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  • 1
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS) | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2157-3999
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1553-734X
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7358
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 3
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1544-9173
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-7885
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: Biodiversität
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  • 5
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1553-7390
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7404
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma) ago, and nowhere more so than in the Americas. There is no consensus on the number of equid species or even the number of lineages that existed in these continents. Likewise, the origin of the endemic South American genus Hippidion is unresolved, as is the phylogenetic position of the “stilt-legged” horses of North America. Using ancient DNA sequences, we show that, in contrast to current models based on morphology and a recent genetic study, Hippidion was phylogenetically close to the caballine (true) horses, with origins considerably more recent than the currently accepted date of c. 10 Ma. Furthermore, we show that stilt-legged horses, commonly regarded as Old World migrants related to the hemionid asses of Asia, were in fact an endemic North American lineage. Finally, our data suggest that there were fewer horse species in late Pleistocene North America than have been named on morphological grounds. Both caballine and stilt-legged lineages may each have comprised a single, wide-ranging species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2005 Sullivan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The definitive version was published in PLoS Biology 3 (2005): e144, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030144.
    Description: The oceanic cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus are globally important, ecologically diverse primary producers. It is thought that their viruses (phages) mediate population sizes and affect the evolutionary trajectories of their hosts. Here we present an analysis of genomes from three Prochlorococcus phages: a podovirus and two myoviruses. The morphology, overall genome features, and gene content of these phages suggest that they are quite similar to T7-like (P-SSP7) and T4-like (P-SSM2 and P-SSM4) phages. Using the existing phage taxonomic framework as a guideline, we examined genome sequences to establish ‘‘core’’ genes for each phage group. We found the podovirus contained 15 of 26 core T7-like genes and the two myoviruses contained 43 and 42 of 75 core T4-like genes. In addition to these core genes, each genome contains a significant number of ‘‘cyanobacterial’’ genes, i.e., genes with significant best BLAST hits to genes found in cyanobacteria. Some of these, we speculate, represent ‘‘signature’’ cyanophage genes. For example, all three phage genomes contain photosynthetic genes (psbA, hliP) that are thought to help maintain host photosynthetic activity during infection, as well as an aldolase family gene (talC) that could facilitate alternative routes of carbon metabolism during infection. The podovirus genome also contains an integrase gene (int) and other features that suggest it is capable of integrating into its host. If indeed it is, this would be unprecedented among cultured T7-like phages or marine cyanophages and would have significant evolutionary and ecological implications for phage and host. Further, both myoviruses contain phosphate-inducible genes (phoH and pstS) that are likely to be important for phage and host responses to phosphate stress, a commonly limiting nutrient in marine systems. Thus, these marine cyanophages appear to be variations of two well-known phages—T7 and T4—but contain genes that, if functional, reflect adaptations for infection of photosynthetic hosts in low-nutrient oceanic environments.
    Description: This research was supported by the US DOE under grant numbers DEFG02– 99ER62814 and DE-FG02–02ER63445, and the National Science Foundation under grant number OCE-9820035 (to SWC).
    Keywords: Oceanic cyanobacteria ; Prochlorococcus phages
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain dedication. The definitive version was published in PLoS Biology 4 (2006): e383, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040383.
    Description: Presented here is the complete genome sequence of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitous chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome (2,427,734 base pairs), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations that have enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioning it in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of coding sequences (CDSs) encoding regulatory proteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes, multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as well as a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety of options for acquiring these substrates from the environment. Thiom. crunogena XCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in relying on the Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligately chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted to have organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scattered throughout the genome.
    Description: This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, under contract W-7405-ENG-48. Genome closure was funded in part by a University of South Florida Innovative Teaching Grant (to KMS). KMS, SKF, and CAK gratefully acknowledge support from the United States Department of Agriculture Higher Education Challenge Grants Program (Award # 20053841115876). SMS kindly acknowledges support through a fellowship received from the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg in Delmenhorst, Germany (http://www.h-w-k.de). MH was supported by a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution postdoctoral scholarship.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: © 2006 Parfrey et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The definitive version was published in PLoS Genetics 2 (2006): e220, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220.
    Description: Perspectives on the classification of eukaryotic diversity have changed rapidly in recent years, as the four eukaryotic groups within the five-kingdom classification—plants, animals, fungi, and protists—have been transformed through numerous permutations into the current system of six ‘‘supergroups.’’ The intent of the supergroup classification system is to unite microbial and macroscopic eukaryotes based on phylogenetic inference. This supergroup approach is increasing in popularity in the literature and is appearing in introductory biology textbooks. We evaluate the stability and support for the current six-supergroup classification of eukaryotes based on molecular genealogies. We assess three aspects of each supergroup: (1) the stability of its taxonomy, (2) the support for monophyly (single evolutionary origin) in molecular analyses targeting a supergroup, and (3) the support for monophyly when a supergroup is included as an out-group in phylogenetic studies targeting other taxa. Our analysis demonstrates that supergroup taxonomies are unstable and that support for groups varies tremendously, indicating that the current classification scheme of eukaryotes is likely premature. We highlight several trends contributing to the instability and discuss the requirements for establishing robust clades within the eukaryotic tree of life.
    Description: This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Assembling the Tree of Life grant (043115) to DB, DJP, and LAK.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: © 2006 Bordenstein et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The definitive version was published in PLoS Pathogens 2(2006): e43, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020043.
    Description: By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B) of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1) variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2) phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3) CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.
    Description: This work was supported by grants from the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NNA04CC04A) and National Institutes of Health (R01 GM62626-01) to JJW, and by the Marine Biological Laboratory's Program in Global Infectious Diseases, funded by the Ellison Medical Foundation, to SRB.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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