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  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (4,429)
  • Krefeld : Geologischer Dienst Nordhein-Westfalen
  • Irkutsk : Ross. Akad. Nauk, Sibirskoe Otd., Inst. Zemnoj Kory
  • 2005-2009  (4,431)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-01-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340503/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340503/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kelly, Bernard T -- McCoy, Airlie J -- Spate, Kira -- Miller, Sharon E -- Evans, Philip R -- Honing, Stefan -- Owen, David J -- 090909/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_U105178845/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Dec 18;456(7224):976-79. doi: 10.1038/nature07422.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19140243" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Protein Complex 2/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Antigens, CD4/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Conserved Sequence ; *Endocytosis ; Humans ; Leucine/*metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Rats
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-09-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brumfiel, Geoff -- England -- Nature. 2009 Sep 3;461(7260):19. doi: 10.1038/461019a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19727173" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere/chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/*isolation & purification ; Conservation of Energy Resources/trends ; Ecosystem ; Fossil Fuels ; Great Britain ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Research/economics/standards ; *Research Design ; Societies, Scientific
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-07-31
    Description: Acid-sensing ion channels are proton-activated, sodium-selective channels composed of three subunits, and are members of the superfamily of epithelial sodium channels, mechanosensitive and FMRF-amide peptide-gated ion channels. These ubiquitous eukaryotic ion channels have essential roles in biological activities as diverse as sodium homeostasis, taste and pain. Despite their crucial roles in biology and their unusual trimeric subunit stoichiometry, there is little knowledge of the structural and chemical principles underlying their ion channel architecture and ion-binding sites. Here we present the structure of a functional acid-sensing ion channel in a desensitized state at 3 A resolution, the location and composition of the approximately 8 A 'thick' desensitization gate, and the trigonal antiprism coordination of caesium ions bound in the extracellular vestibule. Comparison of the acid-sensing ion channel structure with the ATP-gated P2X(4) receptor reveals similarity in pore architecture and aqueous vestibules, suggesting that there are unanticipated yet common structural and mechanistic principles.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845979/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845979/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gonzales, Eric B -- Kawate, Toshimitsu -- Gouaux, Eric -- F32 GM083615/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM083615-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 30;460(7255):599-604. doi: 10.1038/nature08218.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19641589" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acid Sensing Ion Channels ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; CHO Cells ; Cell Line ; Cesium/metabolism ; Chickens/*physiology ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; Crystallization ; Humans ; Ions/metabolism ; *Models, Molecular ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*chemistry ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Purinergic P2/*chemistry ; Receptors, Purinergic P2X ; Sodium Channels/*chemistry ; Zebrafish/*physiology
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dalton, Rex -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):369. doi: 10.1038/457369a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158758" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breeding/economics/*methods ; Cattle/*genetics ; Dairying/economics/*methods ; Female ; Internationality ; Male ; Milk/*secretion/*standards ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 23;458(7241):945-6. doi: 10.1038/458945b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396090" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Pollution/prevention & control ; Environmental Monitoring/*legislation & jurisprudence ; *Federal Government ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Humans ; Public Health/*legislation & jurisprudence ; United States ; United States Environmental Protection Agency/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-03-13
    Description: Lithium, the lightest metal, has long been considered to have a 'simple' electronic structure that can be well explained within the nearly-free-electron model. But lithium does not stay 'simple' under compression: rather than becoming more free-electron-like as pressure is increased, first-principles calculations suggest that it transforms into a semi-metal or semiconductor. Experimentally, it has been shown that dense lithium adopts low-symmetry structures; there is also evidence that its resistivity increases with pressure. However, the electronic transport properties of lithium have so far not been directly monitored as a function of increasing static pressure. Here we report electrical resistance measurements on lithium in a diamond anvil cell up to pressures of 105 GPa, which reveal a significant increase in electrical resistivity and a change in its temperature dependence near 80 GPa. Our data thus provide unambiguous experimental evidence for a pressure-induced metal-to-semiconductor transition in a 'simple' metallic element.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Matsuoka, Takahiro -- Shimizu, Katsuya -- England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):186-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07827.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉KYOKUGEN, Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan. matsuoka@djebel.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-07-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Summers, Frank -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 9;460(7252):173. doi: 10.1038/460173a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587745" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Prisoners/*psychology ; Psychology/*statistics & numerical data ; Societies, Scientific ; Torture/*statistics & numerical data ; United States
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-09-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goode, Scott -- England -- Nature. 2009 Sep 10;461(7261):167. doi: 10.1038/461167d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741681" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; *Religion and Science ; Research Personnel/*history/psychology/standards
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katzek, Jens A -- England -- Nature. 2009 Oct 15;461(7266):875. doi: 10.1038/461875a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19829352" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biotechnology/manpower/standards ; *Communication ; *Food, Genetically Modified/adverse effects/standards ; Humans ; Lobbying ; Oryza/metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified/adverse effects ; *Public Opinion ; *Research Personnel ; beta Carotene/administration & dosage/metabolism
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 16;458(7240):808. doi: 10.1038/458808a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369979" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antarctic Regions ; *Ecosystem ; International Cooperation/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Travel/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2009-01-27
    Description: Genome-wide pervasive transcription has been reported in many eukaryotic organisms, revealing a highly interleaved transcriptome organization that involves hundreds of previously unknown non-coding RNAs. These recently identified transcripts either exist stably in cells (stable unannotated transcripts, SUTs) or are rapidly degraded by the RNA surveillance pathway (cryptic unstable transcripts, CUTs). One characteristic of pervasive transcription is the extensive overlap of SUTs and CUTs with previously annotated features, which prompts questions regarding how these transcripts are generated, and whether they exert function. Single-gene studies have shown that transcription of SUTs and CUTs can be functional, through mechanisms involving the generated RNAs or their generation itself. So far, a complete transcriptome architecture including SUTs and CUTs has not been described in any organism. Knowledge about the position and genome-wide arrangement of these transcripts will be instrumental in understanding their function. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of these transcripts in the context of multiple conditions, a mutant of the exosome machinery and different strain backgrounds of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that both SUTs and CUTs display distinct patterns of distribution at specific locations. Most of the newly identified transcripts initiate from nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) associated with the promoters of other transcripts (mostly protein-coding genes), or from NFRs at the 3' ends of protein-coding genes. Likewise, about half of all coding transcripts initiate from NFRs associated with promoters of other transcripts. These data change our view of how a genome is transcribed, indicating that bidirectionality is an inherent feature of promoters. Such an arrangement of divergent and overlapping transcripts may provide a mechanism for local spreading of regulatory signals-that is, coupling the transcriptional regulation of neighbouring genes by means of transcriptional interference or histone modification.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766638/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766638/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Zhenyu -- Wei, Wu -- Gagneur, Julien -- Perocchi, Fabiana -- Clauder-Munster, Sandra -- Camblong, Jurgi -- Guffanti, Elisa -- Stutz, Francoise -- Huber, Wolfgang -- Steinmetz, Lars M -- P01 HG000205/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HG000205-19/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068717/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068717-06/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):1033-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07728. Epub 2009 Jan 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19169243" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/*genetics ; Genes, Fungal/genetics ; Genes, Overlapping/genetics ; Genome, Fungal/genetics ; Models, Genetic ; Nucleosomes ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; RNA Stability/genetics ; RNA, Fungal/*genetics ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification/*genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/*genetics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2009-06-02
    Description: The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has enabled the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cells and provided valuable experimental platforms to model human disease. Patient-specific iPS cells are also thought to hold great therapeutic potential, although direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that, on correction of the genetic defect, somatic cells from Fanconi anaemia patients can be reprogrammed to pluripotency to generate patient-specific iPS cells. These cell lines appear indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells and iPS cells from healthy individuals. Most importantly, we show that corrected Fanconi-anaemia-specific iPS cells can give rise to haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid and erythroid lineages that are phenotypically normal, that is, disease-free. These data offer proof-of-concept that iPS cell technology can be used for the generation of disease-corrected, patient-specific cells with potential value for cell therapy applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720823/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720823/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raya, Angel -- Rodriguez-Piza, Ignasi -- Guenechea, Guillermo -- Vassena, Rita -- Navarro, Susana -- Barrero, Maria Jose -- Consiglio, Antonella -- Castella, Maria -- Rio, Paula -- Sleep, Eduard -- Gonzalez, Federico -- Tiscornia, Gustavo -- Garreta, Elena -- Aasen, Trond -- Veiga, Anna -- Verma, Inder M -- Surralles, Jordi -- Bueren, Juan -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- R01 HL053670/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL053670-14/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 2;460(7251):53-9. doi: 10.1038/nature08129. Epub 2009 May 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Regenerative Medicine in Barcelona, Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19483674" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Cellular Reprogramming ; Fanconi Anemia/*pathology/*therapy ; Health ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brumfiel, Geoff -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):896-7. doi: 10.1038/459897a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536225" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2009-10-02
    Description: X-ray crystallography is the method of choice for the direct structural analysis of crystalline compounds. Extending its use to the in situ mapping of chemical transformations could provide valuable insights, as illustrated by time-resolved X-ray crystallography studies; however, the transient nature of unstable reaction intermediates often poses a significant challenge. It has recently been demonstrated that standard chemical reactions can occur within the pores of porous coordination networks and that the robust crystallinity of these networks facilitates in situ X-ray analysis of the adducts and products. Here we show that such systems even enable X-ray observations of reaction intermediates that are usually transient and non-isolable. Our proof-of-concept demonstration examines the simple and ubiquitous reaction between an amine and an aldehyde, which normally form a very short-lived hemiaminal that then yields the Schiff-base product. The mechanism of this reaction has been exhaustively examined, but the hemiaminal intermediate has only rarely been observed. We first determine the structure of a porous network with an aromatic amine embedded in it, then diffuse an aldehyde substrate into the material to transform the amine into a hemiaminal intermediate that is kinetically trapped and thus amenable to X-ray analysis, and finally raise the temperature of the system to obtain the imine product and determine its structure. These results establish that porous network materials provide a means of obtaining sequential X-ray-based snapshots of the structural transformations that occur during chemical reactions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kawamichi, Takehide -- Haneda, Tsuyoshi -- Kawano, Masaki -- Fujita, Makoto -- England -- Nature. 2009 Oct 1;461(7264):633-5. doi: 10.1038/nature08326.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19794489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2009-01-06
    Description: Self-gravity plays a decisive role in the final stages of star formation, where dense cores (size approximately 0.1 parsecs) inside molecular clouds collapse to form star-plus-disk systems. But self-gravity's role at earlier times (and on larger length scales, such as approximately 1 parsec) is unclear; some molecular cloud simulations that do not include self-gravity suggest that 'turbulent fragmentation' alone is sufficient to create a mass distribution of dense cores that resembles, and sets, the stellar initial mass function. Here we report a 'dendrogram' (hierarchical tree-diagram) analysis that reveals that self-gravity plays a significant role over the full range of possible scales traced by (13)CO observations in the L1448 molecular cloud, but not everywhere in the observed region. In particular, more than 90 per cent of the compact 'pre-stellar cores' traced by peaks of dust emission are projected on the sky within one of the dendrogram's self-gravitating 'leaves'. As these peaks mark the locations of already-forming stars, or of those probably about to form, a self-gravitating cocoon seems a critical condition for their existence. Turbulent fragmentation simulations without self-gravity-even of unmagnetized isothermal material-can yield mass and velocity power spectra very similar to what is observed in clouds like L1448. But a dendrogram of such a simulation shows that nearly all the gas in it (much more than in the observations) appears to be self-gravitating. A potentially significant role for gravity in 'non-self-gravitating' simulations suggests inconsistency in simulation assumptions and output, and that it is necessary to include self-gravity in any realistic simulation of the star-formation process on subparsec scales.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817203/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817203/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodman, Alyssa A -- Rosolowsky, Erik W -- Borkin, Michelle A -- Foster, Jonathan B -- Halle, Michael -- Kauffmann, Jens -- Pineda, Jaime E -- P41 RR013218/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR013218-12/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 EB005149/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U54 EB005149-05/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U54-EB005149/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 1;457(7225):63-6. doi: 10.1038/nature07609.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. agoodman@cfa.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19122636" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Astronomy ; Carbon Monoxide/analysis ; Computer Simulation ; *Gravitation ; Stars, Celestial/*chemistry
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  • 16
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-01-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dalton, Rex -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 15;457(7227):241. doi: 10.1038/457241a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148062" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Conservation of Energy Resources/*trends ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; United States ; United States Government Agencies/*organization & administration
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2009-01-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Read, Peter L -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 15;457(7227):270-1. doi: 10.1038/457270a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2009-08-12
    Description: Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has been accomplished by expressing pluripotency factors and oncogenes, but the low frequency and tendency to induce malignant transformation compromise the clinical utility of this powerful approach. We address both issues by investigating the mechanisms limiting reprogramming efficiency in somatic cells. Here we show that reprogramming factors can activate the p53 (also known as Trp53 in mice, TP53 in humans) pathway. Reducing signalling to p53 by expressing a mutated version of one of its negative regulators, by deleting or knocking down p53 or its target gene, p21 (also known as Cdkn1a), or by antagonizing reprogramming-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts increases reprogramming efficiency. Notably, decreasing p53 protein levels enabled fibroblasts to give rise to iPS cells capable of generating germline-transmitting chimaeric mice using only Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) and Sox2. Furthermore, silencing of p53 significantly increased the reprogramming efficiency of human somatic cells. These results provide insights into reprogramming mechanisms and suggest new routes to more efficient reprogramming while minimizing the use of oncogenes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735889/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735889/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kawamura, Teruhisa -- Suzuki, Jotaro -- Wang, Yunyuan V -- Menendez, Sergio -- Morera, Laura Batlle -- Raya, Angel -- Wahl, Geoffrey M -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- 5 R01 CA061449/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5 R01 CA100845/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA061449/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA061449-30/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA100845/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA100845-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R33 HL088293/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R33 HL088293-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 27;460(7259):1140-4. doi: 10.1038/nature08311. Epub 2009 Aug 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668186" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Cellular Reprogramming/*physiology ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Down-Regulation ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Female ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Keratinocytes ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 19
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 16;458(7240):807-8. doi: 10.1038/458807b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369978" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology ; Community Health Services/*trends ; Delivery of Health Care/*trends ; Drug Prescriptions/economics/statistics & numerical data ; Hospitals, County/trends ; Humans ; Medical Informatics/trends ; Medical Records
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-10-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yablonovitch, Eli -- England -- Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):744-5. doi: 10.1038/461744a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812665" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-06-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brumfiel, Geoff -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jun 4;459(7247):626. doi: 10.1038/459626a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494879" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2009-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodyear, Gary -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 16;458(7240):830. doi: 10.1038/458830c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370007" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Canada ; *Federal Government ; Fellowships and Scholarships/economics ; Research Personnel/*economics ; Science/*economics
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  • 23
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dalton, Rex -- Witze, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 26;458(7237):396. doi: 10.1038/458396a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334300" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ecosystem ; *Greenhouse Effect ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Leadership ; Marine Biology ; United States ; United States Government Agencies/*organization & administration
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: The synthesis of crystalline molecular sieves with pore dimensions that fill the gap between microporous and mesoporous materials is a matter of fundamental and industrial interest. The preparation of zeolitic materials with extralarge pores and chiral frameworks would permit many new applications. Two important steps in this direction include the synthesis of ITQ-33, a stable zeolite with 18 x 10 x 10 ring windows, and the synthesis of SU-32, which has an intrinsically chiral zeolite structure and where each crystal exhibits only one handedness. Here we present a germanosilicate zeolite (ITQ-37) with extralarge 30-ring windows. Its structure was determined by combining selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) in a charge-flipping algorithm. The framework follows the SrSi(2) (srs) minimal net and forms two unique cavities, each of which is connected to three other cavities to form a gyroidal channel system. These cavities comprise the enantiomorphous srs net of the framework. ITQ-37 is the first chiral zeolite with one single gyroidal channel. It has the lowest framework density (10.3 T atoms per 1,000 A(3)) of all existing 4-coordinated crystalline oxide frameworks, and the pore volume of the corresponding silica polymorph would be 0.38 cm(3) g(-1).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sun, Junliang -- Bonneau, Charlotte -- Cantin, Angel -- Corma, Avelino -- Diaz-Cabanas, Maria J -- Moliner, Manuel -- Zhang, Daliang -- Li, Mingrun -- Zou, Xiaodong -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1154-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07957.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Chemistry and Berzelii Centre, EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407798" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gratzer, Walter -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 23;458(7241):983-4. doi: 10.1038/458983a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396135" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Editorial Policies ; Great Britain ; History, 20th Century ; Periodicals as Topic/*history ; Physics/history ; Science/*history
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2009-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Young, Alice M -- Colpaert, Francis C -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):533. doi: 10.1038/457533a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19177109" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amphetamines/*administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Animals ; *Biomedical Enhancement ; Cognition/*drug effects/physiology ; *Health ; Humans ; Mental Recall/*drug effects/*physiology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2009-06-19
    Description: Thermoelectric energy harvesting-the transformation of waste heat into useful electricity-is of great interest for energy sustainability. The main obstacle is the low thermoelectric efficiency of materials for converting heat to electricity, quantified by the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT. The best available n-type materials for use in mid-temperature (500-900 K) thermoelectric generators have a relatively low ZT of 1 or less, and so there is much interest in finding avenues for increasing this figure of merit. Here we report a binary crystalline n-type material, In(4)Se(3-delta), which achieves the ZT value of 1.48 at 705 K-very high for a bulk material. Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that this material supports a charge density wave instability which is responsible for the large anisotropy observed in the electric and thermal transport. The high ZT value is the result of the high Seebeck coefficient and the low thermal conductivity in the plane of the charge density wave. Our results suggest a new direction in the search for high-performance thermoelectric materials, exploiting intrinsic nanostructural bulk properties induced by charge density waves.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rhyee, Jong-Soo -- Lee, Kyu Hyoung -- Lee, Sang Mock -- Cho, Eunseog -- Kim, Sang Il -- Lee, Eunsung -- Kwon, Yong Seung -- Shim, Ji Hoon -- Kotliar, Gabriel -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):965-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08088.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Materials Research Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin 446-712, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 degrees C or below (relative to pre-industrial levels) as a guiding principle for mitigation efforts to reduce climate change risks, impacts and damages. However, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions corresponding to a specified maximum warming are poorly known owing to uncertainties in the carbon cycle and the climate response. Here we provide a comprehensive probabilistic analysis aimed at quantifying GHG emission budgets for the 2000-50 period that would limit warming throughout the twenty-first century to below 2 degrees C, based on a combination of published distributions of climate system properties and observational constraints. We show that, for the chosen class of emission scenarios, both cumulative emissions up to 2050 and emission levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed 2 degrees C relative to pre-industrial temperatures. Limiting cumulative CO(2) emissions over 2000-50 to 1,000 Gt CO(2) yields a 25% probability of warming exceeding 2 degrees C-and a limit of 1,440 Gt CO(2) yields a 50% probability-given a representative estimate of the distribution of climate system properties. As known 2000-06 CO(2) emissions were approximately 234 Gt CO(2), less than half the proven economically recoverable oil, gas and coal reserves can still be emitted up to 2050 to achieve such a goal. Recent G8 Communiques envisage halved global GHG emissions by 2050, for which we estimate a 12-45% probability of exceeding 2 degrees C-assuming 1990 as emission base year and a range of published climate sensitivity distributions. Emissions levels in 2020 are a less robust indicator, but for the scenarios considered, the probability of exceeding 2 degrees C rises to 53-87% if global GHG emissions are still more than 25% above 2000 levels in 2020.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meinshausen, Malte -- Meinshausen, Nicolai -- Hare, William -- Raper, Sarah C B -- Frieler, Katja -- Knutti, Reto -- Frame, David J -- Allen, Myles R -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1158-62. doi: 10.1038/nature08017.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg, 14412 Potsdam, Germany. malte.meinshausen@pik-potsdam.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407799" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere/chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; Ecology/*methods ; Forecasting ; Fossil Fuels/analysis ; *Greenhouse Effect ; *Models, Theoretical ; Probability ; *Temperature ; Uncertainty
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2009-07-10
    Description: The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davies, Andrew -- Kemp, Alan E S -- Pike, Jennifer -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 9;460(7252):254-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08141.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Oceanography Centre Southampton, School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587768" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arctic Regions ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Diatoms/metabolism ; Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/microbiology ; *Greenhouse Effect ; History, Ancient ; Ice Cover/chemistry ; Marine Biology ; Oceans and Seas ; *Seasons ; *Seawater ; *Temperature
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  • 30
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-12-04
    Description: The ability to produce stem cells by induced pluripotency (iPS reprogramming) has rekindled an interest in earlier studies showing that transcription factors can directly convert specialized cells from one lineage to another. Lineage reprogramming has become a powerful tool to study cell fate choice during differentiation, akin to inducing mutations for the discovery of gene functions. The lessons learnt provide a rubric for how cells may be manipulated for therapeutic purposes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Graf, Thomas -- Enver, Tariq -- MC_U137973817/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 3;462(7273):587-94. doi: 10.1038/nature08533.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Genomic Regulation and ICREA, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. thomas.graf@crg.es〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19956253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage/*physiology ; Cellular Reprogramming/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Regulatory Networks/physiology ; Humans ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2009-06-16
    Description: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is as prevalent as cancer in industrialized nations. Most blindness in AMD results from invasion of the retina by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). Here we show that the eosinophil/mast cell chemokine receptor CCR3 is specifically expressed in choroidal neovascular endothelial cells in humans with AMD, and that despite the expression of its ligands eotaxin-1, -2 and -3, neither eosinophils nor mast cells are present in human CNV. Genetic or pharmacological targeting of CCR3 or eotaxins inhibited injury-induced CNV in mice. CNV suppression by CCR3 blockade was due to direct inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, and was uncoupled from inflammation because it occurred in mice lacking eosinophils or mast cells, and was independent of macrophage and neutrophil recruitment. CCR3 blockade was more effective at reducing CNV than vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) neutralization, which is in clinical use at present, and, unlike VEGF-A blockade, is not toxic to the mouse retina. In vivo imaging with CCR3-targeting quantum dots located spontaneous CNV invisible to standard fluorescein angiography in mice before retinal invasion. CCR3 targeting might reduce vision loss due to AMD through early detection and therapeutic angioinhibition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2712122/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2712122/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Takeda, Atsunobu -- Baffi, Judit Z -- Kleinman, Mark E -- Cho, Won Gil -- Nozaki, Miho -- Yamada, Kiyoshi -- Kaneko, Hiroki -- Albuquerque, Romulo J C -- Dridi, Sami -- Saito, Kuniharu -- Raisler, Brian J -- Budd, Steven J -- Geisen, Pete -- Munitz, Ariel -- Ambati, Balamurali K -- Green, Martha G -- Ishibashi, Tatsuro -- Wright, John D -- Humbles, Alison A -- Gerard, Craig J -- Ogura, Yuichiro -- Pan, Yuzhen -- Smith, Justine R -- Grisanti, Salvatore -- Hartnett, M Elizabeth -- Rothenberg, Marc E -- Ambati, Jayakrishna -- AI039759/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI45898/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK076893/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- EY010572/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY015130/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY015422/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY017011/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY017182/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY017950/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY018350/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY018836/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK076893/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY015422/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY015422-04/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018350/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018350-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018836/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018836-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 9;460(7252):225-30. doi: 10.1038/nature08151. Epub 2009 Jun 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19525930" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Movement ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Chemokine CCL11/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Chemokine CCL24/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Chemokines, CC/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Choroid/blood supply/cytology/metabolism ; Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnosis/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Inflammation ; Leukocytes ; Ligands ; Macular Degeneration/*diagnosis/metabolism/*therapy ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Quantum Dots ; Receptors, CCR3/analysis/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/immunology/*metabolism ; Retina/drug effects/pathology ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 19;458(7236):260. doi: 10.1038/458260a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295556" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Internet/*trends/utilization ; Journalism/*manpower/supply & distribution/*trends ; *Research Personnel ; *Science
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kell, Douglas -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 16;458(7240):831. doi: 10.1038/458831b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Microbiological Techniques/*history ; Microbiology/*history
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brumfiel, Geoff -- Gilbert, Natasha -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1084-5. doi: 10.1038/4581084b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407758" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Budgets ; Conservation of Energy Resources/economics/trends ; *Federal Government ; Financing, Government/*economics ; Great Britain ; Green Chemistry Technology/economics/trends ; Research/*economics/trends ; Research Personnel/*economics/psychology
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2009-05-02
    Description: An unresolved X-ray glow (at energies above a few kiloelectronvolts) was discovered about 25 years ago and found to be coincident with the Galactic disk-the Galactic ridge X-ray emission. This emission has a spectrum characteristic of a approximately 10(8) K optically thin thermal plasma, with a prominent iron emission line at 6.7 keV. The gravitational well of the Galactic disk, however, is far too shallow to confine such a hot interstellar medium; instead, it would flow away at a velocity of a few thousand kilometres per second, exceeding the speed of sound in the gas. To replenish the energy losses requires a source of 10(43) erg s(-1), exceeding by orders of magnitude all plausible energy sources in the Milky Way. An alternative is that the hot plasma is bound to a multitude of faint sources, which is supported by the recently observed similarities in the X-ray and near-infrared surface brightness distributions (the latter traces the Galactic stellar distribution). Here we report that at energies of approximately 6-7 keV, more than 80 per cent of the seemingly diffuse X-ray emission is resolved into discrete sources, probably accreting white dwarfs and coronally active stars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Revnivtsev, M -- Sazonov, S -- Churazov, E -- Forman, W -- Vikhlinin, A -- Sunyaev, R -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1142-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07946.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85748, Garching, Germany. mikej@mpa-garching.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19407795" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2009-03-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meisenberg, Gerhard -- England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):145. doi: 10.1038/458145a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Continental Population Groups/*genetics ; Genetic Research/ethics ; *Genetics, Medical/ethics/standards ; Genetics, Population/ethics ; Humans ; Intelligence/*genetics ; *Social Justice/ethics/standards
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  • 37
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-05-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davies, David -- England -- Nature. 2009 May 14;459(7244):163. doi: 10.1038/459163a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19444189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Editorial Policies ; History, 20th Century ; Periodicals as Topic/*history
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2009-11-20
    Description: Glutamate transporters are integral membrane proteins that catalyse a thermodynamically uphill uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft into the cytoplasm of glia and neuronal cells by harnessing the energy of pre-existing electrochemical gradients of ions. Crucial to the reaction is the conformational transition of the transporters between outward and inward facing states, in which the substrate binding sites are accessible from the extracellular space and the cytoplasm, respectively. Here we describe the crystal structure of a double cysteine mutant of a glutamate transporter homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii, Glt(Ph), which is trapped in the inward facing state by cysteine crosslinking. Together with the previously determined crystal structures of Glt(Ph) in the outward facing state, the structure of the crosslinked mutant allows us to propose a molecular mechanism by which Glt(Ph) and, by analogy, mammalian glutamate transporters mediate sodium-coupled substrate uptake.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2934767/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2934767/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reyes, Nicolas -- Ginter, Christopher -- Boudker, Olga -- R01 NS064357/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS064357-01A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 17;462(7275):880-5. doi: 10.1038/nature08616. Epub 2009 Nov 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, Box 75, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924125" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Transport System X-AG/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Biological Transport ; Cross-Linking Reagents ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cysteine/genetics/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Pyrococcus horikoshii/*chemistry ; Sodium/metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-09-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoon, Sung-Chul -- England -- Nature. 2009 Sep 24;461(7263):485-6. doi: 10.1038/461485a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2009-04-28
    Description: Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. The heart has little regenerative capacity after damage, leading to much interest in understanding the factors required to produce new cardiac myocytes. Despite a robust understanding of the molecular networks regulating cardiac differentiation, no single transcription factor or combination of factors has been shown to activate the cardiac gene program de novo in mammalian cells or tissues. Here we define the minimal requirements for transdifferentiation of mouse mesoderm to cardiac myocytes. We show that two cardiac transcription factors, Gata4 and Tbx5, and a cardiac-specific subunit of BAF chromatin-remodelling complexes, Baf60c (also called Smarcd3), can direct ectopic differentiation of mouse mesoderm into beating cardiomyocytes, including the normally non-cardiogenic posterior mesoderm and the extraembryonic mesoderm of the amnion. Gata4 with Baf60c initiated ectopic cardiac gene expression. Addition of Tbx5 allowed differentiation into contracting cardiomyocytes and repression of non-cardiac mesodermal genes. Baf60c was essential for the ectopic cardiogenic activity of Gata4 and Tbx5, partly by permitting binding of Gata4 to cardiac genes, indicating a novel instructive role for BAF complexes in tissue-specific regulation. The combined function of these factors establishes a robust mechanism for controlling cellular differentiation, and may allow reprogramming of new cardiomyocytes for regenerative purposes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728356/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728356/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Takeuchi, Jun K -- Bruneau, Benoit G -- C06 RR018928/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL085860/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL085860-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL085860/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jun 4;459(7247):708-11. doi: 10.1038/nature08039. Epub 2009 Apr 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. takeuchi.j.ab@m.titech.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cell Transdifferentiation ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone ; Embryo, Mammalian ; GATA4 Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Heart/*embryology ; Mesoderm/cytology/*embryology ; Mice ; Muscle Proteins ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*cytology/metabolism ; T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism
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  • 41
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-04-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822621/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822621/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brunet, Anne -- R01 AG031198/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG031198-01A1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Apr 9;458(7239):713-4. doi: 10.1038/458713a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19360073" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis/physiology ; *Caloric Restriction ; Humans ; Insulin/physiology ; Neoplasms/*diet therapy ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/physiology ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2009-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davies, Huw M L -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jun 11;459(7248):786-7. doi: 10.1038/459786a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19516330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Products/chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Biomimetics ; Carbon/*chemistry ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Molecular Structure ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane/*chemical synthesis/*chemistry/classification
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 19;458(7236):259-60. doi: 10.1038/458259b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295554" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Confidentiality/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/standards/trends ; Federal Government ; Humans ; Medical Informatics/*economics/ethics/standards/*trends ; *Medical Records/economics ; United States
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2009-02-13
    Description: Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the relationship between microevolution (adaptation), which can be observed both in nature and in the laboratory, and macroevolution (speciation and the origin of the divisions of the taxonomic hierarchy above the species level, and the development of complex organs), which cannot be witnessed because it occurs over intervals that far exceed the human lifespan. The connection between these processes is also a major source of conflict between science and religious belief. Biologists often forget that Charles Darwin offered a way of resolving this issue, and his proposal is ripe for re-evaluation in the light of recent research.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reznick, David N -- Ricklefs, Robert E -- England -- Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):837-42. doi: 10.1038/nature07894.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA. gupy@ucr.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Extinction, Biological ; Genetic Speciation
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2009-11-10
    Description: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved beta-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810868/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810868/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melcher, Karsten -- Ng, Ley-Moy -- Zhou, X Edward -- Soon, Fen-Fen -- Xu, Yong -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- Park, Sang-Youl -- Weiner, Joshua J -- Fujii, Hiroaki -- Chinnusamy, Viswanathan -- Kovach, Amanda -- Li, Jun -- Wang, Yonghong -- Li, Jiayang -- Peterson, Francis C -- Jensen, Davin R -- Yong, Eu-Leong -- Volkman, Brian F -- Cutler, Sean R -- Zhu, Jian-Kang -- Xu, H Eric -- R01 DK066202/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK066202-04/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662-05/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089301/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089301-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 3;462(7273):602-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08613.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue, N.E., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19898420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abscisic Acid/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Binding Sites ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; *Models, Molecular ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction/*physiology
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2009-04-10
    Description: Preventing and delaying the emergence of drug resistance is an essential goal of antimalarial drug development. Monotherapy and highly mutable drug targets have each facilitated resistance, and both are undesirable in effective long-term strategies against multi-drug-resistant malaria. Haem remains an immutable and vulnerable target, because it is not parasite-encoded and its detoxification during haemoglobin degradation, critical to parasite survival, can be subverted by drug-haem interaction as in the case of quinolines and many other drugs. Here we describe a new antimalarial chemotype that combines the haem-targeting character of acridones, together with a chemosensitizing component that counteracts resistance to quinoline antimalarial drugs. Beyond the essential intrinsic characteristics common to deserving candidate antimalarials (high potency in vitro against pan-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, efficacy and safety in vivo after oral administration, inexpensive synthesis and favourable physicochemical properties), our initial lead, T3.5 (3-chloro-6-(2-diethylamino-ethoxy)-10-(2-diethylamino-ethyl)-acridone), demonstrates unique synergistic properties. In addition to 'verapamil-like' chemosensitization to chloroquine and amodiaquine against quinoline-resistant parasites, T3.5 also results in an apparently mechanistically distinct synergism with quinine and with piperaquine. This synergy, evident in both quinoline-sensitive and quinoline-resistant parasites, has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this innovative acridone design merges intrinsic potency and resistance-counteracting functions in one molecule, and represents a new strategy to expand, enhance and sustain effective antimalarial drug combinations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kelly, Jane X -- Smilkstein, Martin J -- Brun, Reto -- Wittlin, Sergio -- Cooper, Roland A -- Lane, Kristin D -- Janowsky, Aaron -- Johnson, Robert A -- Dodean, Rozalia A -- Winter, Rolf -- Hinrichs, David J -- Riscoe, Michael K -- England -- Nature. 2009 May 14;459(7244):270-3. doi: 10.1038/nature07937. Epub 2009 Apr 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Centre, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. kellyja@ohsu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19357645" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acridones/analysis/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Antimalarials/analysis/metabolism/*pharmacology ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Resistance/drug effects ; Drug Synergism ; Heme/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mutation/genetics ; Plasmodium falciparum/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Plasmodium yoelii/drug effects ; Protozoan Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Quinine/pharmacology ; Quinolines/pharmacology ; Trophozoites/metabolism ; Verapamil/pharmacology
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2009-10-16
    Description: The discovery of quasicrystals in 1984 changed our view of ordered solids as periodic structures and introduced new long-range-ordered phases lacking any translational symmetry. Quasicrystals permit symmetry operations forbidden in classical crystallography, for example five-, eight-, ten- and 12-fold rotations, yet have sharp diffraction peaks. Intermetallic compounds have been observed to form both metastable and energetically stabilized quasicrystals; quasicrystalline order has also been reported for the tantalum telluride phase with an approximate Ta(1.6)Te composition. Later, quasicrystals were discovered in soft matter, namely supramolecular structures of organic dendrimers and tri-block copolymers, and micrometre-sized colloidal spheres have been arranged into quasicrystalline arrays by using intense laser beams that create quasi-periodic optical standing-wave patterns. Here we show that colloidal inorganic nanoparticles can self-assemble into binary aperiodic superlattices. We observe formation of assemblies with dodecagonal quasicrystalline order in different binary nanoparticle systems: 13.4-nm Fe(2)O(3) and 5-nm Au nanocrystals, 12.6-nm Fe(3)O(4) and 4.7-nm Au nanocrystals, and 9-nm PbS and 3-nm Pd nanocrystals. Such compositional flexibility indicates that the formation of quasicrystalline nanoparticle assemblies does not require a unique combination of interparticle interactions, but is a general sphere-packing phenomenon governed by the entropy and simple interparticle potentials. We also find that dodecagonal quasicrystalline superlattices can form low-defect interfaces with ordinary crystalline binary superlattices, using fragments of (3(3).4(2)) Archimedean tiling as the 'wetting layer' between the periodic and aperiodic phases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Talapin, Dmitri V -- Shevchenko, Elena V -- Bodnarchuk, Maryna I -- Ye, Xingchen -- Chen, Jun -- Murray, Christopher B -- England -- Nature. 2009 Oct 15;461(7266):964-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08439.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. dvtalapin@uchicago.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19829378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 48
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2009-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 19;458(7236):259. doi: 10.1038/458259a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; European Union/organization & administration ; *Federal Government ; Periodicals as Topic/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Politics ; Publishing/*legislation & jurisprudence ; *Religion and Science ; Turkey
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2009-12-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davies, Melvyn B -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 24;462(7276):991-2. doi: 10.1038/462991a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033030" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2009-03-13
    Description: Behavioural responses to wind are thought to have a critical role in controlling the dispersal and population genetics of wild Drosophila species, as well as their navigation in flight, but their underlying neurobiological basis is unknown. We show that Drosophila melanogaster, like wild-caught Drosophila strains, exhibits robust wind-induced suppression of locomotion in response to air currents delivered at speeds normally encountered in nature. Here we identify wind-sensitive neurons in Johnston's organ, an antennal mechanosensory structure previously implicated in near-field sound detection (reviewed in refs 5 and 6). Using enhancer trap lines targeted to different subsets of Johnston's organ neurons, and a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that wind and near-field sound (courtship song) activate distinct populations of Johnston's organ neurons, which project to different regions of the antennal and mechanosensory motor centre in the central brain. Selective genetic ablation of wind-sensitive Johnston's organ neurons in the antenna abolishes wind-induced suppression of locomotion behaviour, without impairing hearing. Moreover, different neuronal subsets within the wind-sensitive population respond to different directions of arista deflection caused by air flow and project to different regions of the antennal and mechanosensory motor centre, providing a rudimentary map of wind direction in the brain. Importantly, sound- and wind-sensitive Johnston's organ neurons exhibit different intrinsic response properties: the former are phasically activated by small, bi-directional, displacements of the aristae, whereas the latter are tonically activated by unidirectional, static deflections of larger magnitude. These different intrinsic properties are well suited to the detection of oscillatory pulses of near-field sound and laminar air flow, respectively. These data identify wind-sensitive neurons in Johnston's organ, a structure that has been primarily associated with hearing, and reveal how the brain can distinguish different types of air particle movements using a common sensory organ.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755041/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755041/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yorozu, Suzuko -- Wong, Allan -- Fischer, Brian J -- Dankert, Heiko -- Kernan, Maurice J -- Kamikouchi, Azusa -- Ito, Kei -- Anderson, David J -- R01 DC002780/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007737/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007737-30/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):201-5. doi: 10.1038/nature07843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biology 216-76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. yorozu@caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279637" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Air Movements ; Animals ; Auditory Perception/*physiology ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/*physiology ; Electrophysiological Phenomena/physiology ; Mechanoreceptors/physiology ; Sensory Receptor Cells/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    Publication Date: 2009-12-04
    Description: Dietary restriction extends healthy lifespan in diverse organisms and reduces fecundity. It is widely assumed to induce adaptive reallocation of nutrients from reproduction to somatic maintenance, aiding survival of food shortages in nature. If this were the case, long life under dietary restriction and high fecundity under full feeding would be mutually exclusive, through competition for the same limiting nutrients. Here we report a test of this idea in which we identified the nutrients producing the responses of lifespan and fecundity to dietary restriction in Drosophila. Adding essential amino acids to the dietary restriction condition increased fecundity and decreased lifespan, similar to the effects of full feeding, with other nutrients having little or no effect. However, methionine alone was necessary and sufficient to increase fecundity as much as did full feeding, but without reducing lifespan. Reallocation of nutrients therefore does not explain the responses to dietary restriction. Lifespan was decreased by the addition of amino acids, with an interaction between methionine and other essential amino acids having a key role. Hence, an imbalance in dietary amino acids away from the ratio optimal for reproduction shortens lifespan during full feeding and limits fecundity during dietary restriction. Reduced activity of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway extends lifespan in diverse organisms, and we find that it also protects against the shortening of lifespan with full feeding. In other organisms, including mammals, it may be possible to obtain the benefits to lifespan of dietary restriction without incurring a reduction in fecundity, through a suitable balance of nutrients in the diet.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798000/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798000/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grandison, Richard C -- Piper, Matthew D W -- Partridge, Linda -- 081394/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 24;462(7276):1061-4. doi: 10.1038/nature08619. Epub 2009 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Healthy Ageing, Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment, University College London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19956092" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/*metabolism ; Animals ; *Diet ; Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism/*physiology ; Female ; Insulin/metabolism ; Longevity/*physiology ; Methionine/metabolism ; Oviposition/physiology ; Random Allocation ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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