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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: As the last habitable continent colonized by humans, the site of multiple domestication hotspots, and the location of the largest Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, South America is central to human prehistory. Yet remarkably little is known about human population dynamics during colonization, subsequent expansions, and domestication. Here we reconstruct the spatiotemporal patterns of human population growth in South America using a newly aggregated database of 1,147 archaeological sites and 5,464 calibrated radiocarbon dates spanning fourteen thousand to two thousand years ago (ka). We demonstrate that, rather than a steady exponential expansion, the demographic history of South Americans is characterized by two distinct phases. First, humans spread rapidly throughout the continent, but remained at low population sizes for 8,000 years, including a 4,000-year period of 'boom-and-bust' oscillations with no net growth. Supplementation of hunting with domesticated crops and animals had a minimal impact on population carrying capacity. Only with widespread sedentism, beginning ~5 ka, did a second demographic phase begin, with evidence for exponential population growth in cultural hotspots, characteristic of the Neolithic transition worldwide. The unique extent of humanity's ability to modify its environment to markedly increase carrying capacity in South America is therefore an unexpectedly recent phenomenon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldberg, Amy -- Mychajliw, Alexis M -- Hadly, Elizabeth A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):232-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17176. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Woods Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049941" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Archaeology ; Climate ; Geographic Mapping ; History, Ancient ; Human Migration/*history ; Humans ; Population Dynamics/*history ; Radiometric Dating ; Siberia/ethnology ; South America
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tollefson, Jeff -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 25;533(7604):446-7. doi: 10.1038/533446a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225094" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Borchelt, Rick -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):419. doi: 10.1038/530419e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911773" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tracy, Cameron L -- Dustin, Megan K -- Ewing, Rodney C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):149-51. doi: 10.1038/529149a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Frank Stanton professor in nuclear security at the Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; New Mexico ; Plutonium/adverse effects ; *Policy Making ; Radioactive Hazard Release/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data ; *Radioactive Waste/adverse effects ; Risk Assessment ; *Safety/statistics & numerical data
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miller, M Coleman -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):40-2. doi: 10.1038/nature17306. Epub 2016 Feb 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2421, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The energetic burden of continuously concentrating solutes against gradients along the tubule may render the kidney especially vulnerable to ischaemia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3% of all hospitalized patients. Here we show that the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, PGC1alpha, is a pivotal determinant of renal recovery from injury by regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Following renal ischaemia, Pgc1alpha(-/-) (also known as Ppargc1a(-/-)) mice develop local deficiency of the NAD precursor niacinamide (NAM, also known as nicotinamide), marked fat accumulation, and failure to re-establish normal function. Notably, exogenous NAM improves local NAD levels, fat accumulation, and renal function in post-ischaemic Pgc1alpha(-/-) mice. Inducible tubular transgenic mice (iNephPGC1alpha) recapitulate the effects of NAM supplementation, including more local NAD and less fat accumulation with better renal function after ischaemia. PGC1alpha coordinately upregulates the enzymes that synthesize NAD de novo from amino acids whereas PGC1alpha deficiency or AKI attenuates the de novo pathway. NAM enhances NAD via the enzyme NAMPT and augments production of the fat breakdown product beta-hydroxybutyrate, leading to increased production of prostaglandin PGE2 (ref. 5), a secreted autacoid that maintains renal function. NAM treatment reverses established ischaemic AKI and also prevented AKI in an unrelated toxic model. Inhibition of beta-hydroxybutyrate signalling or prostaglandin production similarly abolishes PGC1alpha-dependent renoprotection. Given the importance of mitochondrial health in ageing and the function of metabolically active organs, the results implicate NAM and NAD as key effectors for achieving PGC1alpha-dependent stress resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tran, Mei T -- Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna K -- Berg, Anders H -- Khankin, Eliyahu V -- Bhasin, Manoj K -- Kim, Wondong -- Clish, Clary B -- Stillman, Isaac E -- Karumanchi, S Ananth -- Rhee, Eugene P -- Parikh, Samir M -- K08-DK090142/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08-DK101560/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30-DK079337/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):528-32. doi: 10.1038/nature17184. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Clinical Chemistry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Core, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Nephrology and Endocrine Divisions, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982719" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism ; Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy/*metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Dinoprostone/biosynthesis/metabolism ; Humans ; Ischemia/drug therapy/metabolism ; Kidney/drug effects/*metabolism/physiology/physiopathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/*biosynthesis ; Niacinamide/deficiency/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stress, Physiological ; Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gross, Kevin -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):293-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16867. Epub 2016 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biomathematics Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760204" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bongaarts, John -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):409-12. doi: 10.1038/530409a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Population Council, New York City, New York, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911766" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grayson, Michelle -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S1. doi: 10.1038/531S1a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934517" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Asthma/drug therapy ; Cognition/*physiology ; Cognition Disorders/prevention & control/therapy ; Humans ; Interpersonal Relations ; Meta-Analysis as Topic ; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mills, Sean M -- Fabrycky, Daniel C -- Migaszewski, Cezary -- Ford, Eric B -- Petigura, Erik -- Isaacson, Howard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7604):509-12. doi: 10.1038/nature17445.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Institute of Physics and CASA*, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin, Poland. ; Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun, Poland. ; Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Center for Astrostatistics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225123" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: The orientation of cell division along the long axis of the interphase cell--the century-old Hertwig's rule--has profound roles in tissue proliferation, morphogenesis, architecture and mechanics. In epithelial tissues, the shape of the interphase cell is influenced by cell adhesion, mechanical stress, neighbour topology, and planar polarity pathways. At mitosis, epithelial cells usually adopt a rounded shape to ensure faithful chromosome segregation and to promote morphogenesis. The mechanisms underlying interphase cell shape sensing in tissues are therefore unknown. Here we show that in Drosophila epithelia, tricellular junctions (TCJs) localize force generators, pulling on astral microtubules and orienting cell division via the Dynein-associated protein Mud independently of the classical Pins/Galphai pathway. Moreover, as cells round up during mitosis, TCJs serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape anisotropy to orient division in the rounded mitotic cell. Finally, experimental and simulation data show that shape and mechanical strain sensing by the TCJs emerge from a general geometric property of TCJ distributions in epithelial tissues. Thus, in addition to their function as epithelial barrier structures, TCJs serve as polarity cues promoting geometry and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bosveld, Floris -- Markova, Olga -- Guirao, Boris -- Martin, Charlotte -- Wang, Zhimin -- Pierre, Anaelle -- Balakireva, Maria -- Gaugue, Isabelle -- Ainslie, Anna -- Christophorou, Nicolas -- Lubensky, David K -- Minc, Nicolas -- Bellaiche, Yohanns -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):495-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16970. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Polarity, Division and Morphogenesis Team, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France. ; Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS UMR7592 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France. ; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886796" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Turner, Marian -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):167. doi: 10.1038/530167a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bosveld, Floris -- Markova, Olga -- Guirao, Boris -- Martin, Charlotte -- Wang, Zhimin -- Pierre, Anaelle -- Balakireva, Maria -- Gaugue, Isabelle -- Ainslie, Anna -- Christophorou, Nicolas -- Lubensky, David K -- Minc, Nicolas -- Bellaiche, Yohanns -- Nature. 2016 Mar 16. doi: 10.1038/nature17622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982720" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: The ability to measure tiny variations in the local gravitational acceleration allows, besides other applications, the detection of hidden hydrocarbon reserves, magma build-up before volcanic eruptions, and subterranean tunnels. Several technologies are available that achieve the sensitivities required for such applications (tens of microgal per hertz(1/2)): free-fall gravimeters, spring-based gravimeters, superconducting gravimeters, and atom interferometers. All of these devices can observe the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the Earth's crust as a result of tidal forces. This is a universally predictable gravitational signal that requires both high sensitivity and high stability over timescales of several days to measure. All present gravimeters, however, have limitations of high cost (more than 100,000 US dollars) and high mass (more than 8 kilograms). Here we present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device with a sensitivity of 40 microgal per hertz(1/2) only a few cubic centimetres in size. We use it to measure the Earth tides, revealing the long-term stability of our instrument compared to any other MEMS device. MEMS accelerometers--found in most smart phones--can be mass-produced remarkably cheaply, but none are stable enough to be called a gravimeter. Our device has thus made the transition from accelerometer to gravimeter. The small size and low cost of this MEMS gravimeter suggests many applications in gravity mapping. For example, it could be mounted on a drone instead of low-flying aircraft for distributed land surveying and exploration, deployed to monitor volcanoes, or built into multi-pixel density-contrast imaging arrays.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Middlemiss, R P -- Samarelli, A -- Paul, D J -- Hough, J -- Rowan, S -- Hammond, G D -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):614-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17397.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; University of Glasgow, School of Engineering, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Minderer, Matthias -- Harvey, Christopher D -- Donato, Flavio -- Moser, Edvard I -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7603):324-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17899.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193673" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 16
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Urnov, Fyodor -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):468-9. doi: 10.1038/529468a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sangamo BioSciences, Richmond, California 94804, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Associated Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*physiology ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/*genetics ; Endonucleases/*metabolism ; *Genetic Engineering ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boulton, Geoffrey -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):281. doi: 10.1038/530281c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉ICSU CODATA; and University of Edinburgh, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Datasets as Topic ; Information Dissemination/*legislation & jurisprudence ; International Cooperation/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Knowledge ; Open Access Publishing/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Research/legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolkan, Scott -- Gordon, Joshua A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):45-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17311. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Female ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics ; Thalamic Nuclei/*physiopathology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Chao-Yang -- Zhang, Guangsheng -- Ge, Shanhai -- Xu, Terrence -- Ji, Yan -- Yang, Xiao-Guang -- Leng, Yongjun -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):515-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16502. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering and Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; EC Power, 341 Science Park Road, State College, Pennsylvania 16803, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):270-3. doi: 10.1038/529270a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26791702" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation after the feedback algorithm voids the protection, even if the rest of the dynamics is unchanged.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hirose, Masashi -- Cappellaro, Paola -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):77-80. doi: 10.1038/nature17404.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Delin -- Garcia, Heriberto -- Huang, Wei -- Tran, Duong D -- Jain, Ankita D -- Yi, Dong Hoon -- Gong, Zheng -- Jech, J Michael -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):366-70. doi: 10.1038/nature16960. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Ocean Acoustics and Ecosystem Sensing, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Laboratory for Undersea Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustics ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; Atlantic Ocean ; Diet/veterinary ; Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Mammals/*physiology ; *Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; *Vocalization, Animal ; Whales/physiology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):138-9. doi: 10.1038/529138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Cats ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data/veterinary ; Dogs ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*veterinary/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Livestock/virology ; Pets/virology ; Rodentia/virology ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/virology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heuckeroth, Robert O -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):44-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16877. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*pathology
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nishida, Yuya -- Arakawa, Satoko -- Fujitani, Kenji -- Yamaguchi, Hirofumi -- Mizuta, Takeshi -- Kanaseki, Toku -- Komatsu, Masaaki -- Otsu, Kinya -- Tsujimoto, Yoshihide -- Shimizu, Shigeomi -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):130. doi: 10.1038/nature16538. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nogrady, Bianca -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):394. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19419.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911759" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-05-03
    Description: We analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, another with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nik-Zainal, Serena -- Davies, Helen -- Staaf, Johan -- Ramakrishna, Manasa -- Glodzik, Dominik -- Zou, Xueqing -- Martincorena, Inigo -- Alexandrov, Ludmil B -- Martin, Sancha -- Wedge, David C -- Van Loo, Peter -- Ju, Young Seok -- Smid, Marcel -- Brinkman, Arie B -- Morganella, Sandro -- Aure, Miriam R -- Lingjaerde, Ole Christian -- Langerod, Anita -- Ringner, Markus -- Ahn, Sung-Min -- Boyault, Sandrine -- Brock, Jane E -- Broeks, Annegien -- Butler, Adam -- Desmedt, Christine -- Dirix, Luc -- Dronov, Serge -- Fatima, Aquila -- Foekens, John A -- Gerstung, Moritz -- Hooijer, Gerrit K J -- Jang, Se Jin -- Jones, David R -- Kim, Hyung-Yong -- King, Tari A -- Krishnamurthy, Savitri -- Lee, Hee Jin -- Lee, Jeong-Yeon -- Li, Yilong -- McLaren, Stuart -- Menzies, Andrew -- Mustonen, Ville -- O'Meara, Sarah -- Pauporte, Iris -- Pivot, Xavier -- Purdie, Colin A -- Raine, Keiran -- Ramakrishnan, Kamna -- Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F German -- Romieu, Gilles -- Sieuwerts, Anieta M -- Simpson, Peter T -- Shepherd, Rebecca -- Stebbings, Lucy -- Stefansson, Olafur A -- Teague, Jon -- Tommasi, Stefania -- Treilleux, Isabelle -- Van den Eynden, Gert G -- Vermeulen, Peter -- Vincent-Salomon, Anne -- Yates, Lucy -- Caldas, Carlos -- Veer, Laura Van't -- Tutt, Andrew -- Knappskog, Stian -- Tan, Benita Kiat Tee -- Jonkers, Jos -- Borg, Ake -- Ueno, Naoto T -- Sotiriou, Christos -- Viari, Alain -- Futreal, P Andrew -- Campbell, Peter J -- Span, Paul N -- Van Laere, Steven -- Lakhani, Sunil R -- Eyfjord, Jorunn E -- Thompson, Alastair M -- Birney, Ewan -- Stunnenberg, Hendrik G -- van de Vijver, Marc J -- Martens, John W M -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Kong, Gu -- Thomas, Gilles -- Stratton, Michael R -- Nature. 2016 May 2. doi: 10.1038/nature17676.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; East Anglian Medical Genetics Service, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 9NB, UK. ; Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund SE-223 81, Sweden. ; Theoretical Biology and Biophysics (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, New Mexico, USA. ; Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute and Cancer Genomics Netherlands, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015CN, The Netherlands. ; Radboud University, Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, 6525GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo 0310, Norway. ; K. G. Jebsen Centre for Breast Cancer Research, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo 0310, Norway. ; Department of Computer Science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. ; Gachon Institute of Genome Medicine and Science, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea. ; Translational Research Lab, Centre Leon Berard, 28, rue Laennec, 69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France. ; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut Jules Bordet, Bd de Waterloo 121, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. ; Translational Cancer Research Unit, Center for Oncological Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, Ulsan University, Ulsan, South Korea. ; Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Institute for Bioengineering and Biopharmaceutical Research (IBBR), Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea. ; Institut National du Cancer, Research Division, Clinical Research Department, 52 avenue Morizet, 92513 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. ; University Hospital of Minjoz, INSERM UMR 1098, Bd Fleming, Besancon 25000, France. ; Pathology Department, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; Oncologie Senologie, ICM Institut Regional du Cancer, Montpellier, France. ; The University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; Cancer Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; IRCCS Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. ; Department of Pathology, Centre Leon Berard, 28 rue Laennec, 69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France. ; Department of Pathology, GZA Hospitals Sint-Augustinus, Antwerp, Belgium. ; Institut Curie, Paris Sciences Lettres University, Department of Pathology and INSERM U934, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France. ; Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; Breast Cancer Now Research Unit, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. ; Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK. ; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway. ; Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway. ; National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, 169610, Singapore. ; Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, 169608, Singapore. ; Equipe Erable, INRIA Grenoble-Rhone-Alpes, 655, Avenue de l'Europe, 38330 Montbonnot-Saint Martin, France. ; Synergie Lyon Cancer, Centre Leon Berard, 28 rue Laennec, Lyon Cedex 08, France. ; Department of Genomic Medicine, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77230, USA. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, The Netherlands. ; Pathology Queensland, The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler Street, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135926" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mock, Douglas W -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):180-1. doi: 10.1038/nature17317. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027289" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 29
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Urban, Pawel -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):313.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Access to Information ; Chemistry/economics/*instrumentation ; *Creativity ; Electronics/economics/instrumentation ; *Equipment Design/economics ; Internet ; *Laboratories/economics ; Printing, Three-Dimensional/economics/instrumentation ; *Research Personnel
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  • 30
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bourzac, Katherine -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S6-8. doi: 10.1038/531S6a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934525" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Biomedical Enhancement/*methods ; Brain/*physiology ; Female ; Humans ; Intelligence Tests ; Male ; Memory/physiology ; Patient Safety ; Reproducibility of Results ; Self Care/adverse effects ; *Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/adverse effects ; *Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation ; Uncertainty
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibney, Elizabeth -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):20. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19452.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935681" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCoy, Victoria E -- Saupe, Erin E -- Lamsdell, James C -- Tarhan, Lidya G -- McMahon, Sean -- Lidgard, Scott -- Mayer, Paul -- Whalen, Christopher D -- Soriano, Carmen -- Finney, Lydia -- Vogt, Stefan -- Clark, Elizabeth G -- Anderson, Ross P -- Petermann, Holger -- Locatelli, Emma R -- Briggs, Derek E G -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):496-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16992. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024, USA. ; Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA. ; X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA. ; Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Fins/anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Extinction, Biological ; Eye/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology ; Illinois ; Lampreys/classification ; Notochord/anatomy & histology ; *Phylogeny ; Tooth/anatomy & histology ; Vertebrates/anatomy & histology/*classification
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 +/- 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 +/- 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tian, Hanqin -- Lu, Chaoqun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Michalak, Anna M -- Canadell, Josep G -- Saikawa, Eri -- Huntzinger, Deborah N -- Gurney, Kevin R -- Sitch, Stephen -- Zhang, Bowen -- Yang, Jia -- Bousquet, Philippe -- Bruhwiler, Lori -- Chen, Guangsheng -- Dlugokencky, Edward -- Friedlingstein, Pierre -- Melillo, Jerry -- Pan, Shufen -- Poulter, Benjamin -- Prinn, Ronald -- Saunois, Marielle -- Schwalm, Christopher R -- Wofsy, Steven C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):225-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16946.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Iowa 50011, USA. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France. ; Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Research, GPO Box 3023, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia. ; Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA. ; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK. ; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA. ; Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA. ; College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK. ; The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Ecosystems and Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA. ; Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts 02540, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961656" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/statistics & numerical data ; Asia ; Atmosphere/*chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/*metabolism ; *Ecosystem ; Global Warming/prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data ; Greenhouse Effect/prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data ; Human Activities/statistics & numerical data ; Methane/analysis/*metabolism ; Nitrous Oxide/analysis/*metabolism
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  • 34
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, Natasha -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S56-7. doi: 10.1038/531S56a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Affect ; Health Behavior ; Humans ; Mental Health/*statistics & numerical data ; *Nature ; Parks, Recreational/*statistics & numerical data ; Urban Population
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):160-1. doi: 10.1038/nature16866. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelium, Vascular/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nosengo, Nicola -- Ceder, Gerbrand -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):22-5. doi: 10.1038/533022a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):18. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Developmental Biology/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods ; Embryo Research/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology/metabolism ; Genetic Engineering/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 38
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S53. doi: 10.1038/533S53a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167389" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Azepines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Industry ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Neglected Diseases ; *Open Access Publishing ; Triazoles ; Tropical Medicine
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Spatial symmetries in crystals may be distinguished by whether they preserve the spatial origin. Here we study spatial symmetries that translate the origin by a fraction of the lattice period, and find that these non-symmorphic symmetries protect an exotic surface fermion whose dispersion relation is shaped like an hourglass; surface bands connect one hourglass to the next in an unbreakable zigzag pattern. These 'hourglass' fermions are formed in the large-gap insulators, KHgX (X = As, Sb, Bi), which we propose as the first material class whose band topology relies on non-symmorphic symmetries. Besides the hourglass fermion, another surface of KHgX manifests a three-dimensional generalization of the quantum spin Hall effect, which has previously been observed only in two-dimensional crystals. To describe the bulk topology of non-symmorphic crystals, we propose a non-Abelian generalization of the geometric theory of polarization. Our non-trivial topology originates from an inversion of the rotational quantum numbers, which we propose as a criterion in the search for topological materials.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Zhijun -- Alexandradinata, A -- Cava, R J -- Bernevig, B Andrei -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):189-94. doi: 10.1038/nature17410.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075096" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 19;533(7604):445-6. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19948.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225093" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-02-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hofkens, Johan -- Roeffaers, Maarten B J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):36-7. doi: 10.1038/530036a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven University, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium. ; Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, KU Leuven University, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-04-19
    Description: In the classic Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, the overall degree of unsaturation (or oxidation state) of the 4pi (diene) and 2pi (dienophile) pairs of reactants dictates the oxidation state of the newly formed six-membered carbocycle. For example, in the classic Diels-Alder reaction, butadiene and ethylene combine to produce cyclohexene. More recent developments include variants in which the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactant pair and in the resulting product is reduced by, for example, four in the tetradehydro-Diels-Alder (TDDA) and by six in the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reactions. Any oxidation state higher than tetradehydro (that is, lacking more than four hydrogens) leads to the production of a reactive intermediate that is more highly oxidized than benzene. This increases the power of the overall process substantially, because trapping of the reactive intermediate can be used to increase the structural complexity of the final product in a controllable and versatile manner. Here we report an unprecedented overall 4pi + 2pi cycloaddition reaction that generates a different, highly reactive intermediate known as an alpha,3-dehydrotoluene. This species is in the same oxidation state as a benzyne. Like benzynes, alpha,3-dehydrotoluenes can be captured by various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products that are complementary to those arising from the HDDA process. We call this new cycloisomerization process a pentadehydro-Diels-Alder (PDDA) reaction-a nomenclature chosen for chemical taxonomic reasons rather than mechanistic ones. In addition to alkynes, nitriles (RC identical withN), although non-participants in aza-HDDA reactions, readily function as the 2pi component in PDDA cyclizations to produce, via trapping of the alpha,3-(5-aza)dehydrotoluene intermediates, pyridine-containing products.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877333/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877333/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Teng -- Naredla, Rajasekhar Reddy -- Thompson, Severin K -- Hoye, Thomas R -- CA76497/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM65597/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA076497/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM065597/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 OD011952/OD/NIH HHS/ -- S10OD011952/OD/NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):484-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17429. Epub 2016 Apr 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street, SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088605" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Benzene/chemistry ; Cyclization ; *Cycloaddition Reaction ; Diynes/chemistry ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Hydrogenation ; Isomerism ; Nitriles/chemistry ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Pyridines/chemistry ; Terminology as Topic ; Toluene/*analogs & derivatives/chemical synthesis/chemistry
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wapner, Jessica -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S13-5. doi: 10.1038/533S13a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144603" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Industry/*economics ; Inventions/*economics ; Licensure/economics/legislation & jurisprudence ; Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence ; Science/*economics ; *Technology Transfer ; United States ; Universities/*economics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nota, Antonella -- Charbonnel, Corinne -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):473-4. doi: 10.1038/529473a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA. ; Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland, and at the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hollon, Nick G -- Phillips, Paul E M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):588-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17314. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry &Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Decision Making ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/*cytology/*metabolism ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism ; *Risk Management
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):20-1. doi: 10.1038/533020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147014" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Zoo/physiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources/economics/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Fertilization in Vitro/economics/*veterinary ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Kenya ; Male ; Ovum/*cytology ; *Perissodactyla/physiology ; Reproduction/physiology ; Spermatozoa/*cytology
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  • 47
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holmes, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S54-5. doi: 10.1038/533S54a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Access to Information ; Biological Science Disciplines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Discovery ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nowogrodzki, Anna -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):561. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19599.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029258" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Specimen Banks/*economics/trends ; Climate Change ; Financing, Government/*economics/trends ; Financing, Organized/economics ; Museums ; Research Support as Topic/*economics/trends ; Time Factors ; United States ; United States Government Agencies/economics/trends
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  • 49
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bhattacharya, Shaoni -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):452-5. doi: 10.1038/529452a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819027" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Cooking ; Crime/legislation & jurisprudence/*prevention & control/*statistics & numerical ; data ; Cyprus ; Extinction, Biological ; Population Density ; *Songbirds/physiology
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tollefson, Jeff -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):450-1. doi: 10.1038/529450a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819026" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon Dioxide/*analysis ; Carbon Footprint/economics/*legislation & jurisprudence/*statistics & numerical ; data ; *Congresses as Topic ; Developed Countries/economics ; *Developing Countries/economics ; Fires/statistics & numerical data ; Global Warming/economics/*legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & ; control/*statistics & numerical data ; Greenhouse Effect/economics/legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & ; control/statistics & numerical data ; Indonesia ; Paris
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cherp, Aleh -- Jewell, Jessica -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):36. doi: 10.1038/533036b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Central European University, Budapest, Hungary. ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Fukushima Nuclear Accident ; Humans ; Research/*trends
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: Humans are distinguished from the other living apes in having larger brains and an unusual life history that combines high reproductive output with slow childhood growth and exceptional longevity. This suite of derived traits suggests major changes in energy expenditure and allocation in the human lineage, but direct measures of human and ape metabolism are needed to compare evolved energy strategies among hominoids. Here we used doubly labelled water measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal day(-1)) in humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans to test the hypothesis that the human lineage has experienced an acceleration in metabolic rate, providing energy for larger brains and faster reproduction without sacrificing maintenance and longevity. In multivariate regressions including body size and physical activity, human TEE exceeded that of chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas and orangutans by approximately 400, 635 and 820 kcal day(-1), respectively, readily accommodating the cost of humans' greater brain size and reproductive output. Much of the increase in TEE is attributable to humans' greater basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)), indicating increased organ metabolic activity. Humans also had the greatest body fat percentage. An increased metabolic rate, along with changes in energy allocation, was crucial in the evolution of human brain size and life history.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pontzer, Herman -- Brown, Mary H -- Raichlen, David A -- Dunsworth, Holly -- Hare, Brian -- Walker, Kara -- Luke, Amy -- Dugas, Lara R -- Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon -- Schoeller, Dale -- Plange-Rhule, Jacob -- Bovet, Pascal -- Forrester, Terrence E -- Lambert, Estelle V -- Thompson, Melissa Emery -- Shumaker, Robert W -- Ross, Stephen R -- R01 DK080763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK080763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 4;533(7603):390-2. doi: 10.1038/nature17654.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, Hunter College. 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; New York Consortium for Evolutionary Primatology, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA. ; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, 1099 E South Campus Drive, Tucson, Arizona 85716, USA. ; Department of Sociology &Anthropology, University of Rhode Island, 45 Upper College Rd, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, USA. ; Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA. ; Nutritional Sciences, Biotechnology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 425 Henry Mall, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA. ; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. ; Institute of Social &Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Rue de la Corniche 10, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Ministry of Health, PO Box 52, Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles. ; UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, The University of the West Indies, 25 West Road, UWI Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica. ; Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa. ; Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA. ; Indianapolis Zoo, 1200 W Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46222, USA. ; Department of Anthropology and Center for Integrated Study of Animal Behavior, Indiana University, 701 E Kirkwood Avenue, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. ; Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144364" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 53
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chi, Kelly Rae -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):423-5. doi: 10.1038/529423a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26791729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-05-03
    Description: For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873380/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873380/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yttri, Eric A -- Dudman, Joshua T -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 2;533(7603):402-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17639.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yu, Byron M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):449-50. doi: 10.1038/nature17886. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074510" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Mapping ; Executive Function/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; Motor Cortex/*cytology/*physiology ; Movement/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Integration of the reverse-transcribed viral DNA into the host genome is an essential step in the life cycle of retroviruses. Retrovirus integrase catalyses insertions of both ends of the linear viral DNA into a host chromosome. Integrase from HIV-1 and closely related retroviruses share the three-domain organization, consisting of a catalytic core domain flanked by amino- and carboxy-terminal domains essential for the concerted integration reaction. Although structures of the tetrameric integrase-DNA complexes have been reported for integrase from prototype foamy virus featuring an additional DNA-binding domain and longer interdomain linkers, the architecture of a canonical three-domain integrase bound to DNA remained elusive. Here we report a crystal structure of the three-domain integrase from Rous sarcoma virus in complex with viral and target DNAs. The structure shows an octameric assembly of integrase, in which a pair of integrase dimers engage viral DNA ends for catalysis while another pair of non-catalytic integrase dimers bridge between the two viral DNA molecules and help capture target DNA. The individual domains of the eight integrase molecules play varying roles to hold the complex together, making an extensive network of protein-DNA and protein-protein contacts that show both conserved and distinct features compared with those observed for prototype foamy virus integrase. Our work highlights the diversity of retrovirus intasome assembly and provides insights into the mechanisms of integration by HIV-1 and related retroviruses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yin, Zhiqi -- Shi, Ke -- Banerjee, Surajit -- Pandey, Krishan K -- Bera, Sibes -- Grandgenett, Duane P -- Aihara, Hideki -- AI087098/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI100682/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM109770/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):362-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16950.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Northeastern Collaborative Access Team, Cornell University, Advanced Photon Source, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Virology, St. Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887497" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA, Viral/*chemistry/metabolism ; HIV-1/enzymology/metabolism ; Integrases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Rous sarcoma virus/*chemistry/*enzymology/genetics/metabolism ; Spumavirus/enzymology ; Virus Integration
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