Azores archipelago is geochemically distinct amongst the oceanic intraplate volcanoes in that it has trace element and radiogenic Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope signatures that cover much of the global variation observed in Ocean Island Basalts. Thus, it is the prime example of an intraplate melting anomaly preserving the compositional heterogeneity of the Earth’s mantle. Here, we review the trace element and radiogenic isotope geochemistry of the Azores islands and few submarine samples analysed and published over the past decades and summarise these findings and conclusions. The volcanoes of all islands erupted lavas of the alkaline series and their compositions broadly range from basalts to trachytes (see also Chapter “ Petrology of the Azores Islands” by Larrea et al.). Temperatures and pressures of melting imply that melting in the Azores occurs as a result of both slightly increased temperatures in the mantle (~35 °C) and addition of volatile elements into the mantle source. Basalts from the island of São Miguel show a stronger enrichment in highly incompatible elements like K and the Light Rare Earth Elements than the other islands further to the west. The older and easternmost island Santa Maria has lavas that are more silica-undersaturated than the rocks occurring on the younger islands. Each of the eastern islands shows a different and distinct radiogenic isotope composition and much of this variability can be explained by variably enriched recycled components of different age in their source regions. Amongst the global array, the lavas from eastern São Miguel are uniquely enriched in that they display radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios best explained by a distinct source in the mantle. The implication of the preservation of such unique, enriched sources in the mantle may indicate that stirring processes in the Azores mantle are not efficiently homogenising heterogeneities over the timescales of recycling of 0.1–1 Ga and possibly even up to 2.5 Ga. One possible explanation is the low buoyancy flux of the Azores mantle when compared to other intraplate settings. The preservation of these source signatures in the lavas on the easternmost Azores islands are the result of smaller degrees of partial melting due to a thicker lithosphere. This likely prevents a homogenisation during magma ascent compared to the western islands, preferentially sampling deep, low degree partial melts from the more fertile mantle sources. The geochemical signatures of the two islands west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Corvo and Flores) imply a source enrichment and degrees of partial melting similar to those east of the ridge. Melting underneath the western islands is the result of a source that must be related to the Azores melting anomaly but has been modified by shallow level processes such as assimilation of oceanic crustal material.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Springer
    In:  In: Barrier Dynamics and Response to Changing Climate. , ed. by Moore, L. and Murray, A. Springer, Cham, pp. 175-207.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: The height, volume, and alongshore extent of the foredune are primary controls on the response of barrier islands to the elevated storm surge that accompanies hurricanes and extra-tropical storms. In this respect, the ability of the foredune to recover following a storm determines whether a barrier island can maintain elevation as sea level rises and the island migrates landward through the redistribution of sediment to the back of the island through washover and breaching. This chapter provides a review of a body of recent fieldwork on the role of the foredune in controlling island transgression. It is argued that the role of the foredune to control washover and island transgression is analogous to that of a variable resistor in an electrical circuit, with the strength of the resistor dependent on the ability of the dune to recover in height and extent following each storm. Recovery of the foredune requires that sediment removed to the nearshore during a storm be returned to the beachface through the landward migration and welding of the innermost bars where it is eventually transported to the backshore and trapped by vegetation. Field observations from Padre Island in Texas, Santa Rosa Island in Florida, and Assateague Island in Virginia suggest that the recovery of dune height can be modeled using a sigmoidal growth curve, and that recovery can take up to a decade. The slow rate of dune recovery suggests that the resiliency of barrier islands to sea level rise is dependent on whether there is a change in the frequency and magnitude of storm events or an interruption to the exchange of sediment among the nearshore, beach, and dune. Ultimately, the height and volume of the foredune can be controlled by the framework geology (to varying degrees), which determines beach and nearshore state through the availability and texture of sediment and structural controls. In this respect, the response of barrier islands to sea level rise can be expected to vary regionally and alongshore as a reflection of diverse framework geology. The local response to sea level rise depends on the ability of the dune to recover following storms. Assuming no new sediment from alongshore or offshore sources, an increase in the frequency of washover will limit the ability of the dune to recover, and recent field evidence suggests that a change in dune height and volume is self-reinforcing, which suggests a lack of island resiliency. Further testing is required to determine how the field observations and modeling described in this chapter from a select group of barrier islands around the United States are applicable to other islands and consistent throughout the evolution of a barrier island.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Crossing studies revealed an intraspecifìc sterility barrier on the level of zygote formation between Japanese Sphaerotrichia divaricata and isolates of the same species from the Northeast Pacific and the North Atlantic. Because no consistent morphological differences exist between sporophytes from Japan and other areas, we propose not to distinguish the intersterile populations as different species. Japanese Sphaerotrichia and isolates from a recently detected population in the Étang de Thau, French Mediterranean coast, are interfertile. The crossing studies support the assumption that this Mediterranean population is a recent introduction from Japan.
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  • 9
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (11). pp. 2373-2391.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean circulation model is used to explore the problem of the remnant generation of trapped waves about a tall, circular, isolated seamount by an incident oscillatory barotropic current. The numerical solutions are used to extend prior studies into the fully nonlinear regime, and in particular to quantify and interpret the occurrence of residual circulation. Specific attention is also devoted to the dependence of the resonance and rectification mechanisms on stratification, forcing frequency, and choice of subgrid-scale viscous closure. Resonantly generated trapped waves of significant amplitude are found to occur broadly in parameter space; a precise match between the frequency of the imposed incident current and the frequency of the trapped free wave is not necessary to produce substantial excitation of the trapped wave. The maximum amplification factors produced in these numerical solutions, O(100) times the strength of the incident current, are consistent with previous studies. In the presence of nonlinear advection, strong residual currents are produced. The time-mean circulation about the seamount is dominated by a strong bottom-intensified, anticyclonic circulation closely trapped to the seamount. Maximum local time-mean current amplitudes are found to be as large as 37% of the magnitude of the propagating waves. In addition to the strong anticyclonic residual flow, there is a weaker secondary circulation in the vertical-radial plane characterized by downwelling over the top of the seamount at all depths. Maximum vertical downwelling rates of several tens of meters per day occur at the summit of the seamount. The vertical mass flux implied by this systematic downwelling is balanced by a slow radial flux of mass directed outward along the flanks of the seamount. Time-mean budgets for the radial and azimuthal components of momentum show that horizontal eddy fluxes of momentum are responsible for transporting net radial and azimuthal momentum from the far field to the upper flanks of the seamount. There, Coriolis and pressure gradient forces provide the dominant balances in the radial direction. However, the Coriolis force and viscous effects provide the primary balance for the azimuthal component.
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  • 10
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    Springer
    In:  Hydrobiologia, 260/261 . pp. 263-267.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: The objective of the study was to produce a size-based matrix model of a Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamour. population. ‘Hard’ data for insertion in the matrix were collected in a 9 year cohort analysis of size and age specific survival and fertility for a stand in south west Nova Scotia, Canada. The product of the square matrix containing these values and a column vector containing the densities of size classes was used to project the size class structure one year later. The projected estimates were found to fit empirical estimates with some confidence. In contrast, an age-based fertility life table wrongly predicted a population declining in density by 45% per year. The study supports, in theory, the use of size-based matrix models for management of harvested stands. In reality, the amount of work required to obtain ‘hard’ data and the site specific nature of the projections may preclude the use of such an approach to broad scale management.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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