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  • Molecular Diversity Preservation International  (389,684)
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Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2009 The Authors. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (3.0) License. The definitive version was published in Sensors 9 (2009): 404-429, doi:10.3390/s90100404.
    Description: An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument’s two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated.
    Keywords: Pressure sensor ; Wireless ; Hydrology ; Data logger ; Oceanographic instrumentation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We study land subsidence processes and the associated ground fissuring, affecting an active graben filled by thick unconsolidated deposits by means of InSAR techniques and fieldwork. On 21 September 2012, Ciudad Guzmán (Jalisco, Mexico) was struck by ground fissures of about 1.5 km of length, causing the deformation of the roads and the propagation of fissures in adjacent buildings. The field survey showed that fissures alignment is coincident with the escarpments produced on 19 September 1985, when a strong earthquake with magnitude 8.1 struck central Mexico. In order to detect and map the spatio-temporal features of the processes that led to the 2012 ground fissures, we applied InSAR multitemporal techniques to process ENVISAT-ASAR and RADARSAT-2 satellite SAR images acquired between 2003 and 2012. We detect up to 20 mm/year of subsidence of the northwestern part of Ciudad Guzmán. These incremental movements are consistent with the ground fissures observed in 2012. Based on interferometric results, field data and 2D numerical model, we suggest that ground deformations and fissuring are due to the presence of areal subsidence correlated with variable sediment thickness and differential compaction, partly driven by the exploitation of the aquifers and controlled by the distribution and position of buried faults.
    Description: Published
    Description: 8610-8630
    Description: 6A. Monitoraggio ambientale, sicurezza e territorio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: InSAR ; ground subsidence ; buried faults ; ground fissuring ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.02. Geological and geophysical evidences of deep processes
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: During volcanic eruptions, measurements of the rate at which magma is erupted underpin hazard assessments. For eruptions dominated by the effusion of lava, estimates are often made using satellite data; here, in a case study at Mount Etna (Sicily), we make the first measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and we also include explosive products. During the study period (17–21 July 2012), regular Strombolian explosions were occurring within the Bocca Nuova crater, producing a ~50 m-high scoria cone and a small lava flow field. TLS surveys over multi-day intervals determined a mean cone growth rate (effusive and explosive products) of ~0.24 m3·s−1. Differences between 0.3-m resolution DEMs acquired at 10-minute intervals captured the evolution of a breakout lava flow lobe advancing at 0.01–0.03 m3·s−1. Partial occlusion within the crater prevented similar measurement of the main flow, but integrating TLS data with time-lapse imagery enabled lava viscosity (7.4 × 105 Pa·s) to be derived from surface velocities and, hence, a flux of 0.11 m3·s−1 to be calculated. Total dense rock equivalent magma discharge estimates are ~0.1–0.2 m3·s−1 over the measurement period and suggest that simultaneous estimates from satellite data are somewhat overestimated. Our results support the use of integrated TLS and time-lapse photography for ground-truthing space-based measurements and highlight the value of interactive image analysis when automated approaches, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), fail.
    Description: Published
    Description: 14967 - 14987
    Description: 3V. Dinamiche e scenari eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: lava flow; scoria cone; effusion rate; terrestrial laser scanning; time-lapse photography; Mt. Etna ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques ; 05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS) to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency) and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency) satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy). Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr) were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.
    Description: PON (Operational National Plan) 2007–2013 from MIUR (Italian Research Ministry of Research) Project AMICUS (Study for the environmental protection and the mitigation of Anthropogenic Pollution In the Coastal Environment of selected areas of Calabria; ID: PON01_ 02818) - COSMO-SkyMed® PRODUCTS, © ASI (Italian Space Agency)—provided under license of ASI in the framework of the S3 Project “Short term earthquake prediction and preparation” (DPC-INGV, 2013). The Envisat images are provided by ESA (European Space Agency) under the CAT.1P 5605
    Description: Published
    Description: 16004–16023
    Description: 6A. Monitoraggio ambientale, sicurezza e territorio
    Description: 1IT. Reti di monitoraggio e Osservazioni
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: restricted
    Keywords: SBAS-InSAR ; Sibari Plain ; subsidence ; geology ; anthropic processes ; 04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.07. Satellite geodesy
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The 2002-2003 Stromboli eruption triggered the failure of part of the Sciara del Fuoco slope, which generated a tsunami that struck the island and the northern coastline of Sicily. The Sciara del Fuoco is a very steep slope where all lava flows from the craters' emplacement; most lateral eruptions usually take place from fissures propagating in this sector of the volcano. The eruption went on to produce a lava field that filled the area affected by the landslide. This in turn led to further instability, renewing the threat of another slope failure and a potentially related tsunami. This work describes a new joint approach, combining surveying data and aerial image correlometry methods, to study the motion of this unstable slope. The combination has the advantage of very precise surveying measurements, which can be considered the ground truth to constrain the very-high-resolution aerial photogrammetric data, thereby obtaining highly detailed and accurate ground deformation maps. The joint use of the two methods can be very useful to obtain a more complete image of the deformation field for monitoring dangerous and/or rather inaccessible places. The proposed combined methodology improves our ability to study and assess hazardous processes associated with significant ground deformation.
    Description: This Research has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness research projects AYA2010-17448 and ESP2013-47780-557 C2-1-R, and the EU 7th FP MED-SUV project (contract 308665). It is a contribution to the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence
    Description: Published
    Description: 463
    Description: 1V. Storia e struttura dei sistemi vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: surveying ; data integration ; aerial photogrammetry ; monitoring ; flank instability ; sector collapse ; landslide ; tsunami ; volcanoes ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In the present work, the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique has been applied to study the surface movements affecting the sedimentary basin of Cassino municipality. Two datasets of SAR images, provided by ERS 1-2 and Envisat missions, have been acquired from 1992 to 2010. Such datasets have been processed independently each other and with different techniques nevertheless providing compatible results. DInSAR data show a subsidence rate mostly located in the northeast side of the city, with a subsidence rate decreasing from about 5–6 mm/yr in the period 1992–2000 to about 1–2 mm/yr between 2004 and 2010, highlighting a progressive reduction of the phenomenon. Based on interferometric results and geological/geotechnical observations, the explanation of the detected movements allows to confirm the anthropogenic (surface effect due to building construction) and geological causes (thickness and characteristics of the compressible stratum)
    Description: Published
    Description: 9676-9690
    Description: 6A. Monitoraggio ambientale, sicurezza e territorio
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: Differential SAR Interferometry; SBAS; IPTA; Cassino plain; subsidence ; 04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.02. Geological and geophysical evidences of deep processes
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Italy has a strong geothermal potential for power generation, although, at present, the only two geothermal fields being exploited are Larderello-Travale/Radicondoli and Mt. Amiata in the Tyrrhenian pre-Apennine volcanic district of Southern Tuscany. A new target for geothermal exploration and exploitation in Italy is represented by the Southern Tyrrhenian submarine volcanic district, a geologically young basin (Upper Pliocene-Pleistocene) characterised by tectonic extension where many seamounts have developed. Heat-flow data from that area show significant anomalies comparable to those of onshore geothermal fields. Fractured basaltic rocks facilitate seawater infiltration and circulation of hot water chemically altered by rock/water interactions, as shown by the widespread presence of hydrothermal deposits. The persistence of active hydrothermal activity is consistently shown by many different sources of evidence, including: heat-flow data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, widespread presence of hydrothermal-derived gases (CO2, CO, CH4), 3He/4He isotopic ratios, as well as broadband OBS/H seismological information, which demonstrates persistence of volcano-tectonic events and High Frequency Tremor (HFT). The Marsili and Tyrrhenian seamounts are thus an important—and likely long-lasting-renewable energy resource. This raises the possibility of future development of the world’s first offshore geothermal power plant.
    Description: Published
    Description: 4068-4086
    Description: 3A. Ambiente Marino
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: Marsili seamount ; hydrothermal circulation ; geothermal resource ; 04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.04. Marine geology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: In order to improve the observation capability in one of the most active volcanic areas in the world, Mt. Etna, we developed a processing method to use the surveillance cameras for a quasi real-time mapping of syn-eruptive processes. Following an evaluation of the current performance of the Etna permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and Visible Sensors (Etna_NETVIS), its possible implementation and optimization was investigated to determine the locations of additional observation sites to be rapidly set up during emergencies. A tool was then devised to process time series of ground-acquired images and extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of georeferenced map. The processed datasets can be used to extract 2D features such as evolution maps of active lava flows. The tool was validated on ad-hoc test fields and then adopted to map the evolution of two recent lava flows. The achievable accuracy (about three times the original pixel size) and the short processing time makes the tool suitable for rapidly assessing lava flow evolutions, especially in the case of recurrent eruptions, such as those of the 2011–2015 Etna activity. The tool can be used both in standard monitoring activities and during emergency phases (eventually improving the present network with additional mobile stations) when it is mandatory to carry out a quasi-real-time mapping to support civil protection actions. The developed tool could be integrated in the control room of the Osservatorio Etneo, thus enabling the Etna_NETVIS for mapping purposes and not only for video surveillance.
    Description: Published
    Description: 192
    Description: 5V. Sorveglianza vulcanica ed emergenze
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: volcano monitoring ; lava flow mapping ; surveillance camera ; hazard assessment ; geo spatial dataset ; 04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-29
    Description: Nanoparticles have been used as signal transducers for optical readouts in biosensors. Optical approaches are cost-effective with easy readout formats for clinical diagnosis. We present a glucose biosensor based on the biocatalytic shape-altering of gold nanostars via silver deposition. Improved sensitivity was observed due to the nanostars clustering after being functionalised with glucose oxidase (GOx). The biosensor quantified glucose in the serum samples with a 1:1000 dilution factor, and colorimetrically distinguished between the concentrations. The assay demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity. The fabricated glucose biosensor is a rapid kinetic assay using a basic entry level laboratory spectrophotometric microplate reader. Such a biosensor could be very useful in resource-constrained regions without state-of-the-art laboratory equipment. Furthermore, naked eye detection of glucose makes this a suitable biosensor for technology transfer to other point-of-care devices.
    Electronic ISSN: 2079-6374
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: Microfluidic devices offer important benefits for forensic applications, in particular for fast tests at a crime scene. A large portion of forensic applications require microfluidic chip material to show compatibility with biochemical reactions (such as amplification reactions), and to have high transparency in the visible region and high chemical resistance. Also, preferably, manufacturing should be simple. The characteristic properties of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) fulfills these requirements and offers new opportunities for the development of new forensic tests. In this work, the versatility of COC as material for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems in forensic applications has been explored by realizing two proof-of-principle devices. Chemical resistance and optical transparency were investigated for the development of an on-chip presumptive color test to indicate the presence of an illicit substance through applying absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, the compatibility of COC with a DNA amplification reaction was verified by performing an on-chip multiple displacement amplification (MDA) reaction.
    Electronic ISSN: 2079-6374
    Topics: Biology
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