ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Oxford University Press  (156,691)
  • American Meteorological Society
  • MDPI Publishing
Collection
Language
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-02
    Description: To model tracer spreading in the ocean, Lagrangian simulations in an offline framework are a practical and efficient alternative to solving the advective–diffusive tracer equations online. Differences in both approaches raise the question of whether both methods are comparable. Lagrangian simulations usually use model output averaged in time, and trajectories are not subject to parameterized subgrid diffusion, which is included in the advection–diffusion equations of ocean models. Previous studies focused on diffusivity estimates in idealized models but could show that both methods yield similar results as long as the deformations-scale dynamics are resolved and a sufficient amount of Lagrangian particles is used. This study compares spreading of an Eulerian tracer simulated online and a cloud of Lagrangian particles simulated offline with velocities from the same ocean model. We use a global, eddy-resolving ocean model featuring 1/20° horizontal resolution in the Agulhas region around South Africa. Tracer and particles were released at one time step in the Cape Basin and below the mixed layer and integrated for 3 years. Large-scale diagnostics, like mean pathways of floats and tracer, are almost identical and 1D horizontal distributions show no significant differences. Differences in vertical distributions, seen in a reduced vertical spreading and downward displacement of particles, are due to the combined effect of unresolved subdaily variability of the vertical velocities and the spatial variation of vertical diffusivity. This, in turn, has a small impact on the horizontal spreading behavior. The estimates of eddy diffusivity from particles and tracer yield comparable results of about 4000 m2 s−1 in the Cape Basin.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford University Press
    In:  Climate Justice: Integrating Economics and Philosophy
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Type: inbook
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 32 (4). pp. 1101-1120.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Proxy data and observations suggest that large tropical volcanic eruptions induce a poleward shift of the North Atlantic jet stream in boreal winter. However, there is far from universal agreement in models on this effect and its mechanism, and the possibilities of a corresponding jet shift in the Southern Hemisphere or the summer season have received little attention. Using a hierarchy of simplified atmospheric models, this study examines the impact of stratospheric aerosol on the extratropical circulation over the annual cycle. In particular, the models allow the separation of the dominant shortwave (surface cooling) and longwave (stratospheric warming) impacts of volcanic aerosol. It is found that stratospheric warming shifts the jet poleward in both summer and winter hemispheres. The experiments cannot definitively rule out the role of surface cooling, but provide no evidence that it shifts the jet poleward. Further study with simplified models demonstrates that the response to stratospheric warming is remarkably generic and does not depend critically on the boundary conditions (e.g., the planetary wave forcing) or the atmospheric physics (e.g., the treatment of radiative transfer and moist processes). It does, however, fundamentally involve both zonal-mean and eddy circulation feedbacks. The timescales, seasonality, and structure of the response provide further insight into the mechanism, as well as its connection to modes of intrinsic natural variability. These findings have implications for the interpretation of comprehensive model studies and for post-volcanic prediction
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 6(4), (2018): 144. doi:10.3390/jmse6040144.
    Description: Geochronologies derived from sediment cores in coastal locations are often used to infer event bed characteristics such as deposit thicknesses and accumulation rates. Such studies commonly use naturally occurring, short-lived radioisotopes, such as Beryllium-7 (7Be) and Thorium-234 (234Th), to study depositional and post-depositional processes. These radioisotope activities, however, are not generally represented in sediment transport models that characterize coastal flood and storm deposition with grain size patterns and deposit thicknesses. We modified the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) to account for reactive tracers and used this capability to represent the behavior of these short-lived radioisotopes on the sediment bed. This paper describes the model and presents results from a set of idealized, one-dimensional (vertical) test cases. The model configuration represented fluvial deposition followed by periods of episodic storm resuspension. Sensitivity tests explored the influence on seabed radioisotope profiles by the intensities of bioturbation and wave resuspension and the thickness of fluvial deposits. The intensity of biodiffusion affected the persistence of fluvial event beds as evidenced by 7Be. Both resuspension and biodiffusion increased the modeled seabed inventory of 234Th. A thick fluvial deposit increased the seabed inventory of 7Be and 234Th but mixing over time greatly reduced the difference in inventory of 234Th in fluvial deposits of different thicknesses.
    Description: The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) provided funding for Birchler, Harris, and Kniskern. During his M.S. program Birchler received additional funds from VIMS’ Office of Academic Studies. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program.
    Keywords: numerical model ; sediment transport ; marine ; short-lived radioisotopes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49 (2), (2019): 607-630, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-18-0166.1.
    Description: The Lagrangian motion in the eddy field produced from an unstable retrograde jet along the shelf break is studied from idealized numerical experiments with a primitive equation model. The jet is initially in thermal wind balance with a cross-isobath density gradient and is not subjected to any atmospheric forcing. Over the course of the model integration, the jet becomes unstable and produces a quasi-stationary eddy field over a 2-month period. During this period, the cross-slope flow at the shelf break is characterized by along-slope correlation scales of O(10) km and temporal correlation scales of a few days. The relative dispersion of parcels across isobaths is found to increase with time as tb, where 1 〈 b 〈 2. This mixed diffusive–ballistic regime appears to reflect the combined effects of (i) the short length scales of velocity correlation at the shelf break and (ii) the seaward excursion of monopolar and dipolar vortices. Cross-slope dispersion is greater offshore of the front than inshore of the front, as offshore parcels are both subducted onshore below density surfaces and translated offshore with eddies. Nonetheless, the exchange of parcels across the jet remains very limited on the monthly time scale. Particles originating from the bottom experience upward displacements of a few tens of meters and seaward displacements of O(100) km, suggesting that the eddy activity engendered by an unstable along-slope jet provides another mechanism for bottom boundary layer detachment near the shelf edge.
    Description: The author expresses his gratitude to the researchers who contributed to the development and public dissemination of POM [for a list of contributors, see Mellor (2002) and comments in the source code]. Discussions with Kenneth Brink, Hyodae Seo, and Weifeng Zhang have been helpful. Comments provided by Kenneth Brink on a draft are gratefully acknowledged. The criticism from two anonymous reviewers allowed us to better focus the manuscript and to significantly improve its clarity. This work has been supported by Grant OCE-1556400 from the U.S. National Science Foundation.
    Description: 2020-02-18
    Keywords: Dispersion ; Eddies ; Frontogenesis/frontolysis ; Instability ; Lagrangian circulation/transport ; Jets
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Aslan, C., Beckman, N. G., Rogers, H. S., Bronstein, J., Zurell, D., Hartig, F., Shea, K., Pejchar, L., Neubert, M., Poulsen, J., HilleRisLambers, J., Miriti, M., Loiselle, B., Effiom, E., Zambrano, J., Schupp, G., Pufal, G., Johnson, J., Bullock, J. M., Brodie, J., Bruna, E., Cantrell, R. S., Decker, R., Fricke, E., Gurski, K., Hastings, A., Kogan, O., Razafindratsima, O., Sandor, M., Schreiber, S., Snell, R., Strickland, C., & Zhou, Y. Employing plant functional groups to advance seed dispersal ecology and conservation. AoB Plants, 11(2), (2019):plz006, doi:10.1093/aobpla/plz006.
    Description: Seed dispersal enables plants to reach hospitable germination sites and escape natural enemies. Understanding when and how much seed dispersal matters to plant fitness is critical for understanding plant population and community dynamics. At the same time, the complexity of factors that determine if a seed will be successfully dispersed and subsequently develop into a reproductive plant is daunting. Quantifying all factors that may influence seed dispersal effectiveness for any potential seed-vector relationship would require an unrealistically large amount of time, materials and financial resources. On the other hand, being able to make dispersal predictions is critical for predicting whether single species and entire ecosystems will be resilient to global change. Building on current frameworks, we here posit that seed dispersal ecology should adopt plant functional groups as analytical units to reduce this complexity to manageable levels. Functional groups can be used to distinguish, for their constituent species, whether it matters (i) if seeds are dispersed, (ii) into what context they are dispersed and (iii) what vectors disperse them. To avoid overgeneralization, we propose that the utility of these functional groups may be assessed by generating predictions based on the groups and then testing those predictions against species-specific data. We suggest that data collection and analysis can then be guided by robust functional group definitions. Generalizing across similar species in this way could help us to better understand the population and community dynamics of plants and tackle the complexity of seed dispersal as well as its disruption.
    Description: Ideas for this manuscript initiated during the Seed Dispersal Workshop held in May 2016 at the Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center in Annapolis, MD and supported by the US National Science Foundation Grant DEB-1548194 to N.G.B. and the National Socio‐Environmental Synthesis Center under the US National Science Foundation Grant DBI‐1052875. D.Z. received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF, grant: PZ00P3_168136/1) and from the German Science Foundation (DFG, grant: ZU 361/1- 1). Contributions by the authors C.A. led the development of the concepts, writing, and revising of the manuscript with input from N.G.B. and H.S.R. All authors contributed to the development of concepts and are listed in order of contribution and alphabetical order within each level of contribution.
    Keywords: dependency ; directed dispersal ; dispersal vectors ; generalization ; mutualism ; seed dispersal effectiveness
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford University Press
    In:  Journal of travel medicine
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: Humans have a long history of mobility on a spectrum from voluntary migration to forced displacement in response to social, political and environmental change. While many migration drivers exist, climate change is likely to amplify the environmental drivers of migration. At least 1.5?C of warming above pre-industrial levels between 2030 and 2052 are projected if global warming continues to increase at the current rate. The associated impacts are diverse and include temperature and precipitation extremes in most inhabited regions and increased probability of drought and flood. Migration can be an important and useful adaptive response to climate impacts when it increases household resilience and reduces socio-economic vulnerabilities, and yet can also have negative health consequences. The climate?migration?health nexus entails complex interactions including the following: first, climate-related risks to health faced by migrants at all stages of the migration journey. Second, the impacts of migration itself on health with possible specific health implications of climate-related migration. This article provides a brief overview of climate-related migration, identifies climate hotspots where substantial migration and displacement are anticipated and explores the health implications of climate-related migration.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-06
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in he balance of salinity variance in a partially stratified estuary: Implications for exchange flow, mixing, and stratification. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48(12), (2018) 2887-2899., doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0032.1.
    Description: Salinity variance dissipation is related to exchange flow through the salinity variance balance equation, and meanwhile its magnitude is also proportional to the turbulence production and stratification inside the estuary. As river flow increases, estuarine volume-integrated salinity variance dissipation increases owing to more variance input from the open boundaries driven by exchange flow and river flow. This corresponds to the increased efficient conversion of turbulence production to salinity variance dissipation due to the intensified stratification with higher river flow. Through the spring–neap cycle, the temporal variation of salinity variance dissipation is more dependent on stratification than turbulence production, so it reaches its maximum during the transition from neap to spring tides. During most of the transition time from spring to neap tides, the advective input of salinity variance from the open boundaries is larger than dissipation, resulting in the net increase of variance, which is mainly expressed as vertical variance, that is, stratification. The intensified stratification in turn increases salinity variance dissipation. During neap tides, a large amount of enhanced salinity variance dissipation is induced by the internal shear stress near the halocline. During most of the transition time from neap to spring tides, dissipation becomes larger than the advective input, so salinity variance decreases and the stratification is destroyed.
    Description: TW was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2017YFA0604104), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41706002), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant BK20170864), and MEL Visiting Fellowship (MELRS1617). WRG was supported by NSF Grant OCE 1736539. Part of this work is finished during TW’s visit in MEL and WHOI. We would like to acknowledge John Warner for providing the codes of the Hudson estuary model, and Parker MacCready, the editor, and two reviewers for their insightful suggestions on improving the manuscript.
    Description: 2019-06-06
    Keywords: Estuaries ; Dynamics ; Mixing ; Density Currents
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-21
    Description: The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings are known as the Third Pole (TP). This region is noted for its high rates of glacier melt and the associated hydrological shifts that affect water supplies in Asia. Atmospheric pollutants contribute to climatic and cryospheric changes through their effects on solar radiation and the albedos of snow and ice surfaces; moreover, the behavior and fates within the cryosphere and environmental impacts of environmental pollutants are topics of increasing concern. In this review, we introduce a coordinated monitoring and research framework and network to link atmospheric pollution and cryospheric changes (APCC) within the TP region. We then provide an up-to-date summary of progress and achievements related to the APCC research framework, including aspects of atmospheric pollution's composition and concentration, spatial and temporal variations, trans-boundary transport pathways and mechanisms, and effects on the warming of atmosphere and changing in Indian monsoon, as well as melting of glacier and snow cover. We highlight that exogenous air pollutants can enter into the TP?s environments and cause great impacts on regional climatic and environmental changes. At last, we propose future research priorities and map out an extended program at the global scale. The ongoing monitoring activities and research facilitate comprehensive studies of atmosphere?cryosphere interactions, represent one of China's key research expeditions to the TP and the polar regions and contribute to the global perspective of earth system science.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 32(2), (2019): 549-573. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0413.1.
    Description: Time series of surface meteorology and air–sea fluxes from the northern Bay of Bengal are analyzed, quantifying annual and seasonal means, variability, and the potential for surface fluxes to contribute significantly to variability in surface temperature and salinity. Strong signals were associated with solar insolation and its modulation by cloud cover, and, in the 5- to 50-day range, with intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs). The northeast (NE) monsoon (DJF) was typically cloud free, with strong latent heat loss and several moderate wind events, and had the only seasonal mean ocean heat loss. The spring intermonsoon (MAM) was cloud free and had light winds and the strongest ocean heating. Strong ISOs and Tropical Cyclone Komen were seen in the southwest (SW) monsoon (JJA), when 65% of the 2.2-m total rain fell, and oceanic mean heating was small. The fall intermonsoon (SON) initially had moderate convective systems and mean ocean heating, with a transition to drier winds and mean ocean heat loss in the last month. Observed surface freshwater flux applied to a layer of the observed thickness produced drops in salinity with timing and magnitude similar to the initial drops in salinity in the summer monsoon, but did not reproduce the salinity variability of the fall intermonsoon. Observed surface heat flux has the potential to cause the temperature trends of the different seasons, but uncertainty in how shortwave radiation is absorbed in the upper ocean limits quantifying the role of surface forcing in the evolution of mixed layer temperature.
    Description: The deployment of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) mooring and RW and JTF were supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Grant N00014-13-1-0453. DS acknowledges support from the Ministry of Earth Sciences under India’s National Monsoon Mission. HS acknowledges support from the Office of Naval Research Grants N00014-13-1-0453 and N00014-17-12398. The deployment of the WHOI mooring was done by RV Sagar Nidhi and the recovery by RV Sagar Kanya; the help of the crew and science parties is gratefully acknowledged as is the ongoing support at NIOT in Chennai and by other colleagues in India of this mooring work. The work of the staff of the WHOI Upper Ocean Process Group in the design, building, deployment, and recovery of the mooring and in processing the data is gratefully acknowledged. The software for the wavelet analysis was provided by Torrence and Compo (1998). Feedback on the paper by Dr. Amit Tandon and two anonymous reviewers is gratefully acknowledged. This paper is dedicated to Dr. Frank Bradley.
    Description: 2019-06-28
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Monsoons ; Air-sea interaction ; Surface fluxes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford University Press
    In:  FEMS Microbiology Letters, 366 (11).
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Metabolites give us a window into the chemistry of microbes and are split into two subclasses: primary and secondary. Primary metabolites are required for life whereas secondary metabolites have historically been classified as those appearing after exponential growth and are not necessarily needed for survival. Many microbial species are estimated to produce hundreds of metabolites and can be affected by differing nutrients. Using various analytical techniques, metabolites can be directly detected in order to elucidate their biological significance. Currently, a single experiment can produce anywhere from megabytes to terabytes of data. This big data has motivated scientists to develop informatics tools to help target specific metabolites or sets of metabolites. Broadly, it is imperative to identify clear biological questions before embarking on a study of metabolites (metabolomics). For instance, studying the effect of a transposon insertion on phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas is a very different from asking what molecules are present in a specific banana-derived strain of Pseudomonas. This review is meant to serve as a primer for a ‘choose your own adventure’ approach for microbiologists with limited mass spectrometry expertise, with a strong focus on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry based workflows developed or optimized within the past five years.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Monthly Weather Review 147(1), (2019): 389-406. doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0158.1.
    Description: The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is stratified by stratospheric zonal wind direction and height into four phase pairs [easterly midstratospheric winds (QBOEM), easterly lower-stratospheric winds, westerly midstratospheric winds (QBOWM), and westerly lower-stratospheric winds] using an empirical orthogonal function analysis of daily stratospheric (100–10 hPa) zonal wind data during 1980–2017. Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) events in which the MJO convective envelope moved eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) during 1980–2017 are identified using the Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) MJO index (OMI). Comparison of RMM amplitudes by the QBO phase pair over the MC (RMM phases 4 and 5) reveals that boreal winter MJO events have the strongest amplitudes during QBOEM and the weakest amplitudes during QBOWM, which is consistent with QBO-driven differences in upper-tropospheric lower-stratospheric (UTLS) static stability. Additionally, boreal winter RMM events over the MC strengthen during QBOEM and weaken during QBOWM. In the OMI, those amplitude changes generally shift eastward to the eastern MC and western Pacific Ocean, which may result from differences in RMM and OMI index methodologies. During boreal summer, as the northeastward-propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) becomes the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability, these relationships are reversed. Zonal differences in UTLS stability anomalies are consistent with amplitude changes of eastward-propagating MJO events across the MC during boreal winter, and meridional stability differences are consistent with amplitude changes of northeastward-propagating BSISO events during boreal summer. Results remain consistent when stratifying by neutral ENSO phase.
    Description: The authors are grateful for the funding provided by the Office of Naval Research Propagation of Intra-Seasonal Tropical Oscillations (ONR PISTON) Award N0001416WX01752 and the USNA Trident Scholar program. The authors also appreciate the helpful comments of the two external reviewers.
    Description: 2019-07-07
    Keywords: Maritime Continent ; Madden-Julian oscillation ; Quasibiennial oscillation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-07-25
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 32(5) (2019): 1551-1571. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0444.1.
    Description: Previous studies have documented a poleward shift in the subsiding branches of Earth’s Hadley circulation since 1979 but have disagreed on the causes of these observed changes and the ability of global climate models to capture them. This synthesis paper reexamines a number of contradictory claims in the past literature and finds that the tropical expansion indicated by modern reanalyses is within the bounds of models’ historical simulations for the period 1979–2005. Earlier conclusions that models were underestimating the observed trends relied on defining the Hadley circulation using the mass streamfunction from older reanalyses. The recent observed tropical expansion has similar magnitudes in the annual mean in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH), but models suggest that the factors driving the expansion differ between the hemispheres. In the SH, increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone depletion contributed to tropical expansion over the late twentieth century, and if GHGs continue increasing, the SH tropical edge is projected to shift further poleward over the twenty-first century, even as stratospheric ozone concentrations recover. In the NH, the contribution of GHGs to tropical expansion is much smaller and will remain difficult to detect in a background of large natural variability, even by the end of the twenty-first century. To explain similar recent tropical expansion rates in the two hemispheres, natural variability must be taken into account. Recent coupled atmosphere–ocean variability, including the Pacific decadal oscillation, has contributed to tropical expansion. However, in models forced with observed sea surface temperatures, tropical expansion rates still vary widely because of internal atmospheric variability.
    Description: We thank Ori Adam, Nick Davis, Isaac Held, Tim Merlis, Lorenzo Polvani, and one anonymous reviewer for helpful comments and suggestions. We thank U.S. CLIVAR and the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) for funding working groups that stimulated this project. We thank all members of the working groups for helpful discussions, and the U.S. CLIVAR and ISSI offices and their sponsoring agencies (NASA,NOAA,NSF,DOE, ESA, Swiss Confederation, Swiss Academy of Sciences, and University of Bern) for supporting these groups and activities.We acknowledge WCRP’sWorking Group on CoupledModelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (Table 2) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. DOE PCMDI provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals.
    Description: 2019-08-06
    Keywords: Hadley circulation ; Climate models ; Reanalysis data ; Multidecadal variability ; Pacific decadal oscillation ; Trends
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford University Press
    In:  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 185 (3). pp. 555-635.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: Polynoidae contains ~900 species within 18 subfamilies, some of them restricted to the deep sea. Macellicephalinae is the most diverse among these deep-sea subfamilies. In the abyssal Equatorial Pacific Ocean, the biodiversity of benthic communities is at stake in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) owing to increased industrial interest in polymetallic nodules. The records of polychaetes in this region are scarce. Data gathered during the JPI Oceans cruise SO239 made a significant contribution to fill this gap, with five different localities sampled between 4000 and 5000 m depth. Benthic samples collected using an epibenthic sledge or a remotely operated vehicle resulted in a large collection of polynoids. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to describe new species of deep-sea polynoids using morphology and molecular data (COI, 16S and 18S); and (2) to evaluate the monophyly of Macellicephalinae. Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, ten subfamilies are synonymized with Macellicephalinae in order to create a homogeneous clade determined by the absence of lateral antennae. Within this clade, the Anantennata clade was well supported, being determined by the absence of a median antenna. Furthermore, 17 new species and four new genera are described, highlighting the high diversity hidden in the deep. A taxonomic key for the 37 valid genera of the subfamily Macellicephalinae is provided.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: Satellite observations and output from a high-resolution ocean model are used to investigate how the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico affects the Gulf Stream transport through the Florida Straits. We find that the expansion (contraction) of the Loop Current leads to lower (higher) transports through the Straits of Florida. The associated surface velocity anomalies are coherent from the southwestern tip of Florida to Cape Hatteras. A simple continuity-based argument can be used to explain the link between the Loop Current and the downstream Gulf Stream transport: as the Loop Current lengthens (shortens) its path in the Gulf of Mexico, the flow out of the Gulf decreases (increases). Anomalies in the surface velocity field are first seen to the southwest of Florida and within 4 weeks propagate through the Florida Straits up to Cape Hatteras and into the Gulf Stream Extension. In both the observations and the model this propagation can be seen as pulses in the surface velocities. We estimate that the Loop Current variability can be linked to a variability of several Sverdrups (1Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) through the Florida Straits. The exact timing of the Loop Current variability is largely unpredictable beyond a few weeks and its variability is therefore likely a major contributor to the chaotic/intrinsic variability of the Gulf Stream. However, the time lag between the Loop Current and the flow downstream of the Gulf of Mexico means that if a lengthening/shortening of the Loop Current is observed this introduces some predictability in the downstream flow for a few weeks.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: archive
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-08-19
    Description: Oceanic eddies are an important component in preconditioning the central Labrador Sea (LS) for deep convection and in restratifying the convected water. This study investigates the different sources and impacts of Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) and its temporal variability in the LS with the help of a 52-year long hindcast simulation of a 1/20° ocean model. Irminger Rings (IR) are generated in the West Greenland Current (WGC) between 60 and 62°N, mainly affect preconditioning and limit the northward extent of the convection area. The IR exhibit a seasonal cycle and decadal variations linked to the WGC strength, varying with the circulation of the subpolar gyre. The mean and temporal variations of IR generation can be attributed to changes in deep ocean baroclinic and upper ocean barotropic instabilities at comparable magnitudes. The main source of EKE and restratification in the central LS are Convective Eddies (CE). They are generated by baroclinic instabilities near the bottom of the mixed layer during and after convection. The CE have a mid-depth core and reflect the hydrographic properties of the convected water mass with a distinct minimum in potential vorticity. Their seasonal to decadal variability is tightly connected to the local atmospheric forcing and the associated air-sea heat fluxes. A third class of eddies in the LS are the Boundary Current Eddies shed from the Labrador Current (LC). Since they are mostly confined to the vicinity of the LC, these eddies appear to exert only minor influence on preconditioning and restratification.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Alexander, H., Johnson, L. K., & Brown, C. T.. Keeping it light: (re)analyzing community-wide datasets without major infrastructure. Gigascience, 8(2),(2019): giy159, doi:10.1093/gigascience/giy159.
    Description: DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the field of biology, shifting biology from a data-limited to data-rich state. Central to the interpretation of sequencing data are the computational tools and approaches that convert raw data into biologically meaningful information. Both the tools and the generation of data are actively evolving, yet the practice of re-analysis of previously generated data with new tools is not commonplace. Re-analysis of existing data provides an affordable means of generating new information and will likely become more routine within biology, yet necessitates a new set of considerations for best practices and resource development. Here, we discuss several practices that we believe to be broadly applicable when re-analyzing data, especially when done by small research groups.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (award GBMF4551 to C.T.B.).
    Keywords: reproducibility ; data reuse ; open data
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-08-29
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 32(13), (2019): 3883-3898, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0735.1.
    Description: While it has generally been understood that the production of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) impacts the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC), this relationship has not been explored extensively or validated against observations. To explore this relationship, a suite of global ocean–sea ice models forced by the same interannually varying atmospheric dataset, varying in resolution from non-eddy-permitting to eddy-permitting (1°–1/4°), is analyzed to investigate the local and downstream relationships between LSW formation and the MOC on interannual to decadal time scales. While all models display a strong relationship between changes in the LSW volume and the MOC in the Labrador Sea, this relationship degrades considerably downstream of the Labrador Sea. In particular, there is no consistent pattern among the models in the North Atlantic subtropical basin over interannual to decadal time scales. Furthermore, the strong response of the MOC in the Labrador Sea to LSW volume changes in that basin may be biased by the overproduction of LSW in many models compared to observations. This analysis shows that changes in LSW volume in the Labrador Sea cannot be clearly and consistently linked to a coherent MOC response across latitudes over interannual to decadal time scales in ocean hindcast simulations of the last half century. Similarly, no coherent relationships are identified between the MOC and the Labrador Sea mixed layer depth or the density of newly formed LSW across latitudes or across models over interannual to decadal time scales.
    Description: FL and MSL are thankful for the financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Physical Oceanography Program (NSF-OCE-12-59102, NSF-OCE-12-59103). The NCAR contribution was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office (CPO) under Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CVP) Grant NA13OAR4310138 and by the NSF Collaborative Research EaSM2 Grant OCE-1243015. NCAR is sponsored by the NSF. NPH is supported by NERC programs U.K. OSNAP (NE/K010875) and ACSIS (National Capability, NE/N018044/1). Y-OK is supported by NOAA CPO CVP (NA17OAR4310111) and NSF EaSM2 grant (OCE-1242989). AR is supported by NASA-ROSES Modeling, Analysis and Prediction 2016 NNX16AC93G-MAP. RZ is supported by NOAA/OAR. Argo data were collected and made freely available by the International Argo Program and the national programs that contribute to it (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu, http://argo.jcommops.org). The Argo Program is part of the Global Ocean Observing System (http://doi.org/10.17882/42182). Data from the RAPID-MOCHA-WBTS array funded by NERC, NSF and NOAA are freely available from www.rapid.ac.uk/rapidmoc. We thank Stephen Griffies for providing access to the GFDL-MOM025 COREII simulation output and Matthew Harrison and Xiaoqin Yan for their comments on the manuscript. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.
    Description: 2020-06-11
    Keywords: North Atlantic Ocean ; Deep convection ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Model comparison
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 49(7), (2019): 1889-1904, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-19-0053.1.
    Description: A high-resolution numerical model, together with in situ and satellite observations, is used to explore the nature and dynamics of the dominant high-frequency (from one day to one week) variability in Denmark Strait. Mooring measurements in the center of the strait reveal that warm water “flooding events” occur, whereby the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC) propagates offshore and advects subtropical-origin water northward through the deepest part of the sill. Two other types of mesoscale processes in Denmark Strait have been described previously in the literature, known as “boluses” and “pulses,” associated with a raising and lowering of the overflow water interface. Our measurements reveal that flooding events occur in conjunction with especially pronounced pulses. The model indicates that the NIIC hydrographic front is maintained by a balance between frontogenesis by the large-scale flow and frontolysis by baroclinic instability. Specifically, the temperature and salinity tendency equations demonstrate that the eddies act to relax the front, while the mean flow acts to sharpen it. Furthermore, the model reveals that the two dense water processes—boluses and pulses (and hence flooding events)—are dynamically related to each other and tied to the meandering of the hydrographic front in the strait. Our study thus provides a general framework for interpreting the short-time-scale variability of Denmark Strait Overflow Water entering the Irminger Sea.
    Description: MAS was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grants OCE-1558742 and OCE-1534618. RSP, PL, and DM were supported by NSF under Grants OCE-1558742 and OCE-1259618. WJvA was supported by the Helmholtz Infrastructure Initiative FRAM. TWNH and MA were supported by NSF under Grants OCE-1633124 and OCE-118123.
    Description: 2020-07-01
    Keywords: Baroclinic flows ; Frontogenesis/frontolysis ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Ocean dynamics ; Topographic effects
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Johnson, L. K., Alexander, H., & Brown, C. T. Re-assembly, quality evaluation, and annotation of 678 microbial eukaryotic reference transcriptomes. Gigascience, 8(4), (2019): giy158, doi: 10.1093/gigascience/giy158.
    Description: Background: De novo transcriptome assemblies are required prior to analyzing RNA sequencing data from a species without an existing reference genome or transcriptome. Despite the prevalence of transcriptomic studies, the effects of using different workflows, or “pipelines,” on the resulting assemblies are poorly understood. Here, a pipeline was programmatically automated and used to assemble and annotate raw transcriptomic short-read data collected as part of the Marine Microbial Eukaryotic Transcriptome Sequencing Project. The resulting transcriptome assemblies were evaluated and compared against assemblies that were previously generated with a different pipeline developed by the National Center for Genome Research. Results: New transcriptome assemblies contained the majority of previous contigs as well as new content. On average, 7.8% of the annotated contigs in the new assemblies were novel gene names not found in the previous assemblies. Taxonomic trends were observed in the assembly metrics. Assemblies from the Dinoflagellata showed a higher number of contigs and unique k-mers than transcriptomes from other phyla, while assemblies from Ciliophora had a lower percentage of open reading frames compared to other phyla. Conclusions: Given current bioinformatics approaches, there is no single “best” reference transcriptome for a particular set of raw data. As the optimum transcriptome is a moving target, improving (or not) with new tools and approaches, automated and programmable pipelines are invaluable for managing the computationally intensive tasks required for re-processing large sets of samples with revised pipelines and ensuring a common evaluation workflow is applied to all samples. Thus, re-assembling existing data with new tools using automated and programmable pipelines may yield more accurate identification of taxon-specific trends across samples in addition to novel and useful products for the community.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under award number GBMF4551 to C.T.B. Jetstream cloud platform was used with XSEDE allocation TG-BIO160028 [66, 67].
    Keywords: marine microbial eukaryote ; transcriptome assembly ; automated pipeline ; re-analysis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36 . pp. 281-296.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The turbulent dissipation rate ɛ is a key parameter to many oceanographic processes. Recently gliders have been increasingly used as a carrier for microstructure sensors. Compared to conventional ship-based methods, glider-based microstructure observations allow for long duration measurements under adverse weather conditions, and at lower costs. The incident water velocity U is an input parameter for the calculation of the dissipation rate. Since U can not be measured using the standard glider sensor setup, the parameter is normally computed from a steady-state glider flight model. As ɛ scales with U2 or U4, depending whether it is computed from temperature or shear microstructure, flight model errors can introduce a significant bias. This study is the first to use measurements of in-situ glider flight, obtained with a profiling Doppler velocity log and an electromagnetic current meter, to test and calibrate a flight model, extended to include inertial terms. Compared to a previously suggested flight model, the calibrated model removes a bias of approximately 1 cm s−1 in the incident water velocity, which translates to roughly a factor of 1.2 in estimates of the dissipation rate. The results further indicate that 90% of the estimates of the dissipation rate from the calibrated model are within a factor of 1.1 and 1.2 for measurements derived from microstructure temperature sensors and shear probes, respectively. We further outline the range of applicability of the flight model.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Repeated and independent emergence of trait divergence that matches habitat differences is a sign of parallel evolution by natural selection. Yet, the molecular underpinnings that are targeted by adaptive evolution often remain elusive. We investigate this question by combining genome-wide analyses of copy number variants (CNVs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and gene expression across four pairs of lake and river populations of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We tested whether CNVs that span entire genes and SNPs occurring in putative cis-regulatory regions contribute to gene expression differences between sticklebacks from lake and river origins. We found 135 gene CNVs that showed a significant positive association between gene copy number and gene expression, suggesting that CNVs result in dosage effects that can fuel phenotypic variation and serve as substrates for habitat-specific selection. Copy number differentiation between lake and river sticklebacks also contributed to expression differences of two immune-related genes in immune tissues, cathepsin A and GIMAP7. In addition, we identified SNPs in cis-regulatory regions (eSNPs) associated with the expression of 1,865 genes, including one eSNP upstream of a carboxypeptidase gene where both the SNP alleles differentiated and the gene was differentially expressed between lake and river populations. Our study highlights two types of mutations as important sources of genetic variation involved in the evolution of gene expression and in potentially facilitating repeated adaptation to novel environments.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 32(8), (2019): 2185-2205. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0538.1.
    Description: Much attention has been paid to the climatic impacts of changes in the Kuroshio Extension, instead of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea (ECS). This study, however, reveals the prominent influences of the lateral shift of the Kuroshio at interannual time scale in late spring [April–June (AMJ)] on the sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation in summer around the ECS, based on high-resolution satellite observations and ERA-Interim. A persistent offshore displacement of the Kuroshio during AMJ can result in cold SST anomalies in the northern ECS and the Japan/East Sea until late summer, which correspondingly causes anomalous cooling of the lower troposphere. Consequently, the anomalous cold SST in the northern ECS acts as a key driver to robustly enhance the precipitation from the Yangtze River delta to Kyushu in early summer (May–August) and over the central ECS in late summer (July–September). In view of the moisture budget analysis, two different physical processes modulated by the lateral shift of the Kuroshio are identified to account for the distinct responses of precipitation in early and late summer, respectively. First, the anomalous cold SST in the northern ECS induced by the Kuroshio offshore shift is likely conducive to the earlier arrival of the mei-yu–baiu front at 30°–32°N and its subsequent slower northward movement, which may prolong the local rainy season, leading to the increased rain belt in early summer. Second, the persistent cold SST anomalies in late summer strengthen the near-surface baroclinicity and the associated strong atmospheric fronts embedded in the extratropical cyclones over the central ECS, which in turn enhances the local rainfall.
    Description: We appreciate three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive comments. This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0601804), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Projects (91858102, 41490643, 41490640, 41506009, U1606402) and the OUC–WHOI joint research program (21366).
    Description: 2019-10-01
    Keywords: Continental shelf/slope ; Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Boundary currents ; Precipitation ; Interannual variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford University Press
    In:  Geophysical Journal International, 219 (3). pp. 1876-1884.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: Standard seismic acquisition and processing require appropriate source-receiver offsets. P-cable technology represents the opposite, namely, very short source-receiver offsets at the price of increased spatial and lateral resolution with a high-frequency source. To use this advantage, a processing flow excluding offset information is required. This aim can be achieved with a processing tuned to diffractions because point diffractions scatter the same information in offset and midpoint direction. Usually, diffractions are small amplitude events and a careful diffraction separation is required as a first step. We suggest the strategy to use a multiparameter stacking operator, e.g, common-reflection surface, and stack along the midpoint direction. The obtained kinematic wavefront attributes are used to calculate time-migration velocities. A diffractivity map serves as filter to refine the velocities. This strategy is applied to a 3D P-cable data set to obtain a time-migrated image.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: The ozonesonde is a small balloon-borne instrument that is attached to a standard radiosonde to measure profiles of ozone from the surface to 35 km with ∼100-m vertical resolution. Ozonesonde data constitute a mainstay of satellite calibration and are used for climatologies and analysis of trends, especially in the lower stratosphere where satellites are most uncertain. The electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde has been deployed at ∼100 stations worldwide since the 1960s, with changes over time in manufacture and procedures, including details of the cell chemical solution and data processing. As a consequence, there are biases among different stations and discontinuities in profile time series from individual site records. For 22 years the Jülich (Germany) Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment (JOSIE) has periodically tested ozonesondes in a simulation chamber designated the World Calibration Centre for Ozonesondes (WCCOS) by WMO. During October–November 2017 a JOSIE campaign evaluated the sondes and procedures used in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), a 14-station sonde network operating in the tropics and subtropics. A distinctive feature of the 2017 JOSIE was that the tests were conducted by operators from eight SHADOZ stations. Experimental protocols for the SHADOZ sonde configurations, which represent most of those in use today, are described, along with preliminary results. SHADOZ stations that follow WMO-recommended protocols record total ozone within 3% of the JOSIE reference instrument. These results and prior JOSIEs demonstrate that regular testing is essential to maintain best practices in ozonesonde operations and to ensure high-quality data for the satellite and ozone assessment communities.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉North Korea conducted sixth underground nuclear test on September, 3〈sup〉rd〈/sup〉, 2017. Unlike its previous tests, a rare subsequent collapse event occurred after about 8.5 minutes. As two types of distinctive shallow seismic events, accurate inversion of their focal mechanisms is important for event identification for CTBT. In this paper, we carry out moment tensor inversion of the nuclear test and the collapse event with gCAP using waveform data from dense regional seismic stations. And their focal mechanisms are further constrained with surface wave amplitude ratio. The results show that the surface wave amplitude ratio has further constraints for screening the waveform inversion results. The resolution of the focal mechanism inversion for the nuclear test is high, which is close to a Crack source. However, the resolution for the collapse event inversion is not so high and the source type is difficult to be accurately determined. One reason of the poor resolution for the collapse event may be due to the limited availability of high quality data, and complexity of the source process might be another factor.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The Greater Geneva Basin is one of the key targets for geothermal exploration in Switzerland. Until recently, information about the subsurface structure of this region was mostly composed of well-logs, seismic reflection lines, and gravity measurements. As part of the current effort to further reduce subsurface uncertainty, and to test passive seismic methods for exploration purposes, we performed an ambient-noise tomography of the Greater Geneva Basin. We used ∼1.5 years of continuous data collected on a temporary seismic network composed of 28 broadband stations deployed within and around the basin. From the vertical component of the continuous noise recordings, we computed cross-correlation functions and retrieved Rayleigh-wave group-velocity dispersion curves. We then inverted the dispersion curves to obtain 2D group-velocity maps and proceeded to a subsequent inversion step to retrieve a large-scale 3D shear-wave velocity model of the basin. We discuss the retrieved features of the basin in the light of local geology, previously acquired geophysical datasets, and ongoing geothermal exploration. The Greater Geneva Basin is an ideal natural laboratory to test innovative geothermal exploration methods because of the substantial geophysical datasets available for comparison. While we point out the limits of ambient-noise exploration with sparse networks and current methodology, we also discuss possible ways to develop ambient-noise tomography as an affordable and efficient subsurface exploration method.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Marchenko methods are a suite of geophysical techniques that convert seismograms of energy created by surface sources and measured by surface receivers into seismograms that would have been recorded by a virtual receiver at an arbitrary point inside the subsurface – an operation called redatuming. In principle these redatumed seismograms contain all contributions from direct, primary (singly-reflected) and multiply-reflected waves that would have been recorded by a real subsurface receiver, without requiring prior information about interfaces that generated the reflections. The potential of these methods for seismic imaging and redatuming has been demonstrated extensively in previous literature, but only using one- and two-dimensional Marchenko methods. There remain aspects of the methods that are poorly understood when applied in a three-dimensional world, so we investigate the application of Marchenko methods to three-dimensional data, subsurface structures and wavefields. We first show that for waves propagating in three dimensions, Marchenko methods can be applied to seismic data collected using both linear (so-called 2D-seismic) and areal (3D-seismic) acquisition arrays. However, for 2D acquisition arrays the Marchenko workflow requires additional dimensionality correction factors to obtain accurate solutions, even in a subsurface that only varies with depth. Without these correction factors phase errors occur in redatumed Marchenko estimates; these errors propagate through the Marchenko algorithm and create depth errors in the Marchenko images. Furthermore, applying Marchenko methods to fully three-dimensional seismic wavefields recorded by linear (2D-seismic) arrays that contain out-of-plane reflections deteriorates surface-to-subsurface Green’s function estimates with spurious energy and resulting images are less accurate than those created using ‘conventional’ imaging methods. The application of fully three-dimensional Marchenko methods using data recorded on areal arrays solves both of the above problems, creating accurately redatumed wavefields and images with reduced artifact contamination. However, it appears that source/receiver spacing at most of $\lambda _A\Big /4$ is required for accurate results using existing Marchenko methods, where λ〈sub〉〈span〉A〈/span〉〈/sub〉 is the dominant wavelength and in many real 3D seismic acquisition scenarios this is impractical.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉In the original version of this paper, there was an error in the name of author Qiang Guo. This has now been corrected and the publisher apologises for the error.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Land seismic multiparameter full waveform inversion in anisotropic media is challenging because of high medium contrasts and surface waves. With a data-residual least-squares objective function, the surface wave energy usually masks the body waves and the gradient of the objective function exhibits high values in the very shallow depths preventing from recovering the deeper part of the earth model parameters. The optimal transport objective function, coupled with a Gaussian time-windowing strategy, allows to overcome this issue by more focusing on phase shifts and by balancing the contributions of the different events in the adjoint-source and the gradients. We first illustrate the advantages of the optimal transport function with respect to the least-squares one, with two realistic examples. We then discuss a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) example starting from a quasi 1-D isotropic initial model. Despite some cycle-skipping issues in the initial model, the inversion based on the windowed optimal transport approach converges. Both the near-surface complexities and the variations at depth are recovered.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Over the past few decades, seismic studies have revealed complex structural anomalies in the Earth’s deep interior at various scales, such as large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) in the lowermost mantle, and small-scale scatterers in the mid-mantle. These structures which are critical for better understanding of the geodynamics and evolution of the deep Earth, need to be further resolved by high-resolution imaging techniques. The spectral-element method (SEM) can be used to accurately simulate seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous Earth models, and its application in full-waveform inversion (FWI) provides a promising high-resolution and high-fidelity imaging technique. But it can be computationally prohibitive when used to model small scale structures in the deep Earth based upon high-frequency seismic waves. The heavy computational cost can be circumvented by using hybrid methods, which restrict the main computation by SEM solver to only a small target region (e.g. above the CMB) encompassing possible 2-D/3-D anomalies, and apply efficient analytical or numerical methods to calculate the wavefield for 1-D background models. These forward modelling tools based on hybrid methods can be then used in the so-called ‘box tomography’ approach to resolve fine-structures in the deep Earth.In this study, we outline the theory of a hybrid method used to model small scale structures in the deep Earth and present its implementation based on SEM solvers in a three-step workflow. First, the wavefield generated by the source is computed for the 1-D background model with traction and velocity saved for the virtual boundary of the target region, which are then used as boundary inputs to simulate the wavefield in the target region based on absorbing boundary condition in SEM. In the final step, the total wavefield at receivers is reconstructed based upon the total wavefield on the virtual boundary computed in the previous step. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate the workflow of the hybrid method based on a 2-D SEM solver. Examples of the hybrid method applied to a coupled fluid–solid model show that our workflow can accurately recover the scattered waves back to the surface. Furthermore, we benchmark the hybrid method on a realistic heterogeneous Earth model built from 〈span〉AK135-F〈/span〉 and show how teleseismic scattered waves can be used to model deep Earth structures. By documenting the theory and SEM implementation of the hybrid method, our study lays the foundation for future two-way coupling of 3-D SEM solver with other efficient analytic or numerical 1-D solvers.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Since 2013 to date more than 1000 seismic events have been recorded by the Colombian Geological Survey (GSC) in the municipality of Puerto Gaitán (Colombia). A total of fourteen earthquakes are moment magnitude M〈sub〉W〈/sub〉 greater than 4.0. The largest event ever recorded in the area occurred in November 2015 with M〈sub〉W〈/sub〉 4.8. It seems like the case of Puerto Gaitán is associated with the deep injection of co-produced wastewater from oil and gas extraction. The data presented in this work suggests a close relationship in space and time between injection operations and seismicity. An analysis of temporality between both datasets resulted in a time lag equivalent to about 218 days. For this paper, we computed the input and output energy during injection operations from 2013 to 2015 in order to estimate the fraction of total input energy that is radiated as seismic waves. Our results suggest that the seismic energy is only a small fraction of the total energy into the system. Although Puerto Gaitan is one of the places with the most significant volume of wastewater injected among the ones reported in the literature, the energy efficiency of the system is the lowest reported to date in comparison with other applied technologies. The low efficiency seems to be associated to the aseismic deformation of the reservoir rocks. The observed clustering of earthquakes is delimited by the basement crystalline depth. From an operational point of view, we determine that, like most cases associated with fluid injection, volume of fluid is the variable that determines change in the seismic Moment released. Furthermore, the sequence of events in Puerto Gaitán may not fit into a well-known correlation between the volume of fluid injected and the maximum expected magnitude. The observed magnitudes in Puerto Gaitan are well bellow compared to those reported in the literature for similar volumes of injected fluid.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉We present 2-D attenuation images of the Mt. Etna volcanic region on the basis of separation of intrinsic and scattering effects. The analysis presented here exploits a large active seismic database that fully covers the area under study. We observe that scattering effects dominate over intrinsic attenuation, suggesting that the region is very heterogeneous. Comparison with analyses conducted at other volcanoes reveals that the Mt. Etna region is characterised by high intrinsic attenuation, resulting from the presence of large volcanoclastic deposits at shallow depth. The 2-D distributions of intrinsic and scattering anomalies show the presence of regions characterised by high and low attenuation effects, corresponding to several tectonic and volcanic features. In particular, we identify a high attenuation region in the SW sector of the Mt. Etna volcanic complex, which is correlated with high seismicity rates and volcanism. This work supports the hypothesis of a link between the dynamics of the SW flank and the recharge of the volcano in the last decades, occurring under the summit crater and, secondarily, the upper South rift zone.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Earthquake focal mechanisms put primary control on the distribution of ground motion, and also bear on the stress state of the crust. Most routine focal mechanism catalogs still use 1D velocity models in inversions, which may introduce large uncertainties in regions with strong lateral velocity heterogeneities. In this study, we develop an automated waveform-based inversion approach to determine the moment tensors of small-to-medium-sized earthquakes using 3D velocity models. We apply our approach in the Los Angeles region to produce a new moment tensor catalog with a completeness of M〈sub〉L 〈/sub〉≥ 3.5. The inversions using the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model (3D CVM-S4.26) significantly reduces the moment tensor uncertainties, mainly owing to the accuracy of the 3D velocity model in predicting both the phases and the amplitudes of the observed seismograms. By comparing the full moment tensor solutions obtained using 1D and 3D velocity models, we show that the percentages of non-double-couple components decrease dramatically with the usage of 3D velocity model, suggesting that large fractions of non-double-couple components from 1D inversions are artifacts caused by unmodeled 3D velocity structures. The new catalog also features more accurate focal depths and moment magnitudes. Our highly accurate, efficient, and automatic inversion approach can be expanded in other regions, and can be easily implemented in near real-time system.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Salt structures are high potential targets for oil and gas exploration. However, large-scale salt domes with irregular surfaces pose significant challenges for velocity model building. For full waveform inversion, in the absence of a high-fidelity initial model, the success of the inversion depends on low-frequency seismic data, which are scarce in the exploration data sets. This paper presents a new idea to solve the problem of salt structure velocity modeling. Firstly, we propose an envelope-based full-band seismic data reconstruction algorithm. The smoothness of envelope is used to segment the events in seismic data, and the phase independence of envelope is used for the identification of the seismic event's arrival-time to obtain the apparent reflection sequences of the subsurface. Full-band seismic data are obtained by convolving the apparent reflection sequence with full-band source. Window averaging function and threshold strategy are used to ensure the accuracy of seismic event segmentation and the stability of the algorithm when dealing with noisy data. Then the multiscale reflection waveform inversion based on reconstructed data is proposed for salt structure velocity building. The numerical experiment results of the Sigbee2A model demonstrate the performance of the inversion algorithm in the case where the seismic data lack low-frequency components and contain noise. The limitations of the algorithm have also been analyzed and studied.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉It has long been recognized that the effects of superficial geological layers, or site effects, can play a major role on the seismic ground motion at the free surface. In this study, we compute wave propagation in a 2-D asymmetrical basin considering both soil non-linearity and pore-pressure effects. Equations of elastodynamics of wave propagation are solved using the spectral element method (SEM). The geometry of the basin gives rise to basin-edge generated waves, that are different for in-plane (P-SV) and out-of-plane (SH) wave propagation and resulting in different non-linear response. Moreover, the excess-pore pressure development in superficial liquefiable layers (effective stress analysis) brings larger deformation and loss of strength than the analysis without pore-pressure effects (total stress analysis). The coupling of vertically propagating waves and the waves specifically generated in 1-D model leads to waves whose amplitude and duration are higher than the 1-D case. This multidimensional effect increases material non-linearity. Such complex wavefield provokes larger deformation and higher pore-pressure rise that cannot be predicted by 1-D modelling. Therefore, our paper suggests the use of multidimensional modelling while studying seismic wave propagation in both linear and non-linear complex media.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Understanding the fluid dependence of poroelastic constants of a layered porous package is important for various aspects of applied and fundamental geosciences. To decouple the effects of fluid substitutions and anisotropy in a layered package on vertical stiffness constants, a set of approximations to anisotropic fluid substitution theory is introduced in conjunction with Thomsen's anisotropy parameters. Validation of the approximations is performed by physical modelling and theoretical examples. In physical modelling, synthetic porous layers are used and interbedded by Plexiglas sheets to build a layered transversely isotropic symmetry with a vertical symmetry axis package. Seismic acquisitions over the physical model saturated with air, oil and water are carefully conducted, respectively. The reflection amplitudes are properly corrected and inverted by a specific seismic inversion scheme to recover 〈span〉P〈/span〉- and 〈span〉S〈/span〉-wave impedances. Poroelastic constants of the thin package then are deduced from the inverted results. Applying the approximations to the physical modelling results, a good match between the estimated vertical stiffness constant values of the physical model and the theoretical predictions is observed. Results of both physical modelling and theoretical analysis demonstrate that fluid substitutions when going from drained to undrained behaviour will enhance or reduce the degree of anisotropy of the medium, depending on the sign and magnitude of Thomsen's anisotropy parameter δ. Results show that the shear modulus of the individual layer plays a key role in controlling the degree of the initial anisotropy of the thin package, which directly dominates the effect of pore fluids on poroelastic constants of the upscaled medium.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Trend drift is an annoying background interference in induced polarization (IP) exploration, which has great influence on the final calculation of apparent complex resistivity spectrum at low frequency (〈0.1 Hz). This paper proposed a modified empirical mode decomposition (EMD) detrending technique for multiperiod IP data. The method uses local extreme values of the rising edges and the falling edges to form multiple envelopes and then to fit and eliminate the trend term. Through comparing with the traditional EMD methods using IP data with simulated trend drift, we find that the modified method can be used to obtain a more accurate fitting trend and the computational cost is only a fraction of that of the conventional one. Additionally, this detrending is little affected by other strong noise. We also used IP data with and without trend interferences to analyse this method, respectively. The results show that, for data without trend drift, the signals remain almost unchanged; however, for data with strong trend drift, the data quality is greatly improved and the calculation error is reduced. This technique is also applied to a large-scale multiperiod full-waveform IP data acquired in Zhegu Zn-Sb-Ag polymetallic deposit in southern Tibet, China. The apparent complex resistivity and phase of a survey line, a planar contour map and a pseudo-section with and without using the modified EMD were compared, respectively. Overall, before EMD detrending, the apparent phase results are rough and full of outliers. After detrending, the profiles are smooth and reasonable, and the outliers disappear. Both the results demonstrated that our proposed method can be adopted to effectively suppress trend drift interference without additional deviation in distributed full-waveform IP exploration.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉The title of my recent article (Flament 〈a href="http://academic.oup.com/gji#bib1"〉2019〈/a〉) should be ‘Present-day dynamic topography and lower-mantle structure from palaeogeographically constrained mantle flow models’, not ‘Present-dayd dynamic topography and lower-mantle structure from palaeogeographically constrained mantle flow models’. This spelling mistake was introduced at proof stage and was present in the published version of the article.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉The gravity gradient tensor has been increasingly used in practical applications. Among them, how to extract information contained in different gravity gradient components is a challenging problem. Gravity gradient joint inversion is one effective method to solve this problem. We integrate different gravity gradient components in a matrix and then apply them in inversion directly. In this paper, we modify the method to get a new gravity gradient joint inversion (NGGJI). The method is based on the reweighted regularized inversion. We choose one component, for example, 〈span〉g〈/span〉〈sub〉zz〈/sub〉, and use the other components to build a weighting matrix. Then we apply the weighting matrix in 〈span〉g〈/span〉〈sub〉zz〈/sub〉 inversion. We present the method to construct the weighting matrix based on a single component and multiple components. We analyse the characteristics of different weighting matrices and the noise effects on weighting matrices. We compare the inversion results obtained from the conventional gravity gradient joint inversion (CGGJI) with the inversion results obtained from the NGGJI. We conclude that the NGGJI's requirement for memory storage is lower and the resolution of the NGGJI inversion results is higher. We apply the method to survey data from Vinton Salt Dome, Louisiana, USA. The results have proved to be consistent with known geological information.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉In this study, a straightforward and rapid methodology is proposed and tested to determine the seismic moment, the earthquake rupture length/duration and the static stress drop. To this purpose, three ground motion parameters, that is, 〈span〉P〈/span〉-wave peak acceleration (${P_a}$), velocity (${P_v}$) and displacement (${P_d}$) are evaluated as a function of time from the first 〈span〉P〈/span〉 arrival. The average of the logarithm of the 〈span〉P〈/span〉-wave amplitude (LPDT curves), corrected for the distance-attenuation effect, is calculated using all the available stations in expanded 〈span〉P〈/span〉-wave time windows. The LPDT curves show an exponential growth shape and increase with time until they reach a constant value (plateau), which is related to the magnitude of the earthquake. From the obtained observations, we demonstrate that the corner time of the plateau level on the weighted-fit curve to the LPDT curves is related to the half-duration of the rupture. Thus, using the theoretical scaling, the source radius and stress drop can be obtained from the measured half-duration of the source. This method has been applied and tested to the records of the 2016–2017 Central Italy seismic sequence, with moment magnitude ranging between 3.4 and 6.5. Our study shows that source parameters match a self-similar, constant-stress-drop scaling with a relatively low average stress drop of about $1.1 \pm 0.5\ \mathrm{ MPa}$, except for the largest event of the sequence showing a relatively higher stress release, which is associated with the dominant radiation from a localized high slip patch on the fracture surface. The proposed approach based on a simple time domain signal analysis is innovative and may complement longer spectral technique for fast estimating earthquake source properties.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉When performing a cooperative inversion using a structural constraint, extracting an accurate average direction from the high-resolution model is important because two models with different resolutions should be used in the procedure. However, when the average direction of the high-resolution model, which indicates the major change direction of the model at each inversion block location, is calculated, the conventional gradient methods such as cross-gradient have a limitation on components having opposite directions. Therefore, in this study, an effective average-direction extraction algorithm was developed by introducing the concept of the structure tensor to accurately calculate average-direction information. And finally, based on the extracted average-direction information, structure-tensor-constrained cooperative inversion algorithm was proposed. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed inversion method, the method was tested using data obtained from the synthetic model containing an anomalous body with a complicated shape and the result compared with results of individual EM inversion and the conventional cross-gradient-constrained cooperative inversion. Lastly, to evaluate the performance with a realistic mode, the proposed cooperative inversion was applied to the data acquired using the complex SEG Advanced Modelling Program model. In all experiments, the cooperative inversion with the structure-tensor constraint provided better location estimation results as well as better estimations of the shape of the anomaly. In addition, the resistivity distribution of the anomaly was estimated to be closer to the truth in the inversion result.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉The goal of next generation gravity missions (NGGM) is to improve the monitoring of mass transport in the Earth system by an increased space–time sampling capability as well as higher accuracies of a new generation of instrumentation. They should be able to fulfil the scientific and societal needs of providing high-resolution short-time gravity field solutions for geophysical applications like for for example service applications such as flood and drought monitoring and forecast or applications in water management. To facilitate this need a near-real time (NRT) processing scheme based on a coparametrization of low-resolution daily and longer-term gravity field solution, combined with a sliding window averaging, was set up. In contrast to other strategies that are usually based on Kalman filtering, the proposed NRT concept is independent of any prior information about the temporal gravity field, and does not require any regularization. The enhanced spatial-temporal resolution opens the possibility to self-dealias high-frequency atmospheric and oceanic signals, and additionally provides gravity field solutions on short timescales. In order to quantify the capabilities of the proposed NRT approach, a numerical closed-loop simulation of a low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (ll-sst) mission for a two-pair Bender-type constellation with realistic noise assumptions was performed. While for the daily parametrization a spherical harmonics degree and order of 15 turns out to be a favourable choice, by applying the sliding window NRT approach stable daily gravity field estimates up to degree/order 50 with latencies of down to 1 d could be achieved.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉From a suite of 56 chemically-driven dynamo simulations with aspect ratio χ (inner to outer core radii) ranging from 0.10 to 0.44, we conduct the first systematic investigation of the impact of inner-core size on the reversing behaviour of dynamos. We show that the growth of the inner core leads to a transition between a “small inner-core” regime (χ ≤ 0.18), when the field produced is intermediately strong and dipolar, and a “large inner-core” regime (χ 〉 0.26), when the field is stronger and more dipolar. During that transition the field is weaker and slightly less dipolar. For aspect ratios 0.20 ≤ χ ≤ 0.22, reversal frequencies may be more sensitive to changes in the vigour of the convection, allowing high frequencies to be reached much more easily. Although other factors than the size of the inner core likely contribute to controlling the reversal frequency of the Earth’s dynamo, we hypothesise that the occurrence of such a transition for the Earth’s core between the end of the Precambrian and the end of the Devonian could possibly account for the manifestation of an unusual long-lasting episode of predominantly reversal hyperactivity and complex low intensity fields during that still poorly documented period of time.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉A promising way to perform seismological studies in the Arctic region is deploying seismic stations on ice floes. The pioneering works by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Bremerhaven (Schlindwein 〈span〉et al.〈/span〉 2007; Laderach and Schlindwein, 2011) have demonstrated the efficiency of such floating networks to explore local and regional seismicity and to build 3D seismic models. However, problems remain, related to the identification of different types of seismic waves, particularly S-waves. Here, we perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of seismic waves emitted by an earthquake to explore the possibility of recording different phases on the sea surface. We use different types of simple shear source models, namely, strike-slip, vertical displacement and normal faults. In the calculated wave field, we obtain three major types of seismic waves recorded on the sea surface: 〈span〉Pw, Sw〈/span〉 and 〈span〉SPw〈/span〉 (〈span〉w〈/span〉 denotes an acoustic wave in the water layer) and numerous multiple waves. The clarity of the recorded phases strongly depends on the type of wave, source mechanism, epicentral distance, thickness of the water layer and depth of the source. For example, the 〈span〉Pw〈/span〉 phase is clearest for the strike-slip mechanism, less clear for the normal fault and almost invisible for the vertical displacement. The 〈span〉Sw〈/span〉 phase is observable in all of these cases; however, it can be confused with the 〈span〉SPw〈/span〉 phase that arrives earlier. In addition, at some distances, the 〈span〉Sw〈/span〉 wave interferes with the multiple 〈span〉Pw2〈/span〉 wave and therefore is hardly detectable. In summary, the numerical simulations in a model with a water layer have demonstrated several non-obvious features of wave propagation that should be taken into account when analysing experimental data recorded on ice floes.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The formation of fold-thrust belts at convergent margins is a dynamic process. Accretion of weak sediments to the front of the overriding plate results in crustal thickening and continued flexural subsidence of the underthrusting plate. Fold-thrust belts are often treated as a Coulomb wedge having self-similar geometries with a critical taper, and either a rigid or isostatically compensated base. In this paper we build upon this work by developing a new dynamic model to investigate both the role of the thickness and material properties of the incoming sediment, and the flexure in the underthrusting plate in controlling the behaviour and evolution of fold-thrust belts. Our analysis shows that the evolution of fold-thrust belts can be dominated by either gravitational spreading or vertical thickening, depending on the relative importance of sediment flux, material properties and flexure. We apply our model to the Makran accretionary prism and the Indo-Burman Ranges, and show that for the Makran flexure must be considered in order to explain the dip of the sediment-basement interface from seismic reflection profiles. In the Indo-Burman Ranges, we show that incoming sediment thickness has a first-order control on the variations in the characteristics of the topography from north to south of the Shillong Plateau.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Developing a model for anthropogenic seismic hazard remains an open challenge whatever the geo-resource production. We analyze the (M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉) largest reported magnitude on each site where (RTS) Reservoir Triggered Seismicity in documented, (37 events, 1933–2008), for aftershocks of reservoir impoundment loading. We relate each reservoir impoundment to its magnitude-equivalent M*〈sub〉reservoir〈/sub〉 = M*(L〈sub〉r〈/sub〉). We use (L〈sub〉r〈/sub〉) the reservoir length as a proxy for a rupture length of the reservoir mainshock-equivallent. This latter is derived from the empirical relationship that exists for tectonic earthquake among magnitude and rupture length. We resolve (i) M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉 for RTS are bounded by M*〈sub〉reservoir〈/sub〉 at a 95 per cent confidence level; (ii) in average M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉 are smaller than M*〈sub〉reservoir〈/sub〉 by 2.2 units (iii) 50 per cent of the M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉 occurrence is within 2 + /- 1 years from the reservoir impoundment. These triggering patterns support the signature of fluid driven seismicity during the slow reservoir impoundment emerges as a weaker efficiency (larger ΔM = M*〈sub〉reservoir〈/sub〉—M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉) to trigger M〈sub〉max〈/sub〉 events than from earthquake interactions.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The 20 July 2017, M〈sub〉w〈/sub〉6.6 Bodrum-Kos Earthquake occurred in the Gulf of Gökova in the SE Aegean, a region characterized by N-S extension in the back-arc of the easternmost Hellenic Trench. The dip direction of the fault that ruptured during the earthquake has been a matter of controversy where both north and south-dipping fault planes were used to model the coseismic slip in previous studies. Here, we use seismic (seismicity, mainshock modeling, aftershock relocations and aftershock mechanisms using regional body and surface waves), geodetic (GPS, InSAR), and structural observations to estimate the location, and the dip direction of the fault that ruptured during the 2017 earthquake, and the relationship of this event to regional tectonics. We consider both dip directions and systematically search for the best-fitting locations for the north- and south-dipping fault planes. Comparing the best-fitting planes for both dip directions in terms of their misfit to the geodetic data, proximity to the hypocenter location and Coulomb stress changes at the aftershock locations, we conclude that the 2017 earthquake ruptured a north-dipping fault. We find that the earthquake occurred on a 20–25 km long, ∼E-W striking, 40° north-dipping, pure normal fault with slip primarily confined between 3–15 km depth, and the largest slip exceeding 2 m between depths of 4–10 km. The coseismic fault, not mapped previously, projects to the surface within the western Gulf, and partly serves both to widen the Gulf and separate Kos Island from the Bodrum Peninsula of SW Anatolia. The coseismic fault may be an extension of a mapped, north-dipping normal fault along the south side of the Gulf of Gökova. While all of the larger aftershocks are consistent with N-S extension, their spatially dispersed pattern attests to the high degree of crustal fracturing within the basin, due to rapid trench-ward extension and anticlockwise rotation within the southeastern Aegean.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Electrical conductivity is one of the most commonly used geophysical method for reservoir and environmental studies. Its main interest lies in its sensitivity to key properties of storage and transport in porous media. Its quantitative use therefore depends on the efficiency of the petrophysical relationship to link them. In this work, we develop a new physically based model for estimating electrical conductivity of saturated porous media. The model is derived assuming that the porous media is represented by a bundle of tortuous capillary tubes with a fractal pore-size distribution. The model is expressed in terms of the porosity, electrical conductivity of the pore liquid and the microstructural parameters of porous media. It takes into account the interface properties between minerals and pore water by introducing a surface conductivity. Expressions for the formation factor and hydraulic tortuosity are also obtained from the model derivation. The model is then successfully compared with published data and performs better than previous models. The proposed approach also permits to relate the electrical conductivity to other transport properties such as the hydraulic conductivity.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Static and quasi-static Coulomb stress changes produced by large earthquakes can modify the probability of occurrence of subsequent events on neighboring faults. This approach is based on physical (Coulomb stress changes) and statistical (probability calculations) models, which are influenced by the quality and quantity of data available in the study region. Here, we focus on the Wasatch Fault Zone (WFZ), a well-studied active normal fault system having abundant geologic and paleoseismological data. Paleoseismological trench investigations of the WFZ indicate that at least 24 large, surface-faulting earthquakes have ruptured the fault's five central, 35–59-km long segments since ∼7 ka. Our goal is to determine if the stress changes due to the youngest paleoevents have significantly modified the present-day probability of occurrence of large earthquakes on each of the segments. For each segment, we modeled the cumulative (coseismic + postseismic) Coulomb stress changes (∆CFS〈sub〉cum〈/sub〉) due to earthquakes younger than the most recent event on the segment in question and applied the resulting values to the time-dependent probability calculations. Results from the Coulomb stress modeling suggest that the Brigham City, Salt Lake City, and Provo segments have accumulated ∆CFS〈sub〉cum〈/sub〉 larger than 10 bars, whereas the Weber segment has experienced a stress decrease of 5 bars, in the scenario of recent rupture of the Great Salt Lake fault to the west. Probability calculations predict high probability of occurrence for the Brigham City and Salt Lake City segments, due to their long elapsed times (〉 1–2 ka) when compared to the Weber, Provo, and Nephi segments (〈 1 ka). The range of calculated coefficients of variation (CV) has a large influence on the final probabilities, mostly in the case of the Brigham City segment. Finally, when the Coulomb stress and the probability models are combined, our results indicate that the ∆CFS〈sub〉cum〈/sub〉 resulting from earthquakes postdating the youngest events on each of the five segments substantially affects the probability calculations for three of the segments: Brigham City, Salt Lake City, and Provo. The probability of occurrence of a large earthquake in the next 50 years on these three segments may therefore be underestimated if a time-independent approach, or a time-dependent approach that does not consider ∆CFS, is adopted.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The paper focuses on the propagation of low-frequency pseudo-Rayleigh and pseudo-Scholte waves at the liquid/soft porous sediment interface with an underlying hard porous sediment half-space. The overlying liquid is assumed to be ideal compressible medium and the porous sediments are modeled by Biot theory. Based on the boundary conditions, the closed-form dispersion equations of far-field interface waves are deduced using 2-D Helmholtz decomposition theorem and Fourier transform. The velocity and attenuation of pseudo-Rayleigh and pseudo-Scholte waves are determined by Newton iteration in a reasonable rooting interval. The analytical expressions of the displacement field and liquid pressure distribution caused by interface waves are also derived. Then, the dispersion equations for four degenerate systems are derived as special cases by assuming the thickness of the liquid layer or the sandwiched porous soft sediment layer to be zero or infinite. Lastly, numerical examples are used to verify the degeneracy of the system and to analyze the propagation characteristics of pseudo-Rayleigh and pseudo-Scholte waves. They show the dependences of the velocity and displacement field on dimensionless modulus and dimensionless wavelength. When the dimensionless wavelength is small or very large, the phase velocity and displacement field calculated by the present system is the same as the special cases, thus proving the validating of the new system.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The homogenous slip finite fault model is commonly used in tsunami hazards for a variety of applications. These include early warning and short-term forecasts of tsunami amplitudes, scenario ruptures for risk assessments, and probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). Over the last decade, however, it has become feasible to calculate stochastic slip models which reflect the expected spatial statistics of slip observed in real events. In this paper we examine the impacts of the homogenous slip model when compared to stochastic slip distributions and ask whether, in light of these technical advancements, the homogenous slip assumption remains a reasonable one. We employ a simplified subduction zone geometry, free of complex path and site effects, and study simulated tsunamis from earthquakes in the magnitude 7 to magnitude 9 range. We find that homogenous slip models have lower tsunami potential energies and frequentlyunder-predict the peak tsunami amplitudes and the resulting tsunami hazard, particularly at low probabilities of exceedance. This finding has important implications for all tsunami hazards applications. Calculating a suite of realistic stochastic slip distributions is now within reach of tsunami scientists, thus, we conclude that use of heterogeneous slip models for tsunami hazards applications is preferable〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Thinning of the lithosphere under continental collisional orogens is often attributed to delamination or convective thinning. Both processes remove part or all of the mantle lithosphere that has become denser and gravitationally unstable. Previous studies mostly focused on the different thermo-magmatic consequences of these two processes; the dynamic links between them, and the critical conditions for one or the other process to dominate lithosphere thinning, remain uncertain. Here we used high-resolution thermo-mechanical models with various rheology (linear viscous, power-law viscous and/or the extended Drucker-Prager plasticity) to systematically investigate the dynamics of delamination and convective thinning under collisional orogens. Our results show that convective thinning is favored in models of linear (Newtonian) viscous rheology and low viscosity $( {{{10}^{19}} - {{10}^{20}}{\rm{Pa}}\,{\rm{s}}} )$. Power-law viscous rheology promotes strain localization, which reduces the effective viscosity and may lead to localized rising of the asthenosphere to the crustal base, thus triggering delamination. Further strain localization and stronger delamination are predicted with inclusion of plastic rheology in the model. These results indicate that convective thinning and delamination are dynamically linked and can occur in the same orogeny. Their relative dominance during orogenesis may be distinguished by the resulting spatiotemporal evolutions of thermal perturbation, magmatism, and elevation changes. We applied the models to show that the evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau is consistent with the dominance of convective thinning, whereas delamination played a major role in thinning the mantle lithosphere under central-northern Tibetan Plateau.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉To elucidate the nature and extent of the lithospheric modification in the central and western North China Craton (NCC) and adjacent regions, we used the wave equation–based migration technique of S-receiver function on teleseismic data collected from 314 broadband stations in this region to image the lithospheric structure. Incorporating data from previous lithospheric structure studies, we obtained unprecedented high-resolution depth maps of the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the NCC. Our results show more detailed variations of the lithospheric thickness in the central and western NCC and adjacent regions, which ranges from 100 to 〉 170 km, in marked contrast to the thinned lithosphere (60–100 km) in the eastern NCC. Despite its generally thick lithosphere (〉 130 km), the Ordos Block shows a concordant N–S difference from the surface to deep lithosphere with a boundary at the latitude of 37–38° N. The central NCC is laterally heterogeneous in the lithospheric structure, and the thick lithosphere (∼160 km) in the south is interpreted as a remnant cratonic mantle root. The central Qinling Orogenic Belt preserves a thick lithosphere (∼150 km), which may block the asthenospheric flow driven by extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau to the west of the NCC. Moreover, a negative MLD is widely identified at the depth of 80–110 km within the thick lithosphere, which corroborates the global existence of the MLD in continental regions. The consistence in the depth of the MLD and the shallow LAB in the eastern NCC supports the conjecture that the MLD may have played an important role in the lithospheric modification of the eastern NCC.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Moment-tensor inversion of induced microseismic events can provide valuable information for tracking CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 plumes at geological carbon storage sites, and study the physical mechanism of induced microseismicity. Accurate moment-tensor inversion requires a wide-azimuthal coverage of geophones. Cost-effective microseismic monitoring for geological carbon storage often uses only one geophone array within a borehole, leading to a large uncertainty in moment-tensor inversion. We develop a new adaptive moment-tensor joint inversion method to reduce the inversion uncertainty, when using limited but typical geophone receiver geometries. We first jointly invert a number of clustered microseismic events using a uniform focal mechanism to minimize the waveform misfit between observed and predicted 〈span〉P〈/span〉 and 〈span〉S〈/span〉 waveforms. We then invert the moment tensor for each event within a limited searching range around the joint inversion result. We apply our adaptive joint inversion method to microseismic data acquired using a single borehole geophone array at the CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉-Enhanced Oil Recovery field at Aneth, Utah. We demonstrate that our inversion method is capable of reducing the inversion uncertainty caused by the limited azimuthal coverage of geophones. Our inverted strikes of focal mechanisms of microseismic events are consistent with the event spatial distribution in subparallel pre-existing fractures or geological imperfections. The large values up to 40 per cent of the CLVD components might indicate crack opening induced by CO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/wastewater injection or rupture complexity.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉The active tectonic processes in convergent margins confer a high degree of complexity to the crust. Determining the thermal structure is, therefore, key to better elucidate the nature of those processes. In order to reconstruct the thermal structure of the crust beneath the Italian peninsula, we combine the most recent and accurate shear-wave velocity model that is currently available with thermodynamic modelling, assuming a global average crustal composition with no lateral variations. Our model, presented in terms of Moho temperature and crustal thermal gradients, shows a very good agreement with the known thermal anomalies associated with the backarc spreading related to the Apennine subduction. Importantly, we envisage a new anomalous region of high Moho temperatures in NW Italy (〈span〉T〈/span〉 〉 800 °C at 30 km), at the transition between the Alps and Apennine orogens. The lowest temperatures of our model, corresponding to geothermal gradients 〈19 °C km〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉, are obtained in the still active but slow-convergent portion of the northern Apennine. Moho temperatures increase moving southwards along the Apennine chain, an observation that is coherent with the evidence of ceasing subduction and consequent rebalancing of the depressed isotherms along the slab. Our results suggest that a thermal structure in different tectonic settings can be inferred with acceptable uncertainties based on absolute seismic velocity models. In this sense, our approach can be extended to any other region.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉In fully fluid-saturated rocks, two common phenomena are documented both experimentally and theoretically for frequency-dependent elastic moduli and attenuation, that is, the drained/undrained transition and the relaxed/unrelaxed transition. When investigating these transitions with the forced oscillation method in the laboratory, it is crucial to consider the boundary differences between the laboratory and the underground. A 1-D poroelastic numerical model was previously established to describe these differences and their effects; however, the boundary conditions used in the model are actually different from the real experiment case, thus leading to inaccurate predication of the measurement results in a laboratory. In this paper, we established a 3-D poroelastic numerical model with a new set of boundary conditions that better represent the experiment conditions. Furthermore, the 3-D poroelastic modelling results were compared with laboratory measurements under the same boundary conditions, showing a much better fit than the 1-D model. Therefore, the 3-D model provides a more accurate and reliable approach to understand the regimes and transitions of elastic modulus dispersion and attenuation, and thus has great importance in interpreting the measurements of frequency-dependent properties of rocks in the laboratory.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Magnetite is an abundant magnetic mineral that commonly records the ancient magnetic field in a wide variety of rock types. When cooled below ≈124 K, magnetite undergoes a phase transition, called the Verwey transition, whose characteristics are highly sensitive to grain size and stoichiometry. Studying the Verwey transition thus yields information on the formation conditions and compositions of rocks. The transition is also stress sensitive, thereby opening an avenue to understanding a rock’s strain history; however, the reason for the stress sensitivity is poorly understood. In particular, the temperature of the transition decreases when measured under pressure, yet mostly increases upon pressure release. Moreover, the stress sensitivity of the transition as a function of dopant concentration, especially after pressure cycling, was never systematically tested. We addressed these issues in order to further develop magnetite as a pressure gauge. Multidomain magnetite samples were pressure cycled up to maximum pressures of ∼5 GPa at room temperature to measure the influence of strain on the Verwey transition temperature as a function of dopant concentration after full decompression. The transition temperature measured via changes in magnetic remanence ($T_{\rm V}^{M}$) systematically increased with respect to pressure (〈span〉P〈/span〉) in more doped samples, where domain wall pinning from impurities dominates $\mathrm{d}T_{\rm V} ^{\rm M}/\mathrm{d}P$. In less doped samples, no to only moderate pressure cycling dependence on $T_{\rm V}^{\rm M}$ was observed. Bulk coercive force (〈span〉B〈/span〉〈sub〉c〈/sub〉) and magnetic remanence after saturation (〈span〉M〈/span〉〈sub〉rs〈/sub〉) measured above or below the transition also increased with respect to pressure, but here effects related to permanent strain of the lattice structure prevail, and 〈span〉B〈/span〉〈sub〉c〈/sub〉 versus 〈span〉P〈/span〉 is steeper for less doped samples. 〈span〉B〈/span〉〈sub〉c〈/sub〉 versus 〈span〉P〈/span〉 increases in all cases, with a difference in slope dictated by dopant concentrations segregating the first to second-order nature of the transition. Thus, strain developed during pressure cycling controls $T_{\rm V}^{\rm M}$ and coercivity by a mechanism based on pinning of magnetic domains by both interstitial cations and structural lattice distortions. The combined observables, $T_{\rm V}^{\rm M}$ and 〈span〉B〈/span〉〈sub〉c〈/sub〉−〈span〉M〈/span〉〈sub〉rs〈/sub〉, reflect both the dopant level and strain state of magnetite, which can quantify the pressure multidomain magnetite has experienced, especially in the range between 1 and 5 GPa. Based on these new results, we present a model that distinguishes between electronic versus defect-driven processes explaining the strain-related influences on the transition. Magnetite’s use as a geobarometer is thus a measure of its defect state, which is expressed through two somewhat independent mechanisms when sensed by magnetic observations.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉The Swan Islands Transform Fault (SITF) marks the southern boundary of the Cayman Trough and the ocean–continent transition of the North American–Caribbean Plate boundary offshore Honduras. The 〈span〉CAYSEIS〈/span〉 experiment acquired a 180-km-long seismic refraction and gravity profile across this transform margin, ∼70 km to the west of the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (MCSC). This profile shows the crustal structure across a transform fault system that juxtaposes Mesozoic-age continental crust to the south against the ∼10-Myr-old ultraslow spread oceanic crust to the north.Ocean-bottom seismographs were deployed along-profile, and inverse and forward traveltime modelling, supported by gravity analysis, reveals ∼23-km-thick continental crust that has been thinned over a distance of ∼70 km to ∼10 km-thick at the SITF, juxtaposed against ∼4-km-thick oceanic crust. This thinning is primarily accommodated within the lower crust. Since Moho reflections are not widely observed, the 7.0 km s〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 velocity contour is used to define the Moho along-profile. The apparent lack of reflections to the north of the SITF suggests that the Moho is more likely a transition zone between crust and mantle.Where the profile traverses bathymetric highs in the off-axis oceanic crust, higher 〈span〉P〈/span〉-wave velocity is observed at shallow crustal depths. 〈span〉S〈/span〉-wave arrival modelling also reveals elevated velocities at shallow depths, except for crust adjacent to the SITF that would have occupied the inside corner high of the ridge-transform intersection when on axis. We use a 〈span〉Vp〈/span〉/〈span〉Vs〈/span〉 ratio of 1.9 to mark where lithologies of the lower crust and uppermost mantle may be exhumed, and also to locate the upper-to-lower crustal transition, identify relict oceanic core complexes and regions of magmatically formed crust. An elevated 〈span〉Vp〈/span〉/〈span〉Vs〈/span〉 ratio suggests not only that serpentinized peridotite may be exposed at the seafloor in places, but also that seawater has been able to flow deep into the crust and upper mantle over 20–30-km-wide regions which may explain the lack of a distinct Moho.The SITF has higher velocities at shallower depths than observed in the oceanic crust to the north and, at the seabed, it is a relatively wide feature. However, the velocity–depth model subseabed suggests a fault zone no wider than ∼5–10 km, that is mirrored by a narrow seabed depression ∼7500 m deep. Gravity modelling shows that the SITF is also underlain, at 〉2 km subseabed, by a ∼20-km-wide region of density 〉3000 kg m〈sup〉−3〈/sup〉 that may reflect a broad region of metamorphism. The residual mantle Bouguer anomaly across the survey region, when compared with the bathymetry, suggests that the transform may also have a component of left-lateral trans-tensional displacement that accounts for its apparently broad seabed appearance, and that the focus of magma supply may currently be displaced to the north of the MCSC segment centre.Our results suggest that Swan Islands margin development caused thinning of the adjacent continental crust, and that the adjacent oceanic crust formed in a cool ridge setting, either as a result of reduced mantle upwelling and/or due to fracture enhanced fluid flow.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉This work presents a 3-D resistivity model of the Séchilienne unstable slope acquired with a network of portable resistivimeters in summer 2017. The instrumentation consisted in distributed measuring systems (IRIS Instruments FullWaver) to measure the spatial variations of electrical potential. 23 V-FullWaver receivers with two 50 m dipoles have been deployed over an area of circa 2 km〈sup〉2〈/sup〉; the current was injected between a fixed remote electrode and a mobile electrode grounded successively at 30 locations. The data uncertainty has been evaluated in relation to the accuracy of electrodes positioning. The software package BERT (Boundless Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is used to invert the apparent resistivity and model the complex data set providing the first 3-D resistivity model of the slope. Stability tests and synthetic tests are realized to assess the interpretability of the inverted models. The 3-D resistivity model is interpreted up to a depth of 500 m; it allows identifying resistive and conductive anomalies related to the main geological and hydrogeological structures shaping the slope. The high fracturation of the rock in the most active zone of the landslide appears as a resistive anomaly where the highest resistivity values are located close to the faults. A major drain formed by a fault in the unaltered micaschist is identified through the discharge of a perched aquifer along the conductive zone producing an important conductive anomaly contrasting with the unaltered micaschist.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉Modelling the porous flow of melt through a viscously deforming solid rock matrix is a useful tool for interpreting observations from the Earth’s surface, and advances our understanding of the dynamics of the Earth’s interior. However, the system of equations describing this process becomes mathematically degenerate in the limit of vanishing melt fraction. Numerical methods that do not consider this degeneracy or avoid it solely by regularizing specific material properties generally become computationally expensive as soon as the melt fraction approaches zero in some part of the domain.Here, we present a new formulation of the equations for coupled magma/mantle dynamics that addresses this problem, and allows it to accurately compute large-scale 3-D magma/mantle dynamics simulations with extensive regions of zero melt fraction. We achieve this by rescaling one of the solution variables, the compaction pressure, which ensures that for vanishing melt fraction, the equation causing the degeneracy becomes an identity and the other two equations revert to the Stokes system. This allows us to split the domain into two parts: in mesh cells where melt is present, we solve the coupled system of magma/mantle dynamics. In cells without melt, we solve the Stokes system as it is done for mantle convection without melt transport and constrain the remaining degrees of freedom.We have implemented this formulation in the open source geodynamic modelling code 〈span〉Aspect〈/span〉 and illustrate the improved performance compared to the previous three-field formulation, showing numerically that the new formulation is robust in terms of problem size and only slightly sensitive to model parameters. Beyond that, we demonstrate the applicability to realistic problems by showing large-scale 2-D and 3-D models of mid-ocean ridges with complex rheology. Hence, we believe that our new formulation and its implementation in 〈span〉Aspect〈/span〉 will prove a valuable tool for studying the interaction of melt segregating through and interacting with a solid host rock in the Earth and other planetary bodies using high-resolution, 3-D simulations.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉With the comparison to the resistivity ultra-deep measurement, the single-well reflection survey in acoustic logging-while-drilling (ALWD) measurement lags far behind, especially ALWD dipole measurement has long been thought to be little added value. In this paper, we extended the dipole shear-wave (〈span〉S〈/span〉-wave) reflection survey technology in wireline logging into ALWD and demonstrated the theoretical feasibility of adopting a dipole source–receiver system to perform ALWD reflection survey. For this purpose, we investigated the radiation patterns of radiant〈span〉SH, SV〈/span〉 and 〈span〉P〈/span〉 waves, the energy fluxes of guided and radiant waves and their acoustical radiation efficiencies from an LWD dipole acoustic source by comparisons with the wireline results. The analysis results reveal that a dominant excitation-frequency band does exist in ALWD dipole 〈span〉S〈/span〉-wave reflection. Consequently, the expected excitation frequency should be located in the band of the signal with high radiation efficiency, guaranteeing the best radiation performance. In fast formations, 〈span〉SH〈/span〉 wave is the best candidate for ALWD reflection survey due to its highest radiation efficiency. In contrast, the dominant excitation-frequency band of 〈span〉SH〈/span〉 wave gets wider in a slow formation. Besides, the 〈span〉SV〈/span〉- and 〈span〉P〈/span〉-wave radiation efficiencies are also remarkable, implying that both waves can also be used for ALWD reflection survey in slow formations. We expounded the 〈span〉SH-, SV-〈/span〉 and 〈span〉P〈/span〉-reflection behaviours at three typical excitation frequencies by our 3-D finite difference. Simulations to single-well reflection validate the key role of dominant excitation-frequency band and demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of applying the technology to ALWD. Our results can guide the design and measurement methods of ALWD dipole 〈span〉S〈/span〉-wave reflection survey tool, which could have extensive application prospect for geo-steering.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Iceland represents one of the most well-known examples of hotspot volcanism, but the details of how surface volcanism connects to geodynamic processes in the deep mantle remain poorly understood. Recent work has identified evidence for an ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) in the lowermost mantle beneath Iceland and argued for a cylindrically symmetric upwelling at the base of a deep mantle plume. This scenario makes a specific prediction about flow and deformation in the lowermost mantle, which can potentially be tested with observations of seismic anisotropy. Here we present an investigation of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath Iceland, using differential shear wave splitting measurements of S-ScS and SKS-SKKS phases. We apply our techniques to waves propagating at multiple azimuths, with the goal of gaining good geographical and azimuthal coverage of the region. Practical limitations imposed by the suboptimal distribution of global seismicity at the relevant distance ranges resulted in a relatively small dataset, particularly for S-ScS. Despite this, however, our measurements of ScS splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy clearly show a rotation of the fast splitting direction from nearly horizontal for two sets of paths that sample away from the low velocity region (implying 〈span〉VSH〈/span〉 〉 〈span〉VSV〈/span〉) to nearly vertical for a set of paths that sample directly beneath Iceland (implying 〈span〉VSV〈/span〉 〉 〈span〉VSH〈/span〉). We also find evidence for sporadic SKS-SKKS discrepancies beneath our study region; while the geographic distribution of discrepant pairs is scattered, those pairs that sample closest to the base of the Iceland plume tend to be discrepant. Our measurements do not uniquely constrain the pattern of mantle flow. However, we carried out simple ray-theoretical forward modeling for a suite of plausible anisotropy mechanisms, including those based on single-crystal elastic tensors, those obtained via effective medium modeling for partial melt scenarios, and those derived from global or regional models of flow and texture development in the deep mantle. These simplified models do not take into account details such as possible transitions in anisotropy mechanism or deformation regime, and test a simplified flow field (vertical flow beneath the plume and horizontal flow outside it) rather than more detailed flow scenarios. Nevertheless, our modeling results demonstrate that our ScS splitting observations are generally consistent with a flow scenario that invokes nearly vertical flow directly beneath the Iceland hotspot, with horizontal flow just outside this region.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉The harmonic electromagnetic noise produced by anthropic electrical structures is a critical component of the global noise affecting geophysical signals and increasing data uncertainty. It is composed of a series of harmonic signals whose frequencies are multiple integers of the fundamental frequency specific to the electrical noise source. To date, most model-based noise removal strategies assume that the fundamental frequency constraining the harmonic noise is single and constant over the duration of the geophysical record. In this paper, we demonstrate that classical harmonic processing methods lose efficacy when these assumptions are not valid. We present several surface nuclear magnetic resonance field data sets, which testify of the increasing probability of recording harmonic noise with such multiple or unstable frequency content. For each case (multiple frequencies or unstable frequency) we propose new processing strategies, namely the 〈span〉2D grid-search〈/span〉 and the 〈span〉segmentation〈/span〉 approach, respectively, which efficiently manage to remove harmonic noise in these difficult conditions. In the process, we also apply a fast frequency estimator called the Nyman, Gaiser and Saucier estimation method (NGSE), which shows equivalent performance as classical estimators while allowing a reduction of the computing time by a factor of 2 to 5.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉In this paper we test whether or not structural and morphological features inherited from the Eurasian continental margin are affecting the contemporary stress and strain fields in south-central Taiwan. Principal stress directions (σ〈sub〉1〈/sub〉, σ〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, and σ〈sub〉3〈/sub〉) are estimated from the inversion of clustered earthquake focal mechanisms and the direction of maximum compressive horizontal stress (S〈sub〉H〈/sub〉) is calculated throughout the study area. From these data the most likely fault plane orientations and their kinematics are inferred. The results of the stress inversion are then discussed together with the directions of displacement, compressional strain rate, and maximum shear strain rate derived from GPS data. These data show that there is a marked contrast in the direction of S〈sub〉H〈/sub〉 from north to south across the study area, with the direction of S〈sub〉H〈/sub〉 remaining roughly sub-parallel to the relative plate motion vector in the north, whereas in the south it rotates nearly 45° counterclockwise. The direction of horizontal maximum compression strain rate (ε〈sub〉H〈/sub〉) and associated maximum shear planes, together with the displacement field display an overall similar pattern between them, although undergoing a less marked rotation. We interpret the southward change in the S〈sub〉H〈/sub〉, ε〈sub〉H〈/sub〉, and the dextral maximum shear planes directions, together with that of the horizontal displacement field to be related to the reactivation of east-northeast striking faults inherited from the rifted Eurasian margin and to the shelf/slope break. Inherited faults in the basement are typically reactivated as strike-slip faults, whereas newly formed faults in the fold-and-thrust belt are commonly thrusts or oblique thrusts. Eastward, the stress inversions and strain data show that the western flank of the Central Range is undergoing extension in the upper crust. S〈sub〉H〈/sub〉 in the Central Range is roughly parallel to the relative plate convergence vector, but in southwestern Taiwan it undergoes a marked counterclockwise rotation westward across the Chaochou fault. Farther north, however, there is no significant change across the Lishan fault. This north to south difference is likely due to different margin structures, although local topographic effects may also play a role.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Published laboratory elastic-wave velocity versus porosity data in carbonate rocks exhibit significant scatter even at a fixed mineralogy. This scatter is usually attributed to the strong variability in the rock-frame or pore-space geometry, which, in turn, is driven by the richness and complexity of diagenetic alteration in these very reactive sediments. Yet, by examining wireline data from oil-bearing high-to-medium porosity chalk deposits, we find surprisingly tight velocity-porosity trends. Moreover, these trends are continued into the low-porosity domain by data from a location thousands of miles away from the chalk field. This congruence implies a universality of diagenetic trends, at least in the massive deposits under examination. We also find that the elastic bulk and shear moduli of the pure-calcite end member are somewhat smaller than such values reported in the literature. Using the end-member elastic constants relevant to the data under examination, we establish a theoretical rock physics model to match and generalize these data.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉Gravimetry is a technique widely used to image the structure of the Earth. However, inversions are ill-posed and the imaging power of the technique rapidly decreases with depth. To overcome this limitation, muography, a new imaging technique relying on high energy atmospheric muons, has recently been developed. Because muography only provides integrated densities above the detector from a limited number of observation points, inversions are also ill-posed. Previous studies have shown that joint muographic and gravimetric inversions better reconstruct the 3D density structure of volcanic edifices than independent density inversions. These studies address the ill-posedness of the joint problem by regularizing the solution with respect to a 〈span〉prior〈/span〉 density model. However, the obtained solutions depend on some hyperparameters, which are either determined relative to a single test case or rely on 〈span〉ad-hoc〈/span〉 parameters. This can lead to inaccurate retrieved models, sometimes associated with artefacts linked to the muon data acquisition. In this study, we use a synthetic example based on the Puy de Dôme volcano to determine a robust method to obtain the resulting model closest to the synthetic model and devoid of acquisition artefacts. We choose a Bayesian approach to include an 〈span〉a priori〈/span〉 density model and a smoothing by a Gaussian spatial correlation function relying on two hyperparameters: an 〈span〉a priori〈/span〉 density standard-deviation and an isotropic spatial correlation length. This approach has the advantage to provide 〈span〉a posteriori〈/span〉 standard-deviations on the resulting densities. Using our synthetic volcano, we investigate the most reliable criterion to determine the hyperparameters. Our results suggest that 〈span〉k〈/span〉-fold Cross-Validation Sum of Squares and the Leave One Out methods are more robust criteria than the classically used L-curves. The determined hyperparameters allow to overcome the artefacts linked to the data acquisition geometry, even when only a limited number of muon telescope is available. We also illustrate the behaviour of the inversion in case of offsets in the 〈span〉a priori〈/span〉 density or in the data and show that they lead to recognizable structures that help identify them.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉We present a new methodology to compute the gravitational fields generated by tesseroids (spherical prisms) whose density varies with depth according to an arbitrary continuous function. It approximates the gravitational fields through the Gauss–Legendre Quadrature along with two discretization algorithms that automatically control its accuracy by adaptively dividing the tesseroid into smaller ones. The first one is a preexisting 2-D adaptive discretization algorithm that reduces the errors due to the distance between the tesseroid and the computation point. The second is a new density-based discretization algorithm that decreases the errors introduced by the variation of the density function with depth. The amount of divisions made by each algorithm is indirectly controlled by two parameters: the distance-size ratio and the delta ratio. We have obtained analytical solutions for a spherical shell with radially variable density and compared them to the results of the numerical model for linear, exponential, and sinusoidal density functions. The heavily oscillating density functions are intended only to test the algorithm to its limits and not to emulate a real world case. These comparisons allowed us to obtain optimal values for the distance-size and delta ratios that yield an accuracy of 0.1 per cent of the analytical solutions. The resulting optimal values of distance-size ratio for the gravitational potential and its gradient are 1 and 2.5, respectively. The density-based discretization algorithm produces no discretizations in the linear density case, but a delta ratio of 0.1 is needed for the exponential and most sinusoidal density functions. These values can be extrapolated to cover most common use cases, which are simpler than oscillating density profiles. However, the distance-size and delta ratios can be configured by the user to increase the accuracy of the results at the expense of computational speed. Finally, we apply this new methodology to model the Neuquén Basin, a foreland basin in Argentina with a maximum depth of over 5000 m, using an exponential density function.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...