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  • Nature Publishing Group  (363,230)
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  • 1
    Journal cover
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4(1).1997 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1350-9047
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5403
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1466-4879
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5470
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
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    Japan Antibiotics Research Association | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 58.2005 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Japan Antibiotics Research Association , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0021-8820 , 0368-3532
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-1469
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 4
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    Japan Antibiotics Research Association | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 58.2005 –
    Publisher: Japan Antibiotics Research Association , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0021-8820 , 0368-3532
    Electronic ISSN: 1881-1469
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 229.1971 – 246.1973
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0300-8746
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2007 – 4(5).2010
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1753-9315
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2002 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1474-1776
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-1784
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-0056
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0064
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2016 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-8437
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-003X
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0048
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1992 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1061-4036
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1718
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1529-2908
    Electronic ISSN: 1529-2916
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1995 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1078-8956
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-170X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2004 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1548-7091
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-7105
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2006 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1748-3387
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-3395
    Topics: Physics
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  • 16
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1998 – 20.2017
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1097-6256
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1726
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2373-8065
    Topics: Physics
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-7189
    Topics: Biology
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  • 19
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2010 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group | Cell Death Differentiation Association
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Cell Death Differentiation Association
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7716
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group | Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-5968
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
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    Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1(1).1990 –
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1001-0602
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-7838
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 23
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    Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1990 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1001-0602
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-7838
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 24
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    Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 6.1998 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Print ISSN: 1018-4813
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5438
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 22.1977 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1434-5161
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-232X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 26
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 22.1977 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1434-5161
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-232X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group | ChangChun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics (CIOMP)
    Online: 1.2012 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , ChangChun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics (CIOMP)
    Electronic ISSN: 2047-7538
    Topics: Physics
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  • 28
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1998 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-7933
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 229(1).1971 – 246(155).1973
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0090-0028 , 0369-4887
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology
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  • 30
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 2055-026X
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-0278
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 31
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2006 – 2012
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2007 – 2009
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 1754-8705
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 33
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1754-2189
    Electronic ISSN: 1750-2799
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 34
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6387
    Topics: Physics
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  • 35
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    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1980 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1671-4083
    Electronic ISSN: 0253-9756
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 36
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4.1997 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0969-7128
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5462
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 37
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1466-4879
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5470
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 38
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    Nanjing Agricultural University | Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2014 –
    Publisher: Nanjing Agricultural University , Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-7276
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group | ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology), PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2007 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology), PubMed Central
    Corporation: International Society for Microbial Ecology, ISME
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: Mikrobiologie
    Parallel titles: The ISME Journal
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group | ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology)
    Online: 1.2007 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , ISME (International Society for Microbial Ecology)
    Corporation: International Society for Microbial Ecology, ISME
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
    Keywords: Mikrobiologie
    Parallel titles: The ISME Journal
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  • 41
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2003 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1740-1526
    Electronic ISSN: 1740-1534
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 42
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2000 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1471-0072
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-0080
    Topics: Biology
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1994 –
    Formerly as: Nature Structural Biology  (1994–2003)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1072-8368 , 1545-9993
    Electronic ISSN: 1072-8368 , 1545-9985
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Acronym: NSMB
    Abbreviation: Nat Struct Mol Biol
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  • 44
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1869 –
    Print: 289.1981 – 416.2002 (Location: A43, LZ 5-7 Oben)
    Print: 45.1891 – 234.1971 (Location: A62, MOP)
    Print: 173.1954 – 492.2012 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 49/1 - 51/1)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1999 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1465-7392
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4679
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 46
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.1983 –
    Formerly as: Bio-Technology  (1983–1996)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0733-222X , 1087-0156
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-1696
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 47
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2005 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1552-4450
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-4469
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 48
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2009 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1755-4330
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-4349
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 49
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1(1).2010 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 50
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    Nature Publishing Group | Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Online: 1(1).2009 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Print ISSN: 1884-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1884-4057
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 51
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-5008
    Topics: Biology
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  • 52
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    Nature Publishing Group | Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Online: 2015 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Electronic ISSN: 2057-3960
    Topics: Computer Science , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 53
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 38(1).2006 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0032-3896
    Electronic ISSN: 1349-0540
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 54
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    Nature Publishing Group | JSTOR
    Online: 1(1).1845 –
    Print: 268.1993 – 303(5).2010 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 64/5-6)
    Print: 270.1994 – 282.2000 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 64/5-6)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0036-8733
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-7087
    Topics: Biology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Abbreviation: Sci Am
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  • 55
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    Springer Nature | Nature Publishing Group | PubMed Central
    Online: 1.2011 –
    Publisher: Springer Nature , Nature Publishing Group , PubMed Central
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 56
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 6.1998 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1018-4813
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5438
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 57
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 4.1997 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 0969-7128
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5462
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 58
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2001 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1470-269X
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-1150
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 59
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 1.2001 – (older than 5 years)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Print ISSN: 1470-269X
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-1150
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Parallel titles: The Pharmacogenomics Journal
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  • 60
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    Nature Publishing Group | Biocentury
    Online: 1.2008 – 7.2014
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group , Biocentury
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3477
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 61
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    Nature Publishing Group
    Online: 2014 –
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Electronic ISSN: 2052-4463
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Tropopause temperatures (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal variability and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal variability in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth’s global surface temperature.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 63
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature, 534 (7607). pp. 320-322.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 64
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Scientific Reports, 6 . p. 27749.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Ocean acidification (OA), a process of increasing seawater acidity caused by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) by the ocean, is expected to change surface ocean pH to levels unprecedented for millions of years, affecting marine food web structures and trophic interactions. Using an in situ mesocosm approach we investigated effects of OA on community composition and trophic transfer of essential fatty acids (FA) in a natural plankton assemblage. Elevated pCO 2 favored the smallest phytoplankton size class in terms of biomass, primarily picoeukaryotes, at the expense of chlorophyta and haptophyta in the nano-plankton size range. This shift in community composition and size structure was accompanied by a decline in the proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to total FA content in the nano- and picophytoplankton size fractions. This decline was mirrored in a continuing reduction in the relative PUFA content of the dominant copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which primarily fed on the nano-size class. Our results demonstrate that a shift in phytoplankton community composition and biochemical composition in response to rising CO 2 can affect the transfer of essential compounds to higher trophic levels, which rely on their prey as a source for essential macromolecules.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0–1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at 〉6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500–24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (〉6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: We present the first speleothem-derived central North Africa rainfall record for the last glacial period. The record reveals three main wet periods at 65-61 ka, 52.5-50.5 ka and 37.5-33 ka that lead obliquity maxima and precession minima. We find additional minor wet episodes that are synchronous with Greenland interstadials. Our results demonstrate that sub-tropical hydrology is forced by both orbital cyclicity and North Atlantic moisture sources. The record shows that after the end of a Saharan wet phase around 70 ka ago, North Africa continued to intermittently receive substantially more rainfall than today, resulting in favourable environmental conditions for modern human expansion. The encounter and subsequent mixture of Neanderthals and modern humans – which, on genetic evidence, is considered to have occurred between 60 and 50 ka – occurred synchronously with the wet phase between 52.5 and 50.5 ka. Based on genetic evidence the dispersal of modern humans into Eurasia started less than 55 ka ago. This may have been initiated by dry conditions that prevailed in North Africa after 50.5 ka. The timing of a migration reversal of modern humans from Eurasia into North Africa is suggested to be coincident with the wet period between 37.5 and 33 ka.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Assigning functions to uncultivated environmental microorganisms continues to be a challenging endeavour. Here, we present a new microscopy protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridisation-correlative light and electron microscopy (FISH-CLEM) that enabled, to our knowledge for the first time, the identification of single cells within their complex microenvironment at electron microscopy resolution. Members of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, common and uncultivated symbionts of marine sponges, were used towards this goal. Cellular 3D reconstructions revealed bipolar, spherical granules of low electron density, which likely represent carbon reserves. Poribacterial activity profiles were retrieved from prokaryotic enriched sponge metatranscriptomes using simulation-based optimised mapping. We observed high transcriptional activity for proteins related to bacterial microcompartments (BMC) and we resolved their subcellular localisation by combining FISH-CLEM with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on ultra-thin sponge tissue sections. In terms of functional relevance, we propose that the BMC-A region may be involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. The FISH-IHC-CLEM approach was proven an effective toolkit to combine -omics approaches with functional studies and it should be widely applicable in environmental microbiology.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are a class of marine gel particles and important links between surface ocean biology and atmospheric processes. Derived from marine microorganisms, these particles can facilitate the biological pumping of carbon dioxide to the deep sea, or act as cloud condensation and ice nucleation particles in the atmosphere. Yet, environmental controls on TEP abundance in the ocean are poorly known. Here, we investigated some of these controls during the first multiyear time-series on TEP abundance for the Fram Strait, the Atlantic gateway to the Central Arctic Ocean. Data collected at the Long-Term Ecological Research observatory HAUSGARTEN during 2009 to 2014 indicate a strong biological control with highest abundance co-occurring with the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii. Higher occurrence of P. pouchetii in the Arctic Ocean has previously been related to northward advection of warmer Atlantic waters, which is expected to increase in the future. Our study highlights the role of plankton key species in driving climate relevant processes; thus, changes in plankton distribution need to be accounted for when estimating the ocean’s biogeochemical response to global change.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Despite an increased understanding of functions in sponge microbiomes, the interactions among the symbionts and between symbionts and host are not well characterized. Here we reconstructed the metabolic interactions within the sponge Cymbastela concentrica microbiome in the context of functional features of symbiotic diatoms and the host. Three genome bins (CcPhy, CcNi and CcThau) were recovered from metagenomic data of C. concentrica, belonging to the proteobacterial family Phyllobacteriaceae, the Nitrospira genus and the thaumarchaeal order Nitrosopumilales. Gene expression was estimated by mapping C. concentrica metatranscriptomic reads. Our analyses indicated that CcPhy is heterotrophic, while CcNi and CcThau are chemolithoautotrophs. CcPhy expressed many transporters for the acquisition of dissolved organic compounds, likely available through the sponge's filtration activity and symbiotic carbon fixation. Coupled nitrification by CcThau and CcNi was reconstructed, supported by the observed close proximity of the cells in fluorescence in situ hybridization. CcPhy facultative anaerobic respiration and assimilation by diatoms may consume the resulting nitrate. Transcriptional analysis of diatom and sponge functions indicated that these organisms are likely sources of organic compounds, for example, creatine/creatinine and dissolved organic carbon, for other members of the symbiosis. Our results suggest that organic nitrogen compounds, for example, creatine, creatinine, urea and cyanate, fuel the nitrogen cycle within the sponge. This study provides an unprecedented view of the metabolic interactions within sponge-microbe symbiosis, bridging the gap between cell- and community-level knowledge.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The reliable production of marine fish larvae is one of the major bottlenecks in aquaculture due to high mortalities mainly caused by infectious diseases. To evaluate if the compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) might be a suitable immunoprophylactic measure in fish larviculture, its capacity to improve immunity and performance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) yolk-sac larvae was explored. PHB was applied from mouth opening onwards to stimulate the developing larval immune system at the earliest possible point in time. Larval survival, growth, microbiota composition, gene expression profiles and disease resistance were assessed. PHB administration improved larval survival and, furthermore, altered the larva-associated microbiota composition. The bacterial challenge test using pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum revealed that the larval disease resistance was not influenced by PHB. The expression profiles of 26 genes involved e.g. in the immune response showed that PHB affected the expression of the antimicrobial peptides ferritin (fer) and dicentracin (dic), however, the response to PHB was inconsistent and weaker than previously demonstrated for sea bass post-larvae. Hence, the present study highlights the need for more research focusing on the immunostimulation of different early developmental stages for gaining a more comprehensive picture and advancing a sustainable production of high quality fry.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Many marine invertebrates including ctenophores are capable of extensive body regeneration when injured. However, as for the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, there is a constant subportion of individuals not undergoing whole body regeneration but forming functionally stable half-animals instead. Yet, the driving factors of this phenomenon have not been addressed so far. This study sheds new light on how differences in food availability affect self-repair choice and regeneration success in cydippid larvae of M. leidyi. As expected, high food availability favored whole-body regeneration. However, under low food conditions half-animals became the preferential self-repair mode. Remarkably, both regenerating and half-animals showed very similar survival chances under respective food quantities. As a consequence of impaired food uptake after injury, degeneration of the digestive system would often occur indicating limited energy storage capacities. Taken together, this indicates that half-animals may represent an alternative energy-saving trajectory which implies self-repair plasticity as an adaptive trade-off between high regeneration costs and low energy storage capacities. We conclude that self-repair plasticity could lead to higher population fitness of ctenophores under adverse conditions such as in ships’ ballast water tanks which is postulated to be the major vector source for the species’ spreading around the globe.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Microbes associated with deep-sea corals remain poorly studied. The lack of symbiotic algae suggests that associated microbes may play a fundamental role in maintaining a viable coral host via acquisition and recycling of nutrients. Here we employed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to study bacterial communities of three deep-sea scleractinian corals from the Red Sea, Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. We found diverse, species-specific microbiomes, distinct from the surrounding seawater. Microbiomes were comprised of few abundant bacteria, which constituted the majority of sequences (up to 58% depending on the coral species). In addition, we found a high diversity of rare bacteria (taxa at 〈1% abundance comprised 〉90% of all bacteria). Interestingly, we identified anaerobic bacteria, potentially providing metabolic functions at low oxygen conditions, as well as bacteria harboring the potential to degrade crude oil components. Considering the presence of oil and gas fields in the Red Sea, these bacteria may unlock this carbon source for the coral host. In conclusion, the prevailing environmental conditions of the deep Red Sea (〉20 °C, 〈2 mg oxygen L−1) may require distinct functional adaptations, and our data suggest that bacterial communities may contribute to coral functioning in this challenging environment.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Methane seepage from the upper continental slopes of Western Svalbard has previously been attributed to gas hydrate dissociation induced by anthropogenic warming of ambient bottom waters. Here we show that sediment cores drilled off Prins Karls Foreland contain freshwater from dissociating hydrates. However, our modeling indicates that the observed pore water freshening began around 8 ka BP when the rate of isostatic uplift outpaced eustatic sea-level rise. The resultant local shallowing and lowering of hydrostatic pressure forced gas hydrate dissociation and dissolved chloride depletions consistent with our geochemical analysis. Hence, we propose that hydrate dissociation was triggered by postglacial isostatic rebound rather than anthropogenic warming. Furthermore, we show that methane fluxes from dissociating hydrates were considerably smaller than present methane seepage rates implying that gas hydrates were not a major source of methane to the oceans, but rather acted as a dynamic seal, regulating methane release from deep geological reservoirs.
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  • 76
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature Climate Change, 8 (4). pp. 300-304.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: A shutdown of ocean convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, triggered by enhanced melting over Greenland, is regarded as a potential transition point into a fundamentally different climate regime1,2,3. Noting that a key uncertainty for future convection resides in the relative importance of melting in summer and atmospheric forcing in winter, we investigate the extent to which summer conditions constrain convection with a comprehensive dataset, including hydrographic records that are over a decade in length from the convection regions. We find that warm and fresh summers, characterized by increased sea surface temperatures, freshwater concentrations and melting, are accompanied by reduced heat and buoyancy losses in winter, which entail a longer persistence of the freshwater near the surface and contribute to delaying convection. By shortening the time span for the convective freshwater export, the identified seasonal dynamics introduce a potentially critical threshold that is crossed when substantial amounts of freshwater from one summer are carried over into the next and accumulate. Warm and fresh summers in the Irminger Sea are followed by particularly short convection periods. We estimate that in the winter 2010–2011, after the warmest and freshest Irminger Sea summer on our record, ~40% of the surface freshwater was retained.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Kryos Basin is a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (34.98°N 22.04°E). It is filled with brine of re-dissolved Messinian evaporites and is nearly saturated with MgCl2-equivalents, which makes this habitat extremely challenging for life. The strong density difference between the anoxic brine and the overlying oxic Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, giving rise to a narrow chemocline. Here, we investigate the microbial community structure and activities across the seawater–brine interface using a combined biogeochemical, next-generation sequencing, and lipid biomarker approach. Within the interface, we detected fatty acids that were distinctly 13C-enriched when compared to other fatty acids. These likely originated from sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that fix carbon via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the lower part of the interface, we also measured elevated rates of methane oxidation, probably mediated by aerobic methanotrophs under micro-oxic conditions. Sulfate reduction rates increased across the interface and were highest within the brine, providing first evidence that sulfate reducers (likely Desulfovermiculus and Desulfobacula) thrive in the Kryos Basin at a water activity of only ~0.4 Aw. Our results demonstrate that a highly specialized microbial community in the Kryos Basin has adapted to the poly-extreme conditions of a DHAB with nearly saturated MgCl2 brine, extending the known environmental range where microbial life can persist.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Methane emission from the geosphere is generally characterized by a radiocarbon-free signature and might preserve information on the deep carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a clear relationship between the origin of methane-rich natural gases and the geodynamic setting of the West Pacific convergent plate boundary. Natural gases in the frontal arc basin (South Kanto gas fields, Northeast Japan) show a typical microbial signature with light carbon isotopes, high CH4/C2H6 and CH4/³He ratios. In the Akita-Niigata region – which corresponds to the slope stretching from the volcanic-arc to the back-arc –a thermogenic signature characterize the gases, with prevalence of heavy carbon isotopes, low CH4/C2H6 and CH4/³He ratios. Natural gases from mud volcanoes in South Taiwan at the collision zone show heavy carbon isotopes, middle CH4/C2H6 ratios and low CH4/³He ratios. On the other hand, those from the Tokara Islands situated on the volcanic front of Southwest Japan show the heaviest carbon isotopes, middle CH4/C2H6 ratios and the lowest CH4/³He ratios. The observed geochemical signatures of natural gases are clearly explained by a mixing of microbial, thermogenic and abiotic methane. An increasing contribution of abiotic methane towards more tectonically active regions of the plate boundary is suggested.
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  • 79
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Scientific Reports, 8 (13015).
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: What process triggered the Mediterranean Sea restriction remains debated since the discovery of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Recent hypotheses infer that the MSC initiated after the closure of the Atlantic-Mediterranean Betic and Rifean corridors, being modulated through restriction at the Gibraltar Strait. These hypotheses however, do not integrate contemporaneous speciation patterns of the faunal exchange between Iberia and Africa and geological features like the evaporite distribution. Exchange of terrestrial biota occurred before, during and after the MSC, and speciation models support an exchange path across the East Alborán basin (EAB) located a few hundreds of km east of the Gibraltar Strait. Yet, a structure explaining jointly geological and biological observations has remained undiscovered. We present new seismic data showing the velocity structure of a well-differentiated 14-17-km thick volcanic arc in the EAB. Isostatic considerations support that the arc-crust buoyancy created an archipelago and filter bridge across the EAB. Sub-aerial erosional unconformities and onlap relationships support that the arc was active between ~10-6 Ma. Progressive arc build-up leading to an archipelago and its later subsidence can explain the extended exchange of terrestrial biota between Iberia and Africa (~7-3 Ma), and agrees with patterns of biota speciation and terrestrial fossil distribution before the MSC (10-6.2 Ma). In this scenario, the West Alboran Basin (WAB) could then be the long-postulated open-marine refuge for the Mediterranean taxa that repopulated the Mediterranean after the MSC, connected to the deep restricted Mediterranean basin through a sill at the Alboran volcanic arc archipelago.
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  • 80