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  • Fisheries  (165)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service  (165)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-10
    Description: Stichaeidae, commonly referred to as pricklebacks, are intertidal and subtidal fishes primarily of the North Pacific Ocean. Broad distribution in relatively inaccessible and undersampled habitats has contributed to a general lack of information about this family. In this study, descriptions of early life history stages are presented for 25 species representing 18 genera of stichaeid fishes from the northeastern Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean Basin. Six of these species also occur in the North Atlantic Ocean. Larval stages of 16 species are described for the first time. Additional information or illustrations intended to augment previous descriptions are provided for nine species. For most taxa, we present adult and larval distributions, descriptions of morphometric, meristic, and pigmentation characters, and species comparisons, and we provide illustrations for preflexion through postflexion or transformation stages. New counts of meristic features are reported for several species.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 2
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    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2014-03-07
    Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) Fisheries Sampling Branch (FSB) collects, maintains, and distributes data for scientific and management purposes in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. FSB manages three separate but related observer programs: the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program (NEFOP), the Industry Funded Scallop (IFS) Observer Program, and the At Sea Monitoring (ASM) Program. For the purposes of this manual, “observers” refers to any observer/monitor working for the FSB. In 2011, FSB trained and deployed over 200 observers, provided coverage on a variety of fisheries, and completed over 15,000 sea days. Observed trips are required under many of the region's fishery management plans, and for some fisheries by other federal laws and authorities such as Amendment 16 and Framework 44, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Endangered Species Act, the and the Sustainable Fisheries Act. The purpose of this guide is to provide FSB observers, as well as end users of NEFSC Observer Program data, with a detailed description of each data field collected. In addition to this manual, the NEFSC Observer Program Biological Sampling and Catch Estimation Manual provides summaries and tables intended to enable observers to quickly determine the correct sampling protocols and methods while at sea. This manual represents a revision of the data forms, collection procedures, and protocols described in the 1996 NEFSC Observer Program Manual. For documentation of other changes see Documentation of changes made to the NEFSC Fisheries Observer Program Manual, 2013.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management ; Policies
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: The genus Sebastes consists of over 100 fish species, all of which are viviparous and long-lived. Previous studies have presented schemes on the reproductive biology of a single targeted species of the genus Sebastes, but all appear to possess a similar reproductive biology as evidenced by this and other studies. This atlas stages major events during spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and embryogenesis, including atresia, in six species of Sebastes (S. alutus, S. elongatus, S. helvomaculatus, S. polyspinis, S. proriger, and S. zacentrus). Our study suggests that the male reproductive cycle of Sebastes is characterized by 11 phases of testicular development, with 10 stages of sperm development and 1 stage of spermatozoa atresia. Ovarian development was divided into 12 phases, with 10 stages of oocyte development, 1 stage of embryonic development, and 1 stage of oocyte atresia. Embryonic development up to parturition was divided into 33 stages following the research of Yamada and Kusakari (1991). Reproductive development of all six species examined followed the developmental classifications listed above which may apply to all species of Sebastes regardless of the number of broods produced annually. Multiple brooders vary in that not all ova are fertilized and progress to embryos; a proportion of ova are arrested at the pre-vitellogenic stage. Reproductive stage examples shown in this atlas use S. elongates for spermatic development, S. proriger for oocyte development, and S. alutus for embryological development, because opportunistic sampling only permitted complete analysis of each respective developmental phase for those species. The results of this study and the proposed reproductive phases complement the recommended scheme submitted by Brown-Peterson et al. (2011), who call for a standardization of terminology for describing reproductive development of fishes.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 4
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    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: The Age and Growth Program at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center is tasked with providing age data in order to improve the basic understanding of the ecology and fisheries dynamics of Alaskan fish species. The primary focus of the Age and Growth Program is to estimate ages from otoliths and other calcified structures for age-structured modeling of commercially exploited stocks; however, the program has recently expanded its interests to include numerous studies on topics ranging from age estimate validation to the growth and life history of non-target species. Because so many applications rely upon age data and particularly upon assurances as to their accuracy and precision, the Age and Growth Program has developed this practical guide to document the age determination of key groundfish species from Alaskan waters. The main objective of this manual is to describe techniques specific to the age determination of commercially and ecologically important species studied by the Age and Growth Program. The manual also provides general background information on otolith morphology, dissection, and preparation, as well as descriptions of methods used to measure precision and accuracy of age estimates. This manual is intended not only as a reference for age readers at the AFSC and other laboratories, but also to give insight into the quality of age estimates to scientists who routinely use such data.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: The first dedicated collections of deep-water (〉80 m) sponges from the central Aleutian Islands revealed a rich fauna including 28 novel species and geographical range extensions for 53 others. Based on these collections and the published literature, we now confirm the presence of 125 species (or subspecies)of deep-water sponges in the Aleutian Islands. Clearly the deep-water sponge fauna of the Aleutian Islands is extraordinarily rich and largely understudied. Submersible observations revealed that sponges, rather than deep-water corals, are the dominant feature shaping benthic habitats in the region and that they provide important refuge habitat for many species of fish and invertebrates including juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and king crabs (Lithodes sp). Examination of video footage collected along 127 km of the seafloor further indicate that there are likely hundreds of species still uncollected from the region, and many unknown to science. Furthermore, sponges are extremely fragile and easily damaged by contact with fishing gear. High rates of fishery bycatch clearly indicate a strong interaction between existing fisheries and sponge habitat. Bycatch in fisheries and fisheries-independent surveys can be a major source of information on the location of the sponge fauna, but current monitoring programs are greatly hampered by the inability of deck personnel to identify bycatch. This guide contains detailed species descriptions for 112 sponges collected in Alaska, principally in the central Aleutian Islands. It addresses bycatch identification challenges by providing fisheries observers and scientists with the information necessary to adequately identify sponge fauna. Using that identification data, areas of high abundance can be mapped and the locations of indicator species of vulnerable marine ecosystems can be determined. The guide is also designed for use by scientists making observations of the fauna in situ with submersibles, including remotely operated vehicles and autonomous underwater vehicles.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Prior to Pietsch’s (1993) revision of the genus Triglops, identification of their larvae was difficult; six species co-occur in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and three co-occur in the western North Atlantic Ocean. We examined larvae from collections of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center and Atlantic Reference Centre and used updated meristic data, pigment patterns, and morphological characters to identify larvae of Triglops forficatus, T. macellus, T. murrayi, T. nybelini, T. pingeli, and T. scepticus; larvae of T. metopias, T. dorothy, T. jordani, and T. xenostethus have yet to be identified and are thus not included in this paper. Larval Triglops are characterized by a high myomere count (42–54), heavy dorsolateral pigmentation on the gut, and a pointed snout. Among species co-occurring in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, T. forficatus, T. macellus, and T. pingeli larvae are distinguished from each other by meristic counts and presence or absence of a series of postanal ventral melanophores. Triglops scepticus is differentiated from other eastern North Pacific Ocean larvae by having 0–3 postanal ventral melanophores, a large eye, and a large body depth. Among species co-occurring in the western North Atlantic Ocean, T. murrayi and T. pingeli larvae are distinguished from each other by meristic counts (vertebrae, dorsal-fin rays, and anal-fin rays once formed), number of postanal ventral melanophores, and first appearance and size of head spines. Triglops nybelini is distinguished from T. murrayi and T. pingeli by a large eye, pigment on the lateral line and dorsal midline in flexion larvae, and a greater number of dorsal-fin rays and pectoral-fin rays once formed.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 7
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    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2014-02-19
    Description: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is dedicated to the stewardship of living marine resources (LMR’s). This is accomplished through science-based conservation and management, and the promotion of healthy ecosystems. As a steward, NMFS has an obligation to conserve, protect, and manage these resources in a way that ensures their continuation as functioning components of healthy marine ecosystems, affords economic opportunities, and enhances the quality of life for the American public. In addition to its responsibilities within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), NMFS plays a supportive and advisory role in the management of LMR’s in the coastal areas under state jurisdiction and provides scientific and policy leadership in the international arena. NMFS also implements international measures for the conservation and management of LMR’s, as appropriate.NMFS receives its stewardship responsibilities under a number of Federal laws. These include the Nation’s primary fisheries law, the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This law was first passed in 1976, later reauthorized as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1996, and reauthorized again on 12 January 2007 as the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act (MSRA). The MSRA mandates strong action to conserve and manage fishery resources and requires NMFS to end overfishing by 2010 in all U.S. commercial and recreational fisheries, rebuild all overfished stocks, and conserve essential fish habitat.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This compendium presents information on the life history, diet, and abundance and distribution of 46 of the more abundant juvenile and small resident fish species, and data on three species of seagrasses in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park. Abundance and distribution of fish data were derived from three sampling schemes: (1) an otter trawl in basins (1984–1985, 1994–2001), (2) a surface trawl in basins (1984–1985), and (3) a surface trawl in channels (1984–1985). Results from surface trawling only included pelagic species. Collections made with an otter trawl in basins on a bi-monthly basis were emphasized. Nonparametric statistics were used to test spatial and temporal differences in the abundance of species and seagrasses. Fish species accounts were presented in four sections – Life history, Diet, Abundance and distribution, and Length-frequency distributions. Although Florida Bay is a subtropical estuary, the majority of fish species (76%) had warm-temperate affinities; i.e., only 24% were solely tropical species. The five most abundant species collected, in descending order, by (1) otter trawl in basins were: Eucinostomus gula, Lucania parva, Anchoa mitchilli, Lagodon rhomboides, and Syngnathus scovelli; (2) surface trawl in basins were: Hyporhamphus unifasciatus, Strongylura notata, Chriodorus atherinoides, Anchoa hepsetus, and Atherinomorus stipes; (3) surface trawl in channels were: Hypoatherina harringtonensis, A. stipes, A. mitchelli, H. unifasciatus, and C. atherinoides. (PDF file contains 219 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) collected in surveys designed to assess juvenile salmonids and other species in the Gulf of Alaska in 1998 and 2000–2003 provide an opportunity to document the occurrence of the pelagic juveniles of several species of rockfish. Often, species identification of rockfish is difficult or impossible at this stage of development (~20 to 60 mm), and few species indigenous to Alaska waters have been described. Use of mitochondrial DNA markers for rockfish species allowed unequivocal identification of ten species (S. aleutianus, S. alutus, S. borealis, S. entomelas, S. flavidus, S. melanops, S. pinniger, S. proriger, S. reedi, and S. ruberrimus) in subsamples from the collections. Other specimens were genetically assignable to groups of two or three species. Sebastes borealis, S. crameri, and S. reedi were identified using morphological data. Combining genetic and morphological data allowed successful resolution of the other species as S. emphaeus, probably S. ciliatus (although S. polyspinis cannot be totally ruled out), and S. polyspinis. Many specimens were initially morphologically indistinguishable from S. alutus, and several morphological groups included fish genetically identified as S. alutus. This paper details the characteristics of these pelagic juveniles to facilitate morphological identification of these species in future collections. (PDF file contains 32 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Ghost shrimp and mud shrimp in the decapod infraorder Thalassinidea are ecologically important members of many benthic intertidal and shallow subtidal infaunal communities, largely due to the sediment filtration and mixing that result from their burrowing and feeding behavior. These activities considerably modify their immediate environment and have made these cryptic animals extremely interesting to scientists in terms of their behavior, ecology, and classification. Over 20 years ago, seven species of thalassinideans were known from the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Canaveral, FL). During this study, the examination of extensive collections from the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), the Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center (SERTC), and regional institutions, resulted in the identification of 14 species of thalassinideans currently known to occur within this region. The family Axiidae is represented by three species: Axius armatus, Calaxius jenneri, and Paraxiopsis gracilimana; the Callianassidae by six: Biffarius biformis, B. cf. fragilis, Callichirus major, Cheramus marginatus, Gilvossius setimanus, and Necallianassa berylae; the Calocarididae by two: Calocaris templemani and Acanthaxius hirsutimanus; and the families Laomediidae, Thomassiniidae, and Upogebiidae are each represented by one: Naushonia crangonoides, Crosniera wennerae, and Upogebia affinis, respectively. An illustrated key is presented for species level identification and supplemental notes on the ecology, distribution, and taxonomy of the species are provided.(PDF file contains 38 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) has the highest biomass of any groundfish species in the Gulf of Alaska, is a voracious predator of age 1 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), and is a major component in the diet of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Owing to its ecological importance in the Gulf of Alaska and the limited information available on its reproduction, interest has intensified in describing its spawning and early life history. A study was undertaken in late January–February 2001–2003 in the Gulf of Alaska to obtain information on adult spawning location, depth distribution, and sexual maturity, and to obtain fertilized eggs for laboratory studies. Adults were found 200–600 m deep east of Kodiak Island over the outer continental shelf and upper slope, and southwest along the shelf break to the Shumagin Islands. Most ripe females (oocytes extruded with light pressure) were found at 400 m and most ripe males (milt extruded with light pressure) were found at depths ≥450 m. Eggs were fertilized and incubated in the laboratory at 3.0°, 4.5°, and 6.0°C. Eggs were reared to hatching, but larvae did not survive long enough to complete yolk absorption and develop pigment. Eggs were staged according to morphological hallmarks and incubation data were used to produce a stage duration table and a regression model to estimate egg age based on water temperature and developmental stage. Arrowtooth flounder eggs (1.58–1.98 mm in diameter) were collected in ichthyoplankton surveys along the continental shelf edge, primarily at depths ≥400 m. Early-stage eggs were found in tows that sampled to depths of ≥450 m. Larvae, which hatch between 3.9 and 4.8 mm standard length, increased in abundance with depth. Observations on arrowtooth flounder eggs and early-stage larvae were used to complete the description of the published partial developmental series.(PDF file contains 34 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 12
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    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: The 1997 reauthorization of the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act (Striped Bass Act) mandated biennial reports to Congress and to the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (Commission) from the secretaries of the Department of Commerce and the Department of the Interior concerning the progress and findings of studies of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The Striped Bass Act specifically requests updates on studies that include, but are not limited to: annual stock assessments, investigations on the causes of fluctuations in Atlantic striped bass populations, the effects of environmental factors on the recruitment, spawning potential, mortality, and abundance of Atlantic striped bass populations, and investigations of interactions between Atlantic striped bass and other fish. This document is the fifth such report to Congress and includes data available through 2007 with emphasis on the 2005 and 2006 calendar years.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Following the examination of extensive collections from the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), the Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center (SERTC), and other regional institutions, 18 species of the family Mysidae are recognized and described from the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Lookout, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida). This report includes synonymies of previous records, as well as new species distribution records. Previous regional accounts of Metamysidopsis munda and Metamysidopsis mexicana are attributed to Metamysidopsis swifti. New regional records are established for Amathimysis brattegardi, Heteromysis beetoni, and Siriella thompsonii. Two other species tentatively identified as Amathimysis sp. (nr. serrata) and Mysidopsis sp. (cf. mortenseni) may represent new taxa. Neobathymysis renoculata is included and discussed as a potential regional species. An illustrated key to the species currently known from the South Atlantic Bight is presented. Relevant taxonomic, distributional, and ecological information is also included for each species. (PDF file contains 45 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This publication of the NOAA Professional Paper NMFS Series is the product of a special symposium on “Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management” held during the 56th annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute meeting in Tortola, British Virgin Islands, November 2003. The purpose of this collection is to highlight the diversity of questions and issues in reef fisheries management that are benefiting from applications of technology. Topics cover a wide variety of questions and issues from the study of individual behavior, distribution and abundance of groups and populations, and associations between habitats and fish and shellfish species.(PDF files contains 124 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Larval kelp (Sebastes atrovirens), brown (S. auriculatus), and blackand-yellow (S. chrysomelas) rockfish were reared from known adults, to preflexion stage, nine days after birth for S. chrysomelas, to late postflexion stage for S. atrovirens, and to pelagic juvenile stage for S. auriculatus. Larval S. atrovirens and S. chrysomelas were about 4.6 mm body length (BL) and S. auriculatus about 5.2 mm BL at birth. Both S. atrovirens and S. auriculatus underwent notochord flexion at about 6–9 mm BL. Sebastes atrovirens transform to the pelagic juvenile stage at about 14–16 mm BL and S. auriculatus transformed at ca. 25 mm BL. Early larvae of all three species were characterized by melanistic pigment dorsally on the head, on the gut, on most of the ventral margin of the tail, and in a long series on the dorsal margin of the tail. Larval S. atrovirens and S. auriculatus developed a posterior bar on the tail during the flexion or postflexion stage. In S. atrovirens xanthic pigment resembled the melanistic pattern throughout larval development. Larval S. auriculatus lacked xanthophores except on the head until late preflexion stage, when a pattern much like the melanophore pattern gradually developed. Larval S. chrysomelas had extensive xanthic pigmentation dorsally, but none ventrally, in preflexion stage. All members of the Sebastes subgenus Pteropodus (S. atrovirens, S. auriculatus, S. carnatus, S. caurinus, S. chrysomelas, S. dalli, S. maliger, S. nebulosus, S. rastrelliger) are morphologically similar and all share the basic melanistic pigment pattern described here. Although the three species reared in this study can be distinguished on the basis of xanthic pigmentation, it seems unlikely that it will be possible to reliably identify field-collected larvae to species using traditional morphological and melanistic pigmentation characters. (PDF file contains 36 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: In 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a series of marine angler expenditure surveys in the coastal regions of the United States (U.S.) to evaluate marine recreational fishing expenditures and the financial impacts of these expenditures in each region and the U.S. as a whole. In this report, we use the previously estimated expenditure estimates to assess the total financial impact of anglers’ saltwater expenditures. Estimates are provided for sales, income, employment, and tax impacts for each coastal state in the U.S. Aggregate estimates are also provided for the entire U.S., excluding Alaska, Hawaii, and Texas. Direct, indirect, and induced effects associated with resident and non-resident angler expenditures were estimated using a regional input-output modeling system called IMPLAN Pro. Nationwide, recreational saltwater fishing generated over $30.5 billion in sales in 2000, nearly $12.0 billion in income, and supported nearly 350,000 jobs. Approximately 89 cents of every dollar spent by saltwater anglers was estimated to remain within the U.S. economy. At the state level, many of the goods anglers purchased were imports, and, as such, as little as 44 cents of every dollar stayed in Rhode Island and as much as 80 cents of every dollar stayed in Georgia. In the Northeast, the highest impacts were generated in New Jersey, even though recreational fishing expenditures in Massachusetts and Maryland were considerably higher. In the Southeast, the highest impacts were generated in Florida, and on the Pacific Coast, the highest impacts were generated in California. Expenditures on boat maintenance/expenses generated more impacts than any other expenditure category in the U.S. Expenditures on rods and reels was the single most important expense category in terms of generating impacts in most of the Northeast states. Expenditures on boat expenses generated the highest in most Southeast states, and expenditures for boat accessories produced the highest impacts in most Pacific Coast states.(PDF file contains 184 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: This regional atlas summarizes and illustrates the distribution and abundance patterns of fish eggs and larvae of 102 taxa within 34 families found in the Northeast Pacific Ocean including the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and U.S. west coast ecosystems. Data were collected over a 20+ year period (1972–1996) by the Recruitment Processes Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC). Ichthyoplankton catch records used in this atlas were generated from 11,379 tows taken during 100 cruises. For each taxon, general life history data are briefly summarized from the literature. Published information on distribution patterns of eggs and larvae are reviewed for the study area. Data from AFSC ichthyoplankton collections were combined to produce an average spatial distribution for each taxon. These data were also used to estimate mean abundance and percent occurrence by year and month, and relative abundance by larval length and season. Abundance from each tow was measured as catch per 10 m2 surface area. A larval distribution and abundance map was produced with a geographic information system using ArcInfo software. For taxa with identifiable pelagic eggs, distribution maps showing presence or absence of eggs are presented. Presence or absence of adults in the study area is mapped based on recent literature and data from AFSC groundfish surveys. Distributional records for adults and early life history stages revealed several new range extensions. (PDF file contains 288 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This study summarizes the results of a survey designed to provide economic information about the financial status of commercial reef fish boats with homeports in the Florida Keys. A survey questionnaire was administered in the summer and fall of 1994 by interviewers in face-to-face meetings with owners or operators of randomly selected boats. Fishermen were asked for background information about themselves and their boats, their capital investments in boats and equipment, and about their average catches, revenues, and costs per trip for their two most important kinds of fishing trips during 1993 for species in the reef fish fishery. Respondents were characterized with regard to their dependence on the reef fish fishery as a source of household income. Boats were described in terms of their physical and financial characteristics. Different kinds of fishing trips were identified by the species that generated the greatest revenue. Trips were grouped into the following categories: yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus); mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis), black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci), or red grouper (Epinephelus morio); gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus); deeper water groupers and tilefishes; greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili); spiny lobster (Panulirus argus); king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla); and dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus). Average catches, revenues, routine trip costs, and net operating revenues per boat per trip and per boat per year were estimated for each category of fishing trips. In addition to its descriptive value, data collected during this study will aid in future examinations of the economic effects of various regulations on commercial reef fish fishermen.(PDF file contains 48 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Sighting, stranding, and capture records of whales and dolphins for Venezuela were assembled and analyzed to document the Venezuelan cetacean fauna and its distribution in the eastern Caribbean. An attempt was made to confirm species identification for each of the records, yielding 443 that encompass 21 species of cetaceans now confirmed to occur in Venezuelan marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats. For each species, we report its global and local distribution, conservation status and threats, and the common names used, along with our proposal for a Spanish common name. Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni) is the most commonly reported mysticete. The long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) is the most frequent of the odontocetes in marine waters. The boto or tonina (Inia geoffrensis) was found to be ubiquitous in the Orinoco watershed. The distribution of marine records is consistent with the pattern of productivity of Venezuelan marine waters, i.e., a concentration at 63°07′W through 65°26′W with records declining to the east and to the west. An examination of the records for all cetaceans in the Caribbean leads us to conclude that seven additional species may be present in Venezuelan waters. (PDF file contains 61 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Ecology ; Conservation ; Fisheries
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Identification problems are common for many sharks due to a general lack of meristic characteristics that are typically useful for separating species. Other than number of vertebrae and number and shape of teeth, identifications are frequently based on external features that are often shared among species. Identification problems in the field are most prevalent when live specimens are captured and releasing them with a minimum of stress is a priority (e.g., shark tagging programs). Identifications must be accurate and conducted quickly but this can be challenging, especially if specimens are very active or too large to be landed without physical damage. This field guide was designed primarily for use during field studies and presents a simplified method for identifying the 21 species of western North Atlantic Ocean sharks belonging to the family Carcharhinidae (carcharhinids). To assist with identifications a dichotomous key to Carcharhinidae was developed, and for the more problematic Carcharhinus species (12 species), separation sheets based on important distinguishing features were constructed. Descriptive text and illustrations provided in the species accounts were developed from field observations, photographs, and published references. (PDF file contains 36 pages.)
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Paralarval and juvenile cephalopods collected in plankton samples on 21 western North Atlantic cruises were identified and enumerated. The 3731 specimens were assigned to 44 generic and specific taxa. This paper describes their spatial and temporal distributions and their developmental morphology. The smallest paralarvae recognized for a number of species are identified and illustrated. The two most abundant and most frequently collected taxa were identifiable to species based on known systematic characters of young, as well as on distribution of the adults. These were the neritic squids Loligo pealeii and Illex illecebrosus collected north of Cape Hatteras, both valuable fishery resources. Other abundant taxa included two morphotypes of ommastrephids, at least five species of enoploteuthids, two species of onychoteuthids, and unidentified octopods. Most taxa were distributed widely both in time and in space, although some seasonal and mesoscale-spatial patterns were indicated. The taxa that appeared to have distinct seasonal distribution included most of the neritic species and, surprisingly, the young of the bathypelagic cranchiids. In eight seasonal cruises over the continental shelf of the middle U.S. Atlantic states, neritic taxa demonstrated approximately the same seasonal patterns during two consecutive years. Interannual differences in the oceanic taxa collected on the shelf were extreme. The highest abundance and diversity of planktonic cephalopods in the oceanic samples were consistently found in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream. Only eight of the oceanic taxa appeared to have limited areal distributions, compared with twelve taxa that were found throughout the western North Atlantic regions sampled in this study. Many taxa, however, were not collected frequently enough to describe seasonal or spatial patterns. Comparisons with published accounts of other cephalopod surveys indicate both strengths and weaknesses in various sampling techniques for capturing the young of oceanic cephalopods. Enoploteuthids were abundant both in our study and in other studies using midwater trawls in several areas of the North Atlantic. Thus, this family probably is adequately sampled over its developmental range. In contrast, octopoteuthids and chtenopterygiids are rare in collections made by small to medium-sized midwater trawls but are comparatively common in plankton samples. For families that are relatively common in plankton samples, paralarval abundance, derived similarly to the familiar ichthyoplankton surveys of fisheries science, may be the most reliable method of gathering data on distribution and abundance. (PDF file contains 58 pages.)
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-02-20
    Description: This report argues for greatly increased resources in terms of data collection facilities and staff to collect, process, and analyze the data, and to communicate the results, in order for NMFS to fulfill its mandate to conserve and manage marine resources. In fact, the authors of this report had great difficulty defining the "ideal" situation to which fisheries stock assessments and management should aspire. One of the primary objectives of fisheries management is to develop sustainable harvest policies that minimize the risks of overfishing both target species and associated species. This can be achieved in a wide spectrum of ways, ranging between the following two extremes. The first is to implement only simple management measures with correspondingly simple assessment demands, which will usually mean setting fishing mortality targets at relatively low levels in order to reduce the risk of unknowingly overfishing or driving ecosystems towards undesirable system states. The second is to expand existing data collection and analysis programs to provide an adequate knowledge base that can support higher fishing mortality targets while still ensuring low risk to target and associated species and ecosystems. However, defining "adequate" is difficult, especially when scientists have not even identified all marine species, and information on catches, abundances, and life histories of many target species, and most associated species, is sparse. Increasing calls from the public, stakeholders, and the scientific community to implement ecosystem-based stock assessment and management make it even more difficult to define "adequate," especially when "ecosystem-based management" is itself not well-defined. In attempting to describe the data collection and assessment needs for the latter, the authors took a pragmatic approach, rather than trying to estimate the resources required to develop a knowledge base about the fine-scale detailed distributions, abundances, and associations of all marine species. Thus, the specified resource requirements will not meet the expectations of some stakeholders. In addition, the Stock Assessment Improvement Plan is designed to be complementary to other related plans, and therefore does not duplicate the resource requirements detailed in those plans, except as otherwise noted.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The distribution, abundance, and length composition of marine finfish, lobster, and squid in Long Island Sound were examined relative to season and physical features of the Sound, using Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection trawl survey data collected from 1984 to 1994. The following are presented: seasonal distribution maps for 59 species, abundance indices for 41 species, and length frequencies for 26 species. In addition, a broader view of habitat utilization in the Sound was examined by mapping aggregated catches (total catch per tow, demersal catch per tow, and pelagic catch per tow) and by comparing species richness and mean aggregate catch/tow by analysis of variance (ANOVA) among eight habitat types defined by depth interval and bottom type. For many individual species, seasonal migration patterns and preference for particular areas within Long Island Sound were evident. The aggregate distribution maps show that overall abundance was lower in the eastern Sound than the central and western portions. Demersal and pelagic temporal abundance show opposite trends—demersals were abundant in spring and declined through summer and fall, whereas pelagic abundance was low in spring and increased into fall. The analysis of habitat types revealed significant differences for both species richness and mean catch per tow. Generally, species richness was highest in habitats within the central area of the Sound and lowest in eastern habitats. The aggregate mean catch was highest in the western and central habitats, and declined eastward. (PDF file contains 199 pages.)
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Otoliths commonly are used to determine the taxon, age, and size of fishes. This information is useful for population management, predator-prey studies, and archaeological research. The relationship between the length of a fish and the length of its otoliths remains unknown for many species of marine fishes in the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, the relationships between fish length and fish weight, and between otolith length and fish length, were developed for 63 species of fishes caught in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. We also summarized similar relationships for 46 eastern North Pacific fish species reported in the literature. The relationship between fish length and otolith length was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a simple least-squares regression (r 2 〉 0.700 for 45 of 63 species). The relationship between otolith length and fish length was not significantly different between left and right otoliths for all but one fish species. Images of otoliths from 77 taxa are included to assist in the identification of species. (PDF file contains 38 pages.)
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The status of the Gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, fishery was assessed with purse-seine landings data from 1946 to 1997 and port sampling data from 1964 to 1997. These data were analyzed to determine growth rates, biological reference points for fi shing mortality from yield per recruit and maximum spawning potential analyses, spawner-recruit relationships, and maximum sustainable yield (MSY). The separable virtual population approach was used for the period 1976–97 (augmented by earlier analyses for 1964–75) to obtain point estimates of stock size, recruits to age 1, spawning stock size, and fishing mortality rates. Exploitation rates for age-1 fi sh ranged between 11% and 45%, for age-2 fi sh between 32% and 72%, and for age-3 fi sh between 32% and 76%. Biological reference points from yield per recruit (F0.1: 1.5–2.5/yr) and spawning potential ratio (F20: 1.3–1.9/yr and F30: 0.8–1.2/yr) were obtained for comparison with recent estimates of F (0.6–0.8/yr). Recent spawning stock estimates (as biomass or eggs) are above the long-term average, while recent recruits to age 1 are comparable to the long-term average. Parameters from Ricker-type spawner-recruit relations were estimated, although considerable unexplained variability remained. Recent survival to age-1 recruitment has generally been below that expected based on the Ricker spawner-recruit relation. Estimates of long-term MSY from PRODFIT and ASPIC estimation of production model ranged between 717,000 t and 753,000 t, respectively. Declines in landings between 1988 and 1992 raised concerns about the status of the Gulf menhaden stock. Landings have fl uctuated without trend since 1992, averaging about 571,000 t. However, Gulf menhaden are short lived and highly fecund. Thus, variation in recruitment to age 1, largely mediated by environmental conditions, infl uences fi shing success over the next two years (as age-1 and age-2 fi sh). Comparisons of recent estimates of fi shing mortality to biological reference points do not suggest overfishing. (PDF file contains 22 pages.)
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Information on the biology, fishery resources, explotiation patterns, management, and conservation status of two species of grouper-the Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus, and the jewfish, Epinephelus itajara-is compiled, reviewed, and analyzed. (PDF file contains 68 pages.)
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: An investigation was conducted into the deaths of more than 220 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that occurred within the coastal bay ecosystem of mid-Texas between January and May 1992. The high mortality rate was unusual in that it was limited to a relatively small geographical area, occurred primarily within an inshore bay system separated from the Gulf of Mexico by barrier islands, and coincided with deaths of other taxa including birds and fish. Factors examined to determine the potential causes of the dolphin mortalities included microbial pathogens, natural biotoxins, industrial pollutants, other environmental contaminants, and direct human interactions. Emphasis was placed on nonpoint source pesticide runoff from agricultural areas, which had resulted from record rainfall that occurred during the period of increased mortality. Analytical results from sediment, water, and biota indicated that biotoxins, trace metals, and industrial chemical contamination were not likely causative factors in this mortality event. Elevated concentrations of pesticides (atrazine and aldicarb) were detected in surface water samples from bays within the region, and bay salinities were reduced to 〈10 ppt from December 1991 through April 1992 due to record rainfall and freshwater runoff exceeding any levels since 1939. Prolonged exposure to low salinity could have played a significant role in the unusual mortalities because low salinity exposure may cause disruption of the permeability barrier in dolphin skin. The lack of established toxicity data for marine mammals, particularly dermal absorption and bioaccumulation, precludes accurate toxicological interpretation of results beyond a simple comparison to terrestrial mammalian models. Results clearly indicated that significant periods of agricultural runoff and accompanying low salinities co-occurred with the unusual mortality event in Texas, but no definitive cause of the mortalities was determined. (PDF file contains 25 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Sets and catches of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, made in 1985-96 by purse-seine vessels from Virginia and North Carolina were studied by digitizing and analyzing Captain's Daily Fishing Reports (CDFR's), daily logs of fishing activities completed by captains of menhaden vessels. 33,674 CDFR's were processed, representing 125,858 purse-seine sets. On average, the fleet made 10,488 sets annually. Virginia vessels made at least one purse-seine set on 67%-83% of available fishing days between May and December. In most years, five was the median number of sets attempted each fishing day. Mean set duration ranged from 34 to 43 minutes, and median catch per set ranged from 15 to 30 metric tons (t). Spotter aircraft assisted in over 83% of sets overall. Average annual catch in Chesapeake Bay (149,500 t) surpassed all other fishing areas, and accounted for 52% of the fleet's catch. Annual catch from North Carolina waters (49,100 t) ranked a distant second. Fishing activity in ocean waters clustered off the Mid-Atlantic states in June-September, and off North Carolina in November-January. Delaware Bay and the New Jersey coast were important alternate fishing grounds during summer. Across all ocean fishing areas, most sets and catch occurred within 3 mi. of shore, but in Chesapeake Bay about half of all fishing activity occurred farther offshore. In Virginia, areas adjacent to fish factories tended to be heavily fished. Recent regulatory initiatives in various coastal states threaten the Atlantic menhaden fleet's access to traditional nearshore fishing grounds. (PDF file contains 26 pages.)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This atlas presents information on fish eggs and temperature data collected from broadscale ichthyoplankton surveys conducted off the U.S. northeast coast from ]977 to 1987. Distribution and abundance information is provided for 33 taxa in the form of graphs and contoured egg-density maps by month and survey. Comments are included on interannual and interseasonal trends in spawning intensity. Data on 14 additional but less numerous taxa are provided in tabular form. (PDF file contains 316 pages.)
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  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Three major mass mortality events occurred on the upper Texas coast during 1994, from January through the second week of May. These events were distinguished by unusually large numbers of dead dolphins, sea turtles, and fishes washing ashore on Texas beaches. The beach stranding of dead animals began in January with bottlenose dolphins. By the end of March, 142 dolphins had washed ashore as compared to about 40 expected. By the latter part of April, dolphin mortalities declined but stranding of dead and comatose sea turtles increased. By the end of April, at least 127 sea turtles had stranded on the Texas coast since the beginning of the year, about double the expected number. Then, during May and June, a third mortality event began with a massive fish kill and more turtle deaths. By the middle of May, mortalities of all species as indicated by beach strandings returned to within expected levels. Nevertheless, 1994 stood out as a record year of marine mass mortalities in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. (PDF file contains 94 pages.)
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: From the mid-1950's to the mid-1960's a series of quantitative surveys of the macrobenthic invertebrate fauna were conducted in the offshore New England region (Maine to Long Island, New York). The surveys were designed to 1) obtain measures of macrobenthic standing crop expressed in terms of density and biomass; 2) determine the taxonomic composition of the fauna (ca. 567 species); 3) map the general features of macrobenthic distribution; and 4) evaluate the fauna's relationships to water depth, bottom type, temperature range, and sediment organic carbon content. A total of 1,076 samples, ranging from 3 to 3,974 m in depth, were obtained and analyzed. The aggregate macrobenthic fauna consists of 44 major taxonomic groups (phyla, classes, orders). A striking fact is that only five of those groups (belonging to four phyla) account for over 80% of both total biomass and number of individuals of the macrobenthos. The five dominant groups are Bivalvia, Annelida, Amphipoda, Echninoidea, and Holothuroidea. Other salient features pertaining to the macrobenthos of the region are the following: substantial differences in quantity exist among different geographic subareas within the region, but with a general trend that both density and biomass increase from northeast to southwest; both density and biomass decrease with increasing depth; the composition of the bottom sediments significantly influences both the kind and quantity of macrobenthic invertebrates, the largest quantities of both measures of abundance occurring in the coarser grained sediments and diminishing with decreasing particle size; areas with marked seasonal changes in water temperature support an abundant and diverse fauna, whereas a uniform temperature regime is associated with a sparse, less diverse fauna; and no detectable trends are evident in the quantitative composition of the macrobenthos in relation to sediment organic carbon content. (PDF file contains 246 pages.)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: There are 19 economically important reef fish species in the deepwater (l00-300 m) fishery of the southeastern United States. Five species make up the majority (over 97% by weight) of the catch. In descending order of total landings for 1995, they are: tilefish, Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps, snowy grouper, Epinephelus niveatus, blueline tilefish, Caulolatilus microps, warsaw grouper, Epinephelus nigritus, and yellowedge grouper, E. flavolimbatus. Life history summaries and estimates of catches from 1972 through 1995 for 14 species are described. (PDF file contains 45 pages.)
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) is a commercially important flounder in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. In the latter, its center of abundance is in the eastern Bering Sea and along the Aleutian Islands chain where its population is managed as a single stock. Harvest levels in this region of the North Pacific during the period 1970-81 were comparable with those in the northwest and northeast Atlantic, with annual average catches of 53,000 metric tons (t). However, the catch in 1984 dropped sharply to 23,100 t, in part because of reduced quotas arising from concern over continued poor recruitment and declining catch-per-unit-effort. Recruitment failure was manifested in 1) the sharp decline in the catch rate of young flsh in annual research trawl surveys on the continental shelf of the eastern Bering Sea and 2) an increasing proportion of older and larger fish in the commercial catch from the continental slope of both the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. The cause ofthe decline in recruitment could not be clearly identifled. Greenland turbot of the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands share certain distributional features with the North Atlantic form. There is an apparent bathymetric change in the size and age of fish, with younger animals occupying continental shelf depths and the older individuals residing at depths of the continental slope. At shallow depths the young are exposed to temperature fluctuations, whereas older animals along the slope are exposed to relatively stable temperatures. A hypothesis is proposed for describing the temporal and spatial paths by which young animals reach the mature or spawning portion of the population. (PDF file contains 38 pages.)
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The swordfish, Xiphias gladius, is a large migratory oceanic species. It is widely distributed in tropical, temperate, and sometimes cold waters of all oceans, and is usually found in areas with sea-surface temperatures above 13°C. It can reach a maximum size of 540 kg, and is a favorite food fish in many countries. It is excellent for steaks, canning, or teriyaki, the Japanese dish of meat grilled with sugar, soy sauce, and rice wine. Swordfish is harvested commercially throughout its distribution, in both coastal and high-seas fisheries. Sport fisheries for swordfish are very small compared to those for other billfishes, accounting for no more than a few hundred fish per year. (PDF file contains 284 pages.)
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The phylum Acanthocephala (intestinal worm parasites of vertebrates) of the Atlantic coast of the United States comprises 43 species and 20 genera belonging to three orders: Echinorhynchida, Neoechinorhynchida, and Polymorphida. Adults are exclusively intestinal parasites of vertebrates. This study includes those species found in vertebrates of marine and estuarine environments along the North American Atlantic coast between Maine and Texas. Species that can be found within that geographical range and those that typically infect freshwater fishes but that are occasionally present in marine or estuarine hosts are also included. The taxonamy, anatomy, natural history, and ecology of the phylum Acanthocephala are discussed, and an illustrated key to the genera is presented. Techniques, an annotated systematic treatment of all 43 species, and a systematic index are included. No systematic decisions will be made at this time, but areas where such decisions are pending will be indicated and discussed for future reports. (PDF file contains 32 pages.)
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Developmental stages of 22 species representing 16 genera of agonid fishes occurring in the northeastern Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay to the Arctic Ocean are presented. Three of these species also occur in the North Atlantic Ocean. Larval stages of nine species are described for the first time. Additional information or illustrations intended to augment original descriptions are provided for eight species. Information on five other species is provided from the literature for comparative purposes. The primary objective of this guide is to present taxonomic characters to help identify the early life history stages of agonid fishes in field collections. Meristic, morphometric, osteological, and pigmentation characters are used to identify agonid larvae. Meristic features include numbers of median-fin elements, pectoral-fin rays, dermal plates, and vertebrae. Eye diameter, body depth at the pectoral-fin origin, snout to first dorsal-fin length, and pectoral-fin length are the most useful morphological characters. Presence, absence, numbers, and/or patterns of dermal plates in lateral rows or on the ventral surface of the gut are also useful. Other important characters are the presence, absence, numbers, and ornamentation of larval head spines. Lastly, distinct pigmentation patterns are often diagnostic. The potential utility of larval characters in phylogenetic analysis of the family Agonidae is discussed. (PDF file contains 92 pages.)
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton adjacent to live-bottom habitats (rock outcroppings containing rich, sessile invertebrate communities and many species of tropical and subtropical fishes) in open-shelf waters « 55-m isobath) in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, were investigated. Larvae of reef-associated genera, especially the economically important subtropical and tropical members of the families Haemulidae (Haemulon), Lutjanidae (Lutjanus and Rltomboplites), Serranidae (Mycteroperca and Epinephelus), and Sparidae (Calamus and Pagrus) were targeted. Larvae representing 40 families were collected in neuston tows. Commonly collected reef-associated families were Balistidae, Blenniidae (dominated by the reef-associated Parablennius marmoreus) , Mullidae, and Gobiidae. Larvae representing 70 families were collected in subsurface tows. Reef-associated families commonly collected included Apogonidae, Balistidae, Gobiidae, Haemulidae, LutJanidae, Scaridae, and Serranidae. Larval Haemulon sp (p)., Lutjanus sp(p)., and Rltomboplites aurorubens were commonly collected and thus it is likely that these taxa spawn in Onslow Bay and recruit to live-bottom sites within the area. Other families of fishes commonly collected but generally not considered reef-associated included Bothidae, Callionymidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, and Ophidiidae. Estuarine-dependent species (e.g. the clupeid Brevoortia tyrannus and the sciaenids Leiostomus xanthurus and Micropogonias undulatus) were an important component of the ichthyoplankton during late fall and winter. The frequent occurrence of larvae from oceanic species (e.g. gonostomatids and myctophids) indicated that Gulf Stream waters had intruded onto the shelf, transporting these larvae to open-shelf waters off North Carolina.(PDF file containes 36 pages.)
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This key includes 60 species of sea anemones and their relatives in the orders Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, Ceriantharia, and Zoanthidea. Species from the intertidal zone, continental slope, and deep sea are included over a geographic range from Atlantic Canada to approximately South Carolina. In addition to the illustrated key itself, characteristics of each species are summarized in tabular form, including morphology, distribution, and types and sizes of cnidae. Ecological and taxonomic information on each species are also included in an annotated species list. (PDF file contains 76 pages.)
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The broad scale features in the horizontal, vertical, and seasonal distribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll a on the northeast U.S. continental shelf are described based on 57,088 measurements made during 78 oceanographic surveys from 1977 through 1988. Highest mean water column chlorophyll concentration (Chlw,) is usually observed in nearshore areas adjacent to the mouths of the estuaries in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), over the shallow water on Georges Bank, and a small area sampled along the southeast edge of Nantucket Shoals. Lowest Chlw «0.125 ug l-1) is usually restricted to the most seaward stations sampled along the shelf-break and the central deep waters in the Gulf of Maine. There is at least a twofold seasonal variation in phytoplankton biomass in all areas, with highest phytoplankton concentrations (m3) and highest integrated standing stocks (m2) occurring during the winter-spring (WS) bloom, and the lowest during summer, when vertical density stratification is maximal. In most regions, a secondary phytoplankton biomass pulse is evident during convective destratification in fall, usually in October. Fall bloom in some areas of Georges Bank approaches the magnitude of the WS-bloom, but Georges Bank and Middle Atlantic Bight fall blooms are clearly subordinate to WS-blooms. Measurements of chlorophyll in two size-fractions of the phytoplankton, netplankton (〉20 um) and nanoplankton «20 um), revealed that the smaller nanoplankton are responsible for most of the phytoplankton biomass on the northeast U.S. shelf. Netplankton tend to be more abundant in nearshore areas of the MAB and shallow water on Georges Bank, where chlorophyll a is usually high; nanoplankton dominate deeper water at the shelf-break and deep water in the Gulf of Maine, where Chlw is usually low. As a general rule, the percent of phytoplankton in the netplankton size-fraction increases with increasing depth below surface and decreases proceeding offshore. There are distinct seasonal and regional patterns in the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a and percent netplankton, as revealed in composite vertical profiles of chlorophyll a constructed for 11 layers of the water column. Subsurface chlorophyll a maxima are ubiquitous during summer in stratified water. Chlorophyll a in the subsurface maximum layer is generally 2-8 times the concentration in the overlying and underlying water and approaches 50 to 75% of the levels observed in surface water during WS-bloom. The distribution of the ratio of the subsurface maximum chlorophyll a to surface chlorophyll a (SSR) during summer parallels the shelfwide pattern for stability, indexed as the difference in density (sigma-t) between 40 m and surface (stability 40. The weakest stability and lowest SSR's are found in shallow tidally-mixed water on Georges Bank; the greatest stability and highest SSR's (8-12:1) are along the mid and outer MAB shelf, over the winter residual water known as the "cold band." On Georges Bank, the distribution of SSR and the stability40 are roughly congruent with the pattern for maximum surface tidal current velocity, with values above 50 cms-1 defining SSR's less than 2:1 and the well-mixed area. Physical factors (bathymetry, vertical mixing by strong tidal currents, and seasonal and regional differences in the intensity and duration of vertical stratification) appear to explain much of the variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll a throughout this ecosystem. (PDF file contains 126 pages.)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The incidence of four discrete characters of individual sockeye salmon -two genetically inherited proteins (PGM-1*and PGM-2*), freshwater age at migration, and the presence of the brain-tissue parasite Myxobolus arcticus-in weekly samples from two Alaskan fisheries (Noyes Island in 1986 and Sumner Strait in 1987) were used to infer stock composition of the catches based on corresponding character samples from 73 Alaskan and Canadian stocks. Estimated contributions of 13 stock groups, formed on the basis of character similarity of their members, were roughly consistent with expectations from tagging experiments, knowledge of stock magnitudes, and similar assessments from scales. Imprecision of the estimated contributions by the 13 stock groups limited their practical value; but variability was much reduced for combined estimated contributions by two inclusive categories, namely stock groups whose members had either high or low brainparasite prevalence. Noyes Island catches consisted predominantly of unparasitized fish, most of which were probably of Canadian origin. The majority of Sumner Strait catches consisted of parasitized fish, whose freshwater origins may have been in Alaska or Canada. (PDF file contains 27 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF file contains 248 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Over 100 molluscan species are landed in Mexico. About 30% are harvested on the Pacific coast and 70% on the Atlantic coast. Clams, scallops, and squid predominate on the Pacific coast (abalone, limpets, and mussels are landed there exclusively). Conchs and oysters predominate on the Atlantic coast. In 1988, some 95,000 metric tons (t) of mollusks were landed, with a value of $33 million. Mollusks were used extensively in prehispanic Mexico as food, tools, and jewelry. Their use as food and jewelry continues. Except in the States of Baja California and Baja California Sur, where abalone, clams, and scallops provide fishermen with year-round employment, mollusk fishing is done part time. On both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, many fishermen are nomads, harvesting mollusks wherever they find abundant stocks. Upon finding such beds, they build camps, begin harvesting, and continue until the mollusks become so scarce that it no longer pays to continue. They then look for productive beds in other areas and rebuild their camps. Fishermen harvest abalones, mussels, scallops, and clams by free-diving and using scuba and hooka. Landings of clams and cockles have been growing, and 22,000 t were landed in 1988. Fishermen harvest intertidal clams by hand at wading depths, finding them with their feet. In waters up to 5 m, they harvest them by free-diving. In deeper water, they use scuba and hooka. Many species of gastropods have commercial importance on both coasts. All species with a large detachable muscle are sold as scallops. On the Pacific coast, hatchery culture of oysters prevails. Oyster culture in Atlantic coast lagoons began in the 1950's, when beds were enhanced by spreading shells as cultch for spat. (PDF file contains 228 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: In 1992 and 1993, researchers from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory initiated photo-identification studies on Alaskan killer whales, Orcinus orca. Waters from Kodiak Island west to the central and eastern Aleutian Islands and southeastern Bering Sea were surveyed. A total of 289 individual whales were identified. A photographic record of the whales encountered during these surveys is presented. When photographs of the 289 individual whales were compared among various regions in Alaska (Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska) and areas outside Alaska (British Columbia, Washington, and California), 11 matches were found. The count is conservative because the 1992 and 1993 surveys were limited in geographical range, restricted to summer periods, and whales may have been missed along the survey trackline. Future research incorporating both photoidentification studies and line transect surveys will provide reliable abundance estimates of Alaskan killer whales. (PDF file contains 58 pages.)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: At its june 1990 annual meeting, the Technical Subcommittee (TSC) of the Canada-U.S. Groundfish Committee recommended that scientists and managers working on sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, issues convene to present and discuss the results of their recent research. Thorough knowledge of the biology and population dynamics of this species is essential for its effective management, especially considering its commercial importance. TSC representatives from both countries recognized that a great deal ofactive research has been conducted on this species since the International Sablefish Symposium was held in Anchorage, Alaska, in March 1983 (Melteff, 1983). As a result of this recommendation, the International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Sablefish (ISBMS) was convened April 13-15, 1993, at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Washington. (PDF file contains 286 pages.)
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This three-volume monograph represents the first major attempt in over a century to provide, on regional bases, broad surveys of the history, present condition, and future of the important shellfisheries of North and Central America and Europe. It was about 100 years ago that Ernest Ingersoll wrote extensively about several molluscan fisheries of North America (1881, 1887) and about 100 years ago that Bashford Dean wrote comprehensively about methods of oyster culture in Europe (1893). Since those were published, several reports, books, and pamphlets have been written about the biology and management of individual species or groups ofclosely related mollusk species (Galtsoff, 1964; Korringa, 1976 a, b, c; Lutz, 1980; Manzi and Castagna, 1989; Shumway, 1991). However, nothing has been written during the past century that is comparable to the approach used by Ingersoll in describing the molluscan fisheries as they existed in his day in North America or, for that matter, in Europe. (PDF file contains 224 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The status of the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, fishery was assessed with purseseine landing data from 1946 to 1992 and port sampling data from 1964 to 1992. These data were analyzed to determine growth rates, biological reference points for fishing mortality from yield per recruit and maximum spawning potential analyses, spawner-recruit relationships, and maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Virtual population approaches were used to obtain point estimates of stock size, recruits to age I, spawning stock size, and fishing mortality rates. Exploitation rates ranged between 14% and 45% for age-1 fish, between 30% and 72% for age-2 fish, and between 36% and 71% for age-3 fish. Biological reference points from yield per recruit (FO. I: 0.7-0.9 yr-1) and maximum spawning potential (F20: 1.62.9 yr-l and F30: 1.0-2.1 yr-1) were obtained for comparison with recent estimates of F (0.4-0.8 yr-l). Parameters from Ricker-type spawner-recruit relations were estimated, although considerable unexplained variability remained. Estimates of long-term MSY from fits of the generalized production model ranged between 664,000 metric tons (t) and 897,000 t. Declines in landings since 1988 have raised concerns about the status of the gulf menhaden stock. However, gulf menhaden are short lived and highly fecund. Thus, variation in recruitment to age 1 largely mediated by environmental conditions influences fishing success over the next two years (as age-1 and age-2 fish). Comparisons of recent estimates of fishing mortality to biological reference points do not suggest overfishing. (PDF file contains 26 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), hosted an international workshop, 'The Importance of Prerecruit Walleye Pollock to the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ecosystems," from 28 to 30 October 1993. This workshop was held in conjunction with the annual International North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) meeting held in Seattle. Nearly 100 representatives from government agencies, universities, and the fishing industry in Canada, Japan, the People's Republic of China, Russia, and the United States took part in the workshop to review and discuss current knowledge on juvenile pollock from the postlarval period to the time they recruit to the fisheries. In addition to its importance to humans as a major commercial species, pollock also serves as a major forage species for many marine fishes, birds, and mammals in the North Pacific region. (PDF file contains 236 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This guide was developed to assist with the identification of western North Atlantic grouper species of the genera Alphestes, Cephalopholis, Dermatolepis, Epinephelus, Gonioplectrus, Mycteroperca, and Paranthias. The primary purpose for assembling the guide is for use with projects that deploy underwater video camera systems. The most vital source of information used to develop the guide was an archive of underwater video footage recorded during fishery projects. These video tapes contain 348 hours of survey activity and are maintained at the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Pascagoula, Mississippi. This footage spans several years (1980-92) and was recorded under a wide variety of conditions depicting diverse habitats from areas of the western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Published references were used as sources of information for those species not recorded on video footage during NMFS projects. These references were also used to augment information collected from video footage to provide broader and more complete descriptions. The pictorial guide presents information for all 25 grouper species reported to occur in the western North Atlantic. Species accounts provide descriptive text and illustrations depicting documented phases for the various groupers. In addition, species separation sheets based on important identification features were constructed to further assist with species identification. A meristic table provides information for specimens captured in conjunction with videoassisted fishery surveys. A computerized version enables guide users to amend, revise, update, or customize the guide as new observations and information become available. (PDF file contains 52 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: (PDF file contains 112 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: We compare results of bottom trawl surveys off Washington, Oregon, and California in 1977, 1980, 1983, and 1986 to discern trends in population abundance, distribution, and biology. Catch per unit of effort, area-swept biomass estimates, and age and length compositions for 12 commercially important west coast groundfishes are presented to illustrate trends over the lO-year period. We discuss the precision, accuracy, and statistical significance of observed trends in abundance estimates. The influence of water temperature on the distribution of groundfishes is also briefly examined. Abundance estimates of canary rockfish, Sebastes pinniger, and yellowtail rockfish, S. Jlavidus, declined during the study period; greater declines were observed in Pacific ocean perch, S. alutus, lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, and arrowtooth flounder, Atheresthes stomias. Biomass estimates of Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, and English, rex, and Dover soles (Pleuronectes vetulus, Errex zachirus, and Microstomus pacificus) increased, while bocaccio, S. paucispinis, and chilipepper, S. goodei, were stable. Sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, biomass estimates increased markedly from 1977 to 1980 and declined moderately thereafter. Precision was lowest for rockfishes, lingcod, and sablefish; it was highest for flatfishes because they were uniformly distributed. The accuracy of survey estimates could be gauged only for yellowtail and canary rockfish and sablefish. All fishery-based analyses produced much larger estimates of abundance than bottom trawl surveys-indicative of the true catchability of survey trawls. Population trends from all analyses compared well except in canary rockfish, the species that presents the greatest challenge to obtaining reasonable precision and one that casts doubts on the usefulness of bottom trawl surveys for estimating its abundance. (PDF file contains 78 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton was investigated from November 1979 to March 1980 along a transect from coastal to continental slope waters in Onslow Bay, North Carolina. Representatives of 66 families were collected; 24 of which were tropical families, a category that also includes families of typically oceanic and deep-sea fishes. Larvae of tropical species were collected in coastal and shelf waters, demonstrating the intrusion of Gulf Stream waters onto the continental shelf. From December through March, frontal waters that separated cold open-shelf surface waters from warm Gulf Stream surface waters were observed. Higher abundances of fish larvae were sometimes, but not consistently, associated with frontal waters. A great diversity of taxa was collected in offshore waters, and densities of larvae were low in coastal waters; low densities were attributed to gear selectivity rather than low larval abundance. Larvae of commercially and recreationally important estuarine-dependent species, especially Leiostomus xanthus and Micropogonias undulatus, were dominant components of the ichthyoplankton. Representatives of the families Bothidae, Clupeidae, Gadidae, Gonostomatidae, Myctophidae, Ophidiidae, and Sparidae were also important components of the ichthyoplankton. Larvae of species representing two strikingly different life history types-mesopelagic and estuarine-dependent frequently cooccurred.(PDF file contains 32 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Current information is reviewed that provides clues to the intraspecific structure of dolphin species incidently killed in the yellowfin tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP). Current law requires that management efforts are focused on the intraspecific level, attempting to preserve local and presumably locally adapted populations. Four species are reviewed: pantropical spotted, Stenella attenuata; spinner, S. longirostTis; striped, S. coeruleoalba; and common, Delphinus delphis, dolphins. For each species, distributional, demographic, phenotypic, and genotypic data are summarized, and the putative stocks are categorized based on four hierarchal phylogeographic criteria relative to their probability of being evolutionarily significant units. For spotted dolphins, the morphological similarity of animals from the south and the west argues that stock designations (and boundaries) be changed from the current northern offshore and southern offshore to northeastern offshore and a combined western and southern offshore. For the striped dolphin, we find little reason to continue the present division into geographical stocks. For common dolphins, we reiterate an earlier recommendation that the long-beaked form (Baja neritic) and the northern short-beaked form be managed separately; recent morphological and genetic work provides evidence that they are probably separate species. Finally, we note that the stock structure of ETP spinner dolphins is complex, with the whitebelly form exhibiting characteristics of a hybrid swarm between the eastern and pantropical subspecies. There is little morphological basis at present for division of the whitebelly spinner dolphin into northern and southern stocks. However, we recommend continued separate management of the pooled whitebelly forms, despite their hybrid/intergrade status. Steps should be taken to ensure that management practices do not reduce the abundance of eastern relative to whitebelly spinner dolphins. To do so may lead to increased invasion of the eastern's stock range and possible replacement of the eastern spinner dolphin genome.(PDF file contains 24 pages.)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, scup, Stenotomus chrysops, and black sea bass, Centropristis striata, cooccur within the Middle Atlantic Bight and off southern New England and are important components of commercial and recreational fisheries. The commercial otter trawl fishery for these species is primarily a winter fishery, whereas the recreational fishery takes place between late spring and autumn. The otter trawl fishery generally targets summer flounder, and less frequently scup, while black sea bass occurs as bycatch. Trips in which all three species were present yielded highest aggregate landings per unit of effort (LPUE) levels and occurred more often than trips landing only one or two species. More than 50% of the trips in the trawl fishery landed at least two of the three species. In contrast, greater than 75% of the recreational landings of each species occurred as a result of trips landing only one species. Differences in the fisheries resulted from the interactions of seasonal changes in species distributions and gear selectivity. (PDF file contains 18 pages.)
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The eastern Bering Sea is a major marine ecosystem containing some of the largest populations of groundfish, crabs, birds, and marine mammals in the world. Commercial catches of groundfish in this region have averaged about 1.6 million tons (t) annually in 1970-86. This report describes the species and relative importance of species in the eastern Bering Sea groundfish complex, the environment in which they live, and the history of the fisheries and management during the years 1954 - 1985. Historical changes in abundance and the condition of the principal species at the end of this first 30 years of exploitation are also examined. Results suggest that the biomass of the groundfish complex is characterized by variability rather than stability. The most reliable data (1979 to 1985) suggests that the biomass of the complex fluctuated between 11.8 and 15.7 million t. Even greater variability is suggested by the less reliable data from earlier years. Because of its dominance in the complex and wide fluctuations in abundance, walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is primarily responsible for the major variations in abundance of the complex. After 30 years of exploitation, the complex was generally in excellent condition. (PDF file contains 100 pages.)
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Monitoring of the waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine has been conducted by the MARMAP Ships of Opportunity Program since the early 1970's. Presented in this atlas are portrayals of the temporal and spatial patterns of surface and bottom temperature and surface salinity for these areas during the period 1978-1990. These patterns are shown in the form of time-space diagrams for single-year and multiyear (base period) time frames. Each base period figure shows thirteen-year (1978-1990) mean conditions, sample variance in the form of standard deviations of the measured values, and data locations. Each single-year figure displays annual conditions, sampling locations, and departures of annual conditions from the thirteen-year means, expressed as algebraic anomalies and standardized anomalies. (PDF file contains 112 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: About 72 species of Sebastes (Family Scorpaenidae) are found along the eastern Pacific coast of North America, some of which are heavily exploited by both commercial and sport fisheries. Because of the large number of species, the identification of early life stages has progressed slowly. The objectives of this study were 1) to rear the larvae of four species of rockfish (Sebastes mystinus, S. carnatus, S. atrovirens, and S. rastrelliger); and 2) to describe the larvae using morphometric measurements, pigmentation patterns, and head spination. Pigmentation was the most useful feature for identification purposes. Two general patterns were found: 1) a short row of ventral midline melanophores on the tail, and none or very little postero-dorsal pigmentation (S. mystinus); and 2) complete ventral midline pigmentation on the tail, and anterior and postero-dorsal melanophores (S. carnatus, S. atrovirens, and S. rastrelliger). With the exception of very early stages of S. carnatus and S. atrovirens, these species can be readily identified. Morphometric proportions and head spination did not show major differences among species. Because of the great similarities found among species in this genus, descriptions from field studies are uncertain to some extent. Laboratory rearings, although difficult, can at least provide early larvae from known species which allow precise identification as well as an estimation ofvariability of characters (e.g., pigmentation) within and between broods.(PDF file contains 22 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Observations on maturation stages of nineteen species of economically important finfish off the Northeast coast of the USA were analyzed to examine relationships between fish size or age, and maturity. Maturation schedules and median lengths (L50) and ages (A50) at maturation were derived by fitting the logistic model to the observed proportions. Analyses were generally restricted to observations from 1985 to 1990 obtained during stratified random bottom trawl surveys conducted in spring and autumn by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries in waters of the continental shelf from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Butterfish, Peprilus triacanthus, attained sexual maturity at the smallest median length (11.4 cm, males) and pollock, Pollachius virens, at the highest (41.8 em, males). Median length at maturity for gadiforms ranged from 22.2 to 41.8 em. Within the pleuronectiforms, median length at maturity ranged from 19.1 to 30.4 cm. Median lengths for the pelagic and miscellaneous demersal species were in the same ranges as the pleuronectiforms. Butterfish also attained sexual maturity at the youngest median age (0.9 yr, both sexes) whereas redfish, Sebastes fasciatus, were the latest to mature (5.5 yr, both sexes). For gadids, the median age at maturity ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 yr. Within the pleuronectiforms, median age at maturity ranged from 1.3 to 4.4 yr and, for pelagic species, from 0.9 to 3.0 yr. Median lengths and ages for many species are lower than those reported in earlier studies of the same general region of the Northwest Atlantic. (PDF file contains 72 pages.)
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  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Elasmobranchs are vital and valuable components of the marine biota. From an ecological perspective they occupy the role of top predators within marine food webs, providing a regulatory control that helps balance the ecosystem. From an evolutionary perspective, this group represents an early divergence along the vertebrate line that produced many unusual, but highly successful, adaptations in function and form. From man's perspective, elasmobranchs have been considered both an unavoidable nuisance, and an exploitable fishery resource. A few of the large shark species have earned a dubious notoriety because of sporadic attacks on humans that occur in coastal areas each year worldwide; the hysteria surrounding an encounter with a shark can be costly to the tourist industry. More importantly, elasmobranchs are often considered a detriment to commercial fishing operations; they cause significant economic damage to catches and fishing gear. On the other hand, consumer attitudes have changed concerning many previously unpopular food fishes, including elasmobranchs, and this group of fishes has been increasingly used by both recreational and commercial fishing interests. Many elasmobranchs have become a popular target of recreational fishermen for food and sport because of their abundance, size, and availability in coastal waters. Similarly, commercial fisheries for elasmobranchs have developed or expanded from an increased demand for elasmobranch food products. (PDF file contains 108 pages.)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Biology
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Species identifications of Prionotus and Bellator are often difficult under field conditions owing to the large number of species and their overlapping taxonomic characteristics. This key is intended to provide a simplified, accurate means to identify adult searobins greater than 10 cm standard length. All recognized species from the western North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea are included. (PDF file contains 30 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during the Third Cabinet-Level Meeting of the Joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs in January 1964, In addition to aquaculture, current subjects in the program include desalination of seawater, toxic microorganisms, air pollution, energy, forage crops, national park management, mycoplasmosis, wind and seismic effects, protein resources, forestry, and several joint panels and committees in marine resources research, development, and utilization. Accomplishments include increased communication and cooperation among technical specialists; exchanges of information, data, and research findings; annual meetings of the panels, a policy-coordinative body; administrative staff meetings; exchanges of equipment, materials, and samples; several major technical conferences; and beneficial effects on international relations. (PDF file contains 150 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Eight hundred sixty-five records of Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) reported from Texas between the late 1940's to April 1990 were compiled from six data bases and the literature, then plotted on a series of Texas maps. Four categories of Kemp's ridleys are identified throughout the atlas: head-started (turtles that are raised in captivity their first year of life), wild, historical (pre-1980), and nesters. Geographic, seasonal, and size distributions of the turtle categories are plotted by regions. Most Kemp's ridleys were reported from the northeast and central Texas coast. They were reported from both inshore (landward of barrier islands) and offshore (seaward of barrier islands). Scattered nestings occurred in the central to southern regions. Kemp's ridleys were found more often during the spring and summer. A total of 546 turtle records contained measurements; most were 20-59.9 cm curved carapace length and considered sub-adults. Comparison of distributions of head-started and wild Kemp's ridleys suggests head-started Kemp's ridleys inhabit the same areas as wild Kemp's ridleys. (PDF file contains 56 pages.)
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Female reproduction in penaeid shrimp is carefully regulated by several different endocrine factors. Their precise modes of action have not yet been fully elucidated. Three endocrine factors, each representing a different chemical class of hormones, have been investigated in the penaeid shrimp Sicyonia ingentis in our laboratory: ecdysteroids, vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) , and methyl farnesoate (MF). Ecdysteroids (the steroid molting hormones of arthropods; predominantly 20-hydroxyecdysone), are initially present in low levels (〈10 ng/mg) in shrimp embryos. As development of the embryos nears time of hatch, the ecdysteroid levels increase to approximately 150 ng/ mg, indicating that they may be of embryonic origin and involved in embryonic development. An assay was developed for shrimp VIH, which presumably is a protein. Delay of onset of the next reproductive cycle was observed following injection of sinus gland extracts into shrimp that had previously had their eyestalks removed. A photoaffinity analog was synthesized for the putative shrimp reproductive hormone MF-a terpenoid. This analog, farnesyl diazomethyl ketone (FDK) , was used to demonstrate the presence of specific binding proteins for MF in shrimp hemolymph. (PDF file contains 136 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The benthic macrofauna of the New York Bight has been monitored extensively, primarily to determine trends over space and time in biological effects of waste inputs. In the present study, from 44 to 48 stations were sampled each summer from 1980-1985. Data from other Bight benthic studies are included to· extend the temporal coverage from 1979 to 1989. Numbers of species and amphipods per sample, taken as relatively sensitive indicators of environmental stress, showed consistent spatial patterns. Lowest values were found in the Christiaensen Basin and other inshore areas, and numbers increased toward the outermost shelf and Hudson Shelf Valley stations. There were statistically significant decreases in species and amphipods at most stations from 1980 to 1985. (Preliminary data from a more recent study suggest numbers of species increased again between 1986 and 1989.) Cluster analysis of 1980-85 data indicated several distinct assemblages-sewage sludge dumpsite, sludge accumulation area, inner Shelf Valley, outer Shelf Valley, outer shelf-with little change over time. The "enriched" and "highly altered" assemblages in the Basin appear similar to those reported since sampling began there in 1968. No consistently defaunated areas have been found in any sampling programs over the past 20 years. On a gross level, therefore, recent faunal responses to any environmental changes are not evident, but the more sensitive measures used, i.e. numbers of species and amphipods, do indicate widespread recent effects. Causes of the faunal changes are not obvious; some possibilities, including increasing effects of sewage sludge or other waste inputs, natural factors, and sampling artifacts, are discussed. (PDF file contains 54 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The 13th Annual Larval Fish Conference and Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society Early Life History Section cohosted by Mote Marine Laboratory, United States, and the Instituto Nacional de la Pesca, Mexico, were held 21-26 May 1989, in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. The purpose of holding the meeting in Mexico was to encourage the participation of our Latin American and Caribbean colleagues and to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among researchers working in the Americas. More than 150 participants represented 24 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and 13 foreign countries including Mexico, Canada, Puerto Rico, Costa Rico, Panama, Cuba, Columbia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, and West Germany. The Conference began with registration and a social in the courtyard patio of the Merida Holiday Inn. Fresh red grouper, the most important commercial finfish species of the State of Yucatan, was prepared and served by the hotel staff, courtesy of CPI, Itzamex, and the Terramar Trading Company. (PDF file contains 146 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Over a decade ago, in August 1977, the First Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop was convened in Athens, Georgia. That workshop, organized by j.R. Geraci and D.J. St. Aubin, not only considered biology and pathology of stranded marine mammals, but it also served as a springboard for the formation of regional marine mammal stranding networks in the United States. The ramifications have been extremely important to the field of marine mammalogy since, for some species, examination or rehabilitation of stranded specimens serves as virtually the only source of information on distribution, anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and pathology. The First Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop led to increased awareness of the marine mammals themselves, as well as the logistic and legal factors associated with effective handling of the animals. A number of individuals indicated that they felt that a Second Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop held prior to the Seventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Miami, Florida; December 1987) would be both timely and productive. Accordingly, we organized the workshop and scheduled it to occur on 3-5 December. Our goals for the workshop were several, including 1) providing descriptions of some research, especially new techniques, regarding stranded marine mammals; 2) providing a forum where scientists could interact and possibly initiate cooperative research activities; 3) presenting information regarding procedures used effectively to handle stranded animals; 4) assessing ways to standardize data and specimen collection, archiving, and retrieval; and 5) providing a forum for assessing accomplishments and status of regional stranding networks to date, as well as for making recommendations regarding future activities of the networks. Nearly 100 individuals representing Federal and State governments, academic institutions, the oceanarium industry, consulting groups, conservation organizations, and the private sector attended the workshop (see Workshop Participants, this volume). (PDF file contains 166 pages.)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during the Third Cabinet-Level Meeting of the Joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs in January 1964. In addition to aquaculture, current subjects in the program include desalination of seawater, toxic microorganisms, air pollution, energy, forage crops, national park management, mycoplasmosis, wind and seismic effects, protein resources, forestry, and several joint panels and committees in marine resources research, development, and utilization. Accomplishments include increased communication and cooperation among technical specialists; exchanges of information, data, and research findings; annual meetings of the panels, a policy-coordinative body; administrative staff meetings; exchanges of equipment, materials, and samples; several major technical conferences; and beneficial effects on international relations. (PDF file contains 186 pages.)
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 67
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    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Forty-nine species of erect Bryozoa from a broad range of Cyclostome, Ctenostome, and Cheilostome families are described and illustrated, and an artificial dichotomous key is provided for their identification. In general, the marine bryozoan faunas of the northeastern coasts of the United States are poorly known; species records are sparse and voucher collections few, and it is certain that many more species occur in this region than are presently known. The species described here occur in intertidal, coastal or offshore habitats; some are well known and have been recorded on numerous previous occasions, others have been only rarely reported, while a few are known to occur commonly in the north of the region but have yet to be recorded south of Cape Cod. Some of the species described have not been recorded at all on northeastern coasts of the United States, but are widely distributed in North Atlantic continental shelf habitats and perhaps occur in similar parts of the outer shelf of this region. This fauna is thus provisional, but is intended to stimulate further work on the Bryozoa. (PDF file contains 52 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This manual includes an introduction to the general biology, a selected bibliography, and an illustrated key to 11 genera and 17 species of copepods of the Crustacea, Subclass Copepoda, Order Cyclopoida, Families Archinotodelphyidae, Notodelphyidae and Ascidicolidae, associated with ascidians from the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Species distributed from the Gulf of Maine to Long Island Sound are emphasized. An annotated systematic list, with statements of the world distribution and new records of association with hosts, and a systematic index are also provided. (PDF file contains 44 pages.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This manual treats the six species of dicyemid mesozoans that have been reported in three species of hosts (Octopus vulgaris, O. joubini, and O. briareus) from the eastern coast of North America and the Gulf of Mexico, including the Florida Keys. All are parasites of species of Octopus and are in the genus Dicyema, family Dicyemidae. In the introduction, the life cycle, as known, and the general morphology of dicyemids are briefly described, and methods are given for collecting and preparing material for study. These are followed by a key to species and by an annotated checklist, which includes data, some hitherto unpublished, on their known prevalence in hosts from various localiti