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  • Nature Publishing Group  (363,462)
Collection
Years
  • 1
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1466-4879
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5470
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Journal cover
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    Nanjing Agricultural University | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Nanjing Agricultural University , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 2662-6810
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-7276
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 22.1977 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1434-5161
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-232X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 22.1977 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1434-5161
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-232X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-8437
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1740-1526
    Electronic ISSN: 1740-1534
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 2055-026X
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-0278
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2007 – 4(5).2010
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1753-9315
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1474-1776
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-1784
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-0056
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0064
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1869 –
    Print: 289.1981 – 416.2002 (Location: A43, LZ 5-7 Oben)
    Print: 45.1891 – 234.1971 (Location: A62, MOP)
    Print: 173.1954 – 492.2012 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 49/1 - 51/1)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1992 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1061-4036
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1718
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group | Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Online: 1(1).2009 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Print ISSN: 1884-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1884-4057
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 15
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 38(1).2006 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0032-3896
    Electronic ISSN: 1349-0540
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 16
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    Springer Nature | Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 17
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    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1980 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1671-4083
    Electronic ISSN: 0253-9756
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group | Cell Death Differentiation Association
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Cell Death Differentiation Association
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7716
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    Journal cover
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    Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1990 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1001-0602
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-7838
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 6.1998 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Print ISSN: 1018-4813
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5438
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 21
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1466-4879
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5470
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group | ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology)
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology)
    Corporation: International Society for Microbial Ecology, ISME
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: Mikrobiologie
    Parallel titles: The ISME Journal
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  • 23
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    Japan Antibiotics Research Association | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 58.2005 –
    Publisher: Japan Antibiotics Research Association , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0021-8820 , 0368-3532
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-1469
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 24
    Journal cover
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    Japan Antibiotics Research Association | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 58.2005 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Japan Antibiotics Research Association , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0021-8820 , 0368-3532
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-1469
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1995 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1078-8956
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-170X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 26
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1529-2908
    Electronic ISSN: 1529-2916
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-7189
    Topics: Biology
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  • 28
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2001 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1470-269X
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-1150
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group | Biocentury
    Online: 1.2008 – 7.2014
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Biocentury
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3477
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 30
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    Nature Publishing Group | JSTOR
    Online: 1(1).1845 –
    Print: 268.1993 – 303(5).2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 64/5-6)
    Print: 270.1994 – 282.2000 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 64/5-6)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0036-8733
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-7087
    Topics: Biology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Abbreviation: Sci Am
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  • 31
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4(1).1997 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1350-9047
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5403
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group | Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-5968
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 33
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4.1997 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0969-7128
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5462
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 34
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group | ChangChun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics (CIOMP)
    Online: 1.2012 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , ChangChun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics (CIOMP)
    Electronic ISSN: 2047-7538
    Topics: Physics
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  • 35
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2007 – 2009
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1754-8705
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 36
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-0072
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0080
    Topics: Biology
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  • 37
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-003X
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0048
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 38
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1983 –
    Formerly as: Bio-Technology  (1983–1996)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1087-0156 , 0733-222X
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1696
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 39
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1755-4330
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-4349
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 40
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1552-4450
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-4469
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 41
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2004 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1548-7091
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-7105
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 42
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2006 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1748-3387
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-3395
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1998 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-7933
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 44
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2006 – 2012
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1994 –
    Formerly as: Nature Structural Biology  (1994–2003)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1072-8368 , 1545-9993
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-9985
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Acronym: NSMB
    Abbreviation: Nat Struct Mol Biol
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  • 46
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    Nature Publishing Group | Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Electronic ISSN: 2057-3960
    Topics: Computer Science , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 47
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2373-8065
    Topics: Physics
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  • 48
    Journal cover
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    Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1(1).1990 –
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1001-0602
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-7838
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 49
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 6.1998 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1018-4813
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5438
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 50
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4.1997 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0969-7128
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5462
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 51
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1465-7392
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4679
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 52
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1(1).2010 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 53
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1998 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1097-6256
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1726
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 54
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 229(1).1971 – 246(155).1973
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0090-0028 , 0369-4887
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology
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  • 55
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 229.1971 – 246.1973
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0300-8746
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Physics
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  • 56
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1754-2189
    Electronic ISSN: 1750-2799
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 57
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6387
    Topics: Physics
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  • 58
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-5008
    Topics: Biology
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  • 59
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2001 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1470-269X
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-1150
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Parallel titles: The Pharmacogenomics Journal
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: There have been decades, such as 2000–2009, when the observed globally averaged surface-temperature time series shows little increase or even a slightly negative trend1 (a hiatus period). However, the observed energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere for this recent decade indicates that a net energy flux into the climate system of about 1 W m−2 (refs 2, 3) should be producing warming somewhere in the system4,5. Here we analyse twenty-first-century climate-model simulations that maintain a consistent radiative imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere of about 1 W m−2 as observed for the past decade. Eight decades with a slightly negative global mean surface-temperature trend show that the ocean above 300 m takes up significantly less heat whereas the ocean below 300 m takes up significantly more, compared with non-hiatus decades. The model provides a plausible depiction of processes in the climate system causing the hiatus periods, and indicates that a hiatus period is a relatively common climate phenomenon and may be linked to La Niña-like conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 61
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature, 275 (5680). pp. 536-538.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: THE Sierra Leone Rise, located in the east equatorial Atlantic, forms a discontinuous chain of seamounts as shallow as 2 km extending with a general NE–SW trend from near the Sierra Leone coast of Africa, to the St Paul fracture zone near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Fig. 1). The origin of this feature has remained a topic of discussion. Sheridan et al.1 have hypothesised that the Sierra Leone Rise is a volcanic structure formed at the beginning of the opening of the Atlantic in the early Cretaceous period. The twin features of the Sierra Leone and the Ceara Rises are probably of oceanic origin and were created 80 Myr ago or later in their present-day position with respect to Africa and South America2. The Atlantic ocean exhibits several similar aseismic structures which appear symmetrically oriented with respect to the mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Walvis–Rio Grande Rise and the Iceland Faeroes–Iceland Greenland Ridges. These structures are volcanic edifices having a composition similar to that found in their associated islands3–7. Deep sea drilling of the Ceara Rise8,9 penetrated a basaltic basement of the upper Cretaceous period (Maestrichtian) (Leg 39, Site 354). Similarly, a DSDP hole (Leg 41, Site 366) on the Sierra Leone Rise, penetrated sediments of the same period, without reaching basement10. We report here the discovery of alkali-rich volcanics in an area of the Sierra Leone Rise. The sediment overlying the rock fragments is aged ∼45 Myr.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 62
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  The ISME Journal, 9 (3). pp. 735-745.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-17
    Description: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a key enzyme of the Calvin cycle, which is responsible for most of Earth's primary production. Although research on RubisCO genes and enzymes in plants, cyanobacteria and bacteria has been ongoing for years, still little is understood about its regulation and activation in bacteria. Even more so, hardly any information exists about the function of metagenomic RubisCOs and the role of the enzymes encoded on the flanking DNA owing to the lack of available function-based screens for seeking active RubisCOs from the environment. Here we present the first solely activity-based approach for identifying RubisCO active fosmid clones from a metagenomic library. We constructed a metagenomic library from hydrothermal vent fluids and screened 1056 fosmid clones. Twelve clones exhibited RubisCO activity and the metagenomic fragments resembled genes from Thiomicrospira crunogena. One of these clones was further analyzed. It contained a 35.2 kb metagenomic insert carrying the RubisCO gene cluster and flanking DNA regions. Knockouts of twelve genes and two intergenic regions on this metagenomic fragment demonstrated that the RubisCO activity was significantly impaired and was attributed to deletions in genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators and those believed to be vital for RubisCO activation. Our new technique revealed a novel link between a poorly characterized gene and RubisCO activity. This screen opens the door to directly investigating RubisCO genes and respective enzymes from environmental samples.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: A 20-Myr record of creation of oceanic lithosphere is exposed along a segment of the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge on an uplifted sliver of lithosphere. The degree of melting of the mantle that is upwelling below the ridge, estimated from the chemistry of the exposed mantle rocks, as well as crustal thickness inferred from gravity measurements, show oscillations of ∼3–4 Myr superimposed on a longer-term steady increase with time. The time lag between oscillations of mantle melting and crustal thickness indicates that the mantle is upwelling at an average rate of ∼25 mm yr-1, but this appears to vary through time. Slow-spreading lithosphere seems to form through dynamic pulses of mantle upwelling and melting, leading not only to along-axis segmentation but also to across-axis structural variability. Also, the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge appears to have become steadily hotter over the past 20 Myr, possibly owing to north–south mantle flow.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are providing longer nucleotide sequence reads that contain more information about phylogenetic relationships. We sought to use this information to understand the evolution and ecology of bacterioplankton at our long-term study site in the Western Sargasso Sea. A bioinformatics pipeline called PhyloAssigner was developed to align pyrosequencing reads to a reference multiple sequence alignment of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and assign them phylogenetic positions in a reference tree using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Here, we used this pipeline to investigate the ecologically important SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria. A combined set of 2.7 million pyrosequencing reads from the 16S rRNA V1-V2 regions, representing 9 years at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, was quality checked and parsed into a comprehensive bacterial tree, yielding 929 036 Alphaproteobacteria reads. Phylogenetic structure within the SAR11 clade was linked to seasonally recurring spatiotemporal patterns. This analysis resolved four new SAR11 ecotypes in addition to five others that had been described previously at BATS. The data support a conclusion reached previously that the SAR11 clade diversified by subdivision of niche space in the ocean water column, but the new data reveal a more complex pattern in which deep branches of the clade diversified repeatedly across depth strata and seasonal regimes. The new data also revealed the presence of an unrecognized clade of Alphaproteobacteria, here named SMA-1 (Sargasso Mesopelagic Alphaproteobacteria, group 1), in the upper mesopelagic zone. The high-resolution phylogenetic analyses performed herein highlight significant, previously unknown, patterns of evolutionary diversification, within perhaps the most widely distributed heterotrophic marine bacterial clade, and strongly links to ecosystem regimes. © 2013 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Particles in aquatic environments host distinct communities of microbes, yet the evolution of particlespecialized taxa and the extent to which specialized microbial metabolism is associated with particles is largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that a widely distributed and uncultivated microbial group - the marine group II euryarchaea (MGII) - interacts with living and detrital particulate organic matter (POM) in the euphotic zone of the central California Current System. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we verified the association of euryarchaea with POM. We further quantified the abundance and distribution of MGII 16S ribosomal RNA genes in size-fractionated seawater samples and compared MGII functional capacity in metagenomes from the same fractions. The abundance of MGII in free-living and 〈3 μm fractions decreased with increasing distance from the coast, whereas MGII abundance in the 0.8-3 lm fraction remained constant. At several offshore sites, MGII abundance was highest in particle fractions, indicating that particle-attached MGII can outnumber free-living MGII under oligotrophic conditions. Compared with free-living MGII, the genome content of MGII in particleassociated fractions exhibits an increased capacity for surface adhesion, transcriptional regulation and catabolism of high molecular weight substrates. Moreover, MGII populations in POM fractions are phylogenetically distinct from and more diverse than free-living MGII. Eukaryotic phytoplankton additions stimulated MGII growth in bottle incubations, providing the first MGII net growth rate measurements. These ranged from 0.47 to 0.54 d-1. However, MGII were not recovered in wholegenome amplifications of flow-sorted picoeukaryotic phytoplankton and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, suggesting that MGII in particle fractions are not physically attached to living POM. Collectively, our results support a linkage between MGII ecophysiology and POM, implying that marine archaea have a role in elemental cycling through interactions with particles. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions. To assess these varying distribution patterns, we used 412 samples collected monthly over 12 years (1991-2004) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site, located in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. We measured plastid 16S ribosomal RNA gene abundances with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and identified distribution patterns for members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prasinophyceae. The analysis revealed dynamic bloom patterns by these phytoplankton taxa that begin early in the year, when the mixed layer is deep. Previously, unreported open-ocean prasinophyte blooms dominated the plastid gene signal during convective mixing events. Quantitative PCR confirmed the blooms and transitions of Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus populations. In contrast, taxa belonging to the pelagophytes and chrysophytes, as well as cryptophytes, reached annual peaks during mixed layer shoaling, while Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed only episodically in the 12-year record. Prymnesiophytes dominated the integrated plastid gene signal. They were abundant throughout the water column before mixing events, but persisted in the deep chlorophyll maximum during stratified conditions. Various models have been used to describe mechanisms that drive vernal phytoplankton blooms in temperate seas. The range of taxon-specific bloom patterns observed here indicates that different spring bloom models can aptly describe the behavior of different phytoplankton taxa at a single geographical location. These findings provide insight into the subdivision of niche space by phytoplankton and may lead to improved predictions of phytoplankton responses to changes in ocean conditions. © 2012 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Ostreococcus is a marine picophytoeukaryote for which culture studies indicate there are 'high-light' and 'low-light' adapted ecotypes. Representatives of these ecotypes fall within two to three 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clades for the former and one for the latter. However, clade distributions and relationships to this form of niche partitioning are unknown in nature. We developed two quantitative PCR primer-probe sets and enumerated the proposed ecotypes in the Pacific Ocean as well as the subtropical and tropical North Atlantic. Statistical differences in factors such as salinity, temperature and NO 3 indicated the ecophysiological parameters behind clade distributions are more complex than irradiance alone. Clade OII, containing the putatively low-light adapted strains, was detected at warm oligotrophic sites. In contrast, Clade OI, containing high-light adapted strains, was present in cooler mesotrophic and coastal waters. Maximal OI abundance (19 555±37 18S rDNA copies per ml) was detected in mesotrophic waters at 40 m depth, approaching the nutricline. OII was often more abundant at the deep chlorophyll maximum, when nutrient concentrations were significantly higher than at the surface (stratified euphotic zone waters). However, in mixed euphotic-zone water columns, relatively high numbers (for example, 891±107 18S rDNA copies per ml, Sargasso Sea, springtime) were detected at the surface. Both Clades OI and OII were found at multiple euphotic zone depths, but co-occurrence at the same geographical location appeared rare and was detected only in continental slope waters. In situ growth rate estimates using these primer-probes and better comprehension of physiology will enhance ecological understanding of Ostreococcus Clades OII and OI which appear to be oceanic and coastal clades, respectively. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO 2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO 2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
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  • 69
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature, 459 (7244). pp. 166-167.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Description: As scientists discover more about the genomes of marine microorganisms, new views of their physiology and ecosystem networks are opening up, explain Alexandra Z. Worden and Darcy McRose. "Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas by Stefan Helmreich University of California Press: 2009. 464 pp."
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: ISOTOPE ratios and concentrations of incompatible trace elements are remarkably successful in discriminating the tectonic origin and magmatic source components for basalts1–5. But problems remain with discriminating the tectonic origin of some tholeiites, especially where field relations and other geological evidence are ambiguous. For example, the tectonic origin of basalts from the Troodos ophiolite (Cyprus) has been debated for several decades. Most workers have been unable to distinguish between an island-arc and/or back-arc origin for the ophiolite6–8. Here we use volatile, K2O and TiO2 contents from ∼250 fresh submarine volcanic glasses to discriminate between tholeiites from different tectonic regimes. K2O÷H2O ratios are lower (〈0.70) in spread ing-centre glasses than in those from island arcs and intraplate oceanic islands. Back-arc-basin basalts can generally be separated from mid-ocean-ridge basalts by their high H2O contents. Using this information, we show that some fresh glasses from the Troodos ophiolite have a clear back-arc-basin affinity.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Subduction of intraplate seamounts beneath a geochemically depleted mantle wedge provides a seldom opportunity to trace element recycling and mantle flow in subduction zones. Here we present trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of lavas from the central Tonga–Kermadec arc, west of the contemporary Louisville–Tonga trench intersection, to provide new insights into the effects of Louisville seamount subduction. Elevated 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb, 86Sr/87Sr in lavas from the central Tonga–Kermadec arc front are consistent with localized input of subducted alkaline Louisville material (lavas and volcaniclastics) into sub-arc partial melts. Furthermore, absolute Pacific Plate motion models indicate an anticlockwise rotation in the subducted Louisville seamount chain that, combined with estimates of the timing of fluid release from the subducting slab, suggests primarily trench-normal mantle flow beneath the central Tonga–Kermadec arc system.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote–eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 〈21, 000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Inteins are rare, translated genetic parasites mainly found in bacteria and archaea, while spliceosomal introns are distinctly eukaryotic features abundant in most nuclear genomes. Using targeted metagenomics, we discovered an intein in an Atlantic population of the photosynthetic eukaryote, Bathycoccus, harbored by the essential spliceosomal protein PRP8 (processing factor 8 protein). Although previously thought exclusive to fungi, we also identified PRP8 inteins in parasitic (Capsaspora) and predatory (Salpingoeca) protists. Most new PRP8 inteins were at novel insertion sites that, surprisingly, were not in the most conserved regions of the gene. Evolutionarily, Dikarya fungal inteins at PRP8 insertion site a appeared more related to the Bathycoccus intein at a unique insertion site, than to other fungal and opisthokont inteins. Strikingly, independent analyses of Pacific and Atlantic samples revealed an intron at the same codon as the Bathycoccus PRP8 intein. The two elements are mutually exclusive and neither was found in cultured Bathycoccus or other picoprasinophyte genomes. Thus, wild Bathycoccus contain one of few non-fungal eukaryotic inteins known and a rare polymorphic intron. Our data indicate at least two Bathycoccus ecotypes exist, associated respectively with oceanic or mesotrophic environments. We hypothesize that intein propagation is facilitated by marine viruses; and, while intron gain is still poorly understood, presence of a spliceosomal intron where a locus lacks an intein raises the possibility of new, intein-primed mechanisms for intron gain. The discovery of nucleus-encoded inteins and associated sequence polymorphisms in uncultivated marine eukaryotes highlights their diversity and reveals potential sexual boundaries between populations indistinguishable by common marker genes. © 2013 International Society for Microbial Ecology.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Description: Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering themvisible fromspace3.Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate thatE. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2014-09-04
    Description: During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events1. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record2, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike3. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model16, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses—including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw—are generally consistent with empirical evidence1, 3, 17. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere–ocean–sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: Interior Antarctica is among the most remote places on Earth and was thought to be beyond the reach of human impacts when Amundsen and Scott raced to the South Pole in 1911. Here we show detailed measurements from an extensive array of 16 ice cores quantifying substantial toxic heavy metal lead pollution at South Pole and throughout Antarctica by 1889 – beating polar explorers by more than 22 years. Unlike the Arctic where lead pollution peaked in the 1970s, lead pollution in Antarctica was as high in the early 20th century as at any time since industrialization. The similar timing and magnitude of changes in lead deposition across Antarctica, as well as the characteristic isotopic signature of Broken Hill lead found throughout the continent, suggest that this single emission source in southern Australia was responsible for the introduction of lead pollution into Antarctica at the end of the 19th century and remains a significant source today. An estimated 660 t of industrial lead have been deposited over Antarctica during the past 130 years as a result of mid-latitude industrial emissions, with regional-to-global scale circulation likely modulating aerosol concentrations. Despite abatement efforts, significant lead pollution in Antarctica persists into the 21st century.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2017-10-10
    Description: Arctic permafrost caps vast amounts of old, geologic methane (CH4) in subsurface reservoirs. Thawing permafrost opens pathways for this CH4 to migrate to the surface. However, the occurrence of geologic emissions and their contribution to the CH4 budget in addition to recent, biogenic CH4 is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution (100 m × 100 m) regional (10,000 km²) CH4 flux map of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada, based on airborne CH4 flux data from July 2012 and 2013. We identify strong, likely geologic emissions solely where the permafrost is discontinuous. These peaks are 13 times larger than typical biogenic emissions. Whereas microbial CH4 production largely depends on recent air and soil temperature, geologic CH4 was produced over millions of years and can be released year-round provided open pathways exist. Therefore, even though they only occur on about 1% of the area, geologic hotspots contribute 17% to the annual CH4 emission estimate of our study area. We suggest that this share may increase if ongoing permafrost thaw opens new pathways. We conclude that, due to permafrost thaw, hydrocarbon-rich areas, prevalent in the Arctic, may see increased emission of geologic CH4 in the future, in addition to enhanced microbial CH4 production.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 79
    ISSN: 1072-8368
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The first X-ray structures of an intein–DNA complex, that of the two-domain homing endonuclease PI-SceI bound to its 36-base pair DNA substrate, have been determined in the presence and absence of Ca2+. The DNA shows an asymmetric bending pattern, with a major 50° bend in the endonuclease ...
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  • 80
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource