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  • 1
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1544-9173
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-7885
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS) | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2157-3999
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1553-7390
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7404
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Print ISSN: 1553-734X
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7358
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 5
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: Biodiversität
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  • 6
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Albert Valeev, Sergei Litvinov, Ruslan Valiev, Vita Akhmetova, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Shahlo Turdikulova, Dilbar Dalimova, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Kristiina Tambets, Sardana Fedorova, Nikolay Barashkov, Irina Khidiyatova, Evelin Mihailov, Rita Khusainova, Larisa Damba, Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Ludmila Osipova, Mikhail Voevoda, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Toomas Kivisild, Elza Khusnutdinova, Richard Villems The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language’s expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (〉 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts ( p -values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th–17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th–16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.
    Print ISSN: 1553-7390
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7404
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Francesco De Cobelli, Giulio Pezzetti, Sergio Margari, Antonio Esposito, Francesco Giganti, Giulia Agostini, Alessandro Del Maschio Introduction Abdominal pain in PNH has never been investigated by in-vivo imaging studies. With MRI, we aimed to assess mesenteric vessels flow and small bowel wall perfusion to investigate the ischemic origin of abdominal pain. Materials and Methods Six PNH patients with (AP) and six without (NOP) abdominal pain underwent MRI. In a blinded fashion, mean flow (MF, quantity of blood moving through a vessel within a second, in mL·s -1 ) and stroke volume (SV, volume of blood pumped out at each heart contraction, in mL) of Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) and Artery (SMA), areas under the curve at 60 (AUC 60 ) and 90 seconds (AUC 90 ) and K trans were assessed by two operators. Results Mean total perfusion and flow parameters were lower in AP than in NOP group. AUC 60 : 84.81 ± 11.75 vs. 131.73 ± 18.89 ( P 〈 0.001); AUC 90 : 102.33 ± 14.16 vs. 152.58 ± 22.70 ( P 〈 0.001); K trans : 0.0346 min -1 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0521 ± 0.0015 ( P = 0.093 duodenum, 0.009 jejunum/ileum). SMV: MF 4.67 ml/s ± 0.85 vs. 8.32 ± 2.14 ( P = 0.002); SV 3.85 ml ± 0.76 vs. 6.55 ± 1.57 ( P = 0.02). SMA: MF 6.95 ± 2.61 vs. 11.2 ± 2.32 (P = 0.07); SV 6.52 ± 2.19 vs. 8.78 ± 1.63 ( P = 0.07). We found a significant correlation between MF and SV of SMV and AUC 60 (MF: ρ = 0.88, P 〈 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.644, P = 0.024), AUC 90 (MF: ρ = 0.874, P 〈 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.774, P = 0.003) and K trans (MF: ρ = 0.734, P = 0.007; SV: ρ = 0.581, P = 0.047). Conclusions Perfusion and flow MRI findings suggest that the impairment of small bowel blood supply is significantly associated with abdominal pain in PNH.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Wen-Pin Cheng, Bao-Wei Wang, Huey-Ming Lo, Kou-Gi Shyu The expression of TRB3 (tribbles 3), an apoptosis regulated gene, increases during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. How mechanical stress affects the regulation of TRB3 in cardiomyocytes during apoptosis is not fully understood. An in vivo model of aorta-caval shunt in adult rats demonstrated the increased TRB3 protein expression in the myocardium. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist etanercept reversed the TRB3 protein expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by AV shunt. An in vitro model of cyclic stretch in neonatal rats was also used to investigate TRB3 expression. We hypothesized that cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch is TRB3 dependent. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes grown on a flexible membrane base were stretched by vacuum to 20% of maximum elongation, at 60 cycles/min. Cyclic stretch significantly increased TRB3 protein and mRNA expression. Addition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, TNF-α antibody and etanercept 30 min before stretch reversed the induction of TRB3 protein induced by stretch. Cyclic stretch induced the DNA-binding activity of growth arrest and DNA damaged inducible gene-153 (GADD153) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SP600125, JNK siRNA, TNF-α antibody and etanercept abolished the binding activity induced by stretch. TRB3 promoter activity was enhanced by stretch and TRB3-mut plasmid, SP600125, TNF-α antibody and etanercept attenuated TRB3 promoter activity induced by stretch. Exogenous administration of TNF-α recombinant protein to the non-stretched cardiomyocytes increased TRB3 protein expression similar to that seen after stretch. Cyclic stretch induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is inhibited by TRB3 siRNA and etanercept. The stretch-induced TRB3 is mediated by TNF-α、JNK and GADD153 pathway. These results indicate that TRB3 plays an important role in stretch-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Yoon Hong Chun, Kyungdo Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Jong-seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim, Dae Chul Jeong Purpose Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10–18 years of age) participating in the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use. Results Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively). After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.68). Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01). The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007). Conclusions In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Melissa C. Smith, Richard Gomulkiewicz, Richard N. Mack We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species ( Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata ), wheat, Pinus ponderosa , and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y . brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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