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  • 1
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hofkens, Johan -- Roeffaers, Maarten B J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):36-7. doi: 10.1038/530036a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven University, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium. ; Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, KU Leuven University, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Spatial symmetries in crystals may be distinguished by whether they preserve the spatial origin. Here we study spatial symmetries that translate the origin by a fraction of the lattice period, and find that these non-symmorphic symmetries protect an exotic surface fermion whose dispersion relation is shaped like an hourglass; surface bands connect one hourglass to the next in an unbreakable zigzag pattern. These 'hourglass' fermions are formed in the large-gap insulators, KHgX (X = As, Sb, Bi), which we propose as the first material class whose band topology relies on non-symmorphic symmetries. Besides the hourglass fermion, another surface of KHgX manifests a three-dimensional generalization of the quantum spin Hall effect, which has previously been observed only in two-dimensional crystals. To describe the bulk topology of non-symmorphic crystals, we propose a non-Abelian generalization of the geometric theory of polarization. Our non-trivial topology originates from an inversion of the rotational quantum numbers, which we propose as a criterion in the search for topological materials.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Zhijun -- Alexandradinata, A -- Cava, R J -- Bernevig, B Andrei -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):189-94. doi: 10.1038/nature17410.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075096" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nota, Antonella -- Charbonnel, Corinne -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):473-4. doi: 10.1038/529473a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA. ; Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland, and at the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 19;533(7604):445-6. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19948.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225093" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):20-1. doi: 10.1038/533020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147014" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Zoo/physiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources/economics/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Fertilization in Vitro/economics/*veterinary ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Kenya ; Male ; Ovum/*cytology ; *Perissodactyla/physiology ; Reproduction/physiology ; Spermatozoa/*cytology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ward, Alyssa -- Baldwin, Thomas O -- Antin, Parker B -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ; University of California, Riverside, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; *Learning ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic/genetics ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Research/*standards ; United States
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hood, Bruce -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):438-40. doi: 10.1038/531438a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Bristol, UK, and founder of Speakezee.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008953" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Child, Preschool ; *Consumer Behavior ; Efficiency, Organizational/trends ; Humans ; Object Attachment ; Ownership ; Recycling/*economics/*trends ; Self Concept ; Social Class
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mullard, Asher -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):367-9. doi: 10.1038/530367a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887498" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Artifacts ; Cells/chemistry/cytology/metabolism ; DNA Probes/*analysis/chemistry/genetics ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods ; Drug Industry/*methods ; High-Throughput Screening Assays ; Internationality ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Protein Binding ; Small Molecule Libraries/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Solubility ; Time Factors
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: (beta-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) beta-arrestin proteins (beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (beta-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of beta-arrestin with GPCRs, and the beta-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based beta-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in beta-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-beta-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and beta-arrestins. They further indicate that beta-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of beta-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nuber, Susanne -- Zabel, Ulrike -- Lorenz, Kristina -- Nuber, Andreas -- Milligan, Graeme -- Tobin, Andrew B -- Lohse, Martin J -- Hoffmann, Carsten -- 1 R01 DA038882/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- BB/K019864/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17198. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Biosensing Techniques ; Cattle ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Substrate Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hornyak, Tim -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S114-7. doi: 10.1038/531S114a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982021" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Japan ; *Nobel Prize ; Science/economics/*standards/statistics & numerical data ; Universities/economics/*standards/statistics & numerical data
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watson, Traci -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7602):155. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Egypt ; Female ; *Flowers ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Infrared Rays ; *Mummies/history ; Religion/history ; *Symbolism ; Tattooing/*history
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):159-60. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19714.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Financing, Organized/economics/*legislation & jurisprudence/*organization & ; administration ; Great Britain ; Laboratories/*economics ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*economics ; United States
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: Although the oxidation of water is efficiently catalysed by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (refs 1 and 2), it remains one of the main bottlenecks when aiming for synthetic chemical fuel production powered by sunlight or electricity. Consequently, the development of active and stable water oxidation catalysts is crucial, with heterogeneous systems considered more suitable for practical use and their homogeneous counterparts more suitable for targeted, molecular-level design guided by mechanistic understanding. Research into the mechanism of water oxidation has resulted in a range of synthetic molecular catalysts, yet there remains much interest in systems that use abundant, inexpensive and environmentally benign metals such as iron (the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust and found in natural and synthetic oxidation catalysts). Water oxidation catalysts based on mononuclear iron complexes have been explored, but they often deactivate rapidly and exhibit relatively low activities. Here we report a pentanuclear iron complex that efficiently and robustly catalyses water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1,900 per second, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of other iron-based catalysts. Electrochemical analysis confirms the redox flexibility of the system, characterized by six different oxidation states between Fe(II)5 and Fe(III)5; the Fe(III)5 state is active for oxidizing water. Quantum chemistry calculations indicate that the presence of adjacent active sites facilitates O-O bond formation with a reaction barrier of less than ten kilocalories per mole. Although the need for a high overpotential and the inability to operate in water-rich solutions limit the practicality of the present system, our findings clearly indicate that efficient water oxidation catalysts based on iron complexes can be created by ensuring that the system has redox flexibility and contains adjacent water-activation sites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okamura, Masaya -- Kondo, Mio -- Kuga, Reiko -- Kurashige, Yuki -- Yanai, Takeshi -- Hayami, Shinya -- Praneeth, Vijayendran K K -- Yoshida, Masaki -- Yoneda, Ko -- Kawata, Satoshi -- Masaoka, Shigeyuki -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):465-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16529. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Higashiyama 5-1, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan. ; SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan. ; Research Center of Integrative Molecular Systems, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigo-naka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan. ; Advanced Catalytic Transformation Program for Carbon Utilization (ACT-C), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigo-naka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan. ; Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan. ; Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo-machi 1, Saga, 840-8502, Japan. ; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku 8-19-1, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 +/- 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 +/- 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 +/- 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 +/- 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hosten, Onur -- Engelsen, Nils J -- Krishnakumar, Rajiv -- Kasevich, Mark A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):505-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16176. Epub 2016 Jan 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751056" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 15
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Wendy -- Thomas, Benjamin -- Flynn, Ryan A -- Gavzy, Samuel J -- Wu, Lin -- Kim, Sangwon V -- Hall, Jason A -- Miraldi, Emily R -- Ng, Charles P -- Rigo, Frank -- Meadows, Sarah -- Montoya, Nina R -- Herrera, Natalia G -- Domingos, Ana I -- Rastinejad, Fraydoon -- Myers, Richard M -- Fuller-Pace, Frances V -- Bonneau, Richard -- Chang, Howard Y -- Acuto, Oreste -- Littman, Dan R -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):130. doi: 10.1038/nature16968. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789242" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Colonic epithelial cells are covered by thick inner and outer mucus layers. The inner mucus layer is free of commensal microbiota, which contributes to the maintenance of gut homeostasis. In the small intestine, molecules critical for prevention of bacterial invasion into epithelia such as Paneth-cell-derived anti-microbial peptides and regenerating islet-derived 3 (RegIII) family proteins have been identified. Although there are mucus layers providing physical barriers against the large number of microbiota present in the large intestine, the mechanisms that separate bacteria and colonic epithelia are not fully elucidated. Here we show that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. In the absence of Lypd8, bacteria were present in the inner mucus layer and many flagellated bacteria invaded epithelia. Lypd8(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to intestinal inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Antibiotic elimination of Gram-negative flagellated bacteria restored the bacterial-free state of the inner mucus layer and ameliorated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Lypd8(-/-) mice. Lypd8 bound to flagella and suppressed motility of flagellated bacteria. Thus, Lypd8 mediates segregation of intestinal bacteria and epithelial cells in the colon to preserve intestinal homeostasis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okumura, Ryu -- Kurakawa, Takashi -- Nakano, Takashi -- Kayama, Hisako -- Kinoshita, Makoto -- Motooka, Daisuke -- Gotoh, Kazuyoshi -- Kimura, Taishi -- Kamiyama, Naganori -- Kusu, Takashi -- Ueda, Yoshiyasu -- Wu, Hong -- Iijima, Hideki -- Barman, Soumik -- Osawa, Hideki -- Matsuno, Hiroshi -- Nishimura, Junichi -- Ohba, Yusuke -- Nakamura, Shota -- Iida, Tetsuya -- Yamamoto, Masahiro -- Umemoto, Eiji -- Sano, Koichi -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):117-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17406. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ; Department of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Cell Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Department of Bacterial Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027293" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Caco-2 Cells ; Cell Line ; Colitis/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Colon/*microbiology ; Dextran Sulfate ; Epithelium/*microbiology ; Female ; *Flagella ; GPI-Linked Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism/*microbiology/secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Proteus mirabilis/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- Powell, Kendall -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):265. doi: 10.1038/530265a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887471" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Science Disciplines ; Computational Biology ; Computers ; Open Access Publishing/trends ; Peer Review, Research ; Periodicals as Topic ; Publishing/*trends ; *Research Personnel ; Software ; Time Factors
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Yu-Hwa -- Zhu, Chen -- Kondo, Yasuyuki -- Anderson, Ana C -- Gandhi, Amit -- Russell, Andrew -- Dougan, Stephanie K -- Petersen, Britt-Sabina -- Melum, Espen -- Pertel, Thomas -- Clayton, Kiera L -- Raab, Monika -- Chen, Qiang -- Beauchemin, Nicole -- Yazaki, Paul J -- Pyzik, Michal -- Ostrowski, Mario A -- Glickman, Jonathan N -- Rudd, Christopher E -- Ploegh, Hidde L -- Franke, Andre -- Petsko, Gregory A -- Kuchroo, Vijay K -- Blumberg, Richard S -- Nature. 2016 Mar 16. doi: 10.1038/nature17421.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982724" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumour cells depends on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I molecules, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumour development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies either to downregulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. So far, neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. Here we show that the 12 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two nucleotide-binding domains separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and prevents nucleotide-binding domain closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the endoplasmic reticulum, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Oldham, Michael L -- Hite, Richard K -- Steffen, Alanna M -- Damko, Ermelinda -- Li, Zongli -- Walz, Thomas -- Chen, Jue -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):537-40. doi: 10.1038/nature16506. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 4000 Jones Bridge Road, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antigens, Viral/immunology/metabolism ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Herpesvirus 1, Human/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Immediate-Early Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; *Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes) or is a clade inside Deuterostomia. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long-branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cannon, Johanna Taylor -- Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli -- Smith, Julian 3rd -- Ronquist, Fredrik -- Jondelius, Ulf -- Hejnol, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):89-93. doi: 10.1038/nature16520.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, PO Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormohlensgate 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway. ; Department of Biology, Winthrop University, 701 Oakland Avenue, Rock Hill, South Carolina 29733, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842059" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Structures/anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification/genetics ; Bayes Theorem ; Genes ; Likelihood Functions ; Male ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Transcriptome
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wells, Michael F -- Wimmer, Ralf D -- Schmitt, L Ian -- Feng, Guoping -- Halassa, Michael M -- F31 MH098641/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS078115/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107680/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH10768/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):58-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17427. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Attention ; Attention Deficit Disorder with ; Hyperactivity/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Behavior, Animal ; Disease Models, Animal ; Electric Conductivity ; Female ; GABAergic Neurons/metabolism/pathology ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Learning Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Neural Inhibition ; Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/metabolism ; Sleep ; Sleep Deprivation/genetics/physiopathology ; Thalamic Nuclei/pathology/*physiopathology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hudry, Bruno -- Khadayate, Sanjay -- Miguel-Aliaga, Irene -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):344-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16953.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Dosage Compensation, Genetic ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*anatomy & histology/*cytology/genetics/growth & ; development ; Female ; Intestines/*cytology ; Male ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; *Organ Size ; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Reproduction ; Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism ; *Sex Characteristics ; Sex Differentiation/genetics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce. Here we show, using high-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area (in Germany), that the light xenon isotopes identify a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon. This is consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatiles in the Earth's mantle, and indicates that the volatiles in the atmosphere and mantle originated from distinct cosmochemical sources. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the origin of Eifel magmatism being a deep mantle plume. The corresponding mantle source has been isolated from the convective mantle since about 4.45 billion years ago, in agreement with models that predict the early isolation of mantle domains. Xenon isotope systematics support a clear distinction between mid-ocean-ridge and continental or oceanic plume sources, with chemical heterogeneities dating back to the Earth's accretion. The deep reservoir now sampled by the Eifel gas had a lower volatile/refractory (iodine/plutonium) composition than the shallower mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge volcanism, highlighting the increasing contribution of volatile-rich material during the first tens of millions of years of terrestrial accretion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Caracausi, Antonio -- Avice, Guillaume -- Burnard, Peter G -- Furi, Evelyn -- Marty, Bernard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):82-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17434. Epub 2016 Apr 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, 90146 Palermo, Italy. ; Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, UMR 7358, Universite de Lorraine, CNRS, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huete, Alfredo -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):181-2. doi: 10.1038/nature17301. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886792" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Acclimatization ; *Climate Change ; *Ecosystem ; *Geographic Mapping ; *Plant Physiological Phenomena
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Earth's global magnetic field arises from vigorous convection within the liquid outer core. Palaeomagnetic evidence reveals that the geodynamo has operated for at least 3.4 billion years, which places constraints on Earth's formation and evolution. Available power sources in standard models include compositional convection (driven by the solidifying inner core's expulsion of light elements), thermal convection (from slow cooling), and perhaps heat from the decay of radioactive isotopes. However, recent first-principles calculations and diamond-anvil cell experiments indicate that the thermal conductivity of iron is two or three times larger than typically assumed in these models. This presents a problem: a large increase in the conductive heat flux along the adiabat (due to the higher conductivity of iron) implies that the inner core is young (less than one billion years old), but thermal convection and radiogenic heating alone may not have been able to sustain the geodynamo during earlier epochs. Here we show that the precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals from the core could have served as an alternative power source. Equilibration at high temperatures in the aftermath of giant impacts allows a small amount of magnesium (one or two weight per cent) to partition into the core while still producing the observed abundances of siderophile elements in the mantle and avoiding an excess of silicon and oxygen in the core. The transport of magnesium as oxide or silicate from the cooling core to underneath the mantle is an order of magnitude more efficient per unit mass as a source of buoyancy than inner-core growth. We therefore conclude that Earth's dynamo would survive throughout geologic time (from at least 3.4 billion years ago to the present) even if core radiogenic heating were minimal and core cooling were slow.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Rourke, Joseph G -- Stevenson, David J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):387-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16495.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26791727" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ott, Martin -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7604):472-3. doi: 10.1038/nature18436.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Biomembrane Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225113" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852309/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852309/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huth, Alexander G -- de Heer, Wendy A -- Griffiths, Thomas L -- Theunissen, Frederic E -- Gallant, Jack L -- EY019684/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY019684/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):453-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17637.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121839" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Auditory Perception ; *Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Narration ; Principal Component Analysis ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Semantics ; *Speech
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Padma, T V -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):16-7. doi: 10.1038/531016a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935674" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/economics ; Biotechnology/economics/trends ; *Budgets ; Drug Industry/economics ; *Federal Government ; Genomics/*economics/trends ; Humans ; India ; Precision Medicine/economics ; Research Support as Topic/economics ; Technology Transfer
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  • 30
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ilyina, Tatiana -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):426-7. doi: 10.1038/530426a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911779" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: Endothelial cells (ECs) are plastic cells that can switch between growth states with different bioenergetic and biosynthetic requirements. Although quiescent in most healthy tissues, ECs divide and migrate rapidly upon proangiogenic stimulation. Adjusting endothelial metabolism to the growth state is central to normal vessel growth and function, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report that the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO1 is an essential regulator of vascular growth that couples metabolic and proliferative activities in ECs. Endothelial-restricted deletion of FOXO1 in mice induces a profound increase in EC proliferation that interferes with coordinated sprouting, thereby causing hyperplasia and vessel enlargement. Conversely, forced expression of FOXO1 restricts vascular expansion and leads to vessel thinning and hypobranching. We find that FOXO1 acts as a gatekeeper of endothelial quiescence, which decelerates metabolic activity by reducing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, FOXO1 suppresses signalling by MYC (also known as c-MYC), a powerful driver of anabolic metabolism and growth. MYC ablation impairs glycolysis, mitochondrial function and proliferation of ECs while its EC-specific overexpression fuels these processes. Moreover, restoration of MYC signalling in FOXO1-overexpressing endothelium normalizes metabolic activity and branching behaviour. Our findings identify FOXO1 as a critical rheostat of vascular expansion and define the FOXO1-MYC transcriptional network as a novel metabolic checkpoint during endothelial growth and proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Kerstin -- Happel, Katharina -- Eelen, Guy -- Schoors, Sandra -- Oellerich, Mark F -- Lim, Radiance -- Zimmermann, Barbara -- Aspalter, Irene M -- Franco, Claudio A -- Boettger, Thomas -- Braun, Thomas -- Fruttiger, Marcus -- Rajewsky, Klaus -- Keller, Charles -- Bruning, Jens C -- Gerhardt, Holger -- Carmeliet, Peter -- Potente, Michael -- K08CA090438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):216-20. doi: 10.1038/nature16498. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Angiogenesis &Metabolism Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Vascular Biology Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Vascular Morphogenesis Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon 1649-028, Portugal. ; Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), D-13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Children's Cancer Therapy Development Institute, Beaverton, Oregon 97005, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD) and Center of Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Vesalius Research Center, VIB and University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, D-13347 Berlin, Germany. ; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), D-10117 Berlin, Germany. ; International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Frankfurt Rhine-Main, D-13347 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Respiration ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Inman, Mason -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):22-4. doi: 10.1038/531022a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935678" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 33
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pain, Stephanie -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S50-1. doi: 10.1038/531S50a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Air Pollution/history ; Animals ; Architecture as Topic/history ; Cholera/history ; Cities/history ; Conservation of Natural Resources/history ; Disease Outbreaks/history ; Droughts/history ; Heat Stroke/history ; History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; History, Ancient ; History, Medieval ; Housing/history ; Humans ; Noise ; Ozone/history/radiation effects ; Plague/history ; Quarantine/history ; Railroads/history ; Rivers ; Sanitary Engineering/history ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history ; Urban Health/*history ; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data ; Urbanization/history ; Vehicle Emissions ; Water Supply/history
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  • 34
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Williamson, Phil -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):153-5. doi: 10.1038/530153a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863967" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/methods ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; Biofuels/supply & distribution ; Carbon Dioxide/*isolation & purification ; Charcoal ; Congresses as Topic ; Ecology/*methods ; Ecosystem ; Efficiency ; Environmental Policy/economics ; Feasibility Studies ; Global Warming/*legislation & jurisprudence/*prevention & control ; Goals ; Paris ; Plants/*metabolism ; Policy Making ; *Safety ; Temperature ; *Uncertainty
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  • 35
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willyard, Cassandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S43-5. doi: 10.1038/533S43a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*economics/*organization & administration ; Developing Countries/economics ; Drug Discovery/*economics/organization & administration ; Drug Industry/economics ; Foundations/economics/organization & administration ; Fund Raising/*economics/*organization & administration ; Global Health/economics ; Humans ; Investments/*economics/*organization & administration ; Vaccines/economics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane signalling proteins that trigger intracellular responses upon binding of extracellular ligands. Despite recent breakthroughs in GPCR crystallography, the details of ligand-induced signal transduction are not well understood owing to missing dynamical information. In principle, such information can be provided by NMR, but so far only limited data of functional relevance on few side-chain sites of eukaryotic GPCRs have been obtained. Here we show that receptor motions can be followed at virtually any backbone site in a thermostabilized mutant of the turkey beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1AR). Labelling with [(15)N]valine in a eukaryotic expression system provides over twenty resolved resonances that report on structure and dynamics in six ligand complexes and the apo form. The response to the various ligands is heterogeneous in the vicinity of the binding pocket, but gets transformed into a homogeneous readout at the intracellular side of helix 5 (TM5), which correlates linearly with ligand efficacy for the G protein pathway. The effect of several pertinent, thermostabilizing point mutations was assessed by reverting them to the native sequence. Whereas the response to ligands remains largely unchanged, binding of the G protein mimetic nanobody NB80 and G protein activation are only observed when two conserved tyrosines (Y227 and Y343) are restored. Binding of NB80 leads to very strong spectral changes throughout the receptor, including the extracellular ligand entrance pocket. This indicates that even the fully thermostabilized receptor undergoes activating motions in TM5, but that the fully active state is only reached in presence of Y227 and Y343 by stabilization with a G protein-like partner. The combined analysis of chemical shift changes from the point mutations and ligand responses identifies crucial connections in the allosteric activation pathway, and presents a general experimental method to delineate signal transmission networks at high resolution in GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Isogai, Shin -- Deupi, Xavier -- Opitz, Christian -- Heydenreich, Franziska M -- Tsai, Ching-Ju -- Brueckner, Florian -- Schertler, Gebhard F X -- Veprintsev, Dmitry B -- Grzesiek, Stephan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):237-41. doi: 10.1038/nature16577. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. ; Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840483" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/chemistry/pharmacology ; Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology ; Allosteric Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Animals ; Apoproteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Binding Sites/drug effects ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Partial Agonism ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; *Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects/genetics ; Turkeys
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Itkin, Tomer -- Gur-Cohen, Shiri -- Spencer, Joel A -- Schajnovitz, Amir -- Ramasamy, Saravana K -- Kusumbe, Anjali P -- Ledergor, Guy -- Jung, Yookyung -- Milo, Idan -- Poulos, Michael G -- Kalinkovich, Alexander -- Ludin, Aya -- Kollet, Orit -- Shakhar, Guy -- Butler, Jason M -- Rafii, Shahin -- Adams, Ralf H -- Scadden, David T -- Lin, Charles P -- Lapidot, Tsvee -- EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):323-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17624. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Regenerative Medicine and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis and Faculty of Medicine, University of Munster, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Internal Medicine Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv 64239, Israel. ; Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074509" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Ly/metabolism ; Arteries/cytology/physiology ; Blood Vessels/*cytology/*physiology ; Bone Marrow/*blood supply ; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Cell Self Renewal ; Cell Survival ; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism ; Endothelial Cells/physiology ; Female ; *Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology ; Leukocytes/cytology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nestin/metabolism ; Pericytes/physiology ; Permeability ; Plasma/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) resulting in nonspecific insertions, deletions or other mutations (indels). DSBs may also be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using a DNA repair template, such as an introduced single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotide (ssODN), allowing knock-in of specific mutations. Although CRISPR/Cas9 is used extensively to engineer gene knockouts through NHEJ, editing by HDR remains inefficient and can be corrupted by additional indels, preventing its widespread use for modelling genetic disorders through introducing disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, targeted mutational knock-in at single alleles to model diseases caused by heterozygous mutations has not been reported. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing framework that allows selective introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes with high efficiency and accuracy. We show that HDR accuracy is increased dramatically by incorporating silent CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations along with pathogenic mutations, and establish a method termed 'CORRECT' for scarless genome editing. By characterizing and exploiting a stereotyped inverse relationship between a mutation's incorporation rate and its distance to the DSB, we achieve predictable control of zygosity. Homozygous introduction requires a guide RNA targeting close to the intended mutation, whereas heterozygous introduction can be accomplished by distance-dependent suboptimal mutation incorporation or by use of mixed repair templates. Using this approach, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP(Swe)) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1(M146V)) and derived cortical neurons, which displayed genotype-dependent disease-associated phenotypes. Our findings enable efficient introduction of specific sequence changes with CRISPR/Cas9, facilitating study of human disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paquet, Dominik -- Kwart, Dylan -- Chen, Antonia -- Sproul, Andrew -- Jacob, Samson -- Teo, Shaun -- Olsen, Kimberly Moore -- Gregg, Andrew -- Noggle, Scott -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- 8 UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):125-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17664. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, The Rockefeller University and Sloan-Kettering Institute Tri-institutional MD-PhD Program, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Age of Onset ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/genetics ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics/secretion ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Cleavage ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; *Heterozygote ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Presenilins/genetics ; RNA, Guide/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Substrate Specificity ; Templates, Genetic
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z approximately 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Izotov, Y I -- Orlitova, I -- Schaerer, D -- Thuan, T X -- Verhamme, A -- Guseva, N G -- Worseck, G -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):178-80. doi: 10.1038/nature16456.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Main Astronomical Observatory, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotnoho street, Kyiv 03680, Ukraine. ; Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Boc ni II 1401, 141 00 Prague, Czech Republic. ; Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland. ; CNRS, IRAP, 14 Avenue East Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France. ; Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Caskey, Marina -- Klein, Florian -- Lorenzi, Julio C C -- Seaman, Michael S -- West, Anthony P -- Buckley, Noreen -- Kremer, Gisela -- Nogueira, Lilian -- Braunschweig, Malte -- Scheid, Johannes F -- Horwitz, Joshua A -- Shimeliovich, Irina -- Ben-Avraham, Sivan -- Witmer-Pack, Maggi -- Platten, Martin -- Lehmann, Clara -- Burke, Leah A -- Hawthorne, Thomas -- Gorelick, Robert J -- Walker, Bruce D -- Keler, Tibor -- Gulick, Roy M -- Fatkenheuer, Gerd -- Schlesinger, Sarah J -- Nussenzweig, Michel C -- Nature. 2016 Mar 23. doi: 10.1038/nature17642.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007847" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jackman, Skyler L -- Turecek, Josef -- Belinsky, Justine E -- Regehr, Wade G -- NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS072030/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature16507.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/metabolism/secretion ; Neurotransmitter Agents/*secretion ; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism ; Synapses/*metabolism/secretion ; *Synaptic Transmission ; Synaptotagmins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Castelvecchi, Davide -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):140-1. doi: 10.1038/530140a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863960" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Witze, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):12. doi: 10.1038/529012a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738576" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antarctic Regions ; Atmosphere/*chemistry ; *Climate Change ; Research/*trends ; Time Factors ; Volatilization ; Water/*analysis/chemistry ; Weather
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4876924/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4876924/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jacobsson, Daniel -- Panciera, Federico -- Tersoff, Jerry -- Reuter, Mark C -- Lehmann, Sebastian -- Hofmann, Stephan -- Dick, Kimberly A -- Ross, Frances M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):317-22. doi: 10.1038/nature17148.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. ; Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. ; Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, UK. ; IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983538" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Witze, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):263. doi: 10.1038/530263a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Volcanic eruptions transfer huge amounts of gas to the atmosphere. In particular, the sulfur released during large silicic explosive eruptions can induce global cooling. A fundamental goal in volcanology, therefore, is to assess the potential for eruption of the large volumes of crystal-poor, silicic magma that are stored at shallow depths in the crust, and to obtain theoretical bounds for the amount of volatiles that can be released during these eruptions. It is puzzling that highly evolved, crystal-poor silicic magmas are more likely to generate volcanic rocks than plutonic rocks. This observation suggests that such magmas are more prone to erupting than are their crystal-rich counterparts. Moreover, well studied examples of largely crystal-poor eruptions (for example, Katmai, Taupo and Minoan) often exhibit a release of sulfur that is 10 to 20 times higher than the amount of sulfur estimated to be stored in the melt. Here we argue that these two observations rest on how the magmatic volatile phase (MVP) behaves as it rises buoyantly in zoned magma reservoirs. By investigating the fluid dynamics that controls the transport of the MVP in crystal-rich and crystal-poor magmas, we show how the interplay between capillary stresses and the viscosity contrast between the MVP and the host melt results in a counterintuitive dynamics, whereby the MVP tends to migrate efficiently in crystal-rich parts of a magma reservoir and accumulate in crystal-poor regions. The accumulation of low-density bubbles of MVP in crystal-poor magmas has implications for the eruptive potential of such magmas, and is the likely source of the excess sulfur released during explosive eruptions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parmigiani, A -- Faroughi, S -- Huber, C -- Bachmann, O -- Su, Y -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):492-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17401. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland. ; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia 30332, USA. ; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia 30332, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ji, Alexander P -- Frebel, Anna -- Chiti, Anirudh -- Simon, Joshua D -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):610-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17425. Epub 2016 Mar 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics &Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, Minnesota 48824, USA. ; Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, California 91101, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001693" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 48
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Witze, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):138-9. doi: 10.1038/530138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863959" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Financing, Organized/*organization & administration ; Professional Misconduct/legislation & jurisprudence ; *Punishment ; Research Personnel/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Support as Topic/*organization & administration ; Sexual Harassment/*legislation & jurisprudence
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