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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Pseudovibrio is a marine bacterial genus members of which are predominantly isolated from sessile marine animals, and particularly sponges. It has been hypothesized that Pseudovibrio spp. form mutualistic relationships with their hosts. Here, we studied Pseudovibrio phylogeny and genetic adaptations that may play a role in host colonization by comparative genomics of 31 Pseudovibrio strains, including 25 sponge isolates. All genomes were highly similar in terms of encoded core metabolic pathways, albeit with substantial differences in overall gene content. Based on gene composition, Pseudovibrio spp. clustered by geographic region, indicating geographic speciation. Furthermore, the fact that isolates from the Mediterranean Sea clustered by sponge species suggested host-specific adaptation or colonization. Genome analyses suggest that Pseudovibrio hongkongensis UST20140214-015BT is only distantly related to other Pseudovibrio spp., thereby challenging its status as typical Pseudovibrio member. All Pseudovibrio genomes were found to encode numerous proteins with SEL1 and tetratricopeptide repeats, which have been suggested to play a role in host colonization. For evasion of the host immune system, Pseudovibrio spp. may depend on type III, IV, and VI secretion systems that can inject effector molecules into eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, Pseudovibrio genomes carry on average seven secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, reinforcing the role of Pseudovibrio spp. as potential producers of novel bioactive compounds. Tropodithietic acid, bacteriocin, and terpene biosynthesis clusters were highly conserved within the genus, suggesting an essential role in survival, for example through growth inhibition of bacterial competitors. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Pseudovibrio spp. have mutualistic relations with sponges.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2015-03-23
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-04-28
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 4
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-05-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 5
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-05-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-03
    Description: The Mozambique Ridge, a prominent basement high in the southwestern Indian Ocean, consists of four major geomorphological segments associated with numerous phases of volcanic activity in the Lower Cretaceous. The nature and origin of the Mozambique Ridge have been intensely debated with one hypothesis suggesting a Large Igneous Province origin. High-resolution seismic reflection data reveal a large number of extrusion centres with a random distribution throughout the southern Mozambique Ridge and the nearby Transkei Rise. Intra-basement reflections emerge from the extrusion centres and are interpreted to represent massive lava flow sequences. Such lava flow sequences are characteristic of eruptions leading to the formation of continental and oceanic flood basalt provinces, hence supporting a Large Igneous Province origin of the Mozambique Ridge. We observe evidence for widespread post-sedimentary magmatic activity that we correlate with a southward propagation of the East African Rift System. Based on our volumetric analysis of the southern Mozambique Ridge we infer a rapid sequential emplacement between ~131 Ma and ~125 Ma, which is similar to the short formation periods of other Large Igneous Provinces like the Agulhas Plateau.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Barnacles of the genus Galkinius occupy a large spectrum of host corals, making it one of the least host-specific genera within the Pyrgomatidae. Molecular analyses show that within the genus Galkinius there are highly supported clades, suggesting that the genus Galkinius is a complex of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). The morphology of the opercular valves has been used as the basis for the separation of species of Galkinius. In this study, morphological variability was found both between specimens within ESUs extracted from different host species and between specimens extracted from the same colony. Identifications based on the opercular valves cannot therefore be assigned to different species despite being genetically distinguishable. It is proposed that in many cases the differences between valve morphology of different species of Galkinius are the outcome of ontogeny. Allometric growth of the valves has resulted in differences in the proportions of the parts of the valve.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Pseudovibrio is a marine bacterial genus members of which are predominantly isolated from sessile marine animals, and particularly sponges. It has been hypothesised that Pseudovibrio spp. form mutualistic relationships with their hosts. Here, we studied Pseudovibrio phylogeny and genetic adaptations that may play a role in host colonization by comparative genomics of 31 Pseudovibrio strains, including 25 sponge isolates. All genomes were highly similar in terms of encoded core metabolic pathways, albeit with substantial differences in overall gene content. Based on gene composition, Pseudovibrio spp. clustered by geographic region, indicating geographic speciation. Furthermore, the fact that isolates from the Mediterranean Sea clustered by sponge species suggested host-specific adaptation or colonization. Genome analyses suggest that Pseudovibrio hongkongensis UST20140214-015BT is only distantly related to other Pseudovibrio spp., thereby challenging its status as typical Pseudovibrio member. All Pseudovibrio genomes were found to encode numerous proteins with SEL1 and tetratricopeptide repeats, which have been suggested to play a role in host colonization. For evasion of the host immune system, Pseudovibrio spp. may depend on type III, IV and VI secretion systems that can inject effector molecules into eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, Pseudovibrio genomes carry on average seven secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, reinforcing the role of Pseudovibrio spp. as potential producers of novel bioactive compounds. Tropodithietic acid, bacteriocin and terpene biosynthesis clusters were highly conserved within the genus, suggesting an essential role in survival e.g. through growth inhibition of bacterial competitors. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Pseudovibrio spp. have mutualistic relations with sponges.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 9
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming
    Publication Date: 2013-12-10
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  • 10
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Climate Justice: Integrating Economics and Philosophy
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
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  • 11
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Climate Justice in a Non-Ideal World
    Publication Date: 2017-01-17
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  • 12
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  The Oxford Handbook of Food, Water and Society
    Publication Date: 2018-06-04
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Ocean acidification (OA) is increasing due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions and poses a threat to marine species and communities worldwide. To better project the effects of acidification on organisms’ health and persistence, an understanding is needed of the 1) mechanisms underlying developmental and physiological tolerance and 2) potential populations have for rapid evolutionary adaptation. This is especially challenging in nonmodel species where targeted assays of metabolism and stress physiology may not be available or economical for large-scale assessments of genetic constraints. We used mRNA sequencing and a quantitative genetics breeding design to study mechanisms underlying genetic variability and tolerance to decreased seawater pH (-0.4 pH units) in larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. We used a gene ontology-based approach to integrate expression profiles into indirect measures of cellular and biochemical traits underlying variation in larval performance (i.e., growth rates). Molecular responses to OA were complex, involving changes to several functions such as growth rates, cell division, metabolism, and immune activities. Surprisingly, the magnitude of pH effects on molecular traits tended to be small relative to variation attributable to segregating functional genetic variation in this species. We discuss how the application of transcriptomics and quantitative genetics approaches across diverse species can enrich our understanding of the biological impacts of climate change.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Spliceosomal introns are a hallmark of eukaryotic genes that are hypothesized to play important roles in genome evolution but have poorly understood origins. Although most introns lack sequence homology to each other, new families of spliceosomal introns that are repeated hundreds of times in individual genomes have recently been discovered in a few organisms. The prevalence and conservation of these introner elements (IEs) or introner-like elements in other taxa, as well as their evolutionary relationships to regular spliceosomal introns, are still unknown. Here, we systematically investigate introns in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas and report new families of IEs, numerous intron presence-absence polymorphisms, and potential intron insertion hot-spots. The new families enabled identification of conserved IE secondary structure features and establishment of a novel general model for repetitive intron proliferation across genomes. Despite shared secondary structure, the IE families from each Micromonas lineage bear no obvious sequence similarity to those in the other lineages, suggesting that their appearance is intimately linked with the process of speciation. Two of the new IE families come from an Arctic culture (Micromonas Clade E2) isolated from a polar region where abundance of this alga is increasing due to climate induced changes. The same two families were detected in metagenomic data from Antarctica-a system where Micromonas has never before been reported. Strikingly high identity between the Arctic isolate and Antarctic coding sequences that flank the IEs suggests connectivity between populations in the two polar systems that we postulate occurs through deep-sea currents. Recovery of Clade E2 sequences in North Atlantic Deep Waters beneath the Gulf Stream supports this hypothesis. Our research illuminates the dynamic relationships between an unusual class of repetitive introns, genome evolution, speciation, and global distribution of this sentinel marine alga. © 2015 The Author.
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  • 16
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, 80 (3). pp. 811-824.
    Publication Date: 2015-07-06
    Description: The permafrost methane emission problem is the focus of attention on different climate models. Here, we present a mathematical model for permafrost lake methane emission and its influence on the climate system. We model this process using the theory of non-linear phase transitions. Further, we find that a climate catastrophe possibility depends on a value of feedback connecting the methane concentration in the atmosphere and temperature, and on the tundra permafrost methane pool.We note that the permafrost lake model that we developed for the methane emission positive feedback loop problem is a conceptual climate model.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Archaea associated with marine sponges are active and influence the nitrogen metabolism of sponges. However, we know little about their occurrence, specificity, and persistence. We aimed to elucidate the relative importance of host specificity and biogeographic background in shaping the symbiotic archaeal communities. We investigated these communities in sympatric sponges from the Mediterranean (Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia oros, sampled in summer and winter) and from the Caribbean (Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima). PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. We found that the communities were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea closely related to Nitrosopumilus. The community in M. laxissima differed from that in Ircinia spp., including the sympatric sponge I. strobilina; yet, geographical clusters within Ircinia spp. were observed. Whereas archaeal phylotypes in Ircinia spp. were persistent and belong to 'sponge-enriched' clusters, archaea in M. laxissima were closely related with those from diverse habitats (i.e. seawater and sediments). For all four sponge species, the expression of the archaeal amoA gene was confirmed. Our results indicate that host-specific processes, such as host ecological strategy and evolutionary history, control the sponge-archaeal communities.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Connectivity of pelagic, early life stages via transport by ocean currents may affect survival chances of offspring, recruitment success, and mixing of stocks across management units. Based on drift model studies, transport patterns of particles representing exogenously feeding cod larvae in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results with spatial distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion to different management areas. Good spatial overlap of particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas, with observed distributions of juveniles in bottom trawl surveys suggests that the drift simulations provide reasonable estimates of early life stage connectivity between cod populations in the investigated areas. High exchange rates of particles between management areas of up to ca. 70% suggest that cod populations in the investigated areas are demographically correlated. Results are discussed in relation to their relevance for stock structure, fish stock assessment, and management.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Global warming and ocean acidification are among the most important stressors for aquatic ecosystems in the future. To investigate their direct and indirect effects on a near-natural plankton community, a multiple-stressor approach is needed. Hence, we set up mesocosms in a full-factorial design to study the effects of both warming and high CO2 on a Baltic Sea autumn plankton community, concentrating on the impacts on microzooplankton (MZP). MZP abundance, biomass, and species composition were analysed over the course of the experiment. We observed that warming led to a reduced time-lag between the phytoplankton bloom and an MZP biomass maximum. MZP showed a significantly higher growth rate and an earlier biomass peak in the warm treatments while the biomass maximum was not affected. Increased pCO2 did not result in any significant effects on MZP biomass, growth rate, or species composition irrespective of the temperature, nor did we observe any significant interactions between CO2 and temperature. We attribute this to the high tolerance of this estuarine plankton community to fluctuations in pCO2, often resulting in CO2 concentrations higher than the predicted end-of-century concentration for open oceans. In contrast, warming can be expected to directly affect MZP and strengthen its coupling with phytoplankton by enhancing its grazing pressure.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-08-22
    Description: Plankton fractions from a saline lake in Argentina were studied using a combined trophic marker approach. A strong seasonality of biomarkers was characteristic for the different fractions, particularly the variations in the 18:4(n 2 3) and 20:4(n 2 3) fatty acids and the d13C values. The primary production in the lake was mainly driven by diatoms, reflected by the close relation of d13C, chlorophyll a and diatom fatty acid markers. The combined approach of d13C and 20:4(n 2 3) enabled processes in the lipid metabolism of the copepod Boeckella poopoensis to be inferred. The polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6(n 2 3) and the d15N separated the trophic levels in this food web with copepods at higher trophic level. Nutritional stress and omnivory of B. poopoensis partially explained the d15N variations in mesozooplankton. The d15N signature was probably driven by cyanobacteria in the microplankton and by microbial processes in the nanoplankton fraction. Warmer temperatures may favour the saturation of microalgae fatty acids and the abundance of plankton groups richer in saturated fatty acids. The tendency to unsaturation in mesozooplankton at colder temperatures was probably influenced by diet and metabolic requirements. Future temperature increase and eutrophication-like processes may increase the importance of cyanobacterial and bacterial markers under climate change scenarios.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 22
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 203 (2015): 893-895, doi:10.1093/gji/ggv324.
    Description: The statistics of directional data on a sphere can be modelled either using the Fisher distribution that is conditioned on the magnitude being unity, in which case the sample space is confined to the unit sphere, or using the latitude–longitude marginal distribution derived from a trivariate Gaussian model that places no constraint on the magnitude. These two distributions are derived from first principles and compared. The Fisher distribution more closely approximates the uniform distribution on a sphere for a given small value of the concentration parameter, while the latitude–longitude marginal distribution is always slightly larger than the Fisher distribution at small off-axis angles for large values of the concentration parameter. Asymptotic analysis shows that the two distributions only become equivalent in the limit of large concentration parameter and very small off-axis angle.
    Keywords: Numerical approximations and analysis ; Probability distributions ; Marine magnetics and palaeomagnetics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Genome Biology and Evolution 7 (2015): 3207-3225, doi:10.1093/gbe/evv210.
    Description: High-throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries obtained through digestion with restriction enzymes—generically known as restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)—is a common strategy to generate genome-wide genotypic and sequence data from eukaryotes. A critical design element of any RAD-seq study is knowledge of the approximate number of genetic markers that can be obtained for a taxon using different restriction enzymes, as this number determines the scope of a project, and ultimately defines its success. This number can only be directly determined if a reference genome sequence is available, or it can be estimated if the genome size and restriction recognition sequence probabilities are known. However, both scenarios are uncommon for nonmodel species. Here, we performed systematic in silico surveys of recognition sequences, for diverse and commonly used type II restriction enzymes across the eukaryotic tree of life. Our observations reveal that recognition sequence frequencies for a given restriction enzyme are strikingly variable among broad eukaryotic taxonomic groups, being largely determined by phylogenetic relatedness. We demonstrate that genome sizes can be predicted from cleavage frequency data obtained with restriction enzymes targeting “neutral” elements. Models based on genomic compositions are also effective tools to accurately calculate probabilities of recognition sequences across taxa, and can be applied to species for which reduced representation data are available (including transcriptomes and neutral RAD-seq data sets). The analytical pipeline developed in this study, PredRAD (https://github.com/phrh/PredRAD), and the resulting databases constitute valuable resources that will help guide the design of any study using RAD-seq or related methods.
    Description: This research was supported by the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NA09OAR4320129 to T.S.); the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation (OCE-1131620 to T.S.); the Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX09AB76G to T.S.); and the Academic Programs Office (Ocean Ventures Fund to S.H.), the Ocean Exploration Institute (Fellowship support to T.M.S.), and the Ocean Life Institute of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (internal grant to T.M.S. and S.H.).
    Keywords: RAD-seq ; Reduced representation sequencing ; PredRAD ; Experimental design ; Genome size prediction ; Restriction recognition sequence probability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2016. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 205 (2016): 785-795, doi:10.1093/gji/ggw036.
    Description: An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency–slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ∼150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn–air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.
    Description: PDB, AD and PG were supported by NSF Grant PLR 1246151. RAS was supported by NSF Grant PLR-1246416. DAW, RA and AN were supported under NSF Grants PLR-1142518, 1141916 and 1142126, respectively. PDB also received support from the California Department of Parks and Recreation, Division of Boating and Waterways under contract 11-106-107.
    Keywords: Glaciology ; Surface waves and free oscillations ; Seismic anisotropy ; Antarctica
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-12-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Nucleic Acids Research 44 (2016): e157, doi:10.1093/nar/gkw738.
    Description: Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a strategy to precisely alter genetic information within mRNAs. By linking the catalytic domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR to an antisense guide RNA, specific adenosines can be converted to inosines, biological mimics for guanosine. Previously, we showed that a genetically encoded iteration of SDRE could target adenosines expressed in human cells, but not efficiently. Here we developed a reporter assay to quantify editing, and used it to improve our strategy. By enhancing the linkage between ADAR's catalytic domain and the guide RNA, and by introducing a mutation in the catalytic domain, the efficiency of converting a UAG premature termination codon (PTC) to tryptophan (UGG) was improved from ∼11% to ∼70%. Other PTCs were edited, but less efficiently. Numerous off-target edits were identified in the targeted mRNA, but not in randomly selected endogenous messages. Off-target edits could be eliminated by reducing the amount of guide RNA with a reduction in on-target editing. The catalytic rate of SDRE was compared with those for human ADARs on various substrates and found to be within an order of magnitude of most. These data underscore the promise of site-directed RNA editing as a therapeutic or experimental tool.
    Description: National Institutes of Health [1R0111223855, 1R01NS64259]; Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics [Rosent14XXO]; Infrastructural support was provided by the National Institutes of Health [NIGMS 1P20GM103642, NIMHD 8G12-MD007600]; National Science Foundation [DBI 0115825, DBI 1337284]; Department of Defense [52680-RT-ISP].
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Epigenetics 4 (2018): dvy005, doi:10.1093/eep/dvy005.
    Description: There is growing evidence that environmental toxicants can affect various physiological processes by altering DNA methylation patterns. However, very little is known about the impact of toxicant-induced DNA methylation changes on gene expression patterns. The objective of this study was to determine the genome-wide changes in DNA methylation concomitant with altered gene expression patterns in response to 3, 3’, 4, 4’, 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) exposure. We used PCB126 as a model environmental chemical because the mechanism of action is well-characterized, involving activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 10 nM PCB126 for 24 h (water-borne exposure) and brain and liver tissues were sampled at 7 days post-exposure in order to capture both primary and secondary changes in DNA methylation and gene expression. We used enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing and RNAseq to quantify DNA methylation and gene expression, respectively. Enhanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed 573 and 481 differentially methylated regions in the liver and brain, respectively. Most of the differentially methylated regions are located more than 10 kilobases upstream of transcriptional start sites of the nearest neighboring genes. Gene Ontology analysis of these genes showed that they belong to diverse physiological pathways including development, metabolic processes and regeneration. RNAseq results revealed differential expression of genes related to xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress and energy metabolism in response to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. There was very little correlation between differentially methylated regions and differentially expressed genes suggesting that the relationship between methylation and gene expression is dynamic and complex, involving multiple layers of regulation.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Institute of Health Outstanding New Environmental Scientist Award to NA (NIH R01ES024915) and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health [National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant P01ES021923 and National Science Foundation Grant OCE-1314642 to M. Hahn, J. Stegeman, NA and SK].
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Author Posting. © Crown Copyright, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 204 (2016): 1-20, doi:10.1093/gji/ggv416.
    Description: The Canada Basin and the southern Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex underlie a significant proportion of the Arctic Ocean, but the geology of this undrilled and mostly ice-covered frontier is poorly known. New information is encoded in seismic wide-angle reflections and refractions recorded with expendable sonobuoys between 2007 and 2011. Velocity–depth samples within the sedimentary succession are extracted from published analyses for 142 of these records obtained at irregularly spaced stations across an area of 1.9E + 06 km2. The samples are modelled at regional, subregional and station-specific scales using an exponential function of inverse velocity versus depth with regionally representative parameters determined through numerical regression. With this approach, smooth, non-oscillatory velocity–depth profiles can be generated for any desired location in the study area, even where the measurement density is low. Practical application is demonstrated with a map of sedimentary thickness, derived from seismic reflection horizons interpreted in the time domain and depth converted using the velocity–depth profiles for each seismic trace. A thickness of 12–13 km is present beneath both the upper Mackenzie fan and the middle slope off of Alaska, but the sedimentary prism thins more gradually outboard of the latter region. Mapping of the observed-to-predicted velocities reveals coherent geospatial trends associated with five subregions: the Mackenzie fan; the continental slopes beyond the Mackenzie fan; the abyssal plain; the southwestern Canada Basin; and, the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Comparison of the subregional velocity–depth models with published borehole data, and interpretation of the station-specific best-fitting model parameters, suggests that sandstone is not a predominant lithology in any of the five subregions. However, the bulk sand-to-shale ratio likely increases towards the Mackenzie fan, and the model for this subregion compares favourably with borehole data for Miocene turbidites in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The station-specific results also indicate that Quaternary sediments coarsen towards the Beaufort-Mackenzie and Banks Island margins in a manner that is consistent with the variable history of Laurentide Ice Sheet advance documented for these margins. Lithological factors do not fully account for the elevated velocity–depth trends that are associated with the southwestern Canada Basin and the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Accelerated porosity reduction due to elevated palaeo-heat flow is inferred for these regions, which may be related to the underlying crustal types or possibly volcanic intrusion of the sedimentary succession. Beyond exploring the variation of an important physical property in the Arctic Ocean basin, this study provides comparative reference for global studies of seismic velocity, burial history, sedimentary compaction, seismic inversion and overpressure prediction, particularly in mudrock-dominated successions.
    Keywords: Numerical approximations and analysis ; Spatial analysis ; Controlled source seismology ; Acoustic properties ; Sedimentary basin processes ; Large igneous provinces ; Crustal structure ; Arctic region
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: © International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016): 1839-1850, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw086.
    Description: For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate. Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that migrate slowly with time, pelagic seascapes are embedded in a turbulent, advective ocean. Adaptations from landscape ecology to marine pelagic ecosystem management must consider the nature and scale of biophysical interactions associated with organisms ranging from microbes to whales, a hierarchical organization shaped by physical processes, and our limited capacity to observe and monitor these phenomena across global oceans. High frequency, multiscale, and synoptic characterization of the 4-D variability of seascapes are now available through improved classification methods, a maturing array of satellite remote sensing products, advances in autonomous sampling of multiple levels of biological complexity, and emergence of observational networks. Merging of oceanographic and ecological paradigms will be necessary to observe, manage, and conserve species embedded in a dynamic seascape mosaic, where the boundaries, extent, and location of features change with time.
    Description: This work was supported by NASA grant NNX14AP62A “National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)” funded under the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP RFP NOAA-NOS-IOOS-2014-2003803 in partnership between NOAA, BOEM, and NASA), the NOAA Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office, and the LenFest Ocean Program.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Conservation ; Landscape ; Ocean observations ; Pelagic ; Phytoplankton ; Seascape
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-11-01
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 211 (2017): 1046–1061, doi:10.1093/gji/ggx360.
    Description: In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the physics of CSEM for an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to or much thinner than that of the overburden using the in-line configuration through examination of the elliptically-polarized seafloor electric field, the time-averaged energy flow depicted by the real part of the complex Poynting vector, energy dissipation through Joule heating and the Fréchet derivatives of the seafloor field with respect to the sub-seafloor conductivity that is assumed to be transversely anisotropic, with a vertical-to-horizontal resistivity ratio of 3:1. For an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to that of the overburden, the seafloor electromagnetic response for a model containing a resistive reservoir layer has a greater amplitude and reduced phase as a function of offset compared to that for a halfspace, or a stronger and faster response, and displays little to no evidence for the air interaction. For an ocean whose electrical thickness is much smaller than that of the overburden, the electric field displays a greater amplitude and reduced phase at small offsets, shifting to a stronger amplitude and increased phase at intermediate offsets, and a weaker amplitude and enhanced phase at long offsets, or a stronger and faster response that first changes to stronger and slower, and then transitions to weaker and slower. By comparison to the isotropic case with the same horizontal conductivity, transverse anisotropy stretches the Poynting vector and the electric field response from a thin resistive layer to much longer offsets. These phenomena can be understood by visualizing the energy flow throughout the structure caused by the competing influences of the dipole source and guided energy flow in the reservoir layer, and the air interaction caused by coupling of the entire sub-seafloor resistivity structure with the sea surface. The Fréchet derivatives are dominated by preferential sensitivity to the vertical conductivity in the reservoir layer and overburden at short offsets. The horizontal conductivity Fréchet derivatives are weaker than to comparable to the vertical derivatives at long offsets in the substrate. This means that the sensitivity to the horizontal conductivity is present in the shallow parts of the subsurface. In the presence of transverse anisotropy, it is necessary to go to higher frequencies to sense the horizontal conductivity in the overburden as compared to an isotropic model with the same horizontal conductivity. These observations in part explain the success of shallow towed CSEM using only measurements of the in-line component of the electric field.
    Description: This work was supported at WHOI by an Independent Research and Development award, and by the Walter A. and Hope Noyes Smith Chair for Excellence in Oceanography.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-08-31
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Molecular Biology and Evolution 34 (2017): 1890-1901, doi:10.1093/molbev/msx125.
    Description: The highly conserved ADAR enzymes, found in all multicellular metazoans, catalyze the editing of mRNA transcripts by the deamination of adenosines to inosines. This type of editing has two general outcomes: site specific editing, which frequently leads to recoding, and clustered editing, which is usually found in transcribed genomic repeats. Here, for the first time, we looked for both editing of isolated sites and clustered, non-specific sites in a basal metazoan, the coral Acropora millepora during spawning event, in order to reveal its editing pattern. We found that the coral editome resembles the mammalian one: it contains more than 500,000 sites, virtually all of which are clustered in non-coding regions that are enriched for predicted dsRNA structures. RNA editing levels were increased during spawning and increased further still in newly released gametes. This may suggest that editing plays a role in introducing variability in coral gametes.
    Description: This work was supported by the Australian Research Council (to PK), the European Research Council (grant 311257), the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee in Israel (grants 41/11 and 1796/12), and the Israel Science Foundation (1380/14).
    Keywords: RNA editing ; ADAR ; Evolution ; Coral
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2017-08-31
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bioscience 67 (2017): 760–768, doi:10.1093/biosci/bix059.
    Description: As the sampling frequency and resolution of Earth observation imagery increase, there are growing opportunities for novel applications in population monitoring. New methods are required to apply established analytical approaches to data collected from new observation platforms (e.g., satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles). Here, we present a method that estimates regional seasonal abundances for an understudied and growing population of gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in southeastern Massachusetts, using opportunistic observations in Google Earth imagery. Abundance estimates are derived from digital aerial survey counts by adapting established correction-based analyses with telemetry behavioral observation to quantify survey biases. The result is a first regional understanding of gray seal abundance in the northeast US through opportunistic Earth observation imagery and repurposed animal telemetry data. As species observation data from Earth observation imagery become more ubiquitous, such methods provide a robust, adaptable, and cost-effective solution to monitoring animal colonies and understanding species abundances.
    Description: We would like to thank generous support from International Fund for Animal Welfare, the Bureau of Ocean Energy, and the Oak Foundation for funding support for the telemetry devices.
    Keywords: Abundance estimation ; Gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) ; Cape Cod ; Remote sensing ; Earth observation
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2018. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 214 (2018): 2224–2235, doi:10.1093/gji/ggy201.
    Description: The key kinematic earthquake source parameters: rupture velocity, duration and area, shed light on earthquake dynamics, provide direct constraints on stress drop, and have implications for seismic hazard. However, for moderate and small earthquakes, these parameters are usually poorly constrained due to limitations of the standard analysis methods. Numerical experiments by Kaneko and Shearer demonstrated that standard spectral fitting techniques can lead to roughly one order of magnitude variation in stress-drop estimates that do not reflect the actual rupture properties even for simple crack models. We utilize these models to explore an alternative approach where we estimate the rupture area directly. For the suite of models, the area averaged static stress drop is nearly constant for models with the same underlying friction law, yet corner-frequency-based stress-drop estimates vary by a factor of 5–10 even for noise-free data. Alternatively, we simulated inversions for the rupture area as parametrized by the second moments of the slip distribution. A natural estimate for the rupture area derived from the second moments is A = πLcWc, where Lc and Wc are the characteristic rupture length and width. This definition yields estimates of stress drop that vary by only 10 per cent between the models but are slightly larger than the true area averaged values. We simulate inversions for the second moments for the various models and find that the area can be estimated well when there are at least 15 available measurements of apparent duration at a variety of take-off angles. The improvement compared to azimuthally averaged corner-frequency-based approaches results from the second moments accounting for directivity and removing the assumption of a circular rupture area, both of which bias the standard approach. We also develop a new method that determines the minimum and maximum values of rupture area that are consistent with a particular data set at the 95 per cent confidence level. For the Kaneko and Shearer models with 20+ randomly distributed observations and ∼10 per cent noise levels, we find that the maximum and minimum bounds on rupture area typically vary by a factor of two and that the minimum stress drop is often more tightly constrained than the maximum.
    Description: This work was supported by USGS NEHRP Award G17AP00029. The research was supported by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC; Contribution No. 8013). SCEC is funded by NSF Cooperative Agreement EAR-1033462 and USGS Cooperative Agreement G12AC20038. YK was supported by both public funding from the Government of New Zealand and the Royal Society of New Zealand’s Rutherford Discovery Fellowship.
    Keywords: Earthquake dynamics ; Earthquake source observations ; Body waves
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Conservation Physiology 6 (2018): coy049, doi:10.1093/conphys/coy049.
    Description: Male baleen whales have long been suspected to have annual cycles in testosterone, but due to difficulty in collecting endocrine samples, little direct evidence exists to confirm this hypothesis. Potential influences of stress or adrenal stress hormones (cortisol, corticosterone) on male reproduction have also been difficult to study. Baleen has recently been shown to accumulate steroid hormones during growth, such that a single baleen plate contains a continuous, multi-year retrospective record of the whale’s endocrine history. As a preliminary investigation into potential testosterone cyclicity in male whales and influences of stress, we determined patterns in immunoreactive testosterone, two glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone), and stable-isotope (SI) ratios, across the full length of baleen plates from a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), a North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and a blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), all adult males. Baleen was subsampled at 2 cm (bowhead, right) or 1 cm (blue) intervals and hormones were extracted from baleen powder with methanol, followed by quantification of all three hormones using enzyme immunoassays validated for baleen extract of these species. Baleen of all three males contained regularly spaced peaks in testosterone content, with number and spacing of testosterone peaks corresponding well to SI data and to species-specific estimates of annual baleen growth rate. Cortisol and corticosterone exhibited some peaks that co-occurred with testosterone peaks, while other glucocorticoid peaks occurred independent of testosterone peaks. The right whale had unusually high glucocorticoids during a period with a known entanglement in fishing gear and a possible disease episode; in the subsequent year, testosterone was unusually low. Further study of baleen testosterone patterns in male whales could help clarify conservation- and management-related questions such as age of sexual maturity, location and season of breeding, and the potential effect of anthropogenic and natural stressors on male testosterone cycles.
    Description: This work was supported by (1) the Arizona Board of Regents Technology Research Initiative Fund; (2) the Center for Bioengineering Innovation at Northern Arizona University; (3) the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources; (4) the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Ocean Life Institute and (5) Fisheries and Ocean Canada’s (DFO) Priorities and Partnership Strategic Initiatives Fund and Oceans Protection Plan.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 203 (2015): 1-21, doi:10.1093/gji/ggv251.
    Description: We examine along-axis variations in melt content of the axial magma lens (AML) beneath the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) using an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) crossplotting method applied to multichannel seismic data acquired in 2008. The AVA crossplotting method, which has been developed for and, so far, applied for hydrocarbon prospection in sediments, is for the first time applied to a hardrock environment. We focus our analysis on 2-D data collected along the EPR axis from 9°29.8′N to 9°58.4′N, a region which encompasses the sites of two well-documented submarine volcanic eruptions (1991–1992 and 2005–2006). AVA crossplotting is performed for a ∼53 km length of the EPR spanning nine individual AML segments (ranging in length from ∼3.2 to 8.5 km) previously identified from the geometry of the AML and disruptions in continuity. Our detailed analyses conducted at 62.5 m interval show that within most of the analysed segments melt content varies at spatial scales much smaller (a few hundred of metres) than the length of the fine-scale AML segments, suggesting high heterogeneity in melt concentration. At the time of our survey, about 2 yr after the eruption, our results indicate that the three AML segments that directly underlie the 2005–2006 lava flow are on average mostly molten. However, detailed analysis at finer-scale intervals for these three segments reveals AML pockets (from 〉62.5 to 812.5 m long) with a low melt fraction. The longest such mushy section is centred beneath the main eruption site at ∼9°50.4′N, possibly reflecting a region of primary melt drainage during the 2005–2006 event. The complex geometry of fluid flow pathways within the crust above the AML and the different response times of fluid flow and venting to eruption and magma reservoir replenishment may contribute to the poor spatial correlation between incidence of hydrothermal vents and presence of highly molten AML. The presented results are an important step forward in our ability to resolve small-scale characteristics of the AML and recommend the AVA crossplotting as a tool for examining mid-ocean ridge magma-systems elsewhere.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF awards OCE0327872 to J.C.M. and S.M.C., OCE-0327885 to J.P.C., and OCE0624401 to M.R.N.
    Keywords: Mid-ocean ridge processes ; Submarine tectonics and volcanism ; Crustal structure ; Physics of magma and magma bodies
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2017-06-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Oxford University Press, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 205 (2016): 728-743, doi:10.1093/gji/ggw044.
    Description: While elasticity is a defining characteristic of the Earth's lithosphere, it is often ignored in numerical models of long-term tectonic processes in favour of a simpler viscoplastic description. Here we assess the consequences of this assumption on a well-studied geodynamic problem: the growth of normal faults at an extensional plate boundary. We conduct 2-D numerical simulations of extension in elastoplastic and viscoplastic layers using a finite difference, particle-in-cell numerical approach. Our models simulate a range of faulted layer thicknesses and extension rates, allowing us to quantify the role of elasticity on three key observables: fault-induced topography, fault rotation, and fault life span. In agreement with earlier studies, simulations carried out in elastoplastic layers produce rate-independent lithospheric flexure accompanied by rapid fault rotation and an inverse relationship between fault life span and faulted layer thickness. By contrast, models carried out with a viscoplastic lithosphere produce results that may qualitatively resemble the elastoplastic case, but depend strongly on the product of extension rate and layer viscosity U × ηL. When this product is high, fault growth initially generates little deformation of the footwall and hanging wall blocks, resulting in unrealistic, rigid block-offset in topography across the fault. This configuration progressively transitions into a regime where topographic decay associated with flexure is fully accommodated within the numerical domain. In addition, high U × ηL favours the sequential growth of multiple short-offset faults as opposed to a large-offset detachment. We interpret these results by comparing them to an analytical model for the fault-induced flexure of a thin viscous plate. The key to understanding the viscoplastic model results lies in the rate-dependence of the flexural wavelength of a viscous plate, and the strain rate dependence of the force increase associated with footwall and hanging wall bending. This behaviour produces unrealistic deformation patterns that can hinder the geological relevance of long-term rifting models that assume a viscoplastic rheology.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants OCE-11-54238 (JAO, MDB), EAR-10-10432 (MDB) and OCE-11-55098 (GI), as well as a WHOI Deep Exploration Institute grant and start-up support from the University of Idaho (EM).
    Keywords: Mid-ocean ridge processes ; Continental tectonics: extensional ; Lithospheric flexure ; Mechanics, theory, and modelling
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-04-13
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 208 (2017): 1026-1042, doi:10.1093/gji/ggw435.
    Description: In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the physics of CSEM for an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to or much thinner than that of the overburden using the in-line configuration through examination of the elliptically polarized seafloor electric field, the time-averaged energy flow depicted by the real part of the complex Poynting vector, energy dissipation through Joule heating and the Fréchet derivatives of the seafloor field with respect to the subseafloor conductivity that is assumed to be isotropic. The deep water (ocean layer electrically much thicker than the overburden) seafloor EM response for a model containing a resistive reservoir layer has a greater amplitude and reduced phase as a function of offset compared to that for a half-space, or a stronger and faster response. For an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to or much smaller than that of the overburden, the electric field displays a greater amplitude and reduced phase at small offsets, shifting to a stronger amplitude and increased phase at intermediate offsets and a weaker amplitude and enhanced phase at long offsets, or a stronger and faster response that first changes to stronger and slower, and then transitions to weaker and slower. These transitions can be understood by visualizing the energy flow throughout the structure caused by the competing influences of the dipole source and guided energy flow in the reservoir layer, and the air interaction caused by coupling of the entire subseafloor resistivity structure with the sea surface. A stronger and faster response occurs when guided energy flow is dominant, while a weaker and slower response occurs when the air interaction is dominant. However, at intermediate offsets for some models, the air interaction can partially or fully reverse the direction of energy flux in the reservoir layer toward rather than away from the source, resulting in a stronger and slower response. The Fréchet derivatives are dominated by preferential sensitivity to the reservoir layer conductivity for all water depths except at high frequencies, but also display a shift with offset from the galvanic to the inductive mode in the underburden and overburden due to the interplay of guided energy flow and the air interaction. This means that the sensitivity to the horizontal conductivity is almost as strong as to the vertical component in the shallow parts of the subsurface, and in fact is stronger than the vertical sensitivity deeper down. However, the sensitivity to horizontal conductivity is still weak compared to the vertical component within thin resistive regions. The horizontal sensitivity is gradually decreased when the water becomes deep. These observations in part explain the success of shallow towed CSEM using only measurements of the in-line component of the electric field.
    Keywords: Electrical properties ; Marine electromagnetics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Conservation Physiology 5 (2017): cox061, doi:10.1093/conphys/cox061.
    Description: Recent studies have demonstrated that some hormones are present in baleen powder from bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) whales. To test the potential generalizability of this technique for studies of stress and reproduction in large whales, we sought to determine whether all major classes of steroid and thyroid hormones are detectable in baleen, and whether these hormones are detectable in other mysticetes. Powdered baleen samples were recovered from single specimens of North Atlantic right, bowhead, blue (Balaenoptera [B.]musculus), sei (B. borealis), minke (B. acutorostrata), fin (B. physalus), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whales. Hormones were extracted with a methanol vortex method, after which we tested all species with commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs, Arbor Assays) for progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol, cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, representing a wide array of steroid and thyroid hormones of interest for whale physiology research. In total, 64 parallelism tests (8 species × 8 hormones) were evaluated to verify good binding affinity of the assay antibodies to hormones in baleen. We also tested assay accuracy, although available sample volume limited this test to progesterone, testosterone and cortisol. All tested hormones were detectable in baleen powder of all species, and all assays passed parallelism and accuracy tests. Although only single individuals were tested, the consistent detectability of all hormones in all species indicates that baleen hormone analysis is likely applicable to a broad range of mysticetes, and that the EIA kits tested here perform well with baleen extract. Quantification of hormones in baleen may be a suitable technique with which to explore questions that have historically been difficult to address in large whales, including pregnancy and inter-calving interval, age of sexual maturation, timing and duration of seasonal reproductive cycles, adrenal physiology and metabolic rate.
    Description: This work was supported by (1) the Center for Bioengineering Innovation at Northern Arizona University and (2) the New England Aquarium.
    Keywords: Baleen ; Cetaceans ; Hormones ; Marine mammals ; Reproduction ; Stress
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Author(s), 2017. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 212 (2018): 1429–1449, doi:10.1093/gji/ggx488.
    Description: We conducted detailed analyses of a global array of trenches, revealing systematic intra- and intertrench variations in plate bending characteristics. The intratrench variations of the Manila and Mariana Trenches were analysed in detail as end-member cases of the relatively young (16–36 Ma) and old (140–160 Ma) subducting plates, respectively. Meanwhile, the intertrench variability was investigated for a global array of additional trenches including the Philippine, Kuril, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Aleutian, Tonga-Kermadec, Middle America, Peru, Chile, Sumatra and Java Trenches. Results of the analysis show that the trench relief (W0) and width (X0) of all systems are controlled primarily by the faulting-reduced elastic thickness near the trench axis (Tme) and affected only slightly by the initial unfaulted thickness (TMe) of the incoming plate. The reduction in Te has caused significant deepening and narrowing of trench valleys. For the cases of relatively young or old plates, the plate age could be a dominant factor in controlling the trench bending shape, regardless the variations in axial loadings. Our calculations also show that the axial loading and stresses of old subducting plates can vary significantly along the trench axis. In contrast, the young subducting plates show much smaller values and variations in axial loading and stresses.
    Description: This work was supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences Grants (Y4SL021001, QYZDY-SSW-DQC005, YZ201325 and YZ201534), National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants (91628301, U1606401, 41376063 and 41706056) and HKSAR Research Grant Council Grants (24601515, 14313816).
    Keywords: Lithospheric flexure ; Subduction zone processes
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 215 (2018): 460–473, doi:10.1093/gji/ggy152.
    Description: In this work, we present a new methodology to predict grain-size distributions from geophysical data. Specifically, electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of seafloor sediments recovered from electromagnetic profiling data are used to predict grain-size distributions along shelf-wide survey lines. Field data from the NW Iberian shelf are investigated and reveal a strong relation between the electromagnetic properties and grain-size distribution. The here presented workflow combines unsupervised and supervised machine-learning techniques. Non-negative matrix factorization is used to determine grain-size end-members from sediment surface samples. Four end-members were found, which well represent the variety of sediments in the study area. A radial basis function network modified for prediction of compositional data is then used to estimate the abundances of these end-members from the electromagnetic properties. The end-members together with their predicted abundances are finally back transformed to grain-size distributions. A minimum spatial variation constraint is implemented in the training of the network to avoid overfitting and to respect the spatial distribution of sediment patterns. The predicted models are tested via leave-one-out cross-validation revealing high prediction accuracy with coefficients of determination (R2) between 0.76 and 0.89. The predicted grain-size distributions represent the well-known sediment facies and patterns on the NW Iberian shelf and provide new insights into their distribution, transition and dynamics. This study suggests that electromagnetic benthic profiling in combination with machine learning techniques is a powerful tool to estimate grain-size distribution of marine sediments.
    Description: This work was funded through DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence ‘The Ocean in the Earth System’ and was part of MARUM Research Area SD
    Keywords: Neural networks ; Fuzzy logic ; Statistical methods ; Electrical properties ; Magnetic properties ; Marine electromagnetics ; Controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Genome Biology and Evolution 7 (2015): 457-464, doi:10.1093/gbe/evu289.
    Description: The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket.
    Description: This work was funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) project PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013. PhD grant SFRH/BD/84238/2012 awarded to M.L-.M. Postdoctoral grant SFRH/BPD/72519/2010 awarded to R.R.
    Keywords: Cobalamin transport ; Genome duplications ; Gnathostomes
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bioinformatics 31 (2015): 1872-1874, doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv045.
    Description: The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users.
    Description: The Encyclopedia Of Life Rubenstein Fellows Program [CRDF EOL-33066-13/E33066], the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure [384676-94/GSRT/ NSRF(C&E)] and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research [NNF14CC0001].
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Conservation Physiology 4 (2016): cow014, doi:10.1093/conphys/cow014.
    Description: Reproduction of mysticete whales is difficult to monitor, and basic parameters, such as pregnancy rate and inter-calving interval, remain unknown for many populations. We hypothesized that baleen plates (keratinous strips that grow downward from the palate of mysticete whales) might record previous pregnancies, in the form of high-progesterone regions in the sections of baleen that grew while the whale was pregnant. To test this hypothesis, longitudinal baleen progesterone profiles from two adult female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) that died as a result of ship strike were compared with dates of known pregnancies inferred from calf sightings and post-mortem data. We sampled a full-length baleen plate from each female at 4 cm intervals from base (newest baleen) to tip (oldest baleen), each interval representing ∼60 days of baleen growth, with high-progesterone areas then sampled at 2 or 1 cm intervals. Pulverized baleen powder was assayed for progesterone using enzyme immunoassay. The date of growth of each sampling location on the baleen plate was estimated based on the distance from the base of the plate and baleen growth rates derived from annual cycles of stable isotope ratios. Baleen progesterone profiles from both whales showed dramatic elevations (two orders of magnitude higher than baseline) in areas corresponding to known pregnancies. Baleen hormone analysis shows great potential for estimation of recent reproductive history, inter-calving interval and general reproductive biology in this species and, possibly, in other mysticete whales.
    Description: This work was supported by the Eppley Foundation for Research, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Ocean Life Institute.
    Keywords: Baleen ; Cetacea ; Marine mammals ; Pregnancy ; Progesterone ; Reproduction
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-04-02
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Genome Biology and Evolution 9 (2017): 659-676, doi:10.1093/gbe/evx023.
    Description: Understanding and predicting the fate of populations in changing environments require knowledge about the mechanisms that support phenotypic plasticity and the adaptive value and evolutionary fate of genetic variation within populations. Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exhibit extensive phenotypic plasticity that supports large population sizes in highly fluctuating estuarine environments. Populations have also evolved diverse local adaptations. To yield insights into the genomic variation that supports their adaptability, we sequenced a reference genome and 48 additional whole genomes from a wild population. Evolution of genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis is accelerated along the killifish lineage, which is likely tied to adaptations for life in highly variable estuarine environments. Genome-wide standing genetic variation, including nucleotide diversity and copy number variation, is extremely high. The highest diversity genes are those associated with immune function and olfaction, whereas genes under greatest evolutionary constraint are those associated with neurological, developmental, and cytoskeletal functions. Reduced genetic variation is detected for tight junction proteins, which in killifish regulate paracellular permeability that supports their extreme physiological flexibility. Low-diversity genes engage in more regulatory interactions than high-diversity genes, consistent with the influence of pleiotropic constraint on molecular evolution. High genetic variation is crucial for continued persistence of species given the pace of contemporary environmental change. Killifish populations harbor among the highest levels of nucleotide diversity yet reported for a vertebrate species, and thus may serve as a useful model system for studying evolutionary potential in variable and changing environments.
    Description: This work was primarily supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (collaborative research grants DEB-1265282, DEB-1120512, DEB-1120013, DEB-1120263, DEB-1120333, DEB-1120398 to J.K.C., D.L.C., M.E.H., S.I.K., M.F.O., J.R.S., W.W., and A.W.). Further support was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (1R01ES021934-01 to A.W., P42ES7373 to T.H.H., P42ES007381 to M.E.H., and R01ES019324 to J.R.S.), the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (P20GM103423 and P20GM104318 to B.L.K.), and the National Science Foundation (DBI-0640462 and XSEDE-MCB100147 to D.G.).
    Keywords: Population genomics ; Genome sequence ; Comparative genomics ; Adaptation ; Genetic diversity
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 215 (2018): 1072–1087, doi:10.1093/gji/ggy203.
    Description: An earthquake rupture process can be kinematically described by rupture velocity, duration and spatial extent. These key kinematic source parameters provide important constraints on earthquake physics and rupture dynamics. In particular, core questions in earthquake science can be addressed once these properties of small earthquakes are well resolved. However, these parameters of small earthquakes are poorly understood, often limited by available data sets and methodologies. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma deployed ∼350 three-component nodal stations within 40 km2 for a month, offering an unprecedented opportunity to test new methodologies for resolving small earthquake finite source properties in high resolution. In this study, we demonstrate the power of the nodal data set to resolve the variations in the seismic wavefield over the focal sphere due to the finite source attributes of an M2 earthquake within the array. The dense coverage allows us to tightly constrain rupture area using the second moment method even for such a small earthquake. The M2 earthquake was a strike-slip event and unilaterally propagated towards the surface at 90 per cent local S-wave speed (2.93 km s−1). The earthquake lasted ∼0.019 s and ruptured Lc ∼70 m and Wc ∼45 m. With the resolved rupture area, the stress-drop of the earthquake is estimated as 7.3 MPa for Mw 2.3. We demonstrate that the maximum and minimum bounds on rupture area are within a factor of two, much lower than typical stress-drop uncertainty, despite a suboptimal station distribution. The rupture properties suggest that there is little difference between the M2 Oklahoma earthquake and typical large earthquakes. The new three-component nodal systems have great potential for improving the resolution of studies of earthquake source properties.
    Description: WF is currently supported by the Postdoctoral Scholar Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with funding provided by the Weston Howland Jr. Postdoctoral Scholarship. JM was partially supported by SCEC grant #17177 at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This research was supported by the Southern California Earthquake Center (Contribution No. 8014). SCEC is funded by NSF Cooperative Agreement EAR-1033462 and USGS Cooperative Agreement G12AC20038.
    Keywords: Inverse theory ; Waveform inversion ; Body waves ; Earthquake dynamics ; Earthquake source observations ; Seismic instruments
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 215 (2018): 713–735, doi:10.1093/gji/ggy313.
    Description: Gas flux in volcanic conduits is often associated with long-period oscillations known as seismic tremor (Lesage et al.; Nadeau et al.). In this study, we revisit and extend the ‘magma wagging’and ‘whirling’models for seismic tremor, in order to explore the effects of gas flux on the motion of a magma column surrounded by a permeable vesicular annulus (Jellinek & Bercovici; Bercovici et al.; Liao et al.). We find that gas flux flowing through the annulus leads to a Bernoulli effect, which causes waves on the magma column to become unstable and grow. Specifically, the Bernoulli effects are associated with torques and forces acting on the magma column, increasing its angular momentum and energy. As the displacement of the magma column becomes large due to the Bernoulli effect, frictional drag on the conduit wall decelerates the motions of the column, restoring them to small amplitude. Together, the Bernoulli effect and the damping effect contribute to a self-sustained wagging-and-whirling mechanism that help explain the longevity of long-period seismic tremor.
    Description: This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants EAR-1344538 and EAR-1645057
    Keywords: Physics of magma and magma bodies ; Volcano seismology ; Volcanic gases
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of The Royal Astronomical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Journal International 215 (2018): 942–958, doi:10.1093/gji/ggy316.
    Description: Surface waves recorded by global arrays have proven useful for locating tectonic earthquakes and in detecting slip events depleted in high frequency, such as glacial quakes. We develop a novel method using an aggregation of small- to continental-scale arrays to detect and locate seismic sources with Rayleigh waves at 20–50 s period. The proposed method is a hybrid approach including first dividing a large aperture aggregate array into Delaunay triangular subarrays for beamforming, and then using the resolved surface wave propagation directions and arrival times from the subarrays as data to formulate an inverse problem to locate the seismic sources and their origin times. The approach harnesses surface wave coherence and maximizes resolution of detections by combining measurements from stations spanning the whole U.S. continent. We tested the method with earthquakes, glacial quakes and landslides. The results show that the method can effectively resolve earthquakes as small as ∼M3 and exotic slip events in Greenland. We find that the resolution of the locations is non-uniform with respect to azimuth, and decays with increasing distance between the source and the array when no calibration events are available. The approach has a few advantages: the method is insensitive to seismic event type, it does not require a velocity model to locate seismic sources, and it is computationally efficient. The method can be adapted to real-time applications and can help in identifying new classes of seismic sources.
    Description: WF is currently supported by the Postdoctoral Scholar Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with funding provided by the Weston Howland Jr. Postdoctoral Scholarship. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant EAR-1358520 at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Aslan, C., Beckman, N. G., Rogers, H. S., Bronstein, J., Zurell, D., Hartig, F., Shea, K., Pejchar, L., Neubert, M., Poulsen, J., HilleRisLambers, J., Miriti, M., Loiselle, B., Effiom, E., Zambrano, J., Schupp, G., Pufal, G., Johnson, J., Bullock, J. M., Brodie, J., Bruna, E., Cantrell, R. S., Decker, R., Fricke, E., Gurski, K., Hastings, A., Kogan, O., Razafindratsima, O., Sandor, M., Schreiber, S., Snell, R., Strickland, C., & Zhou, Y. Employing plant functional groups to advance seed dispersal ecology and conservation. AoB Plants, 11(2), (2019):plz006, doi:10.1093/aobpla/plz006.
    Description: Seed dispersal enables plants to reach hospitable germination sites and escape natural enemies. Understanding when and how much seed dispersal matters to plant fitness is critical for understanding plant population and community dynamics. At the same time, the complexity of factors that determine if a seed will be successfully dispersed and subsequently develop into a reproductive plant is daunting. Quantifying all factors that may influence seed dispersal effectiveness for any potential seed-vector relationship would require an unrealistically large amount of time, materials and financial resources. On the other hand, being able to make dispersal predictions is critical for predicting whether single species and entire ecosystems will be resilient to global change. Building on current frameworks, we here posit that seed dispersal ecology should adopt plant functional groups as analytical units to reduce this complexity to manageable levels. Functional groups can be used to distinguish, for their constituent species, whether it matters (i) if seeds are dispersed, (ii) into what context they are dispersed and (iii) what vectors disperse them. To avoid overgeneralization, we propose that the utility of these functional groups may be assessed by generating predictions based on the groups and then testing those predictions against species-specific data. We suggest that data collection and analysis can then be guided by robust functional group definitions. Generalizing across similar species in this way could help us to better understand the population and community dynamics of plants and tackle the complexity of seed dispersal as well as its disruption.
    Description: Ideas for this manuscript initiated during the Seed Dispersal Workshop held in May 2016 at the Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center in Annapolis, MD and supported by the US National Science Foundation Grant DEB-1548194 to N.G.B. and the National Socio‐Environmental Synthesis Center under the US National Science Foundation Grant DBI‐1052875. D.Z. received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF, grant: PZ00P3_168136/1) and from the German Science Foundation (DFG, grant: ZU 361/1- 1). Contributions by the authors C.A. led the development of the concepts, writing, and revising of the manuscript with input from N.G.B. and H.S.R. All authors contributed to the development of concepts and are listed in order of contribution and alphabetical order within each level of contribution.
    Keywords: dependency ; directed dispersal ; dispersal vectors ; generalization ; mutualism ; seed dispersal effectiveness
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-05-20
    Description: Mandates to execute ecosystem-based management exist but are not implemented sufficiently enough to reap the benefits of a growing blue economy.
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Journal of travel medicine
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: Humans have a long history of mobility on a spectrum from voluntary migration to forced displacement in response to social, political and environmental change. While many migration drivers exist, climate change is likely to amplify the environmental drivers of migration. At least 1.5?C of warming above pre-industrial levels between 2030 and 2052 are projected if global warming continues to increase at the current rate. The associated impacts are diverse and include temperature and precipitation extremes in most inhabited regions and increased probability of drought and flood. Migration can be an important and useful adaptive response to climate impacts when it increases household resilience and reduces socio-economic vulnerabilities, and yet can also have negative health consequences. The climate?migration?health nexus entails complex interactions including the following: first, climate-related risks to health faced by migrants at all stages of the migration journey. Second, the impacts of migration itself on health with possible specific health implications of climate-related migration. This article provides a brief overview of climate-related migration, identifies climate hotspots where substantial migration and displacement are anticipated and explores the health implications of climate-related migration.
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-06-21
    Description: The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings are known as the Third Pole (TP). This region is noted for its high rates of glacier melt and the associated hydrological shifts that affect water supplies in Asia. Atmospheric pollutants contribute to climatic and cryospheric changes through their effects on solar radiation and the albedos of snow and ice surfaces; moreover, the behavior and fates within the cryosphere and environmental impacts of environmental pollutants are topics of increasing concern. In this review, we introduce a coordinated monitoring and research framework and network to link atmospheric pollution and cryospheric changes (APCC) within the TP region. We then provide an up-to-date summary of progress and achievements related to the APCC research framework, including aspects of atmospheric pollution's composition and concentration, spatial and temporal variations, trans-boundary transport pathways and mechanisms, and effects on the warming of atmosphere and changing in Indian monsoon, as well as melting of glacier and snow cover. We highlight that exogenous air pollutants can enter into the TP?s environments and cause great impacts on regional climatic and environmental changes. At last, we propose future research priorities and map out an extended program at the global scale. The ongoing monitoring activities and research facilitate comprehensive studies of atmosphere?cryosphere interactions, represent one of China's key research expeditions to the TP and the polar regions and contribute to the global perspective of earth system science.
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  FEMS Microbiology Letters, 366 (11).
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Metabolites give us a window into the chemistry of microbes and are split into two subclasses: primary and secondary. Primary metabolites are required for life whereas secondary metabolites have historically been classified as those appearing after exponential growth and are not necessarily needed for survival. Many microbial species are estimated to produce hundreds of metabolites and can be affected by differing nutrients. Using various analytical techniques, metabolites can be directly detected in order to elucidate their biological significance. Currently, a single experiment can produce anywhere from megabytes to terabytes of data. This big data has motivated scientists to develop informatics tools to help target specific metabolites or sets of metabolites. Broadly, it is imperative to identify clear biological questions before embarking on a study of metabolites (metabolomics). For instance, studying the effect of a transposon insertion on phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas is a very different from asking what molecules are present in a specific banana-derived strain of Pseudomonas. This review is meant to serve as a primer for a ‘choose your own adventure’ approach for microbiologists with limited mass spectrometry expertise, with a strong focus on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry based workflows developed or optimized within the past five years.
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  • 52
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 185 (3). pp. 555-635.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: Polynoidae contains ~900 species within 18 subfamilies, some of them restricted to the deep sea. Macellicephalinae is the most diverse among these deep-sea subfamilies. In the abyssal Equatorial Pacific Ocean, the biodiversity of benthic communities is at stake in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) owing to increased industrial interest in polymetallic nodules. The records of polychaetes in this region are scarce. Data gathered during the JPI Oceans cruise SO239 made a significant contribution to fill this gap, with five different localities sampled between 4000 and 5000 m depth. Benthic samples collected using an epibenthic sledge or a remotely operated vehicle resulted in a large collection of polynoids. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to describe new species of deep-sea polynoids using morphology and molecular data (COI, 16S and 18S); and (2) to evaluate the monophyly of Macellicephalinae. Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, ten subfamilies are synonymized with Macellicephalinae in order to create a homogeneous clade determined by the absence of lateral antennae. Within this clade, the Anantennata clade was well supported, being determined by the absence of a median antenna. Furthermore, 17 new species and four new genera are described, highlighting the high diversity hidden in the deep. A taxonomic key for the 37 valid genera of the subfamily Macellicephalinae is provided.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Alexander, H., Johnson, L. K., & Brown, C. T.. Keeping it light: (re)analyzing community-wide datasets without major infrastructure. Gigascience, 8(2),(2019): giy159, doi:10.1093/gigascience/giy159.
    Description: DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the field of biology, shifting biology from a data-limited to data-rich state. Central to the interpretation of sequencing data are the computational tools and approaches that convert raw data into biologically meaningful information. Both the tools and the generation of data are actively evolving, yet the practice of re-analysis of previously generated data with new tools is not commonplace. Re-analysis of existing data provides an affordable means of generating new information and will likely become more routine within biology, yet necessitates a new set of considerations for best practices and resource development. Here, we discuss several practices that we believe to be broadly applicable when re-analyzing data, especially when done by small research groups.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (award GBMF4551 to C.T.B.).
    Keywords: reproducibility ; data reuse ; open data
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Johnson, L. K., Alexander, H., & Brown, C. T. Re-assembly, quality evaluation, and annotation of 678 microbial eukaryotic reference transcriptomes. Gigascience, 8(4), (2019): giy158, doi: 10.1093/gigascience/giy158.
    Description: Background: De novo transcriptome assemblies are required prior to analyzing RNA sequencing data from a species without an existing reference genome or transcriptome. Despite the prevalence of transcriptomic studies, the effects of using different workflows, or “pipelines,” on the resulting assemblies are poorly understood. Here, a pipeline was programmatically automated and used to assemble and annotate raw transcriptomic short-read data collected as part of the Marine Microbial Eukaryotic Transcriptome Sequencing Project. The resulting transcriptome assemblies were evaluated and compared against assemblies that were previously generated with a different pipeline developed by the National Center for Genome Research. Results: New transcriptome assemblies contained the majority of previous contigs as well as new content. On average, 7.8% of the annotated contigs in the new assemblies were novel gene names not found in the previous assemblies. Taxonomic trends were observed in the assembly metrics. Assemblies from the Dinoflagellata showed a higher number of contigs and unique k-mers than transcriptomes from other phyla, while assemblies from Ciliophora had a lower percentage of open reading frames compared to other phyla. Conclusions: Given current bioinformatics approaches, there is no single “best” reference transcriptome for a particular set of raw data. As the optimum transcriptome is a moving target, improving (or not) with new tools and approaches, automated and programmable pipelines are invaluable for managing the computationally intensive tasks required for re-processing large sets of samples with revised pipelines and ensuring a common evaluation workflow is applied to all samples. Thus, re-assembling existing data with new tools using automated and programmable pipelines may yield more accurate identification of taxon-specific trends across samples in addition to novel and useful products for the community.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under award number GBMF4551 to C.T.B. Jetstream cloud platform was used with XSEDE allocation TG-BIO160028 [66, 67].
    Keywords: marine microbial eukaryote ; transcriptome assembly ; automated pipeline ; re-analysis
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-10-01
    Description: Repeated and independent emergence of trait divergence that matches habitat differences is a sign of parallel evolution by natural selection. Yet, the molecular underpinnings that are targeted by adaptive evolution often remain elusive. We investigate this question by combining genome-wide analyses of copy number variants (CNVs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and gene expression across four pairs of lake and river populations of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We tested whether CNVs that span entire genes and SNPs occurring in putative cis-regulatory regions contribute to gene expression differences between sticklebacks from lake and river origins. We found 135 gene CNVs that showed a significant positive association between gene copy number and gene expression, suggesting that CNVs result in dosage effects that can fuel phenotypic variation and serve as substrates for habitat-specific selection. Copy number differentiation between lake and river sticklebacks also contributed to expression differences of two immune-related genes in immune tissues, cathepsin A and GIMAP7. In addition, we identified SNPs in cis-regulatory regions (eSNPs) associated with the expression of 1,865 genes, including one eSNP upstream of a carboxypeptidase gene where both the SNP alleles differentiated and the gene was differentially expressed between lake and river populations. Our study highlights two types of mutations as important sources of genetic variation involved in the evolution of gene expression and in potentially facilitating repeated adaptation to novel environments.
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  • 56
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33 (9). pp. 2376-2390.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-10
    Description: While we know much about the evolutionary patterns of endosymbiotic organelle origins, we know less about how the actual process unfolded within each system. This is partly due to the massive changes endosymbiosis appears to trigger, and partly because most organelles evolved in the distant past. The dinotoms are dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts, and they represent a relatively recent but nevertheless obligate endosymbiotic association. We have carried out deep sequencing of both the host and endosymbiont transcriptomes from two dinotoms, Durinskia baltica and Glenodinium foliaceum, to examine how the nucleocytosolic compartments have functionally integrated. This analysis showed little or no functional reduction in either the endosymbiont or host, and no evidence for genetic integration. Rather, host and endosymbiont seem to be bound to each other via metabolites, such as photosynthate exported from the endosymbiont to the host as indicated by the presence of plastidic phosphate translocators in the host transcriptome. The host is able to synthesize starch, using plant-specific starch synthases, as a way to store imported photosynthate.
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  • 57
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    Oxford University Press
    In:  Geophysical Journal International, 219 (3). pp. 1876-1884.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: Standard seismic acquisition and processing require appropriate source-receiver offsets. P-cable technology represents the opposite, namely, very short source-receiver offsets at the price of increased spatial and lateral resolution with a high-frequency source. To use this advantage, a processing flow excluding offset information is required. This aim can be achieved with a processing tuned to diffractions because point diffractions scatter the same information in offset and midpoint direction. Usually, diffractions are small amplitude events and a careful diffraction separation is required as a first step. We suggest the strategy to use a multiparameter stacking operator, e.g, common-reflection surface, and stack along the midpoint direction. The obtained kinematic wavefront attributes are used to calculate time-migration velocities. A diffractivity map serves as filter to refine the velocities. This strategy is applied to a 3D P-cable data set to obtain a time-migrated image.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-11-19
    Description: Cichlid fishes provide textbook examples of explosive phenotypic diversification and sympatric speciation, thereby making them ideal systems for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying rapid lineage divergence. Despite the fact that gene regulation provides a critical link between diversification in gene function and speciation, many genomic regulatory mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) have received little attention in these rapidly diversifying groups. Therefore, we investigated the posttranscriptional regulatory role of miRNAs in the repeated sympatric divergence of Midas cichlids (Amphilophus spp.) from Nicaraguan crater lakes. Using miRNA and mRNA sequencing of embryos from five Midas species, we first identified miRNA binding sites in mRNAs and highlighted the presences of a surprising number of novel miRNAs in these adaptively radiating species. Then, through analyses of expression levels, we identified putative miRNA/gene target pairs with negatively correlated expression level that were consistent with the role of miRNA in downregulating mRNA. Furthermore, we determined that several miRNA/gene pairs show convergent expression patterns associated with the repeated benthic/limnetic sympatric species divergence implicating these miRNAs as potential molecular mechanisms underlying replicated sympatric divergence. Finally, as these candidate miRNA/gene pairs may play a central role in phenotypic diversification in these cichlids, we characterized the expression domains of selected miRNAs and their target genes via in situ hybridization, providing further evidence that miRNA regulation likely plays a role in the Midas cichlid adaptive radiation. These results provide support for the hypothesis that extremely quickly evolving miRNA regulation can contribute to rapid evolutionary divergence even in the presence of gene flow.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Shocks around clusters of galaxies accelerate electrons which upscatter the cosmic microwave background photons to higher energies. We use an analytical model to calculate this inverse-Compton (IC) emission, taking into account the effects of additional energy losses via synchrotron and Coulomb scattering. We find that the surface brightness of the optical IC emission increases with redshift and halo mass. The IC emission surface brightness, 32–34 mag arcsec –2 , for massive clusters is potentially detectable by the newly developed Dragonfly Telephoto Array.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: We consider the effects induced by the presence of hot- and coldspots on the source star in the light curves of simulated microlensing events due to either single or binary lenses taking into account the rotation of the source star and the orbital motion of the lens system. Our goal is to study the anomalies induced by these effects on simulated microlensing light curves.
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    Topics: Physics
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: We present wide-field observations of the NGC 2264 molecular cloud in the dust continuum at 850 and 450 μm using SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Using 12 CO 3 -〉 2 molecular line data, we determine that emission from CO contaminates the 850 μm emission at levels ~30 per cent in localized regions associated with high-velocity molecular outflows. Much higher contamination levels of 60 per cent are seen in shocked regions near the massive star S Mon. If not removed, the levels of CO contamination would contribute an extra 13 per cent to the dust mass in NGC 2264. We use the fellwalker routine to decompose the dust into clumpy structures, and a Hessian-based routine to decompose the dust into filamentary structures. The filaments can be described as a hub-filament structure, with lower column density filaments radiating from the NGC 2264 C protocluster hub. Above mean filament column densities of 2.4 x 10 22  cm –2 , star formation proceeds with the formation of two or more protostars. Below these column densities, filaments are starless, or contain only a single protostar.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Progressive deformation of upper mantle rocks via dislocation creep causes their constituent crystals to take on a non-random orientation distribution (crystallographic preferred orientation or CPO) whose observable signatures include shear-wave splitting and azimuthal dependence of surface wave speeds. Comparison of these signatures with mantle flow models thus allows mantle dynamics to be unraveled on global and regional scales. However, existing self-consistent models of CPO evolution are computationally expensive when used with 3-D and/or time-dependent convection models. Here we propose a new method, called ANPAR, which is based on an analytical parametrization of the crystallographic spin predicted by the second-order (SO) self-consistent theory. Our parametrization runs 2–6  x  10 4 times faster than the SO model and fits its predictions for CPO and crystallographic spin with a variance reduction 〉99 per cent. We illustrate the ANPAR model predictions for the deformation of olivine with three dominant slip systems, (010)[100], (001)[100] and (010)[001], for three uniform deformations (uniaxial compression, pure shear and simple shear) and for a corner-flow model of a spreading mid-ocean ridge.
    Keywords: Mineral Physics, Rheology, Heat Flow and Volcanology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Surface waves contain fundamental mode and higher modes, which could interfere with each other. If different modes are not properly separated, the inverted Earth structures using surface waves could be biased. In this study, we apply linear radon transform (LRT) to synthetic seismograms and real seismograms from the USArray to demonstrate the effectiveness of LRT in separating fundamental-mode Love waves from higher modes. Analysis on synthetic seismograms shows that two-station measurements on reconstructed data obtained after mode separation can completely retrieve the fundamental-mode Love-wave phase velocities. Results on USArray data show that higher mode contamination effects reach up to ~10 per cent for two-station measurements of Love waves, while two-station measurements on mode-separated data obtained by LRT are very close to the predicted values from a global dispersion model of GDM52, demonstrating that the contamination of overtones on fundamental-mode Love-wave phase velocity measurements is effectively mitigated by the LRT method and accurate fundamental-mode Love-wave phase velocities can be measured.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: The space–time Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is extended by incorporating the depth component of earthquake hypocentres. The depths of the direct offspring produced by an earthquake are assumed to be independent of the epicentre locations and to follow a beta distribution, whose shape parameter is determined by the depth of the parent event. This new model is verified by applying it to the Southern California earthquake catalogue. The results show that the new model fits data better than the original epicentre ETAS model and that it provides the potential for modelling and forecasting seismicity with higher resolutions.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: We show a case study of full-waveform inversion (FWI) applied to a regional 240-km long seismic profile (called POLCRUST-01) located in southeast Poland. The experiment is unique because it portrays different tectonic deformation styles over a relatively short distance. It was designed for deep reflection imaging, but we decided to use FWI to provide a high-resolution P -wave velocity model of the shallow (down to 3 km) subsurface. The acquisition parameters, namely the use of 10-Hz geophones and Vibroseis sweeps starting at 6 Hz, made it necessary to design a non-standard data preconditioning workflow for enhancing low frequencies including match filtering and curvelet denoising. Final model was validated using multiple procedures, such as comparison with borehole data and independently processed Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration. Although in some deeper areas of the model we identified artefacts that are most likely a result of cycle skip, the velocity profiles from our model match the borehole check-shot data and the velocity anomalies coincide very well with the reflectivity in the migrated data. The resolution of the model allows us to delineate the internal structure of the Carpathian thrust system and presumably small natural gas reservoirs in the Miocene sediments of the Carpathian Foredeep.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Was the Yukon-Tanana Terrane (YTT), a California-sized part of south-central Yukon, an autochthonous or para-autochthonous part of northern British Columbia in the Early Cretaceous or was it part of a proposed allochthonous ‘Baja B.C.’ continent offshore of southern California? To answer this fundamental question, a paleomagnetic study has been completed on 347 specimens from 24 sites in the 114.7 ± 1.1 Ma Quiet Lake batholith. This 1300 km 2 pluton is composed mostly of massive medium-to-coarse grained biotite quartz monzonite that exhibits no evidence of either deformation or metamorphism, and that intrudes metamorphosed pre-Cretaceous basement rocks of the YTT in southern Yukon. The paleomagnetic analysis utilized thermal and alternating field step demagnetization, and saturation isothermal remanence methods. A well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction was isolated throughout the 500–585 °C temperature range at Decl. = 340.6°, Incl. = 77.4° ( N = 14 sites, k = 51.2, A 95 = 5.6°). The ChRM resides in magnetite with a low titanium content and is interpreted to be a primary thermoremanent magnetization. After correction for 490 km of geologically demonstrable dextral displacement on the inboard Tintina fault zone, the Quiet Lake batholith's paleopole is not significantly different at 95 per cent confidence from the co-eval 115 Ma reference paleopole for North America, giving non-significant translation and rotation estimates of 1.4° ± 5.1° (1) northwestwards and 10° ± 13° (1) clockwise, respectively. Thus, this is the first Early Cretaceous paleopole to show clearly that the YTT in Yukon is a para-autochthon that was part of North America's continental margin at that time. Further, after correction for Tintina fault displacement, the eight available Mesozoic YTT paleopoles agree closely with the North American apparent polar wander path (APWP). In contrast, the 22 paleopoles from the Intermontane Belt show the expected behaviour of an allochthonous thin-skin of terranes (i.e. ‘Baja B.C.’ behaviour) and record ~8° of northward translation and ~50° of clockwise rotation relative to both the YTT and North American APWPs during the Mesozoic and Paleogene.
    Keywords: Geomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Palaeomagnetism
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: The Gaussian wavelet is widely used as a shaping wavelet for scattered wave imaging with P receiver functions due to widespread use of the iterative deconvolution method. We show the Gaussian wavelet degrades the resolution of plane wave migration by comparing results from the latest USArray data shaped with Gaussian and Ricker wavelets. We use simulations of primary conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuity to show this is a property of the algorithm and not the data. Simulations also show the more conventional common conversion point (CCP) method is not subject to this behaviour for flat horizons, but the CCP method penalizes dipping horizons focusing only nearly horizontal features for any choice of shaping wavelet. We explain these results using the concept of migration impulse response for an individual data sample. Applications to data from USArray show dramatic improvements in the resolution of plane wave migration images produced using Ricker wavelet in comparison to a comparable resolution a Gaussian shaping wavelet. The 410 and 660 discontinuities are resolved to higher precision, and we find the upper mantle and transition zone are full of previously unresolved dipping horizons that remain to be interpreted.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Several large earthquakes in the Hellenic subduction zone have been documented in historical records from around the eastern Mediterranean, but the relative seismic quiescence of the region over the period of instrumental observation means that the exact locations of these earthquakes and their tectonic significance are not known. We present AMS radiocarbon dates from uplifted late Holocene palæoshorelines from the island of Rhodes, showing that uplift is most consistent with a single large ( M W  ≥ 7.7) reverse-faulting earthquake between about 2000 BC and 200 BC. Analysis of the uplift treating the earthquake as a dislocation in an elastic half-space shows a predominantly reverse-faulting event with a slip vector oblique to the direction of convergence between Rhodes and Nubia. We suggest that the fault responsible for the uplift dips at an angle of 30–60° above the more gently dipping oblique subduction interface. The highly oblique convergence across the eastern Hellenic plate boundary zone appears to be partitioned into reverse slip on faults that strike parallel to the boundary and strike-parallel or oblique slip on the subduction interface. Hydrodynamical simulation of tsunami propagation from a range of tectonically plausible sources suggests that earthquakes on the fault uplifting Rhodes represent a significant tsunami hazard for Rhodes and SW Turkey, and also possibly for Cyprus and the Nile Delta.
    Keywords: Geodynamics and Tectonics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: Elastic network models (ENMs) are valuable and efficient tools for characterizing the collective internal dynamics of proteins based on the knowledge of their native structures. The increasing evidence that the biological functionality of RNAs is often linked to their innate internal motions poses the question of whether ENM approaches can be successfully extended to this class of biomolecules. This issue is tackled here by considering various families of elastic networks of increasing complexity applied to a representative set of RNAs. The fluctuations predicted by the alternative ENMs are stringently validated by comparison against extensive molecular dynamics simulations and SHAPE experiments. We find that simulations and experimental data are systematically best reproduced by either an all-atom or a three-beads-per-nucleotide representation (sugar-base-phosphate), with the latter arguably providing the best balance of accuracy and computational complexity.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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