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  • Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)  (186,722)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Strawberry cropping system relies heavily on proper disease management to maintain high crop yield. Powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca macularis (Wall. Ex Fries) is one of the major leaf diseases in strawberry which can cause significant yield losses up to 70%. Field scouts manually walk beside strawberry fields and visually observe the plants to monitor for powdery mildew disease infection each week during summer months which is a laborious and time-consuming endeavor. The objective of this research was to increase the efficiency of field scouting by automatically detecting powdery mildew disease in strawberry fields by using a real-time machine vision system. A global positioning system, two cameras, a custom image processing program, and a ruggedized laptop computer were utilized for development of the disease detection system. The custom image processing program was developed using color co-occurrence matrix-based texture analysis along with artificial neural network technique to process and classify continuously acquired image data simultaneously. Three commercial strawberry field sites in central Nova Scotia were used to evaluate the performance of the developed system. A total of 36 strawberry rows (~1.06 ha) were tested within three fields and powdery mildew detected points were measured manually followed by automatic detection system. The manually detected points were compared with automatically detected points to ensure the accuracy of the developed system. Results of regression and scatter plots revealed that the system was able to detect disease having mean absolute error values of 4.00, 3.42, and 2.83 per row and root mean square error values of 4.12, 3.71, and 3.00 per row in field site-I, field site-II, and field site-III, respectively. The slight deviation in performance was likely caused by high wind speeds (〉8 km h−1), leaf overlapping, leaf angle, and presence of spider mite disease during field testing.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be an alternative to alleviate salinity problems in rice plants grown in the coastal areas. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize salt-tolerant PGPR and observe their effects on the physiological and biochemical properties of rice plants grown under non-saline and saline glasshouse conditions. Three strains were selected based on their salt-tolerance and plant growth-promoting properties under in vitro saline conditions. These strains were identified as Bacillus tequilensis (UPMRB9), Bacillus aryabhattai (UPMRE6), and Providencia stuartii (UPMRG1) using a 16S rRNA technique. The selected strains were inoculated to three different rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan67 (salt-tolerant), Putra-1 (moderate salt-tolerant), and MR297 (salt-susceptible) under glasshouse conditions. Results showed that the MR297 rice variety inoculated with UPMRB9 produced the highest total chlorophyll content, with an increment of 28%, and lowest electrolyte leakage of 92%. The Putra-1 rice variety also showed a 156% total dry matter increase with the inoculation of this bacterial strain. The highest increase of relative water content and reduction of Na/K ratio were found upon inoculation of UPMRE6 and UPMRB9, respectively. The biggest significant effects of these bacterial inoculations were on relative water content, electrolyte leakage, and the Na/K ratio of the BRRI dhan67 rice variety under saline conditions, suggesting a synergistic effect on the mechanisms of plant salt-tolerance. This study has shown that the application of locally-isolated salt-tolerant PGPR strains could be an effective long-term and sustainable solution for rice cultivation in the coastal areas, which are affected by global climate change.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), due to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the daily consumption of table salt should be reduced. To avoid the health consequences of iodine deficiency, it is necessary to include alternative food sources of this trace element in the human diet. One of the most effective ways of improving nutrition is the biofortification of crops with minerals and vitamins. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of iodine biofortification (potassium iodate/KIO3/, 5-iodosalicylic acid/5-ISA/and 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid/3.5-diISA/) on the chemical composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. capitata) cv. ‘Melodion’. Plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system NFT (Nutrient Film Technique). We compared the effect of iodine fertilization on the basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, macro- and micronutrients, content of sugars, nitrogenous compounds, chlorides, and iodine compounds. The results obtained in this research indicate that the application of iodine compounds has an influence on changes of concentration of iodine and other compounds in the treated samples. In lettuce, the main fatty acid was linolenic acid; however, fertilization with iodine did not affect the fatty acid profile in plants, except for concentrations of myristic and arachidic acids. We also found that iodine fortification has positive effects on concentrations of some micro- and micronutrients. Moreover, the application of 3.5-diISA decreased the concentration of nitrates as compared to control and other treatments. Therefore, it may be postulated that the production of lettuce fortified with iodosalicylates is worthy of consideration due to the fact that it may be a good source of iodine and other compounds in the human diet.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Carbonization of cage layer chicken manure (CLCM) can improve its bio-recalcitrance which might improve nitrogen (N) bioavailability in soil. However, temperature(s) to exhibit appropriate variations in the chemical makeup of the manure during carbonization in order to achieve this objective is unknown. In this study, we investigated the alterations in chemical compositions, surface functionalities, and N speciation initiated by different carbonization temperatures (350, 500, and 650 °C) and the effects of these alterations on N bioavailability in soil. The objective was to identify suitable temperature condition(s) for the conversion of CLCM into a carbonized product of appropriate bio-recalcitrance that is capable of improving N bioavailability in soil more than the un-carbonized CLCM. The results showed an increased bio-recalcitrance of the manure with increasing carbonization temperatures due to drastic changes in the chemical makeup and accumulation of heterocyclic aromatic N structures. Subsequently, these alterations in the chemical makeup and state of the organic N species in the manure affected N bioavailability in soil. Notably, N bioavailability of CLCM and benefits on plants were improved when soil was supplied with CLCM that was altered at 350 °C. With these observations, we concluded that alterations in chemical and surface structural compositions and N speciation at 350 °C are optimum for instituting the required bio-recalcitrance to CLCM in order to improve N bioavailability in soil for plants.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) and Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (wild pea) accessions originating from variable environmental conditions in the Mediterranean basin were used to study physical seed dormancy (PY) release. The effect of soil burial on PY release was tested on 112 accessions of medic and 46 accessions of pea over the period of 3 months in situ at three common gardens (Hungary, Spain and Greece) from 2017 through 2019. PY release after soil exhumation followed by experimental laboratory germination of remaining dormant seeds (wet, 25 °C, 21 days) were related to the environmental conditions of the common garden and macroclimatic variables of the site of origin of the accessions. Higher PY release was observed in buried seeds under humid rather than under dry and hot environments. Exposure of remaining dormant seeds to experimental laboratory conditions increased total PY release up to 70% and 80% in barrel medic and wild pea, respectively. Wild pea showed higher phenotypic plasticity on PY release than barrel medic, which had higher bet-hedging within-season. Wild pea showed lower bet-hedging among-season (PY 〈 10%) in relation to precipitation than barrel medic, which was more conservative (PY ≈ 20%). Observed variability suggests that these species have the capability to cope with ongoing climate change.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major limiting factors for crop productivity. The yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is severely limited by phosphorus deficiency. An attempt has been made in this study to identify P deficiency responsive differentially expressed proteins of rice through analysis of leaf proteome of contrasting P-responsive rice cultivars under P deficiency conditions because genetic variability has been found in the rice cultivars for adaptive response to P deficiency and a controlled regulatory system is involved in the P deficiency adaptation response. Phosphorus-efficient (cv. Panvel) and P-inefficient (cv. Nagina 22) rice cultivars were hydroponically grown in the nutrient medium under control environmental conditions at low-P level (2.0 µM) and optimum-P level (320 µM) treatments. Expression patterns of the proteins of the leaves of both the cultivars were analyzed in 30-day-old plants. The identification of these proteins through mass spectrometry and MASCOT software (Matrix Science Inc., Boston, USA) revealed that these differentially expressed proteins were homologous to known functional proteins involved in energy metabolism, biosynthesis, photosynthesis, signaling, protein synthesis, protein folding, phospholipid metabolism, oxidative stress, transcription factors, and phosphorus metabolism. It has been observed that rice cultivars responded differently to low-P treatment through modification in protein expressions pattern to maintain the growth of the plants. Therefore, the expression patterns of proteins were different in both of the cultivars under low-P treatment. Higher potential of protein stability, stress tolerance, osmo-protection, and regulation of phosphorus uptake was observed in cv. Panvel than cv. Nagina 22. This study could help to unravel the complex regulatory process that is involved in adaptation to P deficiency in rice.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Grassland management affects ecosystem services such as the conservation of C stocks. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between vegetation production and soil C stocks for a set of seven temperate grasslands of various productivity levels. We estimated vegetation production directly through measurements of aboveground biomass (〉5 cm), stubble and root biomass, and indirectly via plant community functioning. Soil C stocks were measured for bulk soil (organic C, SOC) and hot-water-extractable C (HWC) of topsoil. Plant community functioning was characterized by community-weighted mean (CWM) traits and functional diversity index. Results show a negative relation between biomass production and SOCstock. The tradeoff between productivity and SOCstock could be linked to plant community functioning and particularly Leaf Dry Matter content (LDMCCWM) which appeared to be the most relevant descriptor of plant community functioning. High SOCstock could be associated to low productivity, conservative strategy (high LDMCCWM), low soil labile C content and grassland age. Our results show a strong direct effect of management and grassland age on plant community, which in turn affects plant tissue quality and subsequent organic matter mineralization. Old permanent grasslands appeared less productive but represent an occasion for C storage and thus global change mitigation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: The increasing intensification of aquaculture systems requires the development of strategies to reduce their environmental impacts such as pollution caused by the discharge of nutrient rich sediments into local water bodies. Recycling of fish pond sediments (FPS) as fertilizer has been proposed as a possible solution that may also reduce the reliance on synthetic fertilizers. With a case study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, we determined suitable mixtures of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond sediment (PPS) and locally sourced organic amendments of rice straw (RS), or common water hyacinth (WH) to fertilize cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) in an integrated cucumber–giant gourami fish (Osphronemus goramy) farming system. Highest nutrient concentrations were found when mixing 30% PPS with 70% RS or WH. When used in combination with chemical fertilizer, it was found that a 25% to 75% reduction in chemical fertilizer application could be achieved, while also increasing cucumber yields, with the highest yields found when RS was used in organic amendments. In combination with the additional income from fish production, integrated farming systems such as that demonstrated in this study, may increase both farm income and production diversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: The effect of six edible coatings were investigated on the ability to alleviate shrivel and extend shelf life of plums. Fruit were subjected to a simulated shipping period (−0.5 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH)) for five weeks and a subsequent shelf life period (20 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 5% RH) for 20 d. Overall, the study showed that it is possible to alleviate shrivel and also extend shelf life of plum (‘African Delight™’) at export and shelf life conditions. Amongst the edible coatings investigated, the findings in fruit coated with gum arabic and the commercial products were comparable and promising for postharvest preservation of the investigated plum cultivar. The coatings showed a moderate delay of fruit ripening, significantly reduced weight loss and shrivel development, allowing for the export of fruit over a long distance (five weeks) and up to 20 d of shelf life.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-07-16
    Description: Water stress in one of the most important abiotic stresses that affects the productivity of many crop species worldwide. In addition, the climate change creates new challenges for crop adaptation especially as water resources become limited and the increase in water stress becomes more pronounced even in areas where there is adequate water supply. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of water stress on physiological characteristics of five cultivars of basil under field conditions. Water stress affected leaf temperature, dry herb yield, leaf water potential, assimilation rate and gas exchange parameters, quantum yield, instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE), and essential oil content. From the physiological characteristics water potential and assimilation rate can be used for the selection of basil cultivars tolerant to water stress. In addition, essential oil content was lower under water stress indicating that essential oil content is correlated with water availability. From the present study it is obvious that there are tolerant basil cultivars to water stress and can be found using physiological traits such as water potential and assimilation rate and can be used to save and use water more sustainable and also conserve the water resources.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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