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  • Oxford University Press  (428,629)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: The Pollino range is a region of slow deformation where earthquakes generally nucleate on low-angle normal faults. Recent studies have mapped fault structures and identified fluid related dynamics responsible for historical and recent seismicity in the area. Here, we apply the coda-normalization method at multiple frequencies and scales to image the 3-D P-wave attenuation (QP) properties of its slowly deforming fault network. The wide-scale average attenuation properties of the Pollino range are typical for a stable continental block, with a dependence of QP on frequency of Q−1 P = (0.0011   0.0008) f (0.36 0.32). Using only waveforms comprised in the area of seismic swarms, the dependence of attenuation on frequency increases [Q−1 P = (0.0373   0.0011) f (−0.59 0.01)], as expected when targeting seismically active faults. A shallow very-low-attenuation anomaly (max depth of 4–5 km) caps the seismicity recorded within the western cluster 1 of the Pollino seismic sequence (2012, maximum magnitude Mw = 5.1). High-attenuation volumes below this anomaly are likely related to fluid storage and comprise the western and northern portions of cluster 1 and the Mercure basin. These anomalies are constrained to the NW by a sharp low-attenuation interface, corresponding to the transition towards the eastern unit of the Apennine Platform under the Lauria mountains. The low-seismicity volume between cluster 1 and cluster 2 (maximum magnitude Mw = 4.3, east of the primary) shows diffuse low-to-average attenuation features. There is no clear indication of fluid-filled pathways between the two clusters resolvable at our resolution. In this volume, the attenuation values are anyway lower than in recognized low-attenuation blocks, like the Lauria Mountain and Pollino Range. As the volume develops in a region marked at surface by small-scale cross-faulting, it suggests no actual barrier between clusters, more likely a system of small locked fault patches that can break in the future. Our model loses resolution at depth, but it can still resolve a 5-to-15-km-deep high-attenuation anomaly that underlies the Castrovillari basin. This anomaly is an ideal deep source for the SE-to-NW migration of historical seismicity. Our novel deep structural maps support the hypothesis that the Pollino sequence has been caused by a mechanism of deep and lateral fluid-induced migration.
    Description: Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Oil and Gas. University of Aberdeen.
    Description: Published
    Description: 536–547
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: body waves ; seismic attenuation ; seismic tomography ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Suca, J. J., Deroba, J. J., Richardson, D. E., Ji, R., & Llopiz, J. K. Environmental drivers and trends in forage fish occupancy of the Northeast US shelf. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 78(10), (2021): 3687–3708, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsab214.
    Description: The Northeast US shelf ecosystem is undergoing unprecedented changes due to long-term warming trends and shifts in regional hydrography leading to changes in community composition. However, it remains uncertain how shelf occupancy by the region's dominant, offshore small pelagic fishes, also known as forage fishes, has changed throughout the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Here, we use species distribution models to estimate the change in shelf occupancy, mean weighted latitude, and mean weighted depth of six forage fishes on the Northeast US shelf, and whether those trends were linked to coincident hydrographic conditions. Our results suggest that observed shelf occupancy is increasing or unchanging for most species in both spring and fall, linked both to gear shifts and increasing bottom temperature and salinity. Exceptions include decreases to observed shelf occupancy by sand lance and decreases to Atlantic herring's inferred habitat suitability in the fall. Our work shows that changes in shelf occupancy and inferred habitat suitability have varying coherence, indicating complex mechanisms behind observed shelf occupancy for many species. Future work and management can use these results to better isolate the aspects of forage fish life histories that are important for determining their occupancy of the Northeast US shelf.
    Description: Funding came from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Woods Hole Sea Grant Program (NA18OAR4170104, Project number R/O-57; RJ and JKL) and a National Science Foundation Long-term Ecological Research grant for the Northeast US Shelf Ecosystem (OCE1655686; RJ and JKL). JJS was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship program.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Shoshan, Y., Liscovitch-Brauer, N., Rosenthal, J. J. C., & Eisenberg, E. Adaptive proteome diversification by nonsynonymous A-to-I RNA editing in coleoid cephalopods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(9), (2021): 3775–3788, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab154.
    Description: RNA editing by the ADAR enzymes converts selected adenosines into inosines, biological mimics for guanosines. By doing so, it alters protein-coding sequences, resulting in novel protein products that diversify the proteome beyond its genomic blueprint. Recoding is exceptionally abundant in the neural tissues of coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes), with an over-representation of nonsynonymous edits suggesting positive selection. However, the extent to which proteome diversification by recoding provides an adaptive advantage is not known. It was recently suggested that the role of evolutionarily conserved edits is to compensate for harmful genomic substitutions, and that there is no added value in having an editable codon as compared with a restoration of the preferred genomic allele. Here, we show that this hypothesis fails to explain the evolutionary dynamics of recoding sites in coleoids. Instead, our results indicate that a large fraction of the shared, strongly recoded, sites in coleoids have been selected for proteome diversification, meaning that the fitness of an editable A is higher than an uneditable A or a genomically encoded G.
    Description: This research was supported by a grants from the United States–Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), Jerusalem, Israel (BSF2017262 to J.J.C.R. and E.E.), the Israel Science Foundation (3371/20 to E.E.) and the National Science Foundation (IOS 1827509 and 1557748 to J.J.C.R).
    Keywords: RNA editing ; adaptation ; evolution
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Suca, J. J., Wiley, D. N., Silva, T. L., Robuck, A. R., Richardson, D. E., Glancy, S. G., Clancey, E., Giandonato, T., Solow, A. R., Thompson, M. A., Hong, P., Baumann, H., Kaufman, L., & Llopiz, J. K. Sensitivity of sand lance to shifting prey and hydrography indicates forthcoming change to the northeast US shelf forage fish complex. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 78(3), (2021): 1023–1037, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsaa251.
    Description: Northern sand lance (Ammodytes dubius) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) represent the dominant lipid-rich forage fish species throughout the Northeast US shelf and are critical prey for numerous top predators. However, unlike Atlantic herring, there is little research on sand lance or information about drivers of their abundance. We use intra-annual measurements of sand lance diet, growth, and condition to explain annual variability in sand lance abundance on the Northeast US Shelf. Our observations indicate that northern sand lance feed, grow, and accumulate lipids in the late winter through summer, predominantly consuming the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Sand lance then cease feeding, utilize lipids, and begin gonad development in the fall. We show that the abundance of C. finmarchicus influences sand lance parental condition and recruitment. Atlantic herring can mute this effect through intra-guild predation. Hydrography further impacts sand lance abundance as increases in warm slope water decrease overwinter survival of reproductive adults. The predicted changes to these drivers indicate that sand lance will no longer be able to fill the role of lipid-rich forage during times of low Atlantic herring abundance—changing the Northeast US shelf forage fish complex by the end of the century.
    Description: Research was funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (IA agreement M17PG0019; DNW, LK, HB, and JKL), including a subaward via the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation (18-11-B-203). Additional support came from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Woods Hole Sea Grant Program (NA18OAR4170104, Project No. R/O-57; JKL, HB, and DNW) and a National Science Foundation Long-term Ecological Research grant for the Northeast US Shelf Ecosystem (OCE 1655686; JKL). JJS was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship programme. ARR was funded by an NOAA Nancy Foster Scholarship.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Tassia, M. G., David, K. T., Townsend, J. P., & Halanych, K. M. TIAMMAt: leveraging biodiversity to revise protein domain models, evidence from innate immunity. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(12), (2021): 5806–5818, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab258.
    Description: Sequence annotation is fundamental for studying the evolution of protein families, particularly when working with nonmodel species. Given the rapid, ever-increasing number of species receiving high-quality genome sequencing, accurate domain modeling that is representative of species diversity is crucial for understanding protein family sequence evolution and their inferred function(s). Here, we describe a bioinformatic tool called Taxon-Informed Adjustment of Markov Model Attributes (TIAMMAt) which revises domain profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) by incorporating homologous domain sequences from underrepresented and nonmodel species. Using innate immunity pathways as a case study, we show that revising profile HMM parameters to directly account for variation in homologs among underrepresented species provides valuable insight into the evolution of protein families. Following adjustment by TIAMMAt, domain profile HMMs exhibit changes in their per-site amino acid state emission probabilities and insertion/deletion probabilities while maintaining the overall structure of the consensus sequence. Our results show that domain revision can heavily impact evolutionary interpretations for some families (i.e., NLR’s NACHT domain), whereas impact on other domains (e.g., rel homology domain and interferon regulatory factor domains) is minimal due to high levels of sequence conservation across the sampled phylogenetic depth (i.e., Metazoa). Importantly, TIAMMAt revises target domain models to reflect homologous sequence variation using the taxonomic distribution under consideration by the user. TIAMMAt’s flexibility to revise any subset of the Pfam database using a user-defined taxonomic pool will make it a valuable tool for future protein evolution studies, particularly when incorporating (or focusing) on nonmodel species.
    Description: This work was supported by The National Science Foundation (Grant No. IOS—1755377 to K.M.H., Rita Graze, and Elizabeth Hiltbold Schwartz), and K.T.D. was supported by The National Science Foundation’s Graduate Research Fellowship Program.
    Keywords: protein evolution ; domain annotation ; animal evolution ; innate immunity
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2022-06-24
    Description: © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Page, H. N., Bahr, K. D., Cyronak, T., Jewett, E. B., Johnson, M. D., & McCoy, S. J. Responses of benthic calcifying algae to ocean acidification differ between laboratory and field settings. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 79(1), (2022): 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsab232.
    Description: Accurately predicting the effects of ocean and coastal acidification on marine ecosystems requires understanding how responses scale from laboratory experiments to the natural world. Using benthic calcifying macroalgae as a model system, we performed a semi-quantitative synthesis to compare directional responses between laboratory experiments and field studies. Variability in ecological, spatial, and temporal scales across studies, and the disparity in the number of responses documented in laboratory and field settings, make direct comparisons difficult. Despite these differences, some responses, including community-level measurements, were consistent across laboratory and field studies. However, there were also mismatches in the directionality of many responses with more negative acidification impacts reported in laboratory experiments. Recommendations to improve our ability to scale responses include: (i) developing novel approaches to allow measurements of the same responses in laboratory and field settings, and (ii) researching understudied calcifying benthic macroalgal species and responses. Incorporating these guidelines into research programs will yield data more suitable for robust meta-analyses and will facilitate the development of ecosystem models that incorporate proper scaling of organismal responses to in situ acidification. This, in turn, will allow for more accurate predictions of future changes in ecosystem health and function in a rapidly changing natural climate.
    Description: We would like to thank the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program for organizing the fourth U.S. Ocean Acidification Principal Investigators meeting, which is where this synthesis was conceived. HNP was a postdoctoral research fellow at Mote Marine Laboratory. MDJ is a postdoctoral scholar at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. SJM is a Norma J. Lang early career fellow of the Phycological Society of America.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
    Description: On 29 December 2020, a shallow earthquake of magnitude Mw 6.4 struck northern Croatia, near the town of Petrinja, more than 24 hours after a strong foreshock (Ml 5). We formed a reconnaissance team of European geologists and engineers, from Croatia, Slovenia, France, Italy and Greece, rapidly deployed in the field to map the evidence of coseismic environmental effects. In the epicentral area, we recognized surface deformation, such as tectonic breaks along the earthquake source at the surface, liquefaction features (scattered in the fluvial plains of Kupa, Glina and Sava rivers), and slope failures, both caused by strong motion. Thanks to this concerted, collective and meticulous work, we were able to document and map a clear and unambiguous coseismic surface rupture associated with the main shock. The surface rupture appears discontinuous, consisting of multi-kilometer en échelon right stepping sections, along a NW-SE striking fault that we call the Petrinja-Pokupsko Fault (PPKF). The observed deformation features, in terms of kinematics and trace alignments, are consistent with slip on a right lateral fault, in agreement with the focal solution of the main shock. We found mole tracks, displacement on faults affecting natural features (e. g. drainage channels), scarplets, and more frequently breaks of anthropogenic markers (roads, fences). The surface rupture is observed over a length of ∼13 km from end-to-end, with a maximum displacement of 38 cm, and an average displacement of ∼10 cm. Moreover, the liquefaction extends over an area of nearly 600 km² around the epicenter. Typology of liquefaction features include sand blows, lateral spreading phenomenon along the road and river embankments, as well as sand ejecta of different grain size and matrix. Development of large and long fissures along the fluvial landforms, current or ancient, with massive ejections of sediments is pervasive. These features are sometimes accompanied by small horizontal displacements. Finally, the environmental effects of the earthquake appear to be reasonably consistent with the usual scaling relationships, in particular the surface faulting. This rupture of the ground occurred on or near traces of a fault that shows clear evidence of Quaternary activity. Further and detailed studies will be carried out to characterize this source and related faults in terms of future large earthquakes potential, for their integration into seismic hazard models.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1394–1418
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismicity and tectonics ; Earthquake hazards ; Coseismic effects ; M6.4 Petrinja earthquake (Croatia)
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-06-22
    Description: In this paper we simulate the earthquake that hit the city of L'Aquila on the 6th of April 2009 using SPEED (SPectral Elements in Elastodynamics with Discontinuous Galerkin), an open-source code able to simulate the propagation of seismic waves in complex three-dimensional (3D) domains. Our model includes an accurate 3D recon- struction of the Quaternary deposits, according to the most up-to-date data obtained from the Microzonation studies in Central Italy and a detailed model of the topography incorporated using a newly developed tool (May et al. 2021). The sensitivity of our results with respect to dfferent kinematic seismic sources is inves- tigated. The results obtained are in good agreement with the recordings at the available seismic stations at epicentral distances within a range of 20km. Finally, a blind source prediction scenario application shows a reasonably good agreement between simulations and recordings can be obtained by simulating stochastic rupture realizations with basic input data. These results, although limited to nine simulated scenarios, demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a satisfactory reconstruction of a ground shaking scenario employing a stochastic source constrained on a limited amount of ex-ante information. A similar approach can be used to model future and past earthquakes for which little or no information is typically available, with potential relevant implications for seismic risk assessment.
    Description: Published
    Description: 29–49
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-02-03
    Description: In volcanoes, topography, shallow heterogeneity and even shallow morphology can substan- tially modify seismic coda signals. Coda waves are an essential tool to monitor eruption dynamics and model volcanic structures jointly and independently from velocity anomalies: it is thus fundamental to test their spatial sensitivity to seismic path effects. Here, we apply the Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) to measure the relative importance of scattering attenuation vs absorption at Mount St Helens volcano before its 2004 erup- tion. The results show the characteristic dominance of scattering attenuation in volcanoes at lower frequencies (3–6 Hz), while absorption is the primary attenuation mechanism at 12 and 18 Hz. Scattering attenuation is similar but seismic absorption is one order of magnitude lower than at open-conduit volcanoes, like Etna and Kilauea, a typical behaviour of a (rela- tively) cool magmatic plumbing system. Still, the seismic albedo (measuring the ratio between seismic energy emitted and received from the area) is anomalously high (0.95) at 3 Hz. A radiative-transfer forward model of far- and near-field envelopes confirms this is due to strong near-receiver scattering enhancing anomalous phases in the intermediate and late coda across the 1980 debris avalanche and central crater. Only above this frequency and in the far-field diffusion onsets at late lapse times. The scattering and absorption parameters derived from MLTWA are used as inputs to construct 2-D frequency-dependent bulk sensitivity kernels for the S-wave coda in the multiple-scattering (using the Energy Transport Equations—ETE) and diffusive (AD, independent of MLTWA results) regimes. At 12 Hz, high coda-attenuation anomalies characterize the eastern side of the volcano using both kernels, in spatial correla- tion with low-velocity anomalies from literature. At 3 Hz, the anomalous albedo, the forward modelling, and the results of the tomographic imaging confirm that shallow heterogeneity beneath the extended 1980 debris-avalanche and crater enhance anomalous intermediate and late coda phases, mapping shallow geological contrasts. We remark the effect this may have on coda-dependent source inversion and tomography, currently used across the world to image and monitor volcanoes. At Mount St Helens, higher frequencies and deep borehole data are necessary to reconstruct deep volcanic structures with coda waves.
    Description: Scottish Alliance for Geosciences Environment and Society and the Kleinman Grant for Volcano Research
    Description: Published
    Description: 169-188
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3IT. Calcolo scientifico
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: NorthAmerica ; Wave scattering and diffraction. ; Codawaves ; Seismicattenuation ; Seismic tomography ; Volcano seismology ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-03-15
    Description: In a recent work we computed the relative frequencies with which strong shocks (4.0≤Mw〈5.0), widely felt by the population were followed in the same area by potentially destructive main shocks (Mw≥5.0) in Italy. Assuming the stationarity of the seismic release properties, such frequencies can be tentatively used to estimate the probabilities of potentially destructive shocks after the occurrence of future strong shocks. This allows us to set up an alarm-based forecasting hypothesis related to strong foreshocks occurrence. Such hypothesis is tested retrospectively on the data of a homogenized seismic catalogue of the Italian area against a purely random hypothesis that simply forecasts the target main shocks proportionally to the space-time fraction occupied by the alarms. We compute the latter fraction in two ways a) as the ratio between the average time covered by the alarms in each area and the total duration of the forecasting experiment (60 years) and b) as the same ratio but weighted by the past frequency of occurrence of earthquakes in each area. In both cases the overall retrospective performance of our forecasting algorithm is definitely better than the random case. Considering an alarm duration of three months, the algorithm retrospectively forecasts more than 70% of all shocks with Mw5.5 occurred in Italy from 1960 to 2019 with a total space-time fraction covered by the alarms of the order of 2%. Considering the same space-time coverage, the algorithm is also able to retrospectively forecasts more than 40% of the first main shocks with Mw5.5 of the seismic sequences occurred in the same time interval. Given the good reliability of our results, the forecasting algorithm is set and ready to be tested also prospectively, in parallel to other ongoing procedures operating on the Italian territory.
    Description: This paper benefitted from funding provided by the European Union within the ambit of the H2020 project RISE (No. 821115), which in particular fully financed the PhD grant of one of the authors (E.B.).
    Description: Published
    Description: 1192–1206
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Earthquake interaction ; Statistical seismology ; forecasting, ; prediction ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-01-18
    Description: Relative location of microearthquakes that occurred at Mt Pollino (Italy) from 2011 to 2013 have been analyzed with the aim of a detailed imaging of the geometry of active faults. We identified 27 clusters composed of a number of earthquakes from 9 to 33, with local magnitude in the range 0.6–2.7. The relative location shows that the distribution of hypocentres in each cluster is characterized by extension from few tens of meters to at most 350 m. For each cluster the hypocentre distribution was fitted by a plane to infer the fault orientation, and results were compared with the fault plane solutions corresponding to the focal mechanism of earthquakes of the same cluster. The comparison shows a good agreement in most of the cases. The relative location analysis, generally applied to earthquakes with similar waveform, has been improved to permit also the relative location of earthquakes characterized by not similar signals. To achieve this purpose a modified procedure that overcome the condition of very similar waveforms has been applied to estimate the time delay between first pulses of the master events. The relative location of master events of all clusters shows a precise imaging of the relative position of all analysed sources and allows also to follow with high accuracy the evolution in time of the seismic swarm within the selected periods. The hypocentre position of master events and the nearly parallel fitting planes of any clusters suggest that most of the analyzed earthquakes were produced by different patches of the same fault. The final results depict a main fault plane characterized by NW–SE strike, dip of about 35–45° and depth between 4.5 and 6.5 km b.s.l. Focal mechanisms, used also to evaluate the local stress field, are mostly of normal type with few strike slip solutions for the shallowest events. This result is in good agreement with the local tectonic stress regime that is characterized by predominant NE–SW transtension, as inferred from structural, seismological and geophysical data.
    Description: Published
    Description: 637–648
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Persistence, memory, correlations, clustering, Spatial analysis, Crustal imaging, Earthquake source observations, Seismicity and tectonics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-01-18
    Description: The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) of seismic noise is often used to investigate site effects, and it is usually assumed to be a stable feature of the site considered. Here we show that such an assumption is not always justified, and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The HVSR analysis was performed on ambient seismic noise recordings lasting from weeks to months at many sites in Calabria, Italy. Results show a variety of site effects, from the resonance of a shallow sedimentary layer to the polarized amplification of horizontal ground motion associated with topographic effects. We describe the results of seven sites whose HVSR is characterized by dual content: one that is persistent, and another appearing only occasionally. Two sites very near the coast of the Tyrrhenian sea and five sites in the Calabrian Arc mountains show the most remarkable results. The shape of the HVSR changes significantly at these sites when the amplitude of background noise increases in a broad frequency band during periods of bad weather. The occasional contribution to the HVSR consists of one or more peaks, depending on the site, that appear only when the amplitude of ambient noise is higher than usual. The seven sites where we observe the HVSR variability are all located in complex geological environments, on mountains, ridges or foothills. A variation of the HVSR correlated with the day–night cycle is also observed at some of these sites.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2162–2171
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Since the Mesozoic, central and eastern European tectonics have been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. In the Miocene, the edge of the East European Craton and Moesian Platform were reworked in collision during the Carpathian orogeny and lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin. To investigate the mantle deformation signatures associated with this complex collisional-extensional system, we carry out SKS splitting analysis at 123 broad-band seismic stations in the region. We compare our measurements with estimates of lithospheric thickness and recent seismic tomography models to test for correlation with mantle heterogeneities. Reviewing splitting delay times in light of xenolith measurements of anisotropy yields estimates of anisotropic layer thickness. Fast polarization directions are mostly NW–SE oriented across the seismically slow West Carpathians and Pannonian Basin and are independent of geological boundaries, absolute plate motion direction or an expected palaeo-slab roll-back path. Instead, they are systematically orthogonal to maximum stress directions, implying that the indenting Adria Plate, the leading deformational force in Central Europe, reset the upper-mantle mineral fabric in the past 5 Ma beneath the Pannonian Basin, overprinting the anisotropic signature of earlier tectonic events. Towards the east, fast polarization directions are perpendicular to steep gradients of lithospheric thickness and align along the edges of fast seismic anomalies beneath the Precambrian-aged Moesian Platform in the South Carpathians and the East European Craton, supporting the idea that craton roots exert a strong influence on the surrounding mantle flow. Within the Moesian Platform, SKS measurements become more variable with Fresnel zone arguments indicating a shallow fossil lithospheric source of anisotropy likely caused by older tectonic deformation frozen in the Precambrian. In the Southeast Carpathian corner, in the Vrancea Seismic Zone, a lithospheric fragment that sinks into the mantle is sandwiched between two slow anomalies, but smaller SKS delay times reveal weaker anisotropy occurs mainly to the NW side, consistent with asymmetric upwelling adjacent to a slab, slower mantle velocities and recent volcanism.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2105–2118
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismic anisotropy ; geodynamics ; Seismic anisotropy and geodynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2021-02-10
    Description: The 2007 caldera-forming eruption of Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) erupted the largest volume of magma (210 Mm3)recorded at this volcano in at least three centuries. Major and trace element and Sr^Nd isotope data for bulk-rocks, groundmasses and olivine phenocrysts have been combined with melt inclusion data (major, trace and volatile elements) to track magma evolution over the whole eruptive sequence. We show that each eruptive phase had a distinctive geochemical and petrological signature and that caldera collapse on 5 April was preceded by a marked shift in bulk magma composition and crystal content and size. Aphyric basalt erupted at the beginning of the sequence (February 2007) had relatively high Sr isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr ¼ 0·70420^0·704180) and low Nd isotopic ratio(143Nd/144Nd ¼ 0·51285^0·51286). Olivine-basalts extruded on2^5 April just before caldera collapse are less enriched in radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr ¼ 0·70412^0·70416), but characterized by the same Nd isotopic composition. This magma is interpreted as a new deep input, which pressurized the shallow PdF plumbing system and triggered the 2007 activity. Post-collapse oceanite lavas represent the main volume of magma extruded in 2007. Their bulk-rocks and groundmasses have 87Sr/86Sr (0·70418) intermediate between those of February and 5 April, and similar to those of the March 2007 and 2001^2006 lavas.We show that the Steady State Basalts (SSB) commonly erupted at PdF are hybrid melts, which result from multistep mixing between ‘alkaline’and ‘transitional’end-members. Our results lead us to propose a new model of the PdF plumbing system to reconcile the petrological, geochemical and geophysical observations: (1) the shallow portion (above sea level) of the PdF plumbing system hosts several small sills, in which magma experiences variable degrees of degassing, cooling and crystallization; (2) oceanite lavas result from the withdrawal of shallow harrisitic mushes stored at low pressures (548 MPa; 51800^2400 m depth) below both the volcano summit and its eastern flank; (3) water degassing plays a major role in fast magma crystallization at shallow depths. Multistep ascent and periodic extrusion of the shallow magmas is promoted by injections of deeper and hotter basaltic magma, containing up to 1·3 wt % H2O and 1630 ppm S. In 2007, the new deep input was the ultimate source of the large excess in sulfur degassing detected by satellites. Lateral draining and intrusion of magma below the eastern flank of the volcano are the cause of major volcano deformation, flank sliding and summit caldera collapse.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1287-1315
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Piton de la Fournaise ; plumbing system ; magma reservoir ; caldera collapse ; melt inclusions ; volatile budget ; isotope geochemistry ; basalt
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2021-02-24
    Description: We compile a data set of Rayleigh-wave phase velocities between pairs of stations, based on teleseismic events located on the same great circle as the two stations. We validate our observations against dispersion estimates based on ambient-noise cross correlations at the same station pairs. Discrepancies between the results of the two methods can in principle be explained by deviations in the wave propagation path between earthquake and receivers, due to lateral heterogeneity in the Earth’s structure, but the latter effect has, so far, not been precisely quantified nor corrected for. We implement an algorithm to measure the arrival angle of earthquake-generated surface waves and correct the dispersion measurements accordingly. Application to a data set from the Central-Western Mediterranean shows that the arrival-angle correction almost entirely accounts for the discrepancy in question, decreasing significantly the velocity bias for a wide range of periods.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1838–1844
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.06. Seismology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2021-02-23
    Description: The preparation, initiation, and occurrence dynamics of earthquakes in Italy are governed by several frequently unknown physical mechanisms and parameters. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for developing new techniques and approaches for earthquake monitoring and hazard assessments. Here, we develop a first-order numerical model simulating quasi-static crustal interseismic loading, coseismic brittle episodic dislocations, and postseismic relaxation for extensional and compressional earthquakes in Italy based on a common framework of lithostatic and tectonic forces. Our model includes an upper crust, where the fault is locked, and a deep crust, where the fault experiences steady shear.
    Description: Published
    Description: 627–645
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-03-24
    Description: The 2016–17 central Italy earthquake sequence began with the first mainshock near the town of Amatrice on August 24 (MW 6.0), and was followed by two subsequent large events near Visso on October 26 (MW 5.9) and Norcia on October 30 (MW 6.5), plus a cluster of 4 events with MW 〉 5.0 within few hours on January 18, 2017. The affected area had been monitored before the sequence started by the permanent Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC), and was enhanced during the sequence by temporary stations deployed by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology and the British Geological Survey. By the middle of September, there was a dense network of 155 stations, with a mean separation in the epicentral area of 6–10 km, comparable to the most likely earthquake depth range in the region. This network configuration was kept stable for an entire year, producing 2.5 TB of continuous waveform recordings. Here we describe how this data was used to develop a large and comprehensive earthquake catalogue using the Complete Automatic Seismic Processor (CASP) procedure. This procedure detected more than 450,000 events in the year following the first mainshock, and determined their phase arrival times through an advanced picker engine (RSNI-Picker2), producing a set of about 7 million P- and 10 million S-wave arrival times. These were then used to locate the events using a non-linear location (NLL) algorithm, a 1D velocity model calibrated for the area, and station corrections and then to compute their local magnitudes (ML). The procedure was validated by comparison of the derived data for phase picks and earthquake parameters with a handpicked reference catalogue (hereinafter referred to as ‘RefCat’). The automated procedure takes less than 12 hours on an Intel Core-i7 workstation to analyse the primary waveform data and to detect and locate 3000 events on the most seismically active day of the sequence. This proves the concept that the CASP algorithm can provide effectively real-time data for input into daily operational earthquake forecasts, The results show that there have been significant improvements compared to RefCat obtained in the same period using manual phase picks. The number of detected and located events is higher (from 84,401 to 450,000), the magnitude of completeness is lower (from ML 1.4 to 0.6), and also the number of phase picks is greater with an average number of 72 picked arrival for a ML = 1.4 compared with 30 phases for RefCat using manual phase picking. These propagate into formal uncertainties of ± 0.9km in epicentral location and ± 1.5km in depth for the enhanced catalogue for the vast majority of the events. Together, these provide a significant improvement in the resolution of fine structures such as local planar structures and clusters, in particular the identification of shallow events occurring in parts of the crust previously thought to be inactive. The lower completeness magnitude provides a rich data set for development and testing of analysis techniques of seismic sequences evolution, including real-time, operational monitoring of b-value, time-dependent hazard evaluation and aftershock forecasting.
    Description: Published
    Description: 555–571
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.06. Seismology
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: erratum paper
    Description: Published
    Description: 1090-1092
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Theoretical seismology ; Seismic attenuation ; Seismic noise ; Surface waves ; Free oscillations ; Seismic interferometry ; 04.06. Seismology ; 04.01. Earth Interior
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication inGeophysical Journal International ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    Description: Determining the crustal structure of ocean island volcanoes is important to understand the formation and tectonic evolution of the oceanic lithosphere and tectonic swells in marine settings, and to assess seismic hazard in the islands. The Azores Archipelago is located near a triple junction system and is possibly under the influence of a mantle plume, being at the locus of a wide range of geodynamic processes. However, its crustal structure is still poorly constrained and debated due to the limited seismic coverage of the region and the peculiar linear geometry of the islands. To address these limitations, in this study we invert teleseismic Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements for 1-D shear wave speed (VS) crustal models of the Azores Archipelago. Moreover, we test the reliability of these new models by using them in independent moment tensor inversions of local seismic data and demonstrate that our models improve the waveform fit compared to previous models. We find that data from the westernmost seismic stations used in this study require a shallower Moho depth (∼10 km) than data from stations in the eastern part of the archipelago (∼13–16 km). This apparent increase in the Moho depth with increasing distance from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR) is expected. However, the rate at which Moho deepens away from the MAR is greater than that predicted from a half-space cooling model, suggesting that local tectonic perturbations have modified crustal structure. The 1-D VS models obtained beneath the westernmost seismic stations also show higher wave speeds than for the easternmost stations, which correlates well with the ages of the islands except Santa Maria Island. We interpret the relatively low VS profile found beneath Santa Maria Island as resulting from underplating, which agrees with previous geological studies of the island. Compared to a recent receiver function study of the region, the shallow structure (top ∼2 km) in our models shows lower shear wave speed, which may have important implications for future hazard studies of the region. More generally, the new seismic crustal models we present in this study will be useful to better understand the tectonics, seismicity, moment tensors and strong ground motions in the region.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1232–1247
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel Rift Zone (Italy), has been the site of violent peralkaline silicic magmatism alternating with minor effusive to low-intensity Strombolian erup- tions of basaltic composition. The basaltic rock suites exposed on the island were sampled to in- vestigate the plumbing system dynamics through the study of chemical stratigraphy and temporal records of olivine crystals. Our petrographic and geochemical observations, together with the com- positional variability of olivine, suggest different evolutionary histories for basaltic magmas erupted over two major periods divided by the 􏰃45 ka Green Tuff (GT) eruption. Core-to-rim com- positional traverses across olivine crystals document different types of zoning. We recognized oliv- ine zones affected by Fo oscillations at very fine scales in the inner cores, rims and/or in intermedi- ate portions of crystals and used them to reconstruct the residence and passage of crystals through different magmatic environments, with P–T–ƒO2 and compositional characteristics con- strained by thermodynamic modeling. The sequence of magmatic environments evidenced by oliv- ine zoning indicate that the pre-GT volcanic period was dominated by injection at shallow crustal levels (􏰃300–200 MPa) of primitive melts, initially moving from a deep storage zone at the crust- mantle boundary. Supply of this magma significantly decreased after the GT eruption, while the dy- namics of magma transfer within the upper portion of the plumbing system were greatly enhanced. The diffusive relaxation of olivine zoning provided the timing of storage and migration of a crystal through different environments. For magmas feeding the ancient (〉45 ka) basaltic activ- ity we retrieved transfer histories that are much longer (up to 􏰃3 years) if compared with those cal- culated for the post-GT basalts (1–9 months). The compositional and temporal dataset presented in this study supports the idea that the GT eruption and the subsequent collapse of the volcanic edi- fice could have caused major changes to the internal structural setting of Pantelleria, creating more favorable conditions for the migration of magmas in the upper portions of the plumbing system.
    Description: Published
    Description: egaa05
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: Ischia, a volcanic island located 18 miles SW of Naples (Southern Italy), is a densely populated active caldera that last erupted in AD 1302. Melt inclusions in phenocrysts of the Vateliero and Cava Nocelle shoshonite^latite eruptive products (6th to 4th centuries BC) constrain the structure and nature of the Ischia deep magmatic feeding system.Their geochemical characteristics make Ischia a natural borehole for probing the physico-chemical conditions of magma generation in mantle contaminated by slab-derived fluids or melts, largely dominated by CO2.Volatile concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions require gas^melt equilibria at between 3 and 18 km depth. In agreement with what has already been demonstrated at the other neighboring Neapolitan volcanoes (Procida, Campi Flegrei caldera and Somma^Vesuvius volcanic complex), a major crystallization depth at 8^10 km has been identified.The analyzed melt inclusions provide clear evidence for CO2-dominated gas fluxing and consequent dehydration of magma batches stagnating at crustal discontinuities. Gas fluxing is further supported by selective enrichment in K owing to fluid-transfer during magma differentiation.This takes place under oxidized conditions (Fe3þ /Fe 0·3) that can be fixed by an equimolar proportion of divalent and trivalent iron in the melt if post-entrapment crystallization of the host olivine is discarded.The melt inclusion data, together with data from the literature for other Neapolitan volcanoes, show that magmatism and volcanism in the Neapolitan area, despite differences in composition and eruption dynamics, are closely linked to supercritical CO2-rich fluids. These fluids are produced by devolatilization of subducting terrigenous^pelagic metasediments and infiltrate the overlying mantle wedge, generate magmas and control their ascent up to eruption. Geochemical characteristics of Ischia and the other Neapolitan volcanoes reveal that the extent of fluid or melt contamination of the pre-subduction asthenospheric mantle wedge was similar among these volcanoes. However, differences in the isotopic compositions of the erupted magmas (more enriched in radiogenic Sr at Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma^Vesuvius with respect to Procida) and the amount of H2O in the plumbing system of these volcanoes (almost double at Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma^Vesuvius than at Procida) reflect the different flow-rates of deep slab-derived fluids or melts through the mantle wedge, which, in turn, control the amount of generated magma.The high bulk permeability of the lithosphere below Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma^Vesuvius, determined by the occurrence of intersecting NW^SE and NE^SW regional fault systems, favours fluid ascent and accumulation at crustal levels, with consequent larger magma production and storage than at Procida, located along the NE^SW system.
    Description: Published
    Description: 951-984
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: CO2-fluxing ; melt inclusions ; redox state ; trachybasalts
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-06-21
    Description: Sulphur behaviour and variations in redox conditions during magma differentiation and degassing in the Mt Etna (Italy) volcanic system have been explored by integrating the study of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) with an experimental survey of sulphur solubility in hydrous basaltic magmas. Sulphur solubility experiments were performed at conditions relevant to the Etnean plumbing system (1200 C, 200MPa and oxygen fugacity between NNOþ0 2 and NNOþ1 7, with NNO being the nickel–nickel oxide buffer), and their results confirm the important control of oxygen fugacity (fO2) on S abundance in mafic magmas and on S partitioning between fluid and melt phases (DSfluid/melt). The observed DSfluid/melt value increases from 5164 to 14666 when fO2 decreases from NNOþ1 760 5 to NNOþ0 3. Based on the calculated DSfluid/melt and a careful selection of previously published data, an empirical model is proposed for basaltic magmas to predict the variation of DSfluid/melt values with variations in P (25–300 MPa), T (1030–1200 C) and fO2 (between NNO– 0 8 and NNOþ2 4). Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (Fo89-91) from tephra of the prehistoric (4 ka BP) sub-plinian picritic eruption, named FS (‘Fall Stratified’), have been investigated for their major element compositions, volatile contents and iron speciation (expressed as Fe3þ/PFe ratio). These primitive MIs present S content from 235677 to 34456168 ppm, and oxygen fugacity values, estimated from Fe3þ/PFe ratios, range from NNOþ0 760 2 to NNOþ1 660 2. Iron speciation has also been investigated in more evolved and volatile-poorer Etnean MIs. The only primitive melt inclusion from the Mt Spagnolo eruption (4–15 ka BP) presents a S content of 1515649ppm and an estimated fO2 of NNOþ1 460 1. The more evolved MIs (from 2002–2003, 2006, 2008–2009 and 2013 eruptions) have S content lower than 500 ppm, and their Fe3þ/RFe ratios result in fO2 between NNO– 0 960 1 and NNOþ0 460 1. Redox conditions and S behaviour in Etnean magmas during degassing and fractional crystallization were modelled coupling MELTS code with our empirical DSfluid/melt model. Starting from an FS-type magma composition and upon decrease of T and P, fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and plagioclase causes a significant fO2 decrease. The fO2 reduction, in turn, causes a decrease in sulphur solubility and an increase in DSfluid/melt, promoting S exsolution during magma ascent, which further enhances the reduction of fO2. For the evolved MIs of 2002–2013 eruptions, magma differentiation may therefore have played a crucial role in decreasing redox conditions and favouring efficient S degassing. Differently, during the unusual FS eruption, only limited melt evolution is observed and S exsolution seems to have been triggered by a major pressure decrease accompanied by H2O and CO2 exsolution during fast magmatic ascent.
    Description: Published
    Description: egaa095
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: melt inclusions ; sulphur solubility experiments ; XANES ; Mt. Etna ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: On 24 August 2016 at 01:36 UTC a ML6.0 earthquake struck several villages in central Italy, among which Accumoli, Amatrice and Arquata del Tronto. The earthquake was recorded by about 350 seismic stations, causing 299 fatalities and damage with macroseismic intensities up to 11. The maximum acceleration was observed at Amatrice station (AMT) reaching 916 cm s–2 on E–W component, with epicentral distance of 15 km and Joyner and Boore distance to the fault surface (RJB) of less than a kilometre. Motivated by the high levels of observed ground motion and damage, we generate broad-band seismograms for engineering purposes by adopting a hybrid method. To infer the low frequency seismograms, we considered the kinematic slip model by Tinti et al . The high frequency seismograms were produced using a stochastic finite-fault model approach based on dynamic corner-frequency. Broadband synthetic time-series were therefore obtained by merging the low and high frequency seismograms. Simulated hybrid ground motions were compared both with the observed ground motions and the ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs), to explore their performance and to retrieve the region-specific parameters endorsed for the simulations. In the near-fault area we observed that hybrid simulations have a higher capability to detect near source effects and to reproduce the source complexity than the use of GMPEs. Indeed, the general good consistency found between synthetic and observed ground motion (both in the time and frequency domain), suggests that the use of regional-specific source scaling and attenuation parameters together with the source complexity in hybrid simulations improves ground motion estimations. To include the site effect in stochastic simulations at selected stations, we tested the use of amplification curves derived from HVRSs (horizontal-to-vertical response spectra) and from HVSRs (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios) rather than the use of generic curves according to NTC18 Italian seismic design code. We generally found a further reduction of residuals between observed and simulated both in terms of time histories and spectra.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1753–1779
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.06. Seismology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: On 24 January 2020 an Mw 6.8 earthquake occurred at 20:55 local time (17:55 UTC) in eastern Turkey, close to the town of Sivrice in the Elazığ province, causing widespread considerable seismic damage in buildings. In this study, we analyse the main features of the rupture process and the seismic ground shaking during the Elazığ earthquake. We first use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) interferograms (Sentinel-1 satellites) to constrain the fault geometry and the coseismic slip distribution of the causative fault segment. Then, we utilize this information to analyse the ground motion characteristics of the main shock in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral accelerations. The absence of seismic registrations in near-field for this earthquake imposes major constraints on the computation of seismic ground motion estimations in the study area. To do this, we have used a stochastic finite-fault simulation method to generate high-frequency ground motions synthetics for the Mw 6.8 Elazığ 2020 earthquake. Finally, we evaluate the potential state of stress of the unruptured portions of the causative fault segment as well as of adjacent segments, using the Coulomb stress failure function variations. Modelling of geodetic data shows that the 2020 Elazığ earthquake ruptured two major slip patches (for a total length of about 40 km) located along the Pütürge segment of the well-known left-lateral strike-slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), with up to 2.3 m of slip and an estimated geodetic moment of 1.70 × 1019 Nm (equivalent to a Mw 6.8). The position of the hypocentre supports the evidence of marked WSW rupture directivity during the main shock. In terms of ground motion characteristics, we observe that the high-frequency stochastic ground motion simulations have a good capability to reproduce the source complexity and capture the ground motion attenuation decay as a function of distance, up to the 200 km. We also demonstrate that the design spectra corresponding to 475 yr return period, provided by the new Turkish building code is not exceeded by the simulated seismograms in the epicentral area where there are no strong motion stations and no recordings available. Finally, based on the Coulomb stress distribution computation, we find that the Elazığ main shock increased the stress level of the westernmost part of the Pütürge fault and of the adjacent Palu segment and as a result of an off-fault lobe.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1054–1068
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-02-19
    Description: To evaluate the site response using both empirical approaches (e.g. standard spectral ratio, ground motion models (GMMs), generalized inversion techniques, etc.) and numerical 1-D/2-D analyses, the definition of the reference motion, that is the ground motion recorded at stations unaffected by site-effects due to topographic, stratigraphic or basin effects, is needed. The main objective of this work is to define a robust strategy to identify the seismic stations that can be considered as reference rock sites, using six proxies for the site response: three proxies are related to the analysis of geophysical and seismological data (the repeatable site term from the residual analysis, the resonance frequencies from horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios on noise or earthquake signals, the average shear wave velocity in the first 30 m); the remaining ones concern geomorphological and installation features (outcropping rocks or stiff soils, flat topography and absence of interaction with structures). We introduce a weighting scheme to take into account the availability and the quality of the site information, as well as the fulfillment of the criterion associated to each proxy. We also introduce a hierarchical index, to take into account the relevance of the proposed proxies in the description of the site effects, and an acceptance threshold for reference rock sites identification. The procedure is applied on a very large data set, composed by accelerometric and velocimetric waveforms, recorded in Central Italy in the period 2008–2018. This data set is composed by more than 30 000 waveforms relative to 450 earthquakes in the magnitude range 3.2–6.5 and recorded by more than 450 stations. A total of 36 out of 133 candidate stations are identified as reference sites: the majority of them are installed on rock with flat topography, but this condition is not sufficient to guarantee the absence of amplifications, especially at high frequencies. Seismological analyses are necessary to exclude stations affected by resonances. We test the impact of using these sites by calibrating a GMMs. The results show that for reference rock sites the median predictions are reduced down to about 45 per cent at short periods in comparison to the generic rock motions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2053–2067
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-04-14
    Description: The scaling of earthquake parameters with seismic moment and its interpretation in terms of self- similarity is still debated in the literature. We address this question by examining a worldwide compilation of corner frequency-based and elastic rebound theory (ERT)-based fault slip, area and stress drop values for earthquakes ranging in magnitude from -0.7 to 7.8. We find that corner frequency estimates of slip (and stress drop) scale differently than those inferred from the ERT approach, where the latter deviates from the generally accepted constant stress drop behavior of so- called self-similar scaling models. We also find that average slips from finite-source models are consistent with corner frequency scaling, whereas peak slip values are more consistent with the ERT scaling. The different scaling of corner frequency- and ERT-based estimates of slip and stress drop with earthquake size is interpreted in terms of heterogeneity of the rupture process. ERT-based estimates of stress drop decrease with seismic moment suggesting a self-affine behavior. Despite the inferred heterogeneity at all scales, we do not observe a clear effect on the Brune stress drop scaling with earthquake size.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1771–1781
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Earthquake dynamics ; Earthquake source observations ; Dynamics and mechanics of faulting ; 04.06. Seismology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2021-07-14
    Description: 29 pages, 9 figures
    Description: This study describes a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based technique for the prediction of intensity measurements (IMs) of ground shaking. The input data to the CNN model consists of multistation 3C broadband and accelerometric waveforms recorded during the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence for M $\ge$ 3.0. We find that the CNN is capable of predicting accurately the IMs at stations far from the epicenter and that have not yet recorded the maximum ground shaking when using a 10 s window starting at the earthquake origin time. The CNN IM predictions do not require previous knowledge of the earthquake source (location and magnitude). Comparison between the CNN model predictions and the predictions obtained with Bindi et al. (2011) GMPE (which require location and magnitude) has shown that the CNN model features similar error variance but smaller bias. Although the technique is not strictly designed for earthquake early warning, we found that it can provide useful estimates of ground motions within 15-20 sec after earthquake origin time depending on various setup elements (e.g., times for data transmission, computation, latencies). The technique has been tested on raw data without any initial data pre-selection in order to closely replicate real-time data streaming. When noise examples were included with the earthquake data, the CNN was found to be stable predicting accurately the ground shaking intensity corresponding to the noise amplitude.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1379–1389
    Description: 8T. Sismologia in tempo reale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Physics - Geophysics; Physics - Geophysics ; 04.06. Seismology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: We have constructed a 3-D shear wave velocity (Vs) model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Middle East using Rayleigh wave records obtained from ambient-noise cross-correlations and regional earthquakes. We combined one decade of data collected from 852 permanent and temporary broad-band stations in the region to calculate group-velocity dispersion curves. A compilation of 〉54 000 ray paths provides reliable group-velocity measurements for periods between 2 and 150 s. Path-averaged group velocities calculated at different periods were inverted for 2-D group-velocity maps. To overcome the problem of heterogeneous ray coverage, we used an adaptive grid parametrization for the group-velocity tomographic inversion. We then sample the period-dependent group-velocity field at each cell of a predefined grid to generate 1-D group-velocity dispersion curves, which are subsequently inverted for 1-D Vs models beneath each cell and combined to approximate the 3-D Vs structure of the area. The Vs model shows low velocities at shallow depths (5–10 km) beneath the Mesopotamian foredeep, South Caspian Basin, eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, in coincidence with deep sedimentary basins. Shallow high-velocity anomalies are observed in regions such as the Arabian Shield, Anatolian Plateau and Central Iran, which are dominated by widespread magmatic exposures. In the 10–20 km depth range, we find evidence for a band of high velocities (〉4.0 km s–1) along the southern Red Sea and Arabian Shield, indicating the presence of upper mantle rocks. Our 3-D velocity model exhibits high velocities in the depth range of 30–50 km beneath western Arabia, eastern Mediterranean, Central Iranian Block, South Caspian Basin and the Black Sea, possibly indicating a relatively thin crust. In contrast, the Zagros mountain range, the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone in western central Iran, the easternmost Anatolian plateau and Lesser Caucasus are characterized by low velocities at these depths. Some of these anomalies may be related to thick crustal roots that support the high topography of these regions. In the upper mantle depth range, high-velocity anomalies are obtained beneath the Arabian Platform, southern Zagros, Persian Gulf and the eastern Mediterranean, in contrast to low velocities beneath the Red Sea, Arabian Shield, Afar depression, eastern Turkey and Lut Block in eastern Iran. Our Vs model may be used as a new reference crustal model for the Middle East in a broad range of future studies.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1349-1365
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.01. Earth Interior ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-07-23
    Description: Marine aquaculture holds great promise for meeting increasing demand for healthy protein that is sustainably produced, but reaching necessary production levels will be challenging. The ecosystem approach to aquaculture is a framework for sustainable aquaculture development that prioritizes multiple-stakeholder participation and spatial planning. These types of approaches have been increasingly used to help guide sustainable, persistent, and equitable aquaculture planning, but most countries have difficulties in setting or meeting longer-term development goals. Scenario analysis (SA) for future planning uses similar approaches and can complement holistic methods, such as the ecosystem approach to aquaculture framework, by providing a temporal analogue to the spatially robust design. Here we define the SA approach to planning in aquaculture, outline how SA can benefit aquaculture planning, and review how this tool is already being used. We track the use of planning tools in the 20 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea member nations, with particular attention given to Norway’s development goals to 2050. We conclude that employing a combination of an ecosystem framework with scenario analyses may help identify the scale of development aquaculture goals over time, aid in evaluating the feasibility of the desired outcomes, and highlight potential social-ecological conflicts and trade-offs that may otherwise be overlooked.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: Crystalline rocks can produce dangerous radiation levels on the basis of their content in radioisotopes. Here, we report radiological data from 10 metamorphic and igneous rock samples collected from the crystalline basement of the Peloritani Mountains (southern Italy). In order to evaluate the radiological properties of these rocks, the gamma radiation and the radon emanation have been measured. Moreover, since some of these rocks are employed as building materials, we assess the potential hazard for population connected to their use. Gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration, whereas the radon emanation was investigated by using a RAD 7 detector. The results show 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration values ranging from (17 ± 4) to (56 ± 8) Bq kg-1, (14 ± 3) to (77 ± 14) Bq kg-1 and (167 ± 84) to (1760 ± 242) Bq kg-1, respectively. Values of the annual effective dose equivalent outdoor range from 0.035 to 0.152 mSv y-1, whereas the gamma index is in the range of 0.22-0.98. The 222Rn emanation coefficient and the 222Rn surface exhalation rate vary from (0.63 ± 0.3) to (8.27 ± 1.6)% and from (0.12 ± 0.03) to (2.75 ± 0.17) Bq m-2 h-1, respectively. The indoor radon derived from the building use of these rocks induces an approximate contribution to the annual effective dose ranging from 8 to 176 μSv y-1. All the obtained results suggest that the crystalline rocks from the Peloritani Mountains are not harmful for the residential population, even though they induce annual effective doses due to terrestrial gamma radiation above the worldwide average values. Moreover, their use as building materials does not produce significant health hazards connected to the indoor radon exposure.
    Description: Published
    Description: 452–464
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
    Description: In a recent study (Jozinovi\'c et al, 2020) we showed that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) applied to network seismic traces can be used for rapid prediction of earthquake peak ground motion intensity measures (IMs) at distant stations using only recordings from stations near the epicenter. The predictions are made without any previous knowledge concerning the earthquake location and magnitude. This approach differs from the standard procedure adopted by earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) that rely on location and magnitude information. In the previous study, we used 10 s, raw, multistation waveforms for the 2016 earthquake sequence in central Italy for 915 events (CI dataset). The CI dataset has a large number of spatially concentrated earthquakes and a dense station network. In this work, we applied the CNN model to an area around the VIRGO gravitational waves observatory sited near Pisa, Italy. In our initial application of the technique, we used a dataset consisting of 266 earthquakes recorded by 39 stations. We found that the CNN model trained using this smaller dataset performed worse compared to the results presented in the original study by Jozinovi\'c et al. (2020). To counter the lack of data, we adopted transfer learning (TL) using two approaches: first, by using a pre-trained model built on the CI dataset and, next, by using a pre-trained model built on a different (seismological) problem that has a larger dataset available for training. We show that the use of TL improves the results in terms of outliers, bias, and variability of the residuals between predicted and true IMs values. We also demonstrate that adding knowledge of station positions as an additional layer in the neural network improves the results. The possible use for EEW is demonstrated by the times for the warnings that would be received at the station PII.
    Description: RISE (Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, grant agreement No.821115)
    Description: Published
    Description: 704–718
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Physics - Geophysics; Physics - Geophysics ; machine learning ; ground motion prediction ; seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-12-15
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
    Description: Three dimensional attenuation images of Mt Etna volcano obtained by the analysis of Q-coda from local volcano-tectonic earthquakes are presented in this work. Seismic sources are confined inside the Etna structure with a maximum focal depth of 35 km below the sea level. The space distribution of the attenuation values was calculated by using 3-D weighting functions derived by the sensitivity kernels of Pacheco & Snieders and approximated by a polynomial interpolation, represented in the maps by using a backprojection method. Data were analyzed in four bands with central frequency placed at 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 Hz, respectively. We observed a frequency dependence of Q-coda with values that range from 55 at 1.5 Hz to 218 at 12 Hz. Q-coda space distribution in the Etna area shows almost uniformity in the average attenuation in the first 35 km below the surface. The images were derived with a resolution of 5 km. We observe as one of our main conclusions that Q-coda attenuation space anomalies are correlated with the areas of highest structural heterogeneities and are distributed along the well-known tectonic structures which characterize the crust in Mt Etna region. Previous and numerous velocity and attenuation images describing the structure of Mt Etna support our main conclusion: high Q-coda volumes almost coincide with the zones marked by high velocity and relative low total attenuation for direct waves.
    Description: Published
    Description: 544–558
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-12-24
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
    Description: Ambient-noise records from the AlpArray network are used to measure Rayleigh wave phase velocities between more than 150,000 station pairs. From these, azimuthally anisotropic phase-velocity maps are obtained by applying the Eikonal tomography method. Several synthetic tests are shown to study the bias in the Ψ2 anisotropy. There are two main groups of bias, the first one caused by interference between refracted/reflected waves and the appearance of secondary wavefronts that affect the phase travel-time measurements. This bias can be reduced if the amplitude field can be estimated correctly. Another source of error is related to the incomplete reconstruction of the travel-time field that is only sparsely sampled due to the receiver locations. Both types of bias scale with the magnitude of the velocity heterogeneities. Most affected by the spurious Ψ2 anisotropy are areas inside and at the border of low-velocity zones. In the isotropic velocity distribution, most of the bias cancels out if the azimuthal coverage is good. Despite the lack of resolution in many parts of the surveyed area, we identify a number of anisotropic structures that are robust: in the central Alps, we find a layered anisotropic structure, arc-parallel at midcrustal depths and arc-perpendicular in the lower crust. In contrast, in the eastern Alps, the pattern is more consistently E-W oriented which we relate to the eastward extrusion. The northern Alpine forleand exhibits a preferential anisotropic orientation that is similar to SKS observations in the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle.
    Description: German Science Foundation (SPP-2017, Project Ha 2403/21-1); Swiss National Science Foundation SINERGIA Project CRSII2-154434/1 (Swiss-AlpArray); Progetto Pianeta Dinamico, finanziamento MUR-INGV, Task S2 – 2021
    Description: Published
    Description: 151–170
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismic anisotropy ; Seismic interferometry ; Seismic tomography ; Wave propagation ; Continental tectonics: compressional ; 04.01. Earth Interior ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-12-15
    Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
    Description: To understand the seismotectonics and the seismic hazard of the study sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy), one of the most important earthquakes of magnitude Mw = 6.5 which struck the Lunigiana and Garfagnana areas (Tuscany) on 7 September 1920 should be studied. Given the early instrumental epoch of the event, neither geometric and kinematic information on the fault-source nor its fault-plane solution were available. Both areas were candidates for hosting the source fault and there was uncertainty between a normal fault with Apenninic direction or an anti-Apenninic strike-slip. We retrieved 11 focal parameters (including the fault-plane solution) of the 1920 earthquake. Only macroseismic intensity information (from 499 inhabited centres) through the KF-NGA inversion technique was used. This technique uses a Kinematic model of the earthquake source and speeds up the calculation by a Genetic Algorithm with Niching. The result is a pure dip-slip focal solution. The intrinsic ambiguities of the KF-NGA method (±180° on the rake angle; choice of the fault plane between the two nodal planes) were solved with field and seismotectonic evidence. The earthquake was generated by a normal fault (rake angle = 265° ± 8°) with an Apennine direction (114° ± 5°) and dipping 38° ± 6° towards SW. The likely candidate for hosting the source-fault in 1920 is the Compione-Comano fault that borders the NE edge of the Lunigiana graben. The KF-NGA algorithm proved to be invaluable for studying the kinematics of early instrumental earthquakes and allowed us to uniquely individuate, for the first time ever, the seismogenic source of the 1920 earthquake. Our findings have implications in hazard computation and seismotectonic contexts.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1465–1477
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Inverse theory ; Body waves ; Earthquake source observations ; Seismicity and tectonics ; Dynamics: seismotectonics ; Fractures, faults, and high strain deformation zones ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: Systematic variations in the crystal cargo and whole-rock isotopic compositions of mantle-derived basalts in the intraplate Dunedin Volcano (New Zealand) indicate the influence of a complex mantle-to-crust polybaric plumbing system. Basaltic rocks define a compositional spectrum from low-alkali basalts through mid-alkali basalts to high-alkali basalts. High-alkali basalts display clinopyroxene crystals with sector (hourglass) and oscillatory zoning (Mg#61–82) as well as Fe-rich green cores (Mg#43–69), whereas low-alkali basalts are characterized by clinopyroxenes with unzoned overgrowths (Mg#69–83) on resorbed mafic cores (Mg#78–88), coexisting with reversely zoned plagioclase crystals (An43–68 to An60–84 from core to rim). Complex magma dynamics are indicated by distinctive compositional variations in clinopyroxene phenocrysts, with Cr-rich zones (Mg#74–87) indicating continuous recharge by more mafic magmas. Crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite occurred within a polybaric plumbing system extending from upper mantle to mid-crustal depths (485–1059 MPa and 1147–1286°C), whereas crystallization of plagioclase with subordinate clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite proceeded towards shallower crustal levels. The compositions of high-alkali basalts and mid-alkali basalts resemble those of ocean island basalts and are characterized by FOZO-HIMU isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70277–0.70315, 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51286–0.51294 and 206Pb/204Pb = 19.348–20.265), whereas low-alkali basalts have lower incompatible element abundances and isotopic compositions trending towards EMII (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70327–70397, 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51282–0.51286 and 206Pb/204Pb = 19.278–19.793). High- and mid-alkali basalt magmas mostly crystallized in the lower crust, whereas low-alkali basalt magma recorded deeper upper mantle clinopyroxene crystallization before eruption. The variable alkaline character and isotope composition may result from interaction of low-alkaline melts derived from the asthenosphere with melts derived from lithospheric mantle, possibly initiated by asthenospheric melt percolation. The transition to more alkaline compositions was induced by variable degrees of melting of metasomatic lithologies in the lithospheric mantle, leading to eruption of predominantly small-volume, high-alkali magmas at the periphery of the volcano. Moreover, the lithosphere imposed a filtering effect on the alkalinity of these intraplate magmas. As a consequence, the eruption of low-alkali basalts with greater asthenospheric input was concentrated at the centre of the volcano, where the plumbing system was more developed.
    Description: Published
    Description: egab062
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: alkali basalts ; Dunedin Volcano ; thermobarometry ; primary magma ; lithospheric mantle filter ; Igneous Petrology ; Thermobarometry ; Mantle melting and metasomatism ; Magmatic plumbing systems
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hirschberger, C., Sleight, V. A., Criswell, K. E., Clark, S. J., & Gillis, J. A. Conserved and unique transcriptional features of pharyngeal arches in the skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and evolution of the jaw. Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2021): msab123, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab123
    Description: The origin of the jaw is a long-standing problem in vertebrate evolutionary biology. Classical hypotheses of serial homology propose that the upper and lower jaw evolved through modifications of dorsal and ventral gill arch skeletal elements, respectively. If the jaw and gill arches are derived members of a primitive branchial series, we predict that they would share common developmental patterning mechanisms. Using candidate and RNAseq/differential gene expression analyses, we find broad conservation of dorsoventral patterning mechanisms within the developing mandibular, hyoid and gill arches of a cartilaginous fish, the skate (Leucoraja erinacea). Shared features include expression of genes encoding members of the ventralising BMP and endothelin signalling pathways and their effectors, the joint markers nkx3.2 and gdf5 and pro-chondrogenic transcription factor barx1, and the dorsal territory marker pou3f3. Additionally, we find that mesenchymal expression of eya1/six1 is an ancestral feature of the mandibular arch of jawed vertebrates, while differences in notch signalling distinguish the mandibular and gill arches in skate. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of mandibular and gill arch tissues reveal additional genes differentially expressed along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches, including scamp5 as a novel marker of the dorsal mandibular arch, as well as distinct transcriptional features of mandibular and gill arch muscle progenitors and developing gill buds. Taken together, our findings reveal conserved patterning mechanisms in the pharyngeal arches of jawed vertebrates, consistent with serial homology of their skeletal derivatives, as well as unique transcriptional features that may underpin distinct jaw and gill arch morphologies.
    Description: This work was supported by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Doctoral Training Partnership studentship to CH, by a Wolfson College Junior Research Fellowship and MBL Whitman Early Career Fellowship to VAS, and by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship (UF130182 and URF\R\191007), Royal Society Research Grant (RG140377) and University of Cambridge Sir Isaac Newton Trust Grant (14.23z) to JAG.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Keller, A. G., Apprill, A., Lebaron, P., Robbins, J., Romano, T. A., Overton, E., Rong, Y., Yuan, R., Pollara, S., & Whalen, K. E. Characterizing the culturable surface microbiomes of diverse marine animals. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 97(4), (2021): fiab040, https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiab040.
    Description: Biofilm-forming bacteria have the potential to contribute to the health, physiology, behavior and ecology of the host and serve as its first line of defense against adverse conditions in the environment. While metabarcoding and metagenomic information furthers our understanding of microbiome composition, fewer studies use cultured samples to study the diverse interactions among the host and its microbiome, as cultured representatives are often lacking. This study examines the surface microbiomes cultured from three shallow-water coral species and two whale species. These unique marine animals place strong selective pressures on their microbial symbionts and contain members under similar environmental and anthropogenic stress. We developed an intense cultivation procedure, utilizing a suite of culture conditions targeting a rich assortment of biofilm-forming microorganisms. We identified 592 microbial isolates contained within 15 bacterial orders representing 50 bacterial genera, and two fungal species. Culturable bacteria from coral and whale samples paralleled taxonomic groups identified in culture-independent surveys, including 29% of all bacterial genera identified in the Megaptera novaeangliae skin microbiome through culture-independent methods. This microbial repository provides raw material and biological input for more nuanced studies which can explore how members of the microbiome both shape their micro-niche and impact host fitness.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation (Biological Oceanography) award #1657808 and National Institutes of Health grants 1R21-AI119311–01 to K. E. Whalen, as well as funding from the Koshland Integrated Natural Science Center and Green Fund at Haverford College. This constitutes scientific manuscript #298 from the Sea Research Foundation.
    Keywords: bacteria ; SSU rRNA ; coral ; whale ; microbiome ; skin
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Doo, S. S., Kealoha, A., Andersson, A., Cohen, A. L., Hicks, T. L., Johnson, Z., I., Long, M. H., McElhany, P., Mollica, N., Shamberger, K. E. F., Silbiger, N. J., Takeshita, Y., & Busch, D. S. The challenges of detecting and attributing ocean acidification impacts on marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77(7-8), (2020): 2411-2422, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsaa094.
    Description: A substantial body of research now exists demonstrating sensitivities of marine organisms to ocean acidification (OA) in laboratory settings. However, corresponding in situ observations of marine species or ecosystem changes that can be unequivocally attributed to anthropogenic OA are limited. Challenges remain in detecting and attributing OA effects in nature, in part because multiple environmental changes are co-occurring with OA, all of which have the potential to influence marine ecosystem responses. Furthermore, the change in ocean pH since the industrial revolution is small relative to the natural variability within many systems, making it difficult to detect, and in some cases, has yet to cross physiological thresholds. The small number of studies that clearly document OA impacts in nature cannot be interpreted as a lack of larger-scale attributable impacts at the present time or in the future but highlights the need for innovative research approaches and analyses. We summarize the general findings in four relatively well-studied marine groups (seagrasses, pteropods, oysters, and coral reefs) and integrate overarching themes to highlight the challenges involved in detecting and attributing the effects of OA in natural environments. We then discuss four potential strategies to better evaluate and attribute OA impacts on species and ecosystems. First, we highlight the need for work quantifying the anthropogenic input of CO2 in coastal and open-ocean waters to understand how this increase in CO2 interacts with other physical and chemical factors to drive organismal conditions. Second, understanding OA-induced changes in population-level demography, potentially increased sensitivities in certain life stages, and how these effects scale to ecosystem-level processes (e.g. community metabolism) will improve our ability to attribute impacts to OA among co-varying parameters. Third, there is a great need to understand the potential modulation of OA impacts through the interplay of ecology and evolution (eco–evo dynamics). Lastly, further research efforts designed to detect, quantify, and project the effects of OA on marine organisms and ecosystems utilizing a comparative approach with long-term data sets will also provide critical information for informing the management of marine ecosystems.
    Description: SSD was funded by NSF OCE (grant # 1415268). DSB and PM were supported by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program and Northwest Fisheries Science Center, MHL was supported by NSF OCE (grant # 1633951), ZIJ was supported by NSF OCE (grant # 1416665) and DOE EERE (grant #DE-EE008518), NJS was supported by NSF OCE (grant # 1924281), ALC was supported by NSF OCE (grant # 1737311), and AA was supported by NSF OCE (grant # 1416518). KEFS, AK, and TLH were supported by Texas A&M University. This is CSUN Marine Biology contribution (# 306).
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: Author Posting. © Oxford University Press, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of [publisher] for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Lund, S., Acton, G., Clement, B., Okada, M., & Keigwin, L. On the relationship between palaeomagnetic secular variation and excursions-records from MIS 8-ODP leg 172. Geophysical Journal International, 225(2), (2021): 1129-1141, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa564.
    Description: Palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and excursion data obtained across MIS 8 (243–300 ka) from the western North Atlantic Ocean ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) sites 1060–1063 show composite high-resolution PSV records (both directions and relative palaeointensity) developed for each site and intercompared. Two methods of chronostratigraphy allow us to date these records. First, we used published results that compared the calcium carbonate records of ODP Leg 172 sediments and tuned them with Milankovich cyclicity. We also compared our palaeointensity records with the PISO-1500 global palaeointensity record that was dated with oxygen isotope stratigraphy. We prefer the PISO-1500 record to date our cores. Two excursions are preserved in our PSV records—Excursions 8α and 9α. Our revised age estimates for both excursions are 8α (236.7–239.8 ka) and 9α (283.7–286.9 ka). We have compared shipboard measurements of the two excursions with u-channel measurements of selected excursion intervals. Excursion 8α is interpreted as a ‘Class II’ excursion (local reversal) with in-phase inclination and declination changes; Excursion 9α is a ‘Class I’ excursion with 90° out-of-phase inclination and declination changes. Averaged directions (after removal of true excursional directions) and relative palaeointensity in 3 and 9 ka overlapping intervals show significant PSV directional variability over 104 yr timescales that is regionally correlatable among the four sites. A notable pattern of angular dispersion variability involves most time spent with low (∼10°) dispersion, with three shorter intervals of high (∼25°) dispersion. The relative palaeointensity variability also shows significant variability over 104 yr timescales with three notable intervals of low palaeointensity in all four records and a direct correspondence between the three low-palaeointensity intervals and the three intervals of high angular dispersion. The two magnetic field excursions occur in two of the three low-palaeointensity/high-dispersion intervals. This suggests that the geomagnetic field operates in two states between reversals, one with regular to high palaeointensity and low directional variability and one with low palaeointensity and significantly higher directional variability and excursions.
    Keywords: Geomagnetic excursions ; Palaeointensity ; Palaeomagnetic secular variation
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bowen, J. L., Giblin, A. E., Murphy, A. E., Bulseco, A. N., Deegan, L. A., Johnson, D. S., Nelson, J. A., Mozdzer, T. J., & Sullivan, H. L. Not all nitrogen is created equal: differential effects of nitrate and ammonium enrichment in coastal wetlands. Bioscience, 70(12), (2020): 1108-1119, doi:10.1093/biosci/biaa140.
    Description: Excess reactive nitrogen (N) flows from agricultural, suburban, and urban systems to coasts, where it causes eutrophication. Coastal wetlands take up some of this N, thereby ameliorating the impacts on nearshore waters. Although the consequences of N on coastal wetlands have been extensively studied, the effect of the specific form of N is not often considered. Both oxidized N forms (nitrate, NO3−) and reduced forms (ammonium, NH4+) can relieve nutrient limitation and increase primary production. However, unlike NH4+, NO3− can also be used as an electron acceptor for microbial respiration. We present results demonstrating that, in salt marshes, microbes use NO3− to support organic matter decomposition and primary production is less stimulated than when enriched with reduced N. Understanding how different forms of N mediate the balance between primary production and decomposition is essential for managing coastal wetlands as N enrichment and sea level rise continue to assail our coasts.
    Description: This work was supported by the following funding sources: National Science Foundation (NSF) grant no. DEB 1902712 to LAD, JLB, DSJ, and TJM; NSF grant no. DEB 1902695 to AEG; NSF grant no. DEB 1902704 to JAN; NSF grant no. DEB 1354214 to TJM; NSF grant no. DEB 1350491 to JLB; NSF grant no. OCE 1637630 to AEG and LAD; and additional funding from the Dorr Foundation, the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (grant no. DOI G12AC00001), and a Bullard Fellowship (Harvard University) to LAD and from the National Academies of Science, Medicine, and Engineering Gulf Research Program to JAN. Resources purchased with funds from the NSF Biological Field Stations and Marine Laboratories program (grant no. DBI 1722553, to Northeastern University) were used to generate the data for the manuscript. Initial conversations on the effects of nutrient enrichment in marshes with Scott Warren and Bruce Peterson were critical in informing the work described in the manuscript. Sam Kelsey and Jane Tucker contributed to much of the N cycling biogeochemistry; Caitlin Bauer, Frankie Leach, Paige Weber, Emily Geoghegan and Sophie Drew assisted with field work; and Joe Vineis assisted with metagenomic analysis. This is contribution 3941 from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The data were compiled from multiple published sources. Links to published data can be found here: https://pie-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/data. The sequence data used to derive figure 6 are publicly available on the MG-RAST website under project number mgp84173.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-06-07
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2021. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Toxicological Sciences 182(20), (2021): 310-326, https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfab066.
    Description: Harmful algal blooms produce potent neurotoxins that accumulate in seafood and are hazardous to human health. Developmental exposure to the harmful algal bloom toxin, domoic acid (DomA), has behavioral consequences well into adulthood, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DomA developmental neurotoxicity are largely unknown. To assess these, we exposed zebrafish embryos to DomA during the previously identified window of susceptibility and used the well-known startle response circuit as a tool to identify specific neuronal components that are targeted by exposure to DomA. Exposure to DomA reduced startle responsiveness to both auditory/vibrational and electrical stimuli, and even at the highest stimulus intensities tested, led to a dramatic reduction of one type of startle (short-latency c-starts). Furthermore, DomA-exposed larvae had altered kinematics for both types of startle responses tested, exhibiting shallower bend angles and slower maximal angular velocities. Using vital dye staining, immunolabeling, and live imaging of transgenic lines, we determined that although the sensory inputs were intact, the reticulospinal neurons required for short-latency c-starts were absent in most DomA-exposed larvae. Furthermore, axon tracing revealed that DomA-treated larvae also showed significantly reduced primary motor neuron axon collaterals. Overall, these results show that developmental exposure to DomA targets large reticulospinal neurons and motor neuron axon collaterals, resulting in measurable deficits in startle behavior. They further provide a framework for using the startle response circuit to identify specific neural populations disrupted by toxins or toxicants and to link these disruptions to functional consequences for neural circuit function and behavior.
    Description: This research was supported by a WHOI Von Damm and Ocean Ridge Initiative Fellowships to J.M.P. and the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health (NIH: P01ES021923 and P01ES028938; NSF: OCE-1314642 and OCE-1840381).
    Description: 2022-06-07
    Keywords: domoic acid ; harmful algal blooms ; harmful algal bloom toxins ; developmental toxicity ; startle response ; escape response ; startle circuit
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Amino acid ̶ (acyl carrier protein) ligases (AALs) are a relatively new family of bacterial amino acid adenylating enzymes with unknown function(s). Here, genomic enzymology tools that employ sequence similarity networks and genome context analyses were used to hypothesize the metabolic function(s) of AALs. In over 50% of species, aal and its cognate acyl carrier protein (acp) genes, along with three more genes, formed a highly conserved AAL cassette. AAL cassettes were strongly associated with surface polysaccharide gene clusters in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, yet were prevalent among soil and rhizosphere-associated α- and β-Proteobacteria, including symbiotic α- and β-rhizobia and some Mycolata. Based on these associations, AAL cassettes were proposed to encode a noncanonical Acp-dependent polysaccharide modification route. Genomic-inferred predictions were substantiated by published experimental evidence, revealing a role for AAL cassettes in biosynthesis of biofilm-forming exopolysaccharide in pathogenic Burkholderia and expression of aal and acp genes in nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteroids. Aal and acp genes were associated with dltBD-like homologs that modify cell wall teichoic acids with D-alanine, including in Paenibacillus and certain other bacteria. Characterization of pathways that involve AAL and Acp may lead to developing new plant and human disease-controlling agents as well as strains with improved nitrogen fixation capacity.
    Print ISSN: 0168-6496
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-6941
    Topics: Biology
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Aims Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), i.e., drones, have recently emerged as cost-effective and flexible tools for acquiring remote sensing data with fine spatial and temporal resolution. It provides a new method and opportunity for plant ecologists to study issues from individual to regional scales. However, as a new method, UAVs remote sensing applications in plant ecology are still challenged. The needs of plant ecology research and the application development of UAVs remote sensing should be better integrated. This report provides a comprehensive review of UAV-based remote sensing applications in plant ecology to synthesize prospects of applying drones to advance plant ecology research. Important Findings Of the 400 references, 59% were published in remote sensing journals rather than in plant ecology journals, reflecting a substantial gap between the interests of remote sensing experts and plant ecologists. Most of the studies focused on UAV remote sensing's technical aspects, such as data processing and remote sensing inversion, with little attention on answering ecological questions. There were 61% of studies involved community-scale research. RGB and multispectral cameras were the most used sensors (75%). More ecologically meaningful parameters can be extracted from UAV data to better understand the canopy surface irregularity and community heterogeneity, identify geometrical characteristics of canopy gaps, and construct canopy chemical assemblies from living vegetation volumes. More cooperation between plant ecologists and remote sensing experts is needed to promote UAV remote sensing in advancing plant ecology research.
    Print ISSN: 1752-993X
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-9921
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Pre-main sequence (PMS) stars evolve into main sequence (MS) phase over a period of time. Interestingly, we found a scarcity of studies in existing literature that examines and attempts to better understand the stars in PMS to MS transition phase. The purpose of the present study is to detect such rare stars, which we named as ‘Transition Phase’ (TP) candidates – stars evolving from the PMS to the MS phase. We identified 98 TP candidates using photometric analysis of a sample of 2167 classical Be (CBe) and 225 Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. This identification is done by analyzing the near- and mid-infrared excess and their location in the optical colour-magnitude diagram. The age and mass of 58 of these TP candidates are determined to be between 0.1–5 Myr and 2–10.5 M⊙, respectively. The TP candidates are found to possess rotational velocity and colour excess values in between CBe and HAeBe stars, which is reconfirmed by generating a set of synthetic samples using the machine learning approach.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Seismic facies analysis can generate a map to describe the spatial distribution characteristics of reservoirs, and therefore plays a critical role in seismic interpretation. To analyse the characteristics of the horizon of interest, it is usually necessary to extract seismic waveforms along the target horizon using a selected time window. The inaccuracy of horizon interpretation often produces some inconsistent phases and leads to inaccurate classification. Therefore, the developed adaptive phase K-means algorithm proposed a sliding time window to extract seismic waveforms. However, setting the maximum offset of the sliding window is difficult in a real data application. A value that is too large may cause the cross-layer problem, whereas a value that is too small reduces the flexibility of the algorithm. To address this disadvantage, this paper proposes a robust K-means (R-K-means) algorithm with a Gaussian-weighted sliding window for seismic waveform classification. The used weights punish those windows distant from the interpretation horizon in the objective function, consequently producing a smaller range of horizon adjustments even when using relatively large maximum offsets and benefitting the generation of stable and reliable seismic facies maps. The application of real seismic data from the F3 block proves the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    Print ISSN: 1742-2132
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-08-19
    Print ISSN: 0002-9092
    Electronic ISSN: 1467-8276
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Recent searches for the hosts of z ∼ 4 damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) have detected bright galaxies at distances of tens of kpc from the DLA. Using the FIRE-2 cosmological zoom simulations, we argue that these relatively large distances are due to a predominantly cool and neutral inner circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding high-redshift galaxies. The inner CGM is cool because of the short cooling time of hot gas in ≲ 1012 M⊙ haloes, which implies that accretion and feedback energy are radiated quickly, while it is neutral due to high volume densities and column densities at high redshift which shield cool gas from photoionization. Our analysis predicts large DLA covering factors ($gtrsim 50{{ m per cent}}$) out to impact parameters ∼0.3((1 + z)/5)3/2Rvir from the central galaxies at z ≳ 1, equivalent to a proper distance of $sim 21, M_{12}^{1/3} left(left(1+z ight)/5 ight)^{1/2}, { m kpc}$ (Rvir and M12 are the halo virial radius and mass in units of 1012 M⊙, respectively). This implies that DLA covering factors at z ∼ 4 may be comparable to unity out to a distance ∼10 times larger than stellar half-mass radii. A predominantly neutral inner CGM in the early universe suggests that its mass and metallicity can be directly constrained by absorption surveys, without resorting to the large ionization corrections as required for ionized CGM.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Motivation Accurate automatic annotation of protein function relies on both innovative models and robust data sets. Due to their importance in biological processes, the identification of DNA-binding proteins directly from protein sequence has been the focus of many studies. However, the data sets used to train and evaluate these methods have suffered from substantial flaws. We describe some of the weaknesses of the data sets used in previous DNA-binding protein literature and provide several new data sets addressing these problems. We suggest new evaluative benchmark tasks that more realistically assess real-world performance for protein annotation models. We propose a simple new model for the prediction of DNA-binding proteins and compare its performance on the improved data sets to two previously published models. Additionally, we provide extensive tests showing how the best models predict across taxonomies. Results Our new gradient boosting model, which uses features derived from a published protein language model, outperforms the earlier models. Perhaps surprisingly, so does a baseline nearest neighbor model using BLAST percent identity. We evaluate the sensitivity of these models to perturbations of DNA-binding regions and control regions of protein sequences. The successful data-driven models learn to focus on DNA-binding regions. When predicting across taxonomies, the best models are highly accurate across species in the same kingdom and can provide some information when predicting across kingdoms. Code and Data Availability The data and results for this paper can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5153906. The code for this paper can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5153683. The code, data and results can also be found at https://github.com/AZaitzeff/tools_for_dna_binding_proteins.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-08-21
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-08-21
    Description: Deciduous seasonal forests (DSFs) have a peculiar floristic composition, with species capable of surviving periods of high water deficit in a year. Our goal was to demonstrate that abiotic filters lead to the assembly of two DSF communities that have high floristic dissimilarity. For this, we characterized the environment of the areas and used the community-weighted mean (CWM), functional richness (FRic) and functional dispersion (FDis) indices for regional recognition of functional patterns. The local assessment of assembly rules was carried out using null models. We found differences in the FRic and FDis between the areas, which was attributed to the different floristic influences exercised on the communities. However, in both, the typical attributes of dry formations were dominant (CWM), indicating that, on the regional scale of study, the dry season acts as a filter in the composition of species in the communities. On a local scale, stochastic dispersion was identified as the most influential mechanism in the assembly of communities. We conclude that deterministic and stochastic processes act in the assembly of the studied communities, and the proportion of each of these depends on the scale, with abiotic filtration predominating on a regional scale and stochastic dispersion events on a local scale. Study Implications With the expansion of agriculture and climate change, tropical dry biomes, such as deciduous seasonal forests, are rapidly changing. In this study, we contribute to the recognition of functional standards and community assembly of this vegetation type to assist in management planning, restoration, and conservation. Understanding the different processes involved in building a community is crucial for anticipating how communities will behave under future environmental scenarios.
    Print ISSN: 0015-749X
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-3738
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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    Publication Date: 2021-08-21
    Description: Quantification of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in different land uses holds vital significance because of its implications regarding carbon sequestration as the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The current study was conducted to quantify and compare SOC stocks in forest land, agricultural land, and barren land-use categories in the subtropical ecosystems of the Himalayan foothills in Kashmir. Results showed the highest SOC value in the forest soil (75 ± 11.1 Mg C ha−1) followed by agricultural soil (58 ± 7.0 Mg C ha−1) and barren land (44 ± 6.5 Mg C ha−1). SOC stocks in different land uses showed broad variations with values as high as 106 ± 11.3 Mg C ha−1 (forest soils) and as low as 14.1 ± 7.1 Mg C ha−1 (barren land). The forest SOC values responded significantly to species composition with the highest values in Pinus roxburghii Sarg. pure stands as compared with broad leaved forests. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed that the variations in SOC stocks were significantly correlated with vegetation type, altitude, and soil bulk density. The study has identified anthropogenic disturbances as a major factor deteriorating local SOC stocks and recommends immediate soil restoration efforts to enhance the ecological significance of soils as vital regional carbon sinks. Study Implications The current study was designed to investigate the soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in different land uses of the Kashmir Himalayas, Pakistan. Results revealed forest soils as the major carbon sinks of the region, attributed to diverse species composition having a significant quantity of organic residues, followed by agricultural soils. Barren land-use class exhibited the lowest SOC values due to minimum vegetation cover, erosion, and degradation. Significant correlations of SOC stocks with geographical and edaphic variables were identified by multivariate ordination analysis in the investigated land-use classes. Results validate the significance of forests in enhancing SOC stocks, demanding forest restoration in the area by controlling the forest losses as well as afforestation. This article provides vital information required for better understanding of SOC stocks in different land-use classes in the subtropical ecosystems of the Kashmir region.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1938-3738
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-08-22
    Description: Aims Acid grasslands are threatened both by agricultural intensification with nutrient addition and increased livestock densities as well as by land abandonment. In order to understand and quantify the effect of selected environmental and land-use factors on the observed variation and changes in the vegetation of acid grasslands, large-scale spatial and temporal pin-point plant cover monitoring data are fitted in a structural equation model. Methods The important sources of measurement and sampling uncertainties have been included using a hierarchical model structure. Furthermore, uncertainties associated with the measurement and sampling are separated from the process uncertainty, which is important when generating ecological predictions that may feed into local conservation management decisions. Important Findings Generally, increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition led to more grass-dominated acid grassland habitats at the expense of the cover of forbs. Sandy soils were relatively more acidic, and the effects of soil type on the vegetation include both direct effects of soil type and indirect effects mediated by the effect of soil type on soil pH. Both soil type and soil pH affected the vegetation of acid grasslands. Even though only a relatively small proportion of the temporal variation in cover was explained by the model, it would still be useful to quantify the uncertainties when using the model for generating local ecological predictions and adaptive management plans.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: SAR92 is one of the few examples of a widely distributed, abundant oligotroph that can be cultivated to study pathways of carbon oxidation in ocean systems. Genomic evidence for SAR92 suggests that this gammaproteobacterium might be a primary consumer of polysaccharides in the epipelagic zone, its main habitat. Here, we investigated cell growth, polysaccharide utilization gene expression, and carbohydrate-active enzyme abundance of a culturable SAR92 strain, HTCC2207, grown with different polysaccharides. Xylan and laminarin, two polysaccharides mainly produced by phytoplankton, supported the growth of HTCC2207 better than other polysaccharides. HTCC2207 possessed polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) consisting of TonB-dependent receptor (TBDR) and glycoside hydrolase (GH) family genes. GH genes such as GH17 and GH3 presented no substrate-specificity and were induced by different sugar substrates, while expressions of GH16, GH10 and GH30 were enhanced in the glucose-treatment but suppressed in the polysaccharide-treatment, indicating complex polysaccharide utilization by HTCC2207. Metabolic pathways for laminarin and xylan were re-constructed in HTCC2207 based on the PULs genes and other predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes. This study reveals features of the epipelagic niche of SAR92 and provide insight into the biogeochemical cycling of labile, high-molecular carbohydrate compounds in the surface ocean.
    Print ISSN: 0168-6496
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-6941
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2021-08-22
    Description: Aims Moso bamboo expansions into Japanese cedar forests are common. The expansion effects on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions have not been thoroughly understood, and the underlying microbial mechanisms remain unclear. Methods We studied bacterial and fungal contribution to soil N2O emissions under moso bamboo or Japanese cedar by applying bacterial or fungal inhibitors using streptomycin and iprodione, respectively. Soil N2O emissions were measured and the relative contribution of bacteria and fungi to soil N2O emissions was calculated. Important Findings N2O emission from soil with moso bamboo was significantly higher than under Japanese cedar. Compared with control, bacterial or fungal inhibitor or their combination decreased N2O emissions, indicating substantial contribution of microbial activities to N2O emissions. However, the relative contribution of bacteria and fungi to N2O emissions was not affected by plants. Soil organic carbon, total and ammonium nitrogen were lower in soil under moso bamboo than Japanese cedar, suggesting faster microbial decomposition under moso bamboo. Fungal inhibitor and plants interactively affected soil pH, total phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen, while bacterial inhibitor and plants interactively affected total nitrogen, indicating substantial dependence of effects by microbial communities on plant species. Moso bamboo and Japanese cedar differed in their effects on soil N2O emissions with higher emissions under moso bamboo. Stimulation of N2O emission under moso bamboo might occur due to higher nitrogen mineralization and subsequent denitrification induced by high root exudation. These results highlight the need to consider the effect of species shifts on N2O emissions in forests.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant form of mRNA modification and controls many aspects of RNA metabolism including gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which m6A regulates cell- and condition-specific gene expression are still poorly understood, partly due to a lack of tools capable of identifying m6A sites that regulate gene expression under different conditions. Here we develop m6A-express, the first algorithm for predicting condition-specific m6A regulation of gene expression (m6A-reg-exp) from limited methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) data. Comprehensive evaluations of m6A-express using simulated and real data demonstrated its high prediction specificity and sensitivity. When only a few MeRIP-seq samples may be available for the cellular or treatment conditions, m6A-express is particularly more robust than the log-linear model. Using m6A-express, we reported that m6A writers, METTL3 and METTL14, competitively regulate the transcriptional processes by mediating m6A-reg-exp of different genes in Hela cells. In contrast, METTL3 induces different m6A-reg-exp of a distinct group of genes in HepG2 cells to regulate protein functions and stress-related processes. We further uncovered unique m6A-reg-exp patterns in human brain and intestine tissues, which are enriched in organ-specific processes. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of m6A-express in predicting condition-specific m6A-reg-exp and highlights the complex, condition-specific nature of m6A-regulation of gene expression.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: The Internal Linear Combination (ILC) method has been extensively used to extract the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy map from foreground contaminated multi-frequency maps. However, the performance of simple ILC is limited and can be significantly improved by heavily constraint equations, dubbed constrained ILC (cILC). The standard ILC and cILC works on spin-0 fields. Recently, a generalised version of ILC has been developed, named Polarization ILC (PILC), in which Q ± iU at multiple frequencies are combined using complex coefficients to estimate Stokes Q and U maps. A statistical moment expansion method has recently been developed for high precision modelling of the Galactic foregrounds. This paper develops a semi-blind component separation method combining the moment approach of foreground modelling with a generalised version of the PILC method for heavily constraint equations. The algorithm is developed in pixel space over a spin-2 field. We demonstrate the performance of the method on three sets of absolutely calibrated simulated maps at WMAP and Planck frequencies with varying foreground models. We apply this component separation technique in simultaneous estimation of Stokes Q and U maps of the thermal dust at 353 GHz and synchrotron at 30 GHz. We also recover both dust and synchrotron maps at 100 and 143 GHz, where separating two components is challenging.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: As the robustness for the wave equation-based inversion methods, wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) is stable for overcoming the multipathing problem and has become popular in recent years. As a rapidly developed method, differential semblance optimisation (DSO) is convenient to implement and can automatically detect the moveout existing in common image gathers (CIGs). However, by implementing in the image domain with the target of minimising moveouts and improving coherence of the CIGs, the DSO method often suffers from imaging artefacts caused by uneven illumination and irregular observation geometry, which may produce poor velocity updates with artefact contamination. To deal with this issue, in this paper, by introducing Wiener-like filters, we modify the conventional image matching-based objective function to a new one by introducing the quadratic Wasserstein metric technique. The new misfit function measures the distance of two distributions obtained by the convolutional filters and target functions. With the new misfit function, the adjoint sources and the corresponding gradients are improved. We apply the new method to two numerical examples and one field dataset. The corresponding results indicate that the new method is robust to compensate low frequency components of velocity models.
    Print ISSN: 1742-2132
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    Topics: Geosciences
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