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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 89 data points
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Einsele, Gerhard; Herm, D; Schwarz, Hans Joachim (1974): Holocene eustatic (?) sea level fluctuation at the coast of Mauritania. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C18, 43-62
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: In an area regarded to be very favourable for the study of Holocene sea level changes one or several eustatic (?) oscillations of sea have been found using sedimentological and ecological methods. After a maximum of +3 m during the Nouakchottian stage (= Middle Flandrian or Late Atlantic) about 5500 YBP a drop of sea to -3.5 ± 0.5 m about 4100 YBP is testified by stromatolitic algae indicating the former sea level within the tidal zone with high accuracy. This evidence is supported by the observation of post-Nouakchottian regressive and transgressive geologic sequences, by buried beach deposits and flooded hardgrounds, post-Nouakchottian marine terraces of different height and age, the cutting off of one large and several small bays from the open sea etc. Possibly, one or two smaller oscillations followed between 4000 and 1500 years B. P. The radiocarbon age of the marine shells dated may be partly somewhat too old or too young.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 148 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 104 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 165 data points
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Haenel, Ralph (1974): Heat flow measurements in the Norwegian Sea. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C17, 74-78
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: During cruises in the Norwegian Sea in 1969 and 1972 seven heat flow values were measured between Iceland and the Voring Plateau. The six eastern values of this profile show a positive trend east-southeastwards which coincides with a possible transition from oceanic to continental crust suggested by seismic results. One heat flow value taken near Iceland and 250 miles west of the others reflects the influence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. An estimation of the heat flow at a depth of 15 km below the measuring localities yields values with a small, possibly insignificant negative trend towards the east-southeast. The temperatures at 15 km depth are estimated to be 190 °C beneath the zone of seamounts and 280 °C beneath the Voring Plateau.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 34 data points
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2016-06-27
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2016-10-29
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-02-28
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-06-09
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2016-06-03
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 14
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 16
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Belyaeva, Alexandra N (1974): Composition of free lipids in bottom sediments of the tropical West Pacific Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean. Oceanology, 14(1), 59-64
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Contents of free lipids in the upper layers of slightly siliceous diatomaceous oozes from the South Atlantic and of calcareous foraminiferal oozes, of coral sediments and of red clays from the western tropical Pacific amount varies from 0.014 to 0.057% of dry sediment. Their content is inversely proportional to total content of organic matter. Relative content of low-polar compounds in total amount of lipids and content of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and sterols in the composition of these compounds can serve as an index of degree of transformation of organic matter in sediment because these compounds are resistant to various degree to microbial and hydrolytic decomposition and, consequently, are selectively preserved under conditions of biodegradation of organic compounds during oxydation-reduction processes.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 120 data points
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  • 17
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Basov, Ivan A (1974): Biomass of benthic foraminifers in the region of the South Sandwich Trench and Falkland Islands. Oceanology, 14, 277-279
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Distribution and biomass of living benthic foraminifers was studied in two sections in the region of the South Sandwich Trench and Falkland Islands. Biomass was found to be high (up to 30 g/m**2) and closely related to number of tests both with and without plasma. Abundance and biomass were the highest in subantarctic waters near the Falkland Islands. The bulk of biomass is made of secretory foraminifers. Agglutinating foraminifers form the largest biomass.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 87 data points
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  • 18
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Ilichev, O V; Kolobashkin, V M; Novichkov, V P; Piven', N S; Khristoforov, V A (1974): Determination of the argon content in water of the Atlantic Ocean by neutron activation analysis. Oceanology, 14, 914-916
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Neutron activation analysis was used to determine content of dissolved argon at five points in the Atlantic Ocean at depths of 2 m.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 19
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Glückert, Gunnar (1974): Über den Kalkgehalt des Geschiebemergels der schleswig-holsteinischen Ostsee-Steilküste. Meyniana, 25, 15-19, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1974.25.15
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The carbonate contents in the boulder clay ('Geschiebemergel') of abrasion cliffs were investigated along the Baltic coast of Schleswig-Holstein, northern West Germany. The calcareous boulder clay and stratified drift in the cliffs are interbedded with compressed thrust sheets of Cretaceous limestone, Tertiary Tarras clay, and Eemian clay. According to chemical analyses of 173 boulder clay samples, the amount of carbonate varies mostly between 6 and 17%. Owing to the small number of samples no definite conclusion could be drawn on the distribution of Danish Cretaceous limestones in the boulder clay, nor on the different directions of movement of Weichselian glaciers.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 516 data points
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  • 20
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Prange, Werner; Brümmer, Gerhard; Weber, Ernst (1974): Untersuchungen zur Kartierung und Klassifizierung der Böden in der Marsch. Meyniana, 25, 59-86, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1974.25.59
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Results from a large scale soil mapping on the North Frisian mainland indicate, that field characteristics, particularly the grain-size, bedding, and degree of compaction, with in general determine the soil units mapped, are closely correlated with each other and with other field and laboratory data. Exchangable ions and the Ca/Mg-ratio, however, indicate no explainable connections with the soil units and with most of the other field characteristics but are determined postsedimentarily by processes of the development of soil and landscape, such as desalting and decalcification, silicate weathering, fresh- and salt-water innundations, salty precipitations, salty groundwater and fertilization. Therefore the Ca/Mg-ratio is not suitable to differentiate between more clayey compacted Knick-marsh soils and less clayey permeable Klei-marsh soils. The results confirm that marsh-soils may only be classified and mapped by means of all available field-data which have to be supplemented by laboratory investigations.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 919 data points
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  • 21
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Shiki, Tsunemasa; Konda, Isao; Musashino, Makoto; Nishida, Shiro; Yasumatsu, Sadao (1974): Some Geological Results of the Bottom Sampling from the Sea off Kwanto District Western Margin of the Northern Pacific (Report of the Cruise GDP-1, 1972). http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/68769/1/KFMGAL_40_2.pdf, Memoirs of the Faculty of Science Kyoto University Series of Geology and Mineralogy, 40(2), 95-104, hdl:2433/68769
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The present paper, deals with the results of the bottom sampling. Sampling devices were a gravity corer for heat flow measurement and dredges of bucket type.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 24 data points
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  • 22
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Pimm, Anthony C (1974): Sedimentology and History of the Northeastern Indian Ocean from Late Cretaceous to Recent. In: von der Borch, C.C.; Sclater, J.G.; et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXII, 717-803, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.22.139.1974
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Eight sites were drilled on Leg 22 in the northeastern Indian Ocean. Three sites (214, 216, 217) on Ninetyeast Ridge penetrated a thick sequence of mostly Tertiary calcareous oozes passing down into shallow-water sediments with volcanogenic material in Sites 214 and 216. The age of the basal sequence increases northwards from Paleocene (214) through Maastrichtian (216) to Campanian (217). A nonmarine sequence of volcanoclastics and lignite overlies basalt at 214. Drilling terminated in a dolomite chert sequence at 217 before bsalt was encountered. Two sites (213, 215), in deep water on either side of Ninetyeast Ridge, showed calcareous ooze of Paleocene to early Eocene age overlying basalt passing up into brown clay and finally siliceous ooze of late Miocene and younger age. A major hiatus centered in the Oligocene occurs at both these sites. One site (212), drilled in the deepest part of the Wharton Basin, penetrated a brown clay sequence interbedded with several thick calcareous units, each of a very short time duration. Evidence from sedimentary structures and calcareous microfossils.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 122 data points
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  • 23
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Gravenhorst, Gode; Jendricke, Ulrich (1974): Konzentrationsverhältnisse von Aerosolkomponenten über dem Nordatlantik. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe B Meteorologie und Aeronomie, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, B9, 68-77
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Aerosol samples collected over the North Atlantic from ship were analysed for Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium and Chloride. A found dependence of sea salt concentrations from wind velocity is compared with earlier results. The mean of the ratio Cl/Na was close to that for sea water; the Mg-, K- and Ca-concentrations in the aerosol, however, were enriched with respect to sea water. It is shown that continental advection influences the measured aerosol components over the North Atlantic.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 139 data points
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  • 24
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hsü, Kenneth J (1974): The Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean and its climatical and zoogeographical implications. Die Naturwissenschaften, 61(4), 137-142, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00602586
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: A deep-sea drilling cruise to the Mediterranean in late 1970 discovered the presence of an extensive evaporite deposit under the Mediterranean seabed. The deposit includes dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, halite, and more soluble salts and covers an area more than 10**6 km 2. The origin of the evaporites has been interpreted as the product of desiccation, when the Mediterranean was isolated from the Atlantic during the Late Miocene Messinian stage, 5-7 million years ago. The desiccation led to a total destruction of pre-Messinian marine faunas and permitted the development of oligohaline and euryhaline faunas in the Mediterranean region. The circum-Mediterranean lands became arid and forests were replaced by savannas and steppes. Large-scale migrations, especially of grazing animals, may have been the consequence of such a drastic change in geography and in ecology.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 32 data points
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  • 25
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Vakulovskiy, S M; Vorontsov, A I; Katrich, I Yu; Koloskov, L A; Roslyy, E I; Chumichev, V B (1978): Strontium-90 and tritium in North Pacific surface wafer in 1974. Oceanology, 18(2), 160-162
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Results of determinations of 90Sr and tritium polluting surface water in different parts of the North Pacific are presented. The T/90Sr ratio lies within 90-600 over the referred water area and attains 2000 near the Columbia River mouth. Tritium concentration in sea water has been noted to be affected by river runoff and terrigenous sediments.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: On June 10th, 1966 Mr. R.A. Ryder made, the first of his several discoveries of ferromanganese concretion occurrences in Shebandowan Lakes. On learning of these discoveries, Prof. D. S. Cronan decided to investigate the geochemistry of the deposits. Accordingly, field surveys were conducted over a nine day period in July 1970 with the assistance of the writer and scuba diver, Mr. R. R. Hygaard of Thunder Bay. A total of 50 concretion deposits, including Ryder's original discoveries, were located, described and sampled. Sampling at the concretion sites included taking bottom water and sediment core specimens as well as concretions. Additional sampling was made of waters influent into the lakes, the effluent and lake, bottom water at barren locations. Subsequently, seventy two concretion samples were analyzed by atomic absorption for Fe, Mn, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co at the University of Ottawa geochemistry lab. Several concretion samples were subjected to Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and X-ray diffraction experiments. The AA analysis of 47 water samples, and 20 sediment core samples, the former for Fe and Mn and the latter for Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co was contracted commercially as was colorimetric determination of As in 10 concretion samples. Other work included logging of the sediment cores and examination of concretions through binocular microscope. This work presents field, and lab observations along with the analytical results and seeks to draw from them inferences regarding, the geochemical environment and origin of the Shebandowan Fe-Mn concretionary deposits. In early chapters basic data, general and detailed, as available on the area, has been compiled, both to aid thé current study and any future studies of the concretions and their environment. These are followed by chapters on field data and the overall interpretation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 462 data points
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  • 27
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Inoue, Eiji; Suzuki, Taisuke; Matsumoto, Eiji; Yuasa, Masato (1974): Deep sea sediments. In: Takeda, H (ed), Deep Sea Mineral Resources Investigations in Northwest Pacific, November-December 1972, Geological Survey of Japan, Cruise Report; http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.47907.d001, No1, 20-33, https://www.gsj.jp/en/publications/cruise-rep/cruise01.html
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: In 1972, the five years program 'Basic investigations for exploration of deep sea mineral resources' was laid out by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The Geological Survey of Japan and the National Research Institute of Pollution and Resources undertook the first survey project. The survey team consisted of four geologists and a surveyor of the Geological Survey of Japan, and a mechanical, engineer and four mining engineers of National Research Institute of Polution and Resources. The survey started on November 11 using the "Bosei Maru" survey vessel (1100 tons) chartered from Tokai University. The cruise departed from Shimizu harbor to the Ponape and Guam islands, and terminated at the harbor of departure on December 11. The surveyed area was mainly covered the Mariana basin and the Magellan seamounts, and fifteen bottom samples were collected during the cruise. Ferromanganese nodules were obtained at several stations at a depth over 5000m.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 114 data points
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  • 28
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Cronan, David S; Damiani, Theresa; Kinsman, D J J; Thiede, Jörn (1974): Sediments from the Gulf of Aden and Western Indian Ocean. In: Fisher, R.L.; Bunce, E.T.; et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXIV, 1047-1110, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.24.127.1974
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: During Leg 24 three drilling sites were occupied in the Gulf of Aden (231, 232, 233), two in the Somali Basin (234, 235), and three in the western Indian Ocean (236, 237, 238). The location of these sites is shown in Figure 1; latitude, water depth, and penetration depth are indicated in Table 1. Figure 2 summarizes the lithologies and stratigraphy of all eight sites cored. In this chapter are included lithologic summaries for each of the sites. The sediments are then discussed in terms of their individual biogenic, terrigenous, volcanogenic, or authigenic components and their sedimentary structures. In a series of synthesis sections the hemipelagic, pelagic, and basal metaliferous sedimentary facies are discussed.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 57 data points
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  • 29
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Leclaire, Lucien (1974): Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Pelagic Deposits—Paleoenvironment and Paleooceanography of the Central Western Indian Ocean. In: Simpson, E.S.W.; Schlich, R.; et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXV, 481-513, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.25.120.1974
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Pelagic deposits are the dominant contributors to the sediment layers that blanket ridges and basaltic sea floor in deep basins. Among pelagic constituents, nannofossils undoubtedly are the predominant contributor, especially to Cenozoic chalk and ooze. Among Leg 25 sites, the most typical pelagic deposits are found in the Madagascar Basin (Site 245) including a clayey nanno chalk, bearing Fe-Mn oxides, resting directly on the basalt and overlain successively by a nanno chalk which is interlayered with chert and devitrified volcanic ash and a nearly pure nanno ooze. The lithologic sequence is capped by brown clay. Upper Cenozoic foram sand and foram nanno ooze were found on the Mozambique Ridge (Site 249) and particularly on the Madagascar Ridge (Site 246). Biogenic silica-rich facies are rare and mainly located near the top of the lowest latitude sites.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 77 data points
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  • 30
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Doyle, Patricia S; Boltovskoy, Esteban; Herb, Rene C; Thierstein, Hans R; Hyndman, Roy D; Horvath, George J; Leidy, Rosanne D; McKelvey, Barrie C; Kempe, D R C; Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Davies, Thomas A; Luyendyk, Bruce P (1974): Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXVI, 1129 pp, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.26.1974
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: DSDP Leg 26, is the fifth cruise of D/V Glomar Challenger in the Indian Ocean, and the first cruise of Phase III of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. The Indian Ocean is the smallest of the three major ocean basins but appears to be geologically the most complex. The sites drilled on Leg 26 were selected to try to elucidate a number of specific problems of both local and broad regional significance, as well as to add to the general knowledge of the area. In particular: a) To locate the oldest sediment in the Indian Ocean and thus possibly the date of the initial breakup of Gondwanaland (Sites 250, 256, 257); b) To determine the effects of the initiation of the Circumpolar Current on southern Indian Ocean sedimentation (Sites 250, 252, 256, 257, 258); c) To determine the history of spreading of the Southwest Branch of the Indian Ocean Ridge and the history of the crust and oceanic sedimentation in that general region (Sites 250, 251, 252).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 42 data points
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  • 31
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Robinson, Paul T; Thayer, Julie A; Cook, Peter J; McKnight, Brian K (1974): Lithology of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sediments of the Eastern Indian Ocean, Leg 27, Deep Sea Drilling Project. In: Veevers, J.J.; Heirtzler, J.R.; et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXVII, 1001-1047, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.27.148.1974
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: During Leg 27 five sites were drilled in the eastern Indian Ocean, four in abyssal plains near the western margin of Australia and one in the Timor Trough. Abyssal plain sediments are divided into two major units: (1) a lower, acoustically transparent layer of relatively uniform thickness draped over basaltic basement and (2) a horizontally layered sequence of highly variable thickness filling low areas on the surface of the transparent layer. The transparent layer, ranging in age from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous, consists chiefly of dark gray, siliceous clays and claystones with minor zeolitic clay and nannofossil ooze. Sedimentation rates are between 5 and 30 m/m.y. being highest in the Lower Cretaceous. Upper Cretaceous sediment are sparse or absent. The relatively high sedimentation rates for pelagic clay are probably due to the proximity of the Australian continent. The layered unit consists of calcareous oozes and lesser zeolitic clay and radiolarian ooze, all of Cenozoic age. Many of the oozes contain shallow-water foraminifers and graded sequences suggesting deposition by mass transport.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 66 data points
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  • 32
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Malfait, Bruce Terry (1975): The Carnegie Ridge near 86⁰ W. : structure, sedimentation and near bottom observations. Ph. D. Dissertation), Oregon State University, USA, 142 pp, hdl:1957/28552
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The Carnegie Ridge is a linear, aseismic, submarine ridge lying between the Galapagos Islands and the coast of South America. Surface ship, near bottom, and grain size studies from the saddle have been used to delineate the present geological environment and history of the ridge. Structurally the Carnegie Ridge is rather simple in profile, being bounded by east-west trending scarps which give the ridge a block-faulted appearance. Acoustic basement over the ridge appears smooth on reflection profiles and is composed of chert. The sedimentary sequence above the chert horizon contains a lower chalk unit overlain by calcareous ooze. Where erosion has exposed the chalk a karst-like micro-topography is present which is characterized by steep walled channels and cliffs and consolidated bed forms undergoing erosion and dissolution. The ridge crest has been stripped of almost its entire sediment cover. Thick sequences of sediment are found only in areas protected from north or south flowing bottom currents. Evidence of erosion is provided by extensive channeling on both the north and south flanks of the ridge. Near bottom observations in one channel on the north flank revealed a large field of sand dunes indicating northward, downslope sediment transport. These dunes are found on manganese-encrusted chalk which floors the channel.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 112 data points
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  • 33
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Ernst, Wolfgang; Goerke, Helmut (1974): Adenosin-5`-triphosphat (ATP) in Sedimenten und Nematoden der nordostatlantischen Tiefsee. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C18, 35-42
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: 1. ATP in deep-sea sediments can be determined after it is adsorbed on a mixture of the sediment and calcium carbonate by measuring the luminescence of the reaction of the mixture and luciferin-luciferase. 2. ATP contents of the toplayer of northeastern Atlantic sediments (Josephine Bank and northern Canary Basin) decrease with increasing depths of 252, 408, 1445, 1769, 2149, 4897, 5510m: 0.96, 0.61, 0.13, 0.10, 0.21, 0.05, 0.07 µg ATP/ml wet sediment. The decreasing values are in accordance with the decrease of macrobenthos and meiobenthos biomass in the deep-sea. 3. The ATP content of deep-sea nematodes is about 1 ‰ of their wet weight. 4. At the two deepest stations, less than 50% of the ATP measured in the sediment is represented by nematodes, copepods, other “hard” meiofauna groups and bacteria.
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  • 34
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Grothues-Spork, Hermann (1974): Aufmessung der Strömungen unter dem Eis des Eclipse Sound (Baffin Island) und Bestimmung von Reibungskoeffizienten zwischen Stahl und Eis. Polarforschung, 44(1), 76-82, hdl:10013/epic.29402.d001
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Velocity and direction of the current under the sea ice of the EcIipse Sound between Baffin lsland and Bylot Island were measured with specially developed devices and registered on a recorder. During the period of registration (May-June 1972) an easterly current of 5-7 cm/s superimposed by tidal and local influences (max. 12 cm/s) was found. In addition , measurements of friction between steelcone surfaces und corresponding conical ice bores are reported on. The plotted results show the influence of ice-temperature, surface quality and in some cases the influence of time.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 89 data points
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  • 35
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Thannheiser, Dietbert; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans (1974): Floristische Studien auf Banks Island, N. W. T. Polarforschung, 1(3), 27-34, hdl:10013/epic.29395.d001
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: While engaged in palaeo-botanical and plantgeographical field work on Banks Island, N. W. T. during the summer of 1973, 225 new plants could be recorded for the vicinities of Sachs Harbour, Shoran Lake and Johnson Point; 21 of them were new for Banks Island, 7 for the western Canadian archipelago.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 768 data points
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  • 36
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    In:  Supplement to: Wefer, Gerold; Tauchgruppe, Kiel (1974): Topographie und Sedimente im Hausgarten des Sonderforschungsbereiches 95 der Universität Kiel (Eckernförder Bucht, Westl. Ostsee). Meyniana, 26, 3-7, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1974.26.3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: A detailed topographic survey was carried out in the "Hausgarten"-area of the Joint Research Programm 95 of the University of Kiel by the Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut. Based on this information a sediment distribution map was constructed. A horizontal section extending from 0 to 27 m of water depth was investigated showing the distribution of pebbles and boulders, of algal growth, and exposed areas of glacial marl; the grain size distribution was determined for the various sediment types.
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  • 37
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    In:  Supplement to: Park, Yong Ahn (1974): Migration and textural parameters of intertidal channel sand bars in the tidal environments near Sylt, Schleswig-Holstein (F. R. Germany). Meyniana, 24, 73-89, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1974.24.73
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The aim of the present study is to investigate directional asymmetric properties and internal structures of the bedforms on the intertidal sand bars in comparison with the migration problems of the sand bodies developed in the channel systems of the tidal basin off the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein. The tidal channel sand bodies studied have 'V'-shaped outlines and are asymmetric in cross-section. Based on such knowledge it was hoped to understand and find possible factors for application to recent and ancient tidal depositional environments. The V-shaped intertidal channel sand bodies developed in the tidal environments between Sylt and Föhr Island are constantly migrating sand bars. The migration directions are in good agreement with the resultant vector mean directions of internal cross-stratification structures of asymmetric sedimentary bedforms. Finally, it is shown that the orientation of the apex of V-shaped sand bar as an equilibrium form alone can not indicate the migration direction, but that the orientation of the resultant vector mean of internal structures of sedimentary bedforms does indicate the migration direction. Based on the analyses of textural parameters of the migrating intertidal bar sands, it seems that sands of typical intertidal sand bars are negatively skewed and well sorted. The high rounding of quarz sand grains of these tidal channel sand bars seems to be an additional characteristical criterion for tidal depositional environments, as also indicated by Balazs and Klein (1972).
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 162 data points
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  • 38
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    In:  Supplement to: Faughn, James L (1974): Naga Expedition: station index and data. UC San Diego: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 177 pp, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1sw7922g
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The observations described in this report were made during the NAGA Expedition, Phase 1 between San Diego and Honolulu in June 1959 by Scripps Institution of Oceanography from, the R/V Stanger. Cores, bottom photographs and dredges are available at Scripps for sampling and study.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 133 data points
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 246 data points
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The BLM-OCS (Bureau of Land Management-Outer Continental Shelf) program was designed to establish chemical, biological, and geological baseline on the South Texas Continental Shelf. The focus for the geological program was to establish the nature and amount of the suspended sediment in the water column, of the Holocene sediments on the shelf, and to identify and locate regions of geology conditions which may be hazardous to OCS operations. To accomplish these goals three cruises were planned. The report constitutes results of the second cruise. The results of these cruises associated with the subsequent laboratory analysis, enabled to establish a detailed baseline in order to provide significant geologic and biologic data for environmental assessment. Dredges recovered are available at University of Texas (see: BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/docucomp/page?xml=NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC/MGG/Geology/iso/xml/G02888.xml&view=getDataView&header=none).
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  • 41
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    In:  Supplement to: Amos, A F (1974): Preliminary Cruise Report for the Research Vessel Moana-Wave, April-May 1974. NOAA, U.S. Dept. Commerce, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., 23 pp, hdl:10013/epic.48839.d001
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: A cruise, aboard the R/V Moana Wave was held during April-May 1974 and investigated an area 1,400 km S.S.E. of Honolulu, Hawaii, designated as DOMES site 'A' by a panel consisting of industry, government and academic representatives managing the Deep Ocean Mining Environmental Study (DOMES) under the coordination of NOAA Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL). This investigation was conducted in order to understand the effects of commercial ferromanganese mining on the oceanic environment. Baseline studies were made on the water column and ocean floor in typical areas prior to a possible full-scale mining operations in the area of the Pacific Occean stiruated between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 165 data points
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 325 data points
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  • 43
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Andrews, James E; Callender, Edward; Bowser, Carl J; Mero, John L; Gauthier, Michel; Meylan, Maurice A; Craig, James D; Binder, Kenneth; Volk, Patrick; Chave, Alan D; Bachman, Walter (1974): Ferromanganese deposits of the ocean floor. Cruise Report Mn-74-01, R/V Moana Wave, Honolulu to San Diego, 17 July - 10 August 1974. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Technical Report, 9, 194 pp, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/data/0802/08025001/08025001.pdf
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Cruise MN-74-01 of the R/V Moana Wave was the first part of the field work of the NSF-IDOE Inter-University Ferromanganese Research Program in 1974. This program was designed to investigate the origin, growth, and distribution of copper/nickel-rich manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean. The field effort was designed to satisfy sample requirements of the 15 principal investigators, while increasing general knowledge of the copper/nickel-rich nodule deposits of the equatorial Pacific. This report is the first of a series of cruise reports designed to assist sample requests for documented nodules, sediment, and water samples so the laboratory results can be realistically compared and related to the environment of nodule growth.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 845 data points
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 12 data points
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 54 data points
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  • 46
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    In:  Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The cruise 9 of the R/V Valdivia was held from the 11 August 1974 to the 5 December 1974 as a survey expedition of the manganese nodule fields situated in the Pacific Ocean between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones. It was part of international effort coordinated by the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The stations details were stored in the SIO Ferromanganese Nodule - IDOE Portion ( http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/docucomp/page?xml=NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC/MGG/Geology/iso/xml/G00250.xml&view=getDataView&header=none)
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 74 data points
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 113 data points
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 429 data points
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 48 data points
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  • 51
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    In:  Supplement to: Holmes, M L; Creager, Joe S (1974): Holocene History of the Laptev Sea Continental Shelf (Chapter 9). In: Herman, Y. (Ed.) Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 211-229, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-87411-6_9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The 400-km-wide, low gradient Laptev Sea continental shelf consists of flat terrace-like features at regular depth intervals from 10 to 40 m below present sea level. The five large submarine valleys traversing the shelf do not continuously grade seaward, but contain elongated, closed basins. These terraces and closed basins plus deltaic sediments associated with the submarine valleys quite possibly mark sea level Stillstands, and enable reconstruction of the paleogeography of the Laptev Sea shore line at five periods during post-Wisconsin (Holocene) time. Radiocarbon dates on the silty-clay to clayey-silt sediments from cores of the northeastern Laptev Sea indicate average sedimentation intensity of 2 to 15 mg/cm2/yr. The presence of manganese nodules and crusts in surface samples from less than 55 m depths and a general decrease in total foraminiferal abundances with depth in the cores suggest that the present deposition rate is less than when sea level was lower. The main components of the shelf deposits are near- shore sediments which were spread over the shelf as Holocene sea level fluctuated and marine currents distributed modern fine sediment. Rare silty-sand layers and the coarser nuclei of the manganese crusts and nodules indicate ice rafting. However, this mechanism is probably only locally important as a significant transporting agent.
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  • 52
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    In:  Supplement to: Johnson, Thomas C; Glockhoff, Carolyn (1974): Description of cores from the Pacific Ocean taken on SCAN Expedition, June 1974 (R/V Argo). Scripps Institution of Oceanography Reference Series, 74-22, 39 pp, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/curator/data/argo/scan/scan_expedition_report.pdf
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The cores described on the following pages were obtained on the Scripps Institution of Oceanography SCAN Expedition during March 1969 to February 1970 aboard R/V Argo. The primary purpose of the expedition was to conduct geological surveys of prospective drilling sites for the Deep Sea Drilling Project. A total of 106 locations in the Pacific Ocean were geologically sampled, usually by coring but, on occasion, by dredging. The following descriptions are of all the cores taken on SCAN which are available at Scripps for sampling and study.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 428 data points
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  • 53
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    PANGAEA
    In:  P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow | Supplement to: Sval'nov, Vyacheslav N (1974): Neogenic palygorskite in the bottom sediments at Station 4599 (Indian Ocean). Oceanology, 14, 110-113
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: Palygorskite streak veinlets were studied in the lower part of a sediment core collected at Station VITYAZ4599 in the central (Mid-Indian) basin of the Indian Ocean. It is suggested that this palygorskite is of hydrothermal origin and was formed in pre-Pliocene time.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 36 data points
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  • 54
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    PANGAEA
    In:  P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow | Supplement to: Sval'nov, Vyacheslav N (1974): Neogenic palygorskite in the bottom sediments at Station 4599 (Indian Ocean). Oceanology, 14, 110-113
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: Palygorskite streak veinlets were studied in the lower part of a sediment core collected at Station VITYAZ4599 in the central (Mid-Indian) basin of the Indian Ocean. It is suggested that this palygorskite is of hydrothermal origin and was formed in pre-Pliocene time.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 36 data points
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  • 55
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego | Supplement to: SIO (1974): COCOTOW Expedition, September-December 1974, List of geological samples, R/V Melville. University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (unpublished), 10 pp, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/curator/data/melville/cocotow/15025003.pdf
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The cores and dredges described in this report were taken on the COCOTOW Expedition in September until December 1974 by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography from the R/V Spencer F. Baird. A total of 75 cores and dredges were recovered and are available at Scripps for sampling and study.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 343 data points
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  • 56
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    In:  Supplement to: Glockhoff, Carolyn; Helms, Phyllis B (1974): Description of cores from the Central Pacific taken on STYX expedition. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Reference Series, 74-16, 30 pp, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/data/agassiz/styx/15105001.pdf
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: The cores described in this paper were taken in the tropical central Pacific Ocean by Scripps Institution of Oceanography's R/V Alexander Agassiz on the STYX Expedition of April-September 1968. A total of 132 cores were attempted of which 97 were successful. These cores are available at Scripps for sampling and study.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 794 data points
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  • 57
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hessler, Robert R; Jumars, Peter A (1974): Abyssal community analysis from replicate cores in the central North Pacific. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 21(3), 185-209, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(74)90058-8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Description: A 0.25 m US Naval Electronics Lab box corer was used to take replicate samples from an oligotrophic bottom under the North Pacific Central Water Mass (approx. 28 degrees N, 155 degrees W). The bottom is a red clay with manganese nodules at a depth of 5500-5800 m. Macrofaunal density ranges from 84 to 160 individuals per m super(2) and is therefore much the same as in Northwest Atlantic Gyre waters. Of the macrofaunal taxa, polychaetes dominate (55 per cent), followed by tanaids (18 per cent), bivalves (7 per cent), and isopods (6 per cent). Meiofaunal taxa were only partially retained by the 297 micrometer screen used in washing. Even then, they are 1.5-3.9 times as abundant as the microfaunal taxa, with nematodes being numerically dominant by far. Foraminifera seem to comprise an important portion of the community, but could not be assessed accurately because of the inability to discriminate living and dead tests. Remains of what are probably xenophyophoridans are also very important, but offer the same problem. Faunal diversity is extremely high, with deposit feeders comprising the overwhelming majority. Most spp are rare, being encountered only once. The distributions of only 3 spp show any significant deviation from randomness. The polychaete fauna from box cores collected from 90 m to the north was not significantly different from that of the principal study locality. Concordance appeared at several taxonomic levels, from spp through microfaunal/ meiofaunal relationships. As a result, the variation in total animal abundance shows aggregation among cores. The authors discuss Sokolova's concept of a deep-sea oligotrophic zone dominated by suspension feeders, and reconcile it with our present findings. The high diversity of the fauna combined with the low food level contradict theories that relate diversity directly with productivity.
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    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 111 data points
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 36 data points
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  • 59
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Nettleship, David N (1974): The breeding of the knot Calidris canutus at Hazen Camp, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Polarforschung, 44(1), 8-26, hdl:10013/epic.29394.d001
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Knots arrive on Ellesmere Island in late May or early June. At Hazen Camp small flocks were present on 3 June 1966, but the main influx occurred 5 June when many flocks were seen ranging in size from 6 to 60 individuals. The sexes appeared to arrive together, but the manner of pair-formation was not determined. By 7 June pairs were distributed over the tundra with large feeding flocks forming at snowfree wet marshy areas. Most nests were on Dryas-hummocked slopes and tundra, either dry or moist, with some on clay plains and summits in a mixed Dryas and Salix vegetation. A census area of 240 ha supported at least 3 breeding pairs, and possibly 5; the total number of pairs breeding in the Hazen Camp study area was estimated to be about 25 (1.09 pairs/km**2). Egg-laying (4 nests) extended from 15 to 28 June, with 3 of the 4 sets completed between 20 and 23 June. Both sexes incubated, one of the pair more regularly than the other. The song-flight display of the male was performed most frequently during egglaying and incubation. The incubation period of the last egg in one clutch was established as being between 21.5 and 22.4 days. Four nests hatched between 12 and 20 July, and the hatching period of the entire clutch was less than 24 hours. Four of 7 nests (57 %) survived and egg survival (53 %) was low. Families left the nesting area so on after hatching, concentrating at ponds where food was readily available for the young. Both adults attended the young during the pre-fledging period, but the females apparently departed before the young had hedged. Males left once the young could fly and the adult fall migration was complete by early August. Most 01 the young departed belore mid-August. Fall migration is complete by late August or early September. The breeding season appears to be timed to peak load supply for the young. Adult Chironomidae emergence was highest between 3 and 17 July, the period during which most successful nests hatched. The increasing scarcity of adult insects for the young after mid-July was offset by family movements over the tundra and the early departure of half the adult population. Food also seemed to influence the distribution of breeding pairs aver the tundra, restricting them to the general vicinity of marshes, streams, and ponds where food is most available when the young hatch. Territoriality in the Knot appears to be closely associated with the protection of the nest against predators and has at least a local effect in regulating the number of breeding pairs. Plant material was important in the diet of adult Knots throughout the summer and the primary food from the time of arrival until mid-June. After mid-June the percentage of animal matter increased as dipterous insects became available (especially adult Chironomidae), but plant materials continued to constitute a large part of the diet, usually more than 50 %. The food of the young before fledging consisted principally of adult chironomids.
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  • 60
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    In:  Supplement to: Baturin, Gleb N (1974): New data on the Upper Quaternary phosphorite nodules on the Southwest African shelf. Oceanology, 14, 856-860
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Paleotemperature curves were drawn from oxygen-isotope ratios in CaCO3 of planktonic foraminiferal tests and by the micropaleontological method using quantitative relationships of their species. Two series of curves yield similar results. These data confirm that isotope composition of oxygen reflects primarily temperature, and not isotope composition in ocean water. Temperature of the upper layer of ocean water increased from north to south both during the last two glaciations and in the interglacials. All three sediment cores collected from different latitudes show approximately the same amplitudes of fluctuation of mean annual temperature during times of their accumulation, as determined independently by different methods; these amplitudes are estimated as 5-7°C.
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  • 61
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Friedrich, Günther; Kunzendorf, Helmar; Plüger, W L (1974): Ship-borne geochemical investigations of deep-sea manganese-nodule deposits in the Pacific using a radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray system. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 3(4), 303-317, https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-6742(74)90001-6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: A radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) system has been used on board the German research vessel "Valdivia" during an exploration expedition in the northern equatorial Pacific in 1973. The instrumentation used consisted of an X-ray detection system incorporating a 30 mm2 effective-area Si (Li) detector with a measured energy resolution of 195 eV for Mn K alpha X-rays, standard nuclear electronics, a 1024-channel analyser and a data read-out unit. The X-ray spectra in the manganese-nodule samples were excited by a 30-mCi 238Pu source. The six elements Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were analysed on board. Precision values for the analyses were less than 3% for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn and about 5% for Co. A total amount of 350 analyses was carried out during a one-month cruise. Average contents of 190 analysed whole manganese-nodule samples from all the sampling sites of the covered area were 23.3% Mn, 6.7% Fe, 0.23% Co, 1.16% Ni, 0.94% Cu and 0.10% Zn. The average content of the base metals expressed as the sum of the Co, Ni, Cu and Zn contents was 2.48%. A linear relationship between Mn and Ni in all analysed samples, including whole manganese-nodule samples, zones of manganese nodules and manganese crusts, was observed. The Mn/Ni ratio calculated by regression analysis was 23.0. Zonal variations of the chemical contents of the six elements in the manganese nodules were found. A size classification of the manganese nodules has been suggested. Geochemical correlations of Cu and Ni versus Mn/Fe in the investigated samples are given.
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  • 62
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: McDougall, Ian; van der Lingen, Gerrit J (1974): Age of the Rhyolites of the Lord Howe Rise and the evolution of the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21(2), 117-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(74)90044-2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Drilling at site 207 (DSDP Leg 21), located on the broad summit of the Lord Howe Rise, bottomed in rhyolitic rocks. Sanidine concentrates from four samples of the rhyolite were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion method and conventional K-Ar method, and yielded concordant ages of 93.7 +/- 1.1 my, equivalent to the early part of the Upper Cretaceous. At this time the Lord Howe Rise, which has continental-type structure, is thought to have been emergent and adjacent to the eastern margin of the Australian-antarctic continent. Subsequent to 94 my ago and prior to deposition of Maastrichtian (70-65 myBP) marine sediments on top of the rhyolitic basement of the Lord Howe Rise, rifting occurred and the formation of the Tasman Basin began by sea-floor spreading with rotation of the Rise away from the margin of Australia. Subsidence of the Rise continued until Early Eocene (about 50 myBP), probably marking the end of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Basin. These large scale movements relate to the breakup of this part of Gondwanaland in the Upper Cretaceous.
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  • 63
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Gieskes, Joris M (1974): Interstitial water studies, Leg 25. In: Simpson, ESW; Schlich, R; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Government Print Office), 25, 361-394, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.25.113.1974
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Interstitial water analyses from sediments collected during Leg 25 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project have revealed that in the southwest Indian Ocean, great chemical activity exists in sediments in various depositional environments. Variable sedimentation rates allow us to set some interesting boundary conditions on chemical and transport processes in these interstitial waters, particularly with regard to the distribution of dissolved sulfate. In terrigenous rapidly deposited sediments, large depletions are observed in magnesium and potassium, whereas relatively small decreases in dissolved calcium occur. In slowly deposited detrital sediments, also, large decreases in potassium and magnesium coincide with very large calcium increases. In truly pelagic sediments, a one to one replacement of magnesium by calcium is observed in the interstitial waters, presumably due to reactions in the basal sediment layers. Biogenous deposits have great influence on dissolved silica (sponge spicules and radiolarians) and on dissolved strontium (carbonate recrystallization). Otherwise, dissolved silica reflects the clay mineralogy and shows variations which seem particularly dependent on the presence or absence of kaolinite. Variable dissolved manganese values reflect reducing conditions and/or availability of manganese in the solid phases for mobilization in reducing sediments.
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  • 64
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    In:  Supplement to: Bode, Gerald W (1974): Carbonate and carbonate analyses, Leg 27. In: Bader, RG; Gerard, RD; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Government Print Office), 27, 499-502, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.27.121.1974
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Leg 27 sediments were analyzed for total carbon and acid-insoluble (organic) carbon using a LECO acid-base Analyzer. The 3-cc sediment samples were first dried at 105°-110°C and then ground to a homogeneous powder. The ground sediment was redried and two samples, a 0.1-g and a 0.5-g sample, were then weighed into LECO clay crucibles. The 0.5-g sample was acidified with diluted hydrochloric acid and washed with distilled water. The sample was then dried and analyzed for acid-insoluble carbon, listed in the table as "organic" carbon. The 0.1-g sample was analyzed for total carbon without further treatment. If the result showed less than 10% CaCO3, an additional 0.5-g sample was analyzed for greater accuracy. The calcium carbon percentages were calculated as follows: (% total C-% organic C) * 8.33 = % CaCO3. Although other carbonates may be present, all acid-soluble carbon was calculated as calcium carbonate. All results are given in weight percent.
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  • 65
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Scott, Martha R; Scott, Robert B; Rona, Peter A; Butler, Louis W; Nalwalk, Andrew J (1974): Rapidly accumulating manganese deposit from the Median Valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geophysical Research Letters, 1(8), 355-358, https://doi.org/10.1029/GL001i008p00355
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: A manganese oxide crust from an extensive deposit in the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was found to be unusually high in manganese (up to 39.4% Mn), low in Fe (as low as 0.01% Fe), low in trace metals and deficient in Th230 and Pa231 with respect to the parent uranium isotopes in the sample. The accumulation rate is 100 mm to 200 mm/10 million year, or 2 orders of magnitude faster than the typical rate for deep-sea ferromanganese deposits. The rapid growth rate and unusual chemistry are consistent with a hydrothermal origin or with a diagenetic origin by manganese remobilized from reduced sediments. Because of the association with an active ridge, geophysical evidence indicative of hydrothermal activity, and a scarcity of sediment in the sampling area, we suggest that a submarine hot spring has created the deposit.
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  • 66
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    In:  Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Some cores and samples of the VA 04 (R/V Valdivia) expedition were placed in the SIO Collections by Gustav Arrhenius in 1976. The associated nodules analyses were later included in the NOAA-MMS database.
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 67
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Shiki, Tsunemasa; Harada, K; Yoshida, H; Okuda, Y; Aoki, H; Hansen, H; Matsuo, K; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Takayama, Toshiaki (1974): Basaltic tuff obtained at the Daini-Kinan Seamount and acidic plutonic rocks collected at the Komabashi-Daini Seamount (in Japanese). Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 80(10), 489-491, https://doi.org/10.5575/geosoc.80.489
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: During the GDP-8 cruise of R/V Bosei-Maru, scientists from the Tokai University surveyed the Kinan seamount chain and the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Phillippine Sea. They dredged manganese nodules and ferromanganese crusts formed around basaltic tuff rocks and acid plutonic rock pebbles.
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  • 68
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Whitmarsh, Robert B; Weser, Oscar E; Ross, David A; Syed, A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R G; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R W; Jipa, D; Kidd, Robert B; Mallik, Tapas Kumar; Manheim, Frank T; Matter, A; Nigrini, Catherine A; Siddiquie, H N; Stoffers, Peter; Supko, Peter R (1974): Site 221. In: Whitmarsh, R.B.; Weser, O.E.; Ross, D.A.; et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, XXIII, 167-210, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.23.105.1974
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Located on the Arabian Abyssal Plain near its southernmost termination, this site recorded continuous Middle Eocene through Pleistocene deep-water sedimentation above oceanic basalt. A chert layer is developed at the base of the Eocene strata. The Eocene through Miocene sequence shows the transition from biogenic ooze to brown clay sedimentation which typifies depositional sites as they move from a ridge crest to a deep-ridge flank position. Above this sequence is an undifferentiated Pliocene-Miocene through Pleistocene interval of terrigenous and calcareous turbidites. The former were derived from the Indus Canyon, and the latter from elsewhere.
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  • 69
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Piper, David Z (1974): Rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules and other marine phases. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 38(7), 1007-1022, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(74)90002-7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The concentrations of rare-earth elements (REE) have been measured in 31 ferromanganese nodules from the Pacific and Indian Oceans and vary by almost a factor of 5. Too few nodules have been analyzed to define possible regional trends. The shale-normalized patterns, however, permit division of nodules into two groups: those from depth greater than 3000–3500 m and those from less depth. The factors that determine this change in the relative concentration of REE may be related to the mineralogy of manganese phases and/or the transport of REE to the deep ocean by particulate matter. Comparison of the REE patterns of nodules with those of phillipsite, phosphorite, clays, CaCO3 and seawater suggests that the patterns of these phases reflect fractionation from an initial pattern closely resembling that of shale. By assuming that the accumulation rate of REE in clays, CaCO3 and nodules is represented by that for surface sediments, it has been possible to estimate an accumulation rate of phillipsite in pelagic sediments of the Pacific of 0.02 mg/cm2/yr.
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  • 70
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Marchig, Vesna (1974): Zur Geochemie rezenter Sedimente des Indischen Ozeans II. Arabisches Meer, afrikanischer Kontinentalrand und Vergleich mit dem indisch-pakistanischen Kontinentalrand. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C18, 1-34
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Chemical analyses have been carried out on 40 samples from the sediment surface and 210 samples from cores that were taken from the edge of the African continental block at the Arabian Sea (coasts of Somalia and Kenya, from Cape Guardafui to Mombasa) on the occasion of the Indian Ocean Expedition of the German research vessel "Meteor" during the years 1964/65. The carbonate content shows its maximum on the northern part of the continental shelf of Africa, where fossil reef debris furnish the detritic portion of carbonate. In the southern part of the continental shelf of Africa the portion of carbonate is low, as it is heavily diluted by the non-carbonatic detritus. It is also in the deep-sea that a lower carbonate content is encountered below the calcite compensation depth. Trace elements in the carbonates: On the shelf and in its vicinity Sr and Mg are enriched. The enrichment has been brought about by the portion of reef debris, as this latter contains aragonite (enrichment of Sr) as well as high-magnesium calcite. The greatest part of the slope contains carbonates that are poor in trace elements and mainly made up of foraminifera (and of coccoliths). Below the carbonate compensation depth another enrichment of Mg takes place in the carbonates, which is probably due to a selective dissolution of calcite in comparison to dolomite. The iron and manganese contents of the carbonates are high (iron higher in coast proximity, manganese higher in the depth), but not genuine, as they come about in the course of the extraction of the carbonates as a result of the dissolution of authigenic Mn-Fe-minerals. Non-carbonatic portion of the sediments: In coast proximity an enrichment of quartz comes about. Within the quartz-rich zone it is the elements V, Cr, Fe, Ti, and B that have been enriched in the non-carbonatic components. This enrichment must be attributed to an elevated content of heavy minerals. In the case of Ti and Fe the preliminary enrichment brought about by processes of lateritisation on the continent plays a certain role. Toward the deep-sea an enrichment of the elements Mn Ni, Cu, and Zn takes place; these enrichments must be explained by authigenic Mn-Fe-minerals. Within the Mn-rich zone a belt running parallel to the coast stands out that shows an increased Mn-enrichment. However, this increase in enrichment does not apply to the elements Ni, Cu, and Zn. It is probable that this latter increased enrichment comes about as a result of the migration of manganese to the sediment surface. (Within the sediments there prevail reductive conditions, in the presence of which Mn is capable of migration, whereas at the sediment surface its precipitation comes about under oxidizing conditions). The quantity of organic matter mainly is dependent on grain size and on the rate of sedimentation. On the shelf an impoverishment of organic matter is to be encountered, as the sediments are coarse-grained. In the depth the impoverishment must be explained on the strength of a small rate of sedimentation. Between those two ranges organic substance is enriched. P and N show an enrichment in comparison to Corg with this applying all the more the smaller the absolute quantity of Corg is. In this particular case one has to do with an enrichment coming about during the diagenetic processes of organic matter. A comparison with the sediments from the Indian and Pakistani continental border in Arabian Sea shows as follows: on the African continental border the coarse detrital material has been transported farther out to deep-sea, which has something to do with the greater inclination of the surface of sedimentation. Carbonate is found in greater abundance on the African side. Its chemical composition is influenced by reef-debris which is missing by Indian-Pakistani side. The content of organic matter is lower on the African side. Contrary to that, the enrichments of N and P compared to organic matter are of an equal order of magnitude on both sides of the Arabian Sea.
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  • 71
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Lutze, Gerhard F (1974): Benthische Foraminiferen in Oberflächen-Sedimenten des Persischen Golfes. Teil 1: Arten. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C17, 1-66
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: During "Meteor"cruise 1965 the author collected 134 samples of surface sediments from the Iranian part of the Persian Gulf. Benthic Foraminifera populations have been analysed for determining their depth zonation. These data are supposed to allow detailed depth interpretation of Pleistocene sediments found in cores. In addition, the ecological information might be usefull to reconstruct the depositional environment of fossil sediments in similar shallow epicontinental seas. The investigation is published in two parts: the present part 1 contains the catalogue of species with short discussions of taxonomic problems, notes on the distribution within the Persian Gulf and 11 plates, partly with scanning electron micrographs. The results of the statistical analysis are given in data tables which include number of species, percentages of 2 (and 5) ranked species, standing crop and foraminiferal numbers. The author used "species groups" to avoid ambiguities with species requiring additional taxonomic studies. However, species numbers within these units are estimated to yield applicable diversity information. - A total of 52 species and 7 "species groups" were separated, 2 new species were described.
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  • 72
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Weigmann, Renate (1974): Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen der Euphausiaceen (Crustacea) im Bereich der Großen Meteorbank. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe D Biologie, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, D17, 17-32
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: In the course of the voyages 9a and 9c (1967) and 19 (1970) of the RV "Meteor" samples of plankton and neuston have been taken in the area of the Great Meteor Seamount. The euphausiids of this material have been examined quantitatively as well as qualitatively in order to study the influence of the Great and Small Meteor Seamount on a vertically migrating group of plankton. 20 species could be identified. All stem from the surrounding deep water and belong to the tropical and subtropical fauna. On the plateau of the Great Meteor Seamount no indigenous species have been encountered and also the typical neritic species from the west coast off Africa are lacking. As for the euphausiids no relationships exist between the Great Meteor Seamount and the shelf area of West Africa. The dominant species around the Meteor Seamount were Euphausia brevii, Stylocheiron suhmii, E. hemigibba, S. longicorne and Thysanopoda subaequalis. Using the index of diversity (Simpson) distinct differences in the composition of species could be shown to exist between the plateau area of the Meteor Seamount and the surrounding sea. On the plateau of the Great Meteor Seamount the number of species was only 7, E. brevis and S. suhmii dominated. None of the species occurred in great numbers and none is adapted to the specific environmental conditions of the plateau of the Meteor Seamount. The fauna of the plateau is a depauperate one as compared with that of the surrounding sea. This can be explained by the fact that adult euphausiids require for their existence greater water depths than are found above the plateau of the Meteor Seamount.
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  • 73
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hessler, Robert R; Jumars, Peter A (1974): Abyssal community analysis from replicate cores in the central North Pacific. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 21(3), 185-209, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(74)90058-8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: A 0.25 m**2 United States Naval Electronics Laboratory box corer was used to take replicate samples from an oligotrophic bottom under the North Pacific Central Water Mass (~28°N, 155°W). The bottom is a red clay with manganese nodules at a depth of 5500-5800 m. Macrofaunal density ranges from 84 to 160 individuals per m**2 and is therefore much the same as in Northwest Atlantic Gyre waters. Of the macrofaunal taxa, polychaetes dominate (55 %), followed by tanaids (18 %), bivalves (7 %), and isopods (6 %). Meiofaunal taxa were only partially retained by the 297 µm screen used in washing. Even then, they are 1.5-3.9 times as abundant as the macrofaunal taxa, with nematodes being numerically dominant by far. Foraminifera seem to comprise an important portion of the community, but could not be assessed accurately because of the inability to discriminate living and dead tests. Remains of what are probably xenophyophoridans are also very important, but offer the same problem. Faunal diversity is extremely high, with deposit feeders comprising the overwhelming majority. Most species are rare, being encountered only once. The distributions of only three species show any significant deviation from randomness. The polychaete fauna from box cores collected from 90 miles to the north was not significantly different from that of the principal study locality. Concordance appeared at several taxonomic levels, from species through macrofaunal/meiofaunal relationships. As a result, the variation in total animal abundance shows aggregation among cores. We discuss Sokolova's concept of a deep-sea oligotrophic zone dominated by suspension feeders, and reconcile it with our present findings. The high diversity of the fauna combined with the low food level contradict theories that relate diversity directly with productivity.
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  • 74
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Müller, German; Stoffers, Peter (1974): Mineralogy and petrology of Black Sea basin sediments. The Black Sea - Geology, Chemistry, and Biology. Memoir. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 20, 200-248
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The origin and modes of transportation and deposition of inorganic sedimentary material of the Black Sea were studied in approximately 60 piston, gravity, and Kasten cores. The investigation showed that the sediment derived from the north and northwest (especially from the Danube) has a low calcite-dolomite ratio and a high quartz-feldspar ratio. Rock fragments are generally not abundant; garnet is the principal heavy mineral and illite is the predominant clay mineral. This sedimentary material differs markedly from that carried by Anatolian rivers, which is characterized by a high calcite-dolomite ratio and a low quartz-feldspar ratio. Rock fragments are abundant; pyroxene is the principal heavy mineral and montmorillonite is the predominant clay mineral. In generel, the clay fraction is large in all sediments (27.6-86.9 percent), and the lateral distributian indicates an increase in clay consent from the coasts toward two centers in the western and eastern Black Sea basin. Illite is the most common clay mineral in the Black Sea sediments. The lateral changes in composition of the clay mineral can easily be traced to the petrologic character of northern (rich in illite) and southern (rich in montmorillonite) source areas. In almost all cores, a rhythmic change of the montmorillonite-illite ratio with depth was observed. These changes may be related to the changing influence of the two provinces during the Holocene and late Pleistocene. Higher montmorillonite content seems to indicate climctic changes, probably stages of glaciation end permafrost in the northern area, at which time the illite supply was diminished to a large extent. The composition of the sand fraction is relatad to the different petrologic and morphologic characteristics of two major source provimces: (1) a northern province (rich in quartz, feldspars, and garnet) characterized by a low elevation, comprising the Danube basin area and the rivers draining the Russian platform; and (2) a southern province (rich in pyroxene and volcanic and metamorphic rocks) in the mountainous region of Anatolia and the Caucasus, characterized by small but extremely erosive rivers. The textural properties (graded bedding) of the deep-sea send layers clearly suggest deposition from turbidity currents. The carbonate content of the contemporary sediments ranges from 5 to 65 percent. It increases from the coast to a maximum in two centers in the western and eastern basin. This pattern reflects the distribution of the 〈2-µm fraction. The contemporary mud sedimentation is governed by two important factors: (1) the deposition of terrigenous allochthonous material of low carbonate content originating from the surrounding hinterland (northern and southern source areas), and (2) the autochthonous production of large quantities of biogenic calcite by coccolithophores during the last period of about 3,000-4,000 years.
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  • 75
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Winn, Kyaw (1974): Present and postglacial sedimentation in the Great Belt Channel (Western Baltic). Meyniana, 26, 63-101, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1974.26.63
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The Great Belt, the largest inlet to the Baltic Sea, has a deep and well defined channel system. A distinct thermohaline layer at roughly 18 to 20 m of water depth separates the saltier and generally cooler deeper North Sea water from the brackish and warmer surface water. It is practically a current dominated area, with the strongest bottom currents due to prolonged west winds. The size and shape of the surface sediments and their grain size distributions show a close relationship with the prevailing hydrographical conditions. Southerly current marks predominate while northerly directions are confined to 10 to 14 m of water depth. The degree of bioturbation is highest in the uppermost sedimentary cover where practically all original stratification has been destroyed. Various bioturbate structures have been identified with the fauna. Coiling ratios of Ammonia beccarii (Linnaeus) have been successfully applied for correlation in the postglacial sediments of the early Littorina Transgression. The succession shows that in the Boreal brackish water conditions were probably followed by peat and limnic sediments as the sea regressed. With the Littorina Transgression, the sea again entered the area and high sedimentation rates resulted in the major deposits of the Great Belt. At least for the last 4000 years, sedimentation rates had been very low. Present day currents sweep out the sediments, mainly to the southern marginal areas.
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  • 76
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Shima, Makoto; Okada, Akihiko (1974): Study on the managanese nodule (VIII) Inhomogeneous chemical distribution of manganese nodules (in Japanese). Scientific Report of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 50, 151-158, hdl:10013/epic.46490.d001
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Chemical analyses were performed on seveteen manganese nodules collected from the Pacific Ocean floor. The results were discussed compared with the previous data on the manganese nodules. Minerals were found to be todorokite, delta-MnO2 and other silicates, montmorillonite, illite, phillipsite and alpha-SiO2. Average composition shows that copper is concentrated on the deep sea nodules more than the shallow ones, and that the todorokite rich nodules contain more copper and nickel than the delta-MnO2 rich ones.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1157 data points
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 63 data points
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 52 data points
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 500 data points
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 46 data points
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  • 82
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: von Rad, Ulrich (1974): Great Meteor and Josephine Seamounts (eastern North Atlantic): Composition and origin of bioclastic sands, carbonate and pyroclastic rocks. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C19, 1-61
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: 1. Great Meteor Seamount (GMS) is a very large (24,000 km**3) guyot with a flat summit plateau at 330-275 m; it has a volcanic core, capped by 150-600 m of post-Middle-Miocene carbonate and pyroclastic rocks, and is covered by bioclastic sands. The much smaller Josephine Seamount (JS, summit 170- 500 m w. d.) consists mainly of basalt which is only locally covered by limestones and bioclastic sands. 2. The bioclastic sands are almost free of terrigenous components, and are well sorted, unimodal medium sands. (1) "Recent pelagic sands" are typical of water depths 〉 600 m (JS) or 〉 1000 m (GMS). (2) "Sands of mixed relict-recent origin" (10-40% relict) and (3) "relict sands" (〉 40% relict) are highly reworked, coarse lag deposits from the upper flanks and summit tops in which recent constituents are mixed with Pleistocene or older relict material. 3. From the carbonate rocks of both seamounts, 12 "microfacies" (MF-)types were distinguished. The 4 major types are: (1) Bio(pel)sparites (MF 1) occur on the summit plateaus and consist of magnesian calcite cementing small pellets and either redeposited planktonic bioclasts or mixed benthonic-planktonic skeletal debris ; (2) Porous biomicrites (MF 2) are typical of the marginal parts of the summit plateaus and contain mostly planktonic foraminifera (and pteropods), sometimes with redeposited bioclasts and/or coated grains; (3) Dense, ferruginous coralline-algal biomicrudites with Amphistegina sp. (MF 3.1), or with tuffaceous components (MF 3.2); (4) Dense, pelagic foraminiferal nannomicrite (MF 4) with scattered siderite rhombs. Corresponding to the proportion and mineralogical composition of the bioclasts and of the (Mgcalcitic) peloids, micrite, and cement, magnesian calcite (13-17 mol-% MgCO3) is much more abundant than low-Mg calcite and aragonite in rock types (1) and (2). Type (3) contains an "intermediate" Mg-calcite (7-9 mol-X), possibly due to an original Mg deficiency or to partial exsolution of Mg during diagenesis. The nannomicrite (4) consists of low-Mg calcite only. 4. Three textural types of volcanic and associated gyroclastic rocks were distinguished: (1) holohyaline, rapidly chilled and granulated lava flows and tuffs (palagonite tuff breccia and hyaloclastic top breccia); (2) tachylitic basalts (less rapidly chilled; with opaque glass); and (3) "slowly" crystallized, holocrystalline alkali olivine basalts. The carbonate in most mixed pyroclastic-carbonate sediments at the basalt contact is of "post-eruptive" origin (micritic crusts etc.); "pre-eruptive" limestone is recrystallized or altered at the basalt contact. A deuteric (?hydrothermal) "mineralX", filling vesicles in basalt and cementing pyroclastic breccias is described for the first time. 5. Origin and development of GMS andJS: From its origin, some 85 m. y. ago, the volcano of GMS remained active until about 10 m. y. B. P. with an average lava discharge of 320 km**3/m. y. The volcanic origin of JS is much younger (?Middle Tertiary), but the volcanic activity ended also about 9 m. y. ago. During L a t e Miocene to Pliocene times both volcanoes were eroded (wave-rounded cobbles). The oldest pyroclastics and carbonates (MF 3.1, 3.2) were originally deposited in shallow-water (?algal reef hardground). The Plio (-Pleisto) cene foraminiferal nannomicrites (MF 4) suggest a meso- to bathypelagic environment along the flanks of GMS. During the Quaternary (?Pleistocene) bioclastic sands were deposited in water depths beyond wave base on the summit tops, repeatedly reworked, and lithified into loosely consolidated biopelsparites and biomicrites (MF 1 and 2; Fig. 15). Intermediate steps were a first intragranular filling by micrite, reworking, oncoidal coating, weak consolidation with Mg-calcite cemented "peloids" in intergranular voids and local compaction of the peloids into cryptocrystalline micrite with interlocking Mg-calcite crystals up to 4p. The submarine lithification process was frequently interrupted by long intervals of nondeposition, dissolution, boring, and later infilling. The limestones were probably never subaerially exposed. Presently, the carbonate rocks undergo biogenic incrustation and partial dissolution into bioclastic sands. The irregular distribution pattern of the sands reflects (a) the patchy distribution of living benthonic organisms, (b) the steady rain of planktonic organism onto the seamount top, (c) the composition of disintegrating subrecent limestones, and (d) the intensity of winnowing and reworking bottom current
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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