ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The structural repertoire of bioactive naphthacene quinones is expanded by engineering Streptomyces albus to express the lysolipin minimal polyketide synthase II (PKS II) genes from Streptomyces tendae Tü 4042 (llpD-F) with the corresponding cyclase genes llpCI-CIII. Fermentation of the recombinant strain revealed the two new polyaromatic tridecaketides lysoquinone-TH1 (7, identified) and TH2 (8, postulated structure) as engineered congeners of the dodecaketide lysolipin (1). The chemical structure of 7, a benzo[a]naphthacene-8,13-dione, was elucidated by NMR and HR-MS and confirmed by feeding experiments with [1,2-13C2]-labeled acetate. Lysoquinone-TH1 (7) is a pentangular polyphenol and one example of such rare extended polyaromatic systems of the benz[a]napthacene quinone type produced by the expression of a minimal PKS II in combination with cyclases in an artificial system. While the natural product lysolipin (1) has antimicrobial activity in nM-range, lysoquinone-TH1 (7) showed only minor potency as inhibitor of Gram-positive microorganisms. The bioactivity profiling of lysoquinone-TH1 (7) revealed inhibitory activity towards phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), an important target for the treatment in human health like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These results underline the availability of pentangular polyphenolic structural skeletons from biosynthetic engineering in the search of new chemical entities in drug discovery
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The ultramafic-hosted Kairei vent field is located at 25°19′ S, 70°02′ E, towards the Northern end of segment 1 of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR-S1) at a water depth of ~2450 m. This study aims to investigate the distribution of trace elements among sulfide minerals of differing textures and to examine the possible factors controlling the trace element distribution in those minerals using LA-ICP-MS spot and line scan analyses. Our results show that there are distinct systematic differences in trace element distributions throughout the different minerals, as follows: (1) pyrite is divided into three types at Kairei, including early-stage euhedral pyrite (py-I), sub-euhedral pyrite (py-II), and colloform pyrite (py-III). Pyrite is generally enriched with Mo, Au, As, Tl, Mn, and U. Pyrite-I has high contents of Se, Te, Bi, and Ni when compared to the other types; py-II is enriched in Au relative to py-I and py-III, but poor in Ni; py-III is enriched in Mo, Pb, and U but is poor in Se, Te, Bi, and Au relative to py-I and py-II. Variations in the concentrations of Se, Te, and Bi in pyrite are most likely governed by the strong temperature gradient. There is generally a lower concentration of nickel than Co in pyrite, indicating that our samples precipitated at high temperatures, whereas the extreme Co enrichment is likely from a magmatic heat source combined with an influence of serpentinization reactions. (2) Chalcopyrite is characterized by high concentrations of Co, Se, and Te. The abundance of Se and Te in chalcopyrite over the other minerals is interpreted to have been caused by the high solubilities of Se and Te in the chalcopyrite lattice at high temperatures. The concentrations of Sb, As, and Au are relatively low in chalcopyrite from the Kairei vent field. (3) Sphalerite from Zn-rich chimneys is characterized by high concentrations of Sn, Co, Ga, Ge, Ag, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd, but is depleted in Se, Te, Bi, Mo, Au, Ni, Tl, Mn, Ba, V, and U in comparison with the other minerals. The high concentrations of Cd and Co are likely caused by the substitution of Cd2+ and Co2+ for Zn2+ in sphalerite. A high concentration of Pb accompanied by a high Ag concentration in sphalerite indicates that Ag occurs as Pb–Ag sulfosalts. Gold is generally low in sphalerite and strongly correlates with Pb, suggesting its presence in microinclusions of galena. The strong correlation of As with Ge in sphalerite from Kairei suggests that they might precipitate at medium temperatures and under moderately reduced conditions. (4) Bornite–digenite has very low concentrations of most trace elements, except for Co, Se, and Bi. Serpentinization in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems might play an important role in Au enrichment in pyrite with low As contents. Compared to felsic-hosted seafloor massive sulfide deposits, sulfide minerals from ultramafic-hosted deposits show higher concentrations of Se and Te, but lower As, Sb, and Au concentrations, the latter often attributed to the contribution of magmatic volatiles. As with typical ultramafic-hosted seafloor massive sulfide deposits, Se enrichment in chalcopyrite from Kairei indicates that the primary factor that controls the Se enrichment is temperature-controlled mobility in vent fluids.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-05-29
    Description: Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell−1, expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: We analyzed chlorophyll-a and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) dynamics from field measurements and assessed the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work is comprised of: (i) analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; (ii) characterization of CDOM; (iii) estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial reservoir as a CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial one; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption at 440 nm (a(440)CDOM) and absorption slope (S300–500) in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance) for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λ)CDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79). Values of a(440)CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λ)CDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques) in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61). Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440)CDOM = 5.3 m−1). Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440)CDOM = 3.8 m−1) compared to lakes located on higher terraces.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: The study presented here is focused on the assessment of surface elevations derived from CryoSat-2 SARIn level 1b data over the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard, in 2016. The processing chain that must be applied to the CryoSat-2 waveforms to derive heights is non-trivial, and consists of multiple steps, all requiring subjective choices of methods such as the choice of retracker, geo-relocation, and outlier rejection. Here, we compare six CryoSat-2 level-2 type data sets of surface elevations derived using different SARIn processing chains. These data sets are validated against surface elevation data collected from an airborne laser scanner, during a dedicated CryoSat validation experiment field campaign carried out in April 2016. The flight pattern of the airborne campaign was designed so that elevations were measured in a grid pattern rather than along single lines, as has previously been the standard procedure. The flight grid pattern was chosen to optimize the comparison with the CryoSat-2 SARIn elevation data, the location of which can deviate from nadir by several kilometers due to topography within the satellite footprint. The processing chains behind the six data sets include different outlier/error rejection approaches, and do not produce the same number of data points in our region of interest. To make a consistent analysis, we provide statistics from the validation of both the full data sets from each processing chain, and on only those data that all the six data sets provide a geo-located elevation estimate for. We find that the CryoSat-2 data sets that agree best with the validation data are those derived from dedicated land ice processing schemes. This study may serve as a benchmark for future CryoSat-2 retracker developments, and the evaluation software and data set are made publicly available.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-15
    Description: We present an annotated list of new finds of red algae from Hainan Island, Southern China, including those found in 1990 and 1992 during the German-Chinese expeditions to Hainan Island and in 2008–2016 by Titlyanova, Titlyanov, and Li. Between 1990 and 1992, a total of 64 taxa of red algae were newly recorded for Hainan Island. Of these 15 species were new records for China. During the period 2008–2016, a further 54 taxa were newly recorded for Hainan Island, of which 20 were new records for China. The full list of new taxa includes taxonomic forms, dates, and locales, together with known biogeographical distributions. During both periods, the apparent enrichment of red algal marine flora has occurred in a similar way—mainly at the expense of epiphytes with filamentous, thin-filamentous, and finely branched forms. We believe that the changes in the flora of Hainan Island have been influenced by both anthropogenic and natural factors including in particular exploitation of herbivores, nutrient pollution, and coral bleaching.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-04-13
    Description: Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The presence of sea-ice leads represents a key feature of the Arctic sea ice cover. Leads promote the flux of sensible and latent heat from the ocean to the cold winter atmosphere and are thereby crucial for air-sea-ice-ocean interactions. We here apply a binary segmentation procedure to identify leads from MODIS thermal infrared imagery on a daily time scale. The method separates identified leads into two uncertainty categories, with the high uncertainty being attributed to artifacts that arise from warm signatures of unrecognized clouds. Based on the obtained lead detections, we compute quasi-daily pan-Arctic lead maps for the months of January to April, 2003–2015. Our results highlight the marginal ice zone in the Fram Strait and Barents Sea as the primary region for lead activity. The spatial distribution of the average pan-Arctic lead frequencies reveals, moreover, distinct patterns of predominant fracture zones in the Beaufort Sea and along the shelf-breaks, mainly in the Siberian sector of the Arctic Ocean as well as the well-known polynya and fast-ice locations. Additionally, a substantial inter-annual variability of lead occurrences in the Arctic is indicated.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 5 (4). p. 40.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Sharing and secondary analysis of data have become increasingly important for research. Especially in geography, the collection of digital data has grown due to technological changes. Responsible handling and proper documentation of research data have therefore become essential for funders, publishers and higher education institutions. To achieve this goal, universities offer support and training in research data management. This article presents the experiences of a pilot workshop in research data management, especially for geographers. A discipline-specific approach to research data management training is recommended. The focus of this approach increases researchers’ interest and allows for more specific guidance. The instructors identified problems and challenges of research data management for geographers. In regards to training, the communication of benefits and reaching the target groups seem to be the biggest challenges. Consequently, better incentive structures as well as communication channels have to be established.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Lake Urmia, the second largest saline Lake on earth and a highly endangered ecosystem, is on the brink of a serious environmental disaster similar to the catastrophic death of the Aral Sea. Progressive drying has been observed during the last decade, causing dramatic changes to Lake Urmia’s surface and its regional water supplies. The present study aims to improve monitoring of spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 1975–2015 using the multi-temporal satellite altimetry and Landsat (5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI) images. In order to demonstrate the impacts of climate change and human pressure on the variations in surface extent and water level, Lake Sevan and Van Lake with different characteristics were studied along with the Urmia Lake. Normalized Difference Water Index-Principal Components Index (NDWI-PCs), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), Water Ratio Index (WRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI), and MultiLayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP NNs) classifier were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. The presented results revealed that MLP NNs has a better performance in the cases where the other models generate poor accuracy. The results show that the area of Lake Sevan and Van Lake have increased while the area of Lake Urmia has decreased by ~65.23% in the past decades, far more than previously reported (~25% to 50%). Urmia Lake’s shoreline has been receding severely between 2010 and 2015 with no sign of recovery, which has been partly blamed on prolonged droughts, aggressive regional water resources development plans, intensive agricultural activities, and anthropogenic changes to the system. The results also indicated that (among the proposed factors) changes in inflows due to overuse of surface water resources and constructing dams (mostly during 1995–2005) are the main reasons for Urmia Lake’s shoreline receding. The model presented in this manuscript can be used by managers as a decision support system to find the effects of building new dams or other infrastructures
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti. This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A–C (1–3) and four known compounds, barettin (4), 8,9-dihydrobarettin (5), 6-bromoconicamin (6), and l-6-bromohypaphorine (7). The chemical structures of compounds 1–7 were elucidated by extensive analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute stereochemistry of geobarrettin A (1) was assigned by ECD analysis and Marfey’s method employing the new reagent l-Nα-(1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)tryptophanamide (l-FDTA). The isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using human dendritic cells (DCs). Both 2 and 3 reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40, but 3 concomitantly increased IL-10 production. Maturing DCs treated with 2 or 3 before co-culturing with allogeneic CD4+ T cells decreased T cell secretion of IFN-γ, indicating a reduction in Th1 differentiation. Although barettin (4) reduced DC secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-10 (IC50 values 11.8 and 21.0 μM for IL-10 and IL-12p40, respectively), maturing DCs in the presence of 4 did not affect the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ or IL-17, but reduced their secretion of IL-10. These results indicate that 2 and 3 may be useful for the treatment of inflammation, mainly of the Th1 type.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: This study presents a novel approach, based on high-dimensionality hydro-acoustic data, for improving the performance of angular response analysis (ARA) on multibeam backscatter data in terms of acoustic class separation and spatial resolution. This approach is based on the hyper-angular cube (HAC) data structure which offers the possibility to extract one angular response from each cell of the cube. The HAC consists of a finite number of backscatter layers, each representing backscatter values corresponding to single-incidence angle ensonifications. The construction of the HAC layers can be achieved either by interpolating dense soundings from highly overlapping multibeam echo-sounder (MBES) surveys (interpolated HAC, iHAC) or by producing several backscatter mosaics, each being normalized at a different incidence angle (synthetic HAC, sHAC). The latter approach can be applied to multibeam data with standard overlap, thus minimizing the cost for data acquisition. The sHAC is as efficient as the iHAC produced by actual soundings, providing distinct angular responses for each seafloor type. The HAC data structure increases acoustic class separability between different acoustic features. Moreover, the results of angular response analysis are applied on a fine spatial scale (cell dimensions) offering more detailed acoustic maps of the seafloor. Considering that angular information is expressed through high-dimensional backscatter layers, we further applied three machine learning algorithms (random forest, support vector machine, and artificial neural network) and one pattern recognition method (sum of absolute differences) for supervised classification of the HAC, using a limited amount of ground truth data (one sample per seafloor type). Results from supervised classification were compared with results from an unsupervised method for inter-comparison of the supervised algorithms. It was found that all algorithms (regarding both the iHAC and the sHAC) produced very similar results with good agreement (〉0.5 kappa) with the unsupervised classification. Only the artificial neural network required the total amount of ground truth data for producing comparable results with the remaining algorithms.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: With mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) coming closer to reality, it is vital that we have a good understanding of the geochemistry of these occurrences and the potential toxicity impact associated with mining them. In this study, SMS samples from seven hydrothermal fields from various tectonic settings were investigated by in-situ microanalysis (electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)) to highlight the distribution of potentially-toxic trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, As, Sb, Co, Ni, Bi, Ag and Hg) within the deposits, their minerals and textures. We demonstrate that a combination of mineralogy, trace element composition and texture characterisation of SMS from various geotectonic settings, when considered along with our current knowledge of oxidation rates and galvanic coupling, can be used to predict potential toxicity of deposit types and individual samples and highlight which may be of environmental concern. Although we cannot quantify toxicity, we observe that arc-related sulfide deposits have a high potential toxicity when compared with deposits from other tectonic settings based on their genetic association of a wide range of potentially toxic metals (As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Ag and Bi) that are incorporated into more reactive sulfosalts, galena and Fe-rich sphalerite. Thus, deposits such as these require special care when considered as mining targets. In contrast, the exclusive concern of ultra-mafic deposits is Cu, present in abundant, albeit less reactive chalcopyrite, but largely barren of other metals such as As, Pb, Sb, Cd and Hg. Whilst geological setting does dictate metal endowment, ultimately mineralogy is the largest control of trace element distribution and subsequent potential toxicity. Deposits containing abundant pyrrhotite (high-temperature deposits) and Fe-rich sphalerite (ubiquitous to all SMS deposits) as well as deposits with abundant colloform textures also pose a higher risk. This type of study can be combined with “bulk lethal toxicity” assessments and used throughout the stages of a mining project to help guide prospecting and legislation, focus exploitation and minimise environmental impact.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: Arctic and subarctic regions are sensitive to climate change and, reversely, provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. With a focus on discovering paleoclimate and paleoceanographic evolution in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans during the last 20,000 years, we proposed this German–Sino cooperation program according to the announcement “Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) of the Federal Republic of Germany for a German–Sino cooperation program in the marine and polar research”. Our proposed program integrates the advantages of the Arctic and Subarctic marine sediment studies in AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and FIO (First Institute of Oceanography). For the first time, the collection of sediment cores can cover all climatological key regions in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans. Furthermore, the climate modeling work at AWI enables a “Data-Model Syntheses”, which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-04-23
    Description: Thermokarst lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic release carbon from thawing permafrost in the form of methane and carbon dioxide with important implications for regional and global carbon cycles. Lake ice impedes the release of gas during the winter. For instance, bubbles released from lake sediments become trapped in downward growing lake ice, resulting in vertically-oriented bubble columns in the ice that are visible on the lake surface. We here describe a classification technique using an object-based image analysis (OBIA) framework to successfully map ebullition bubbles in airborne imagery of early winter ice on an interior Alaska thermokarst lake. Ebullition bubbles appear as white patches in high-resolution optical remote sensing images of snow-free lake ice acquired in early winter and, thus, can be mapped across whole lake areas. We used high-resolution (9–11 cm) aerial images acquired two and four days following freeze-up in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. The design of multiresolution segmentation and region-specific classification rulesets allowed the identification of bubble features and separation from other confounding factors such as snow, submerged and floating vegetation, shadows, and open water. The OBIA technique had an accuracy of 〉95% for mapping ebullition bubble patches in early winter lake ice. Overall, we mapped 1195 and 1860 ebullition bubble patches in the 2011 and 2012 images, respectively. The percent surface area of lake ice covered with ebullition bubble patches for 2011 was 2.14% and for 2012 was 2.67%, representing a conservative whole lake estimate of bubble patches compared to ground surveys usually conducted on thicker ice 10 or more days after freeze-up. Our findings suggest that the information derived from high-resolution optical images of lake ice can supplement spatially limited field sampling methods to better estimate methane flux from individual lakes. The method can also be used to improve estimates of methane ebullition from numerous lakes within larger regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: An unusual polyketide with a new carbon skeleton, lindgomycin (1), and the recently described ascosetin (2) were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of different Lindgomycetaceae strains, which were isolated from a sponge of the Kiel Fjord in the Baltic Sea (Germany) and from the Antarctic. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. In the new polyketide, two distinct domains, a bicyclic hydrocarbon and a tetramic acid, are connected by a bridging carbonyl. The tetramic acid substructure of compound 1 was proved to possess a unique 5-benzylpyrrolidine-2,4-dione unit. The combination of 5-benzylpyrrolidine-2,4-dione of compound 1 in its tetramic acid half and 3-methylbut-3-enoic acid pendant in its decalin half allow the assignment of a new carbon skeleton. The new compound 1 and ascosetin showed antibiotic activities with IC50 value of 5.1 (±0.2) µM and 3.2 (±0.4) μM, respectively, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: We have developed a transportable spectroscopic nitrogen isotopic analyzer. The spectrometer is based on dual-modulation Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitric oxide isotopologues with near shot-noise limited performance and baseline-free operation. Noise analysis indicates minor isotope (15NO) detection sensitivity of 0.36 ppbv·Hz−1/2, corresponding to noise-equivalent Faraday rotation angle (NEA) of 1.31 × 10−8 rad·Hz−1/2 and noise-equivalent absorbance (αL)min of 6.27 × 10−8 Hz−1/2. White-noise limited performance at 2.8× the shot-noise limit is observed up to ~1000 s, allowing reliable calibration and sample measurement within the drift-free interval of the spectrometer. Integration with wet-chemistry based on acidic vanadium(III) enables conversion of aqueous nitrate/nitrite samples to gaseous NO for total nitrogen isotope analysis. Isotopic ratiometry is accomplished via time-multiplexed measurements of two NO isotope transitions. For 5 μmol potassium nitrate samples, the instrument consistently yields ratiometric precision below 0.3‰, thus demonstrating potential as an in situ diagnostic tool for environmental nitrogen cycle studies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  , ed. by Domingues, R., Domingues, P. and Calado, R. Marine Drugs, Special Issue . MDPI, Basel, Switzerland, 157 pp. ISBN 978-3-03842-800-8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: Many scientific institutions are faced with the question of how they should inform their scientists and scientific coordinators about the option of publishing open access. This task is one that libraries have taken upon themselves: libraries are familiar with the market participants and have years of experience in teaching information and publication literacy. This case report looks at two approaches taken by the Central Library of Forschungszentrum Jülich in 2017. It highlights the motivation,strategy,resourcesandimplementation,aswellasthefirstevaluationofbothapproaches. ThefirstapproachwasaredesignofthetrainingcoursesofferedbytheCentralLibrarywithafocuson the target groups and new contents. The second approach was implemented as part of International Open Access Week and involved offering an information event tailored to each scientific institute. Theeventwascustomizedtomeettheneedsofthetargetgroupdefinedbyeachinstitute,theinstitute itself, and was organized individually. As a result of these efforts, the open access rate increased over the last few months and at 48% open access in 2017, Forschungszentrum Jülich is well on its way to achieving the open access goals set by the Helmholtz Association.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-02-05
    Description: The Cape Verde oceanic plateau hosts 10 islands and 11 seamounts and provides an extensive suite of alkaline lavas and pyroclastic rocks. The volcanic rocks host a range of crustal and mantle xenoliths. These xenoliths provide a spectrum of lithologies available to interact with magma during transport through the lithospheric mantle and crust. We explore the origin and depth of formation of crustal xenoliths to develop a framework of magma-crust interaction and a model for the crustal architecture beneath the Cape Verde oceanic plateau. The host lavas are phononephelinites to phonolites and the crustal xenoliths are mostly mafic plutonic assemblages with one sedimentary xenolith. REE profiles of clinopyroxene in the host lavas are light rare-earth element (LREE) enriched whereas clinopyoxene from the plutonic xenoliths are LREE depleted. Modelling of REE melt compositions indicates the plutonic xenoliths are derived from mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-type ocean crust. Thermobarometry indicates that clinopyroxene in the host lavas formed at depths of 17 to 46 km, whereas those in the xenoliths formed at 5 to 20 km. This places the depth of origin of the plutonic xenoliths in the oceanic crust. Therefore, the xenoliths trace magma-crust interaction to the MORB oceanic crust and overlying sediments located beneath the Cape Verde oceanic plateau.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: archive
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2017-01-17
    Description: The North Water (NOW) Polynya is a regularly-forming area of open-water and thin-ice, located between northwestern Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canada) at the northern tip of Baffin Bay. Due to its large spatial extent, it is of high importance for a variety of physical and biological processes, especially in wintertime. Here, we present a long-term remote sensing study for the winter seasons 1978/1979 to 2014/2015. Polynya characteristics are inferred from (1) sea ice concentrations and brightness temperatures from passive microwave satellite sensors (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E and AMSR2), Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSM/I-SSMIS)) and (2) thin-ice thickness distributions, which are calculated using MODIS ice-surface temperatures and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis data in a 1D thermodynamic energy-balance model. Daily ice production rates are retrieved for each winter season from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015, assuming that all heat loss at the ice surface is balanced by ice growth. Two different cloud-cover correction schemes are applied on daily polynya area and ice production values to account for cloud gaps in the MODIS composites. Our results indicate that the NOW polynya experienced significant seasonal changes over the last three decades considering the overall frequency of polynya occurrences, as well as their spatial extent. In the 1980s, there were prolonged periods of a more or less closed ice cover in northern Baffin Bay in winter. This changed towards an average opening on more than 85% of the days between November and March during the last decade. Noticeably, the sea ice cover in the NOW polynya region shows signs of a later-appearing fall freeze-up, starting in the late 1990s. Different methods to obtain daily polynya area using passive microwave AMSR-E/AMSR2 data and SSM/I-SSMIS data were applied. A comparison with MODIS data (thin-ice thickness ≤ 20 cm) shows that the wintertime polynya area estimates derived by MODIS are about 30 to 40% higher than those derived using the polynya signature simulation method (PSSM) with AMSR-E data. In turn, the difference in polynya area between PSSM and a sea ice concentration (SIC) threshold of 70% is fairly low (approximately 10%) when applied to AMSR-E data. For the coarse-resolution SSM/I-SSMIS data, this difference is much larger, particularly in November and December. Instead of a sea ice concentration threshold, the PSSM method should be used for SSM/I-SSMIS data. Depending on the type of cloud-cover correction, the calculated ice production based on MODIS data reaches an average value of 264.4 ± 65.1 km 3 to 275.7 ± 67.4 km 3 (2002/2003 to 2014/2015) and shows a high interannual variability. Our achieved long-term results underline the major importance of the NOW polynya considering its influence on Arctic ice production and associated atmosphere/ocean processes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: This study explores non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) as a tool for investigating parasites as indicators of the elasmobranch biology. An attractive feature of nMDS is its ability to allow assemblage-level parasite data to be simultaneously applied to questions of host biology. This method was examined using the tapeworm order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863, which is known to be transmitted among their hosts through the marine food web (via predation), can unambiguously be identified in the intermediate and final hosts, and has the potential as an indicator of the host feeding biology. Our analyses focused on trypanorhynch assemblages in elasmobranchs as definitive hosts. The relationships between trypanorhynch assemblages and the depth, feeding ecology, habitat, and phylogeny for all sharks were complex, but we found that depth distribution, diet composition and habitat type were the major influencing factors. Several species of sharks showed different characters than known from their descriptions that could be attributed to the change of shark behavior or the trypanorhynch host path. The relationship between the trypanorhynch assemblage and factors for carcharhiniform species alone was more robust than for all sharks. In the carcharhiniform analysis, the relationship between habitat type and trypanorhynch assemblage was most remarkable. Overlapping host ecology was evident even in phylogenetically-distant related hosts.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: A new cyclic dipeptide, petrocidin A (1), along with three known compounds—2,3dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (3), and maltol (4)—were isolated from the solid culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT348. The strain Streptomyces sp. SBT348 had been prioritized in a strain collection of 64 sponge-associated actinomycetes based on its distinct metabolomic profile using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The absolute configuration of all α-amino acids was determined by HPLC analysis after derivatization with Marfey’s reagent and comparison with commercially available reference amino acids. Structure elucidation was pursued in the presented study by mass spectrometry and NMR spectral data. Petrocidin A (1) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (3) exhibited significant cytotoxicity towards the human promyelocytic HL-60 and the human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell lines. These results demonstrated the potential of sponge-associated actinomycetes for the discovery of novel and pharmacologically active natural products.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: Arctic tundra ecosystems exhibit small-scale variations in species composition, micro-topography as well as significant spatial and temporal variations in moisture. These attributes result in similar spectral characteristics between distinct vegetation communities. In this study we examine spectral variability at three phenological phases of leaf-out, maximum canopy, and senescence of ground-based spectroscopy, as well as a simulated Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) and simulated Sentinel-2 reflectance spectra, from five dominant low-Arctic tundra vegetation communities in the Toolik Lake Research Area, Alaska, in order to inform spectral differentiation and subsequent vegetation classification at both the ground and satellite scale. We used the InStability Index (ISI), a ratio of between endmember and within endmember variability, to determine the most discriminative phenophase and wavelength regions for identification of each vegetation community. Our results show that the senescent phase was the most discriminative phenophase for the identification of the majority of communities when using both ground-based and simulated EnMAP reflectance spectra. Maximum canopy was the most discriminative phenophase for the majority of simulated Sentinel-2 reflectance data. As with previous ground-based spectral characterization of Alaskan low-Arctic tundra, the blue, red, and red-edge parts of the spectrum were most discriminative for all three reflectance datasets. Differences in vegetation colour driven by pigment dynamics appear to be the optimal areas of the spectrum for differentiation using high spectral resolution field spectroscopy and simulated hyperspectral EnMAP and multispectral Sentinel-2 reflectance spectra. The phenological aspect of this study highlights the potential exploitation of more extreme colour differences in vegetation observed during senescence when hyperspectral data is available. The results provide insight into both the community and seasonal dynamics of spectral variability to better understand and interpret currently used broadband vegetation indices and also for improved spectral unmixing of hyperspectral aerial and satellite data which is useful for a wide range of applications from fine-scale monitoring of shifting vegetation composition to the identification of vegetation vigor.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: Studying phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) from space is possible due to recent advances in remote sensing. Though a variety of products are available, the limited number of wavelengths available compared to the number of model parameters needed to be retrieved is still a major problem in using ocean-color data for PFT retrievals. Here, we investigated which band placement could improve retrievals of three particular PFTs (diatoms, coccolithophores and cyanobacteria). In addition to analyzing dominant spectral features in the absorption spectra of the target PFTs, two previously-developed methods using measured spectra were applied to simulated data. Such a synthetic dataset allowed for significantly increasing the number of scenarios and enabled a full control over parameters causing spectral changes. We evaluated the chosen band placement by applying an adapted ocean reflectance inversion, as utilized in the generalized inherent optical properties (GIOP) retrieval. Results show that the optimal band settings depend on the method applied to determine the bands placement, as well as on the internal variability of the dataset investigated. Therefore, continuous hyperspectral instruments would be most beneficial for discriminating multiple PFTs, though a small improvement in spectral sampling and resolution does not significantly modify the results. Bands, which could be added to future instruments (e.g., Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) instrument on the upcoming Sentinel-3B,-3C,-3D, etc., and further satellites) in order to enhance PFT retrieval capabilities, were also determined.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-05-22
    Description: Light microscopy analysis of diatom frustules is widely used in basic and applied research, notably taxonomy, morphometrics, water quality monitoring and paleo-environmental studies. Although there is a need for automation in these applications, various developments in image processing and analysis methodology supporting these tasks have not become widespread in diatom-based analyses. We have addressed this issue by combining our automated diatom image analysis software SHERPA with a commercial slide-scanning microscope. The resulting workflow enables mass-analyses of a broad range of morphometric features from individual frustules mounted on permanent slides. Extensive automation and internal quality control of the results helps to minimize user intervention, but care was taken to allow the user to stay in control of the most critical steps (exact segmentation of valve outlines and selection of objects of interest) using interactive functions for reviewing and revising results. In this contribution, we describe our workflow and give an overview of factors critical for success, ranging from preparation and mounting through slide scanning and autofocus finding to final morphometric data extraction. To demonstrate the usability of our methods we finally provide an example application by analysing Fragilariopsis kerguelensis valves originating from a sediment core, which substantially extends the size range reported in the literature.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here, we present a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM, ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (−0.69%), Western Alaska (−2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (−0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e., upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-07-24
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: We studied two issues to be considered in the calculation of parameters characterizing sea ice deformation: the effect of uncertainties in an automatically retrieved sea ice drift field, and the influence of the type of drift vector grid. Sea ice deformation changes the local ice mass balance and the interaction between atmosphere, ice, and ocean, and constitutes a hazard to marine traffic and operations. Due to numerical effects, the results of deformation retrievals may predict, e.g., openings and closings of the ice cover that do not exist in reality. We focus specifically on fields of ice drift obtained from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and analyze the Propagated Drift Retrieval Error (PDRE) and the Boundary Definition Error (BDE). From the theory of error propagation, the PDRE for the calculated deformation parameters can be estimated. To quantify the BDE, we devise five different grid types and compare theoretical expectation and numerical results for different deformation parameters assuming three scenarios: pure divergence, pure shear, and a mixture of both. Our findings for both sources of error help to set up optimal deformation retrieval schemes and are also useful for other applications working with vector fields and scalar parameters derived therefrom.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-08-28
    Description: Exposed stones in sandy sublittoral environments are hotspots for marine biodiversity, especially for benthic communities. The detection of single stones is principally possible using sidescan-sonar (SSS) backscatter data. The data resolution has to be high to visualize the acoustic shadows of the stones. Otherwise, stony substrates will not be differentiable from other high backscatter substrates (e.g., gravel). Acquiring adequate sonar data and identifying stones in backscatter images is time consuming because it usually requires visual-manual procedures. To develop a more efficient identification and demarcation procedure of stone fields, sidescan sonar and parametric echo sound data were recorded within the marine protected area of “Sylt Outer Reef” (German Bight, North Sea). The investigated area (~5.900 km2) is characterized by dispersed heterogeneous moraine and marine deposits. Data from parametric sediment echo sounder indicate hyperbolas at the sediment surface in stony areas, which can easily be exported. By combining simultaneous recorded low backscatter data and parametric single beam data, stony grounds were demarcated faster, less complex and reproducible from gravelly substrates indicating similar high backscatter in the SSS data.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-08-28
    Description: Backscatter mosaics based on a multi-frequency multibeam echosounder survey in the continental shelf setting of the North Sea were compared. The uncalibrated backscatter data were recorded with frequencies of 200, 400 and 600 kHz. The results showed that the seafloor appears mostly featureless in acoustic backscatter mosaics derived from 600 kHz data. The same area surveyed with 200 kHz reveals numerous backscatter anomalies with diameters of 10–70 m deviating between −2 dB and +4 dB from the background sediment. Backscatter anomalies were further subdivided based on their frequency-specific texture and were attributed to bioturbation within the sediment and the presence of polychaetes on the seafloor. While low frequencies show the highest overall contrast between different seafloor types, a consideration of all frequencies permits an improved interpretation of subtle seafloor features.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-10-15
    Description: Yedoma—extremely ice-rich permafrost with massive ice wedges formed during the Late Pleistocene—is vulnerable to thawing and degradation under climate warming. Thawing of ice-rich Yedoma results in lowering of surface elevations. Quantitative knowledge about surface elevation changes helps us to understand the freeze-thaw processes of the active layer and the potential degradation of Yedoma deposits. In this study, we use C-band Sentinel-1 InSAR measurements to map the elevation changes over ice-rich Yedoma uplands on Sobo-Sise Island, Lena Delta with frequent revisit observations (as short as six or 12 days). We observe significant seasonal thaw subsidence during summer months and heterogeneous inter-annual elevation changes from 2016–17. We also observe interesting patterns of stronger seasonal thaw subsidence on elevated flat Yedoma uplands by comparing to the surrounding Yedoma slopes. Inter-annual analyses from 2016–17 suggest that our observed positive surface elevation changes are likely caused by the delayed progression of the thaw season in 2017, associated with mean annual air temperature fluctuations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Boss, E., Sherwood, C. R., Hill, P., & Milligan, T. Advantages and limitations to the use of optical measurements to study sediment properties. Applied Sciences-Basel, 8(12), (2018):2692, doi:10.3390/app8122692.
    Description: Measurements of optical properties have been used for decades to study particle distributions in the ocean. They are useful for estimating suspended mass concentration as well as particle-related properties such as size, composition, packing (particle porosity or density), and settling velocity. Measurements of optical properties are, however, biased, as certain particles, because of their size, composition, shape, or packing, contribute to a specific property more than others. Here, we study this issue both theoretically and practically, and we examine different optical properties collected simultaneously in a bottom boundary layer to highlight the utility of such measurements. We show that the biases we are likely to encounter using different optical properties can aid our studies of suspended sediment. In particular, we investigate inferences of settling velocity from vertical profiles of optical measurements, finding that the effects of aggregation dynamics can seldom be ignored.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research and the United States Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program. The unique instrument platform and data acquisition system was designed and built by technical staff lead by Marinna Martini at the United States Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center. This team was also responsible for deployment and recovery of the instrumentation. We thank the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) MVCO staff for support during this experiment, and we thank the captains and crews of the R/V Connecticut and the R/V Tioga. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the United States Government. This paper has benefited significantly from insightful comments from D. Stramski, A. Aretxabaleta and two anonymous reviewers.
    Keywords: particle dynamics ; optical properties ; suspended sediment
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: This article presents gas hydrate experimental measurements for mixtures containing methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) with the aim to better understand the impact of water (H2O) on the phase equilibrium. Some of these phase equilibrium experiments were carried out with a very high water-to-gas ratio that shifts the gas hydrate dissociation points to higher pressures. This is due to the significantly different solubilities of the different guest molecules in liquid H2O. A second experiment focused on CH4-CO2 exchange between the hydrate and the vapor phases at moderate pressures. The results show a high retention of CO2 in the gas hydrate phase with small pressure variations within the first hours. However, for our system containing 10.2 g of H2O full conversion of the CH4 hydrate grains to CO2 hydrate is estimated to require 40 days. This delay is attributed to the shrinking core effect, where initially an outer layer of CO2-rich hydrate is formed that effectively slows down the further gas exchange between the vapor phase and the inner core of the CH4-rich hydrate grain.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The combination of LC-MS/MS based metabolomics approach and anti-MRSA activity-guided fractionation scheme was applied on the Gram-negative bacterium Aequorivita sp. isolated from shallow Antarctic sea sediment using a miniaturized culture chip technique. This methodology afforded the isolation of three new (1–3) and four known (4–7) N-terminal glycine- or serine-bearing iso-fatty acid amides esterified with another iso-fatty acid through their C-3 hydroxy groups. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic (NMR, [α]D and FT-IR) and spectrometric (HRMS, HRMS/MS) methods. The aminolipids possessing an N-terminal glycine unit (1, 2, 4, 5) showed moderate in vitro antimicrobial activity against MRSA (IC50 values 22–145 µg/mL). This is the first in-depth chemistry and biological activity study performed on the microbial genus Aequorivita.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  Applied Sciences, 9 (6, Article 1258).
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: In marine environments bacterial microfoulers are an important determinant for the settlement of algal and animal macrofoulers. At the same time fouling is usually subject to seasonal fluctuation. Additionally, the seagrass Zostera marina is prone to microfouling, although this marine spermatophyte is known to be chemically defended against bacterial settlers. Spermatophytes are often capable of induced or activated defences against biological enemies such as pathogens or herbivores, but it is still unknown whether they can fine-tune their antifouling-defence according to settlement pressure. We therefore assessed the seasonality of bacterial settlement pressure, defence against microsettlers and concentrations of a previously identified defence compound, rosmarinic acid, on surfaces of Z. marina. All examined variables peaked in summer, while they tended to be lower in spring and autumn. The seasonality of defence activity and rosmarinic acid surface concentration was positively correlated with the seasonal fluctuation of fouling pressure, which suggests that Z. marina can adjust its defence level to the relatively high bacterial fouling pressure in summer. Besides of biotic factors the seasonal change of environmental factors, such as nitrogen supply, and in particular temperature, also affected the defence level, either directly or through indirect effects on the microbial settlers.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The fungi associated with marine algae are prolific sources of metabolites with high chemical diversity and bioactivity. In this study, we investigated culture-dependent fungal communities associated with the Baltic seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Altogether, 55 epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated and identified. Twenty-six strains were selected for a small-scale One-Strain-Many-Compounds (OSMAC)-based fermentation in four media under solid and liquid culture regimes. In total, 208 fungal EtOAc extracts were tested for anticancer activity and general cytotoxicity. Ten most active strains (i.e., 80 extracts) were analyzed for their metabolome by molecular networking (MN), in-silico MS/MS fragmentation analysis (ISDB–UNPD), and manual dereplication. Thirty-six metabolites belonging to 25 chemical families were putatively annotated. The MN clearly distinguished the impact of culture conditions in chemical inventory and anticancer activity of the fungal extracts that was often associated with general toxicity. The bioactivity data were further mapped into MN to seek metabolites, exclusively expressed in the active extracts. This is the first report of cultivable fungi associated with the Baltic F. vesiculosus that combined an OSMAC and an integrated MN-based untargeted metabolomics approaches for efficient assessment and visualization of the impact of the culture conditions on chemical space and anticancer potential of the fungi.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Linear diterpenes that are commonly found in brown algae are of high chemotaxonomic and ecological importance. This study reports bifurcatriol (1), a new linear diterpene featuring two stereogenic centers isolated from the Irish brown alga Bifurcariabifurcata. The gross structure of this new natural product was elucidated based on its spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, HRMS). Its absolute configuration was identified by experimental and computational vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, combined with the calculation of 13C-NMR chemical shielding constants. Bifurcatriol (1) was tested for in vitro antiprotozoal activity towards a small panel of parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, and Leishmania donovani) and cytotoxicity against mammalian primary cells. The highest activity was exerted against the malaria parasite P. falciparum (IC50 value 0.65 μg/mL) with low cytotoxicity (IC50 value 56.6 μg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of VCD and DP4 probability analysis of the calculated 13C-NMR chemical shifts for the simultaneous assignment of the absolute configuration of multiple stereogenic centers in a long-chain acyclic natural product.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are resulting in a reduction in seawater pH, with potential detrimental consequences for marine organisms. Improved efforts are required to monitor the anthropogenically driven pH decrease in the context of natural pH variations. We present here a high resolution surface water pH data set obtained in summer 2011 in North West European Shelf Seas. The aim of our paper is to demonstrate the successful deployment of the pH sensor, and discuss the carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters of Northwest European Shelf Seas using pH and ancillary data. The pH measurements were undertaken using spectrophotometry with a Lab-on-Chip pH sensor connected to the underway seawater supply of the ship. The main processes controlling the pH distribution along the ship's transect, and their relative importance, were determined using a statistical approach. The pH sensor allowed 10 measurements h(-1) with a precision of 0.001 pH units and a good agreement with pH calculated from a pair of discretely sampled carbonate variables dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) (e.g., pH(DICpCO2)). For this summer cruise, the biological activity formed the main control on the pH distribution along the cruise transect. This study highlights the importance of high quality and high resolution pH measurements for the assessment of carbonate chemistry dynamics in marine waters.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The satellite-derived HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data) precipitation estimates have been validated against in-situ precipitation measurements from optical disdrometers, available from OceanRAIN (Ocean Rainfall And Ice-phase precipitation measurement Network) over the open-ocean by applying a statistical analysis for binary estimates. In addition to using directly collocated pairs of data, collocated data were merged within a certain temporal and spatial threshold into single events, according to the observation times. Although binary statistics do not show perfect agreement, simulations of areal estimates from the observations themselves indicate a reasonable performance of HOAPS to detect rain. However, there are deficits at low and mid-latitudes. Weaknesses also occur when analyzing the mean precipitation rates; HOAPS underperforms in the area of the intertropical convergence zone, where OceanRAIN observations show the highest mean precipitation rates. Histograms indicate that this is due to an underestimation of the frequency of moderate to high precipitation rates by HOAPS, which cannot be explained by areal averaging.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The metabolism of seaweeds depends on environmental parameters, the availability of nutrients, and biotic/abiotic stresses; therefore, their chemical composition fluctuates throughout the year. This study investigated seasonal variations in the metabolome of the Baltic Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and its potential relation to the bioactivity profile. By using a definitive screening design (DSD) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), an optimised protocol was developed to extract algal biomass monthly for a full calendar year. An untargeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSn)-based molecular networking and manual dereplication was employed. The extracts were simultaneously screened for their in vitro antimicrobial, anticancer/apoptotic, and free radical scavenging activities. 44 compounds were putatively dereplicated in the metabolome. Many compounds were found to vary with the sampling month; phlorotannin total ion count (TIC) was highest in summer, whilst chlorophylls, lipids, and carotenoids peaked in winter and spring. The greatest radical scavenging and apoptotic activities against pancreas cancer cells observed in the summer months were attributed to high phlorotannin TIC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitory activity was produced year-round without a clear seasonal trend. This is the first study applying DSD-based optimised PLE extraction combined with a metabolome analysis of F. vesiculosus for the identification of seasonal variations in both metabolome and bioactivity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The Antarctic deep-sea sponge Latrunculia (Latrunculia) biformis Kirkpatrick, 1908 (Class Demospongiae Sollas, Order Poecilosclerida Topsent, Latrunculiidae Topsent) was selected for chemical analyses due to its potent anticancer activity. Metabolomic analysis of its crude extract by HRMS/MS-based molecular networking showed the presence of several clusters of pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, i.e., discorhabdin and epinardin-type brominated pyridopyrroloquinolines and tsitsikammamines, the non-brominated bis-pyrroloiminoquinones. Molecular networking approach combined with a bioactivity-guided isolation led to the targeted isolation of the known pyrroloiminoquinone tsitsikammamine A (1) and its new analog 16,17-dehydrotsitsikammamine A (2). The chemical structures of the compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, HR-ESIMS). Due to minute amounts, molecular modeling and docking was used to assess potential affinities to potential targets of the isolated compounds, including DNA intercalation, topoisomerase I-II, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Tsitsikammamines represent a small class of pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids that have only previously been reported from the South African sponge genus Tsitsikamma Samaai & Kelly and an Australian species of the sponge genus Zyzzya de Laubenfels. This is the first report of tsitsikammamines from the genus Latrunculia du Bocage and the successful application of molecular networking in the identification of comprehensive chemical inventory of L.biformis followed by targeted isolation of new molecules. This study highlights the high productivity of secondary metabolites of Latrunculia sponges and may shed new light on their biosynthetic origin and chemotaxonomy
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-05-20
    Description: Real-time quality-controlled surface current data derived from X-Band marine radar (MR) measurements were evaluated to estimate their operational reliability. The presented data were acquired by the standard commercial o�-the-shelf MR-based sigma s6 WaMoS® II (WaMoS® II) deployed onboard the German Research vessel Polarstern. The measurement reliability is specified by an IQ value obtained by the WaMoS® II real-time quality control (rtQC). Data which pass the rtQC without objection are assumed to be reliable. For these data sets accuracy and correlation with corresponding vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements are determined. To reduce potential misinterpretation due to short-term oceanic variability/turbulences, the evaluation of the WaMoS® II accuracy was carried out based on sliding means over 20 min of the reliable data only. The associated standard deviation �WaMoS = 0.02 m/s of the meanWaMoS® II measurements reflect a high precision of the measurement and the successful rtQC during di�erent wave, current and weather conditions. The direct comparison of 7272 WaMoS® II/ADCP northward and eastward velocity data pairs yield a correlation of r � 0.94, with jbiasDj � 0.06 m/s and �S = 0.05 m/s. This confirms that the MR-based surface current measurements are accurate and reliable.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: Large amounts of gas hydrate are present in marine sediments offshore Taitao Peninsula, near the Chile Triple Junction. Here, marine sediments on the forearc contain carbon that is converted to methane in a regime of very high heat flow and intense rock deformation above the downgoing oceanic spreading ridge separating the Nazca and Antarctic plates. This regime enables vigorous fluid migration. Here, we present an analysis of the spatial distribution, concentration, estimate of gas-phases (gas hydrate and free gas) and geothermal gradients in the accretionary prism, and forearc sediments offshore Taitao (45.5°–47° S). Velocity analysis of Seismic Profile RC2901-751 indicates gas hydrate concentration values 〈10% of the total rock volume and extremely high geothermal gradients (〈190 °C·km−1). Gas hydrates are located in shallow sediments (90–280 m below the seafloor). The large amount of hydrate and free gas estimated (7.21 × 1011 m3 and 4.1 × 1010 m3; respectively), the high seismicity, the mechanically unstable nature of the sediments, and the anomalous conditions of the geothermal gradient set the stage for potentially massive releases of methane to the ocean, mainly through hydrate dissociation and/or migration directly to the seabed through faults. We conclude that the Chile Triple Junction is an important methane seepage area and should be the focus of novel geological, oceanographic, and ecological research.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  Marine Drugs, 14 (1). p. 19.
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: Marine fungi represent a huge potential for new natural products and an increased number of new metabolites have become known over the past years, while much of the hidden potential still needs to be uncovered. Representative examples of biodiversity studies of marine fungi and of natural products from a diverse selection of marine fungi from the author's lab are highlighting important aspects of this research. If one considers the huge phylogenetic diversity of marine fungi and their almost ubiquitous distribution, and realizes that most of the published work on secondary metabolites of marine fungi has focused on just a few genera, strictly speaking Penicillium, Aspergillus and maybe also Fusarium and Cladosporium, the diversity of marine fungi is not adequately represented in investigations on their secondary metabolites and the less studied species deserve special attention. In addition to results on recently discovered new secondary metabolites of Penicillium species, the diversity of fungi in selected marine habitats is highlighted and examples of groups of secondary metabolites produced by representatives of a variety of different genera and their bioactivities are presented. Special focus is given to the production of groups of derivatives of metabolites by the fungi and to significant differences in biological activities due to small structural changes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  Atmosphere, 7 (6). p. 82.
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis total precipitation estimates are validated against ten years of in situ precipitation measurements onboard of ships over the Baltic Sea. A statistical analysis for binary forecasts and mean rain rates derived from all data show a good agreement with observations. However, a closer look reveals an underestimation of ERA-Interim total precipitation in spring and an overestimation in autumn, obviously related to stability. Deriving stability and evaporation by a bulk flux scheme it could be shown, in fact, that ERA-Interim underestimates precipitation for conditions with low evaporation and strongly overestimates it for conditions with high evaporation. Since ERA-Interim surface fields become too dry with increasing evaporation compared to independent synoptic ship observations, uncertainties in the ECMWF convection scheme may possibly cause these biases in seasonal precipitation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: During the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in the possibilities to study the diversity of microbial communities in the environment. The development of methods to study these communities on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis was a first step into the molecular analysis of environmental communities and the study of biodiversity in natural habitats. A new dimension in this field was reached with the introduction of functional genes of ecological importance and the establishment of genetic tools to study the diversity of functional microbial groups and their responses to environmental factors. Functional gene approaches are excellent tools to study the diversity of a particular function and to demonstrate changes in the composition of prokaryote communities contributing to this function. The phylogeny of many functional genes largely correlates with that of the 16S rRNA gene, and microbial species may be identified on the basis of functional gene sequences. Functional genes are perfectly suited to link culture-based microbiological work with environmental molecular genetic studies. In this review, the development of functional gene studies in environmental microbiology is highlighted with examples of genes relevant for important ecophysiological functions. Examples are presented for bacterial photosynthesis and two types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, with genes of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson-protein (fmoA) as target for the green sulfur bacteria and of two reaction center proteins (pufLM) for the phototrophic purple bacteria, with genes of adenosine-5′phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (aprA), sulfate thioesterase (soxB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) for sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria, with genes of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) for nitrifying/ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with genes of particulate nitrate reductase and nitrite reductases (narH/G, nirS, nirK) for denitrifying bacteria and with genes of methane monooxygenase (pmoA) for methane oxidizing bacteria.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: The knowledge of the phase behavior of carbon dioxide (CO2)-rich mixtures is a key factor to understand the chemistry and migration of natural volcanic CO2 seeps in the marine environment, as well as to develop engineering processes for CO2 sequestration coupled to methane (CH4) production from gas hydrate deposits. In both cases, it is important to gain insights into the interactions of the CO2-rich phase—liquid or gas—with the aqueous medium (H2O) in the pore space below the seafloor or in the ocean. Thus, the CH4-CO2 binary and CH4-CO2-H2O ternary mixtures were investigated at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. The solubility of CH4 in liquid CO2 (vapor-liquid equilibrium) was determined in laboratory experiments and then modelled with the Soave–Redlich–Kwong equation of state (EoS) consisting of an optimized binary interaction parameter kij(CH4-CO2) = 1.32 × 10−3 × T − 0.251 describing the non-ideality of the mixture. The hydrate-liquid-liquid equilibrium (HLLE) was measured in addition to the composition of the CO2-rich fluid phase in the presence of H2O. In contrast to the behavior in the presence of vapor, gas hydrates become more stable when increasing the CH4 content, and the relative proportion of CH4 to CO2 decreases in the CO2-rich phase after gas hydrate formation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: An intercomparison of radiance and irradiance ocean color radiometers (the second laboratory comparison exercise—LCE-2) was organized within the frame of the European Space Agency funded project Fiducial Reference Measurements for Satellite Ocean Color (FRM4SOC) May 8–13, 2017 at Tartu Observatory, Estonia. LCE-2 consisted of three sub-tasks: (1) SI-traceable radiometric calibration of all the participating radiance and irradiance radiometers at the Tartu Observatory just before the comparisons; (2) indoor, laboratory intercomparison using stable radiance and irradiance sources in a controlled environment; (3) outdoor, field intercomparison of natural radiation sources over a natural water surface. The aim of the experiment was to provide a link in the chain of traceability from field measurements of water reflectance to the uniform SI-traceable calibration, and after calibration to verify whether di�erent instruments measuring the same object provide results consistent within the expected uncertainty limits. This paper describes the third phase of LCE-2: The results of the field experiment. The calibration of radiometers and laboratory comparison experiment are presented in a related paper of the same journal issue. Compared to the laboratory comparison, the field intercomparison has demonstrated substantially larger variability between freshly calibrated sensors, because the targets and environmental conditions during radiometric calibration were di�erent, both spectrally and spatially. Major di�erences were found for radiance sensors measuring a sunlit water target at viewing zenith angle of 139� because of the di�erent fields of view. Major di�erences were found for irradiance sensors because of imperfect cosine response of di�users. Variability between individual radiometers did depend significantly also on the type of the sensor and on the specific measurement target. Uniform SI traceable radiometric calibration ensuring fairly good consistency for indoor, laboratory measurements is insu�cient for outdoor, field measurements, mainly due to the di�erent angular variability of illumination. More stringent specifications and individual testing of radiometers for all relevant systematic e�ects (temperature, nonlinearity, spectral stray light, etc.) are needed to reduce biases between instruments and better quantify measurement uncertainties.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: An intercomparison of radiance and irradiance ocean color radiometers (The Second Laboratory Comparison Exercise—LCE-2) was organized within the frame of the European Space Agency funded project Fiducial Reference Measurements for Satellite Ocean Color (FRM4SOC) May 8–13, 2017 at Tartu Observatory, Estonia. LCE-2 consisted of three sub-tasks: 1) SI-traceable radiometric calibration of all the participating radiance and irradiance radiometers at the Tartu Observatory just before the comparisons; 2) Indoor intercomparison using stable radiance and irradiance sources in controlled environment; and 3) Outdoor intercomparison of natural radiation sources over terrestrial water surface. The aim of the experiment was to provide one link in the chain of traceability from field measurements of water reflectance to the uniform SI-traceable calibration, and after calibration to verify whether di�erent instruments measuring the same object provide results consistent within the expected uncertainty limits. This paper describes the activities and results of the first two phases of LCE-2: the SI-traceable radiometric calibration and indoor intercomparison, the results of outdoor experiment are presented in a related paper of the same journal issue. The indoor experiment of the LCE-2 has proven that uniform calibration just before the use of radiometers is highly e�ective. Distinct radiometers from di�erent manufacturers operated by di�erent scientists can yield quite close radiance and irradiance results (standard deviation s 〈 1%) under defined conditions. This holds when measuring stable lamp-based targets under stationary laboratory conditions with all the radiometers uniformly calibrated against the same standards just prior to the experiment. In addition, some unification of measurement and data processing must be settled. Uncertaint of radiance and irradiance measurement under these conditions largely consists of the sensor’s calibration uncertainty and of the spread of results obtained by individual sensors measuring the same object.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-06-17
    Description: Automatic detection of icebergs in satellite images is regarded a useful tool to provide information necessary for safety in Arctic shipping or operations over large ocean areas in near-real time. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of automatic iceberg detection in Sentinel-1 Extra Wide Swath (EWS) SAR images which follow the preferred image mode in operational ice charting. As test region, we selected the Barents Sea where the size of many icebergs is on the order of the spatial resolution of the EWS-mode. We tested a new approach for a detection scheme. It is based on a combination of a filter for enhancing the contrast between icebergs and background, subsequent blob detection, and final application of a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm. The filter relies mainly on the HV-polarized intensity which often reveals a larger difference between icebergs and sea ice or open water. The blob detector identifies locations of potential icebergs and thus shortens computation time. The final detection is performed on the identified blobs using the CFAR algorithm. About 2000 icebergs captured in fast ice were visually identified in Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) data and exploited for an assessment of the detection scheme performance using confusion matrices. For our performance tests, we used four Sentinel-1 EWS images. For judging the effect of spatial resolution, we carried out an additional test with one Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) mode image. Our results show that only 8–22 percent of the icebergs could be detected in the EWS images, and over 90 percent of all detections were false alarms. In IWS mode, the number of correctly identified icebergs increased to 38 percent. However, we obtained a larger number of false alarms in the IWS image than in the corresponding EWS image. We identified two problems for iceberg detection: 1) with the given frequency–polarization combination, not all icebergs are strong scatterers at HV-polarization, and (2) icebergs and deformation structures present on fast ice can often not be distinguished since both may reveal equally strong responses at HV-polarization.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-01
    Description: Variation in nutrient excretion rates and stoichiometric ratios (e.g., nitrogen to phosphorus) by consumers can have substantial effects on aquatic ecosystem function. While phylogenetic signals within an assemblage often explain variation in nutrient recycling rates and stoichiometry, the phylogenetically conserved traits that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear. In particular, variation in nutrient excretion stoichiometry across a phylogeny might be driven by phylogenetic patterns in either diet or body stoichiometry. We examined the relative importance of these traits in explaining variation in nutrient recycling rates and stoichiometry in a diverse family of Neotropical-armored catfishes, Loricariidae, in Panamanian streams. We found significant variation in nutrient mineralization traits among species and subfamilies, but variation in nutrient excretion stoichiometry among species was best explained by trophic position rather than body stoichiometry. The variation in trophic position among Panamanian species was consistent with variation in the trophic niche of their genera across South America, suggesting that phylogenetic patterns underpin the evolution of trophic and nutrient excretion traits among these species. Such geographical variation in nutrient mineralization patterns among closely related species may be common, given that trophic variation in fish lineages occurs widely. These results suggest that information on trophic trait evolution within lineages will advance our understanding of the functional contribution of animals to biogeochemical cycling.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Zostera marina (eelgrass) is a marine foundation species with key ecological roles in coastal habitats. Its bacterial microbiota has been well studied, but very little is known about its mycobiome. In this study, we have isolated and identified 13 fungal strains, dominated by Penicillium species (10 strains), from the leaf and the root rhizosphere of Baltic Z. marina. The organic extracts of the fungi that were cultured by an OSMAC (One-Strain–Many-Compounds) regime using five liquid culture media under both static and shaking conditions were investigated for their chemical and bioactivity profiles. All extracts showed strong anti-quorum sensing activity, and the majority of the Penicillium extracts displayed antimicrobial or anti-biofilm activity against Gram-negative environmental marine and human pathogens. HPLC-DAD-MS-based rapid metabolome analyses of the extracts indicated the high influence of culture conditions on the secondary metabolite (SM) profiles. Among 69 compounds detected in all Penicillium sp. extracts, 46 were successfully dereplicated. Analysis of SM relatedness in culture conditions by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed generally low similarity and showed a strong effect of medium selection on chemical profiles of Penicillium sp. This is the first study assessing both the metabolite and bioactivity profile of the fungi associated with Baltic eelgrass Z. marina.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers are widely used as detectors in analytical laboratory instruments and as sensors for in situ optical measurements. However, as the applications become more complex, the physical and electronic limits of the CCD spectrometers may restrict their applicability. The errors due to dark currents, temperature variations, and blooming can be readily corrected. However, a correction for uncertainty of integration time and wavelength calibration is typically lacking in most devices, and detector non-linearity may distort the signal by up to 5% for some measurements. Here, we propose a simple correction method to compensate for non-linearity errors in optical measurements where compact CCD spectrometers are used. The results indicate that the error due to the non-linearity of a spectrometer can be reduced from several hundred counts to about 40 counts if the proposed correction function is applied.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-07-25
    Description: Among the Microbacteriaceae the species of Subtercola and Agreia form closely associated clusters. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated three major phylogenetic branches of these species. One of these branches contains the two psychrophilic species Subtercola frigoramans and Subtercola vilae, together with a larger number of isolates from various cold environments. Genomic evidence supports the separation of Agreia and Subtercola species. In order to gain insight into the ability of S. vilae to adapt to life in this extreme environment, we analyzed the genome with a particular focus on properties related to possible adaptation to a cold environment. General properties of the genome are presented, including carbon and energy metabolism, as well as secondary metabolite production. The repertoire of genes in the genome of S. vilae DB165T linked to adaptations to the harsh conditions found in Llullaillaco Volcano Lake includes several mechanisms to transcribe proteins under low temperatures, such as a high number of tRNAs and cold shock proteins. In addition, S. vilae DB165T is capable of producing a number of proteins to cope with oxidative stress, which is of particular relevance at low temperature environments, in which reactive oxygen species are more abundant. Most important, it obtains capacities to produce cryo-protectants, and to combat against ice crystal formation, it produces ice-binding proteins. Two new ice-binding proteins were identified which are unique to S. vilae DB165T. These results indicate that S. vilae has the capacity to employ different mechanisms to live under the extreme and cold conditions prevalent in Llullaillaco Volcano Lake.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-07-25
    Description: The presence of two known anthraquinones, Lupinacidin A and Galvaquinone B, which have antitumor activity, has been identified in the sea anemone (Gyractis sesere) from Easter Island. So far, these anthraquinones have been characterized from terrestrial and marine Actinobacteria only. In order to identify the anthraquinones producer, we isolated Actinobacteria associated with the sea anemone and obtained representatives of seven actinobacterial genera. Studies of cultures of these bacteria by HPLC, NMR, and HRLCMS analyses showed that the producer of Lupinacidin A and Galvaquinone B indeed was one of the isolated Actinobacteria. The producer strain, SN26_14.1, was identified as a representative of the genus Verrucosispora. Genome analysis supported the biosynthetic potential to the production of these compounds by this strain. This study adds Verrucosispora as a new genus to the anthraquinone producers, in addition to well-known species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora. By a cultivation-based approach, the responsibility of symbionts of a marine invertebrate for the production of complex natural products found within the animal’s extracts could be demonstrated. This finding re-opens the debate about the producers of secondary metabolites in sea animals. Finally, it provides valuable information about the chemistry of bacteria harbored in the geographically-isolated and almost unstudied, Easter Island
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-07-25
    Description: As Streptomyces have shown an outstanding capacity for drug production, different campaigns in geographically distant locations currently aim to isolate new antibiotic producers. However, many of these newly isolated Streptomyces strains are classified as identical to already described species. Nevertheless, as discrepancies in terms of secondary metabolites and morphology are possible, we compared two Streptomyces strains with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences but geographically distant origins. Chosen were an Easter Island Streptomyces isolate (Streptomyces sp. SN25_8.1) and the next related type strain, which is Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus DSM 40236T isolated from Russian garden soil. Compared traits included phylogenetic relatedness based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, macro and microscopic morphology, antibiotic activity and secondary metabolite profiles. Both Streptomyces strains shared several common features, such as morphology and core secondary metabolite production. They revealed differences in pigmentation and in the production of accessory secondary metabolites which appear to be strain-specific. In conclusion, despite identical 16S rRNA classification Streptomyces strains can present different secondary metabolite profiles and may well be valuable for consideration in processes for drug discovery
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    MDPI
    In:  Remote Sensing, 11 (13). Art.Nr. 1576.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: In-situ observation, climate reanalyses, and satellite remote sensing are used to study the annual cycle of turbulent latent heat flux (LHF) in the Agulhas Current system. We assess if the datasets do represent the intense exchange of moisture that occurs above the Agulhas Current and the Retroflection region, especially the new reanalyses as the former, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis 2 (NCEP2) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis second-generation reanalysis (ERA-40) have lower sea and less distinct surface temperature (SST) in the Agulhas Current system due to their low spatial resolution thus do not adequately represent the Agulhas Current LHF. We use monthly fields of LHF, SST, surface wind speed, saturated specific humidity at the sea surface (Qss), and specific humidity at 10 m (Qa). The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast fifth generation (ERA-5), and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version-2 (MERRA-2) are similar to the air–sea turbulent fluxes (SEAFLUX) and do represent the signature of the Agulhas Current. ERA-Interim underestimates the LHF due to lower surface wind speeds than other datasets. The observation-based National Oceanography Center Southampton (NOCS) dataset is different from all other datasets. The highest LHF of 250 W/m2 is found in the Retroflection in winter. The lowest LHF (~100 W/m2) is off Port Elizabeth in summer. East of the Agulhas Current, Qss-Qa is the main driver of the amplitude of the annual cycle of LHF, while it is the wind speed in the Retroflection and both Qss-Qa and wind speed in between. The difference in LHF between product are due to differences in Qss-Qa wind speed and resolution of datasets.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-08-23
    Description: The Arctic-Boreal regions experience strong changes of air temperature and precipitation regimes, which affect the thermal state of the permafrost. This results in widespread permafrost-thaw disturbances, some unfolding slowly and over long periods, others occurring rapidly and abruptly. Despite optical remote sensing offering a variety of techniques to assess and monitor landscape changes, a persistent cloud cover decreases the amount of usable images considerably. However, combining data from multiple platforms promises to increase the number of images drastically. We therefore assess the comparability of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 imagery and the possibility to use both Landsat and Sentinel-2 images together in time series analyses, achieving a temporally-dense data coverage in Arctic-Boreal regions. We determined overlapping same-day acquisitions of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 images for three representative study sites in Eastern Siberia. We then compared the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 pixel-pairs, downscaled to 60 m, of corresponding bands and derived the ordinary least squares regression for every band combination. The acquired coefficients were used for spectral bandpass adjustment between the two sensors. The spectral band comparisons showed an overall good fit between Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 images already. The ordinary least squares regression analyses underline the generally good spectral fit with intercept values between 0.0031 and 0.056 and slope values between 0.531 and 0.877. A spectral comparison after spectral bandpass adjustment of Sentinel-2 values to Landsat-8 shows a nearly perfect alignment between the same-day images. The spectral band adjustment succeeds in adjusting Sentinel-2 spectral values to Landsat-8 very well in Eastern Siberian Arctic-Boreal landscapes. After spectral adjustment, Landsat and Sentinel-2 data can be used to create temporally-dense time series and be applied to assess permafrost landscape changes in Eastern Siberia. Remaining differences between the sensors can be attributed to several factors including heterogeneous terrain, poor cloud and cloud shadow masking, and mixed pixels.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-08-23
    Description: In permafrost areas, seasonal freeze-thaw cycles result in upward and downward movements of the ground. For some permafrost areas, long-term downward movements were reported during the last decade. We measured seasonal and multi-year ground movements in a yedoma region of the Lena River Delta, Siberia, in 2013–2017, using reference rods installed deep in the permafrost. The seasonal subsidence was 1.7 +- 1.5 cm in the cold summer of 2013 and 4.8 +- 2 cm in the warm summer of 2014. Furthermore, we measured a pronounced multi-year net subsidence of 9.3 +- 5.7 cm from spring 2013 to the end of summer 2017. Importantly, we observed a high spatial variability of subsidence of up to 6 cm across a sub-meter horizontal scale. In summer 2013, we accompanied our field measurements with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) on repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX) data from the summer of 2013 to detect summer thaw subsidence over the same study area. Interferometry was strongly affected by a fast phase coherence loss, atmospheric artifacts, and possibly the choice of reference point. A cumulative ground movement map, built from a continuous interferogram stack, did not reveal a subsidence on the upland but showed a distinct subsidence of up to 2 cm in most of the thermokarst basins. There, the spatial pattern of DInSAR-measured subsidence corresponded well with relative surface wetness identified with the near infra-red band of a high-resolution optical image. Our study suggests that (i) although X-band SAR has serious limitations for ground movement monitoring in permafrost landscapes, it can provide valuable information for specific environments like thermokarst basins, and (ii) due to the high sub-pixel spatial variability of ground movements, a validation scheme needs to be developed and implemented for future DInSAR studies in permafrost environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-08-23
    Description: The timing of snowmelt is an important turning point in the seasonal cycle of small Arctic catchments. The TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite mission is a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR) with high potential to measure the high spatiotemporal variability of snow cover extent (SCE) and fractional snow cover (FSC) on the small catchment scale. We investigate the performance of multi-polarized and multi-pass TSX X-Band SAR data in monitoring SCE and FSC in small Arctic tundra catchments of Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) off the Yukon Coast in the Western Canadian Arctic. We applied a threshold based segmentation on ratio images between TSX images with wet snow and a dry snow reference, and tested the performance of two different thresholds. We quantitatively compared TSX- and Landsat 8-derived SCE maps using confusion matrices and analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of snowmelt from 2015 to 2017 using TSX, Landsat 8 and in situ time lapse data. Our data showed that the quality of SCE maps from TSX X-Band data is strongly influenced by polarization and to a lesser degree by incidence angle. VH polarized TSX data performed best in deriving SCE when compared to Landsat 8. TSX derived SCE maps from VH polarization detected late lying snow patches that were not detected by Landsat 8. Results of a local assessment of TSX FSC against the in situ data showed that TSX FSC accurately captured the temporal dynamics of different snow melt regimes that were related to topographic characteristics of the studied catchments. Both in situ and TSX FSC showed a longer snowmelt period in a catchment with higher contributions of steep valleys and a shorter snowmelt period in a catchment with higher contributions of upland terrain. Landsat 8 had fundamental data gaps during the snowmelt period in all 3 years due to cloud cover. The results also revealed that by choosing a positive threshold of 1 dB, detection of ice layers due to diurnal temperature variations resulted in a more accurate estimation of snow cover than a negative threshold that detects wet snow alone. We find that TSX X-Band data in VH polarization performs at a comparable quality to Landsat 8 in deriving SCE maps when a positive threshold is used. We conclude that TSX data polarization can be used to accurately monitor snowmelt events at high temporal and spatial resolution, overcoming limitations of Landsat 8, which due to cloud related data gaps generally only indicated the onset and end of snowmelt.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-08-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Costello, J. H., Colin, S. P., Gemmell, B. J., & Dabiri, J. O. Hydrodynamics of vortex generation during bell contraction by the hydromedusa Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876). Biomimetics, 4(3), (2019): 44, doi:10.3390/biomimetics4030044.
    Description: Swimming bell kinematics and hydrodynamic wake structures were documented during multiple pulsation cycles of a Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876) medusa swimming in a predominantly linear path. Bell contractions produced pairs of vortex rings with opposite rotational sense. Analyses of the momentum flux in these wake structures demonstrated that vortex dynamics related directly to variations in the medusa swimming speed. Furthermore, a bulk of the momentum flux in the wake was concentrated spatially at the interfaces between oppositely rotating vortices rings. Similar thrust-producing wake structures have been described in models of fish swimming, which posit vortex rings as vehicles for energy transport from locations of body bending to regions where interacting pairs of opposite-sign vortex rings accelerate the flow into linear propulsive jets. These findings support efforts toward soft robotic biomimetic propulsion
    Description: This research was supported by awards from the National Science Foundation (1536672, 1511721 to J.H.C.; 1536688, 1510929 to S.P.C., 1511996 to B.J.G. and 1511333 to J.O.D.).
    Keywords: swimming ; vortex rings ; wakes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-08-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Goodwin, J. D., Munroe, D. M., Defne, Z., Ganju, N. K., & Vasslides, J. Estimating connectivity of hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in Barnegat Bay. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(6), (2019): 167, doi:10.3390/jmse7060167.
    Description: Many marine organisms have a well-known adult sessile stage. Unfortunately, our lack of knowledge regarding their larval transient stage hinders our understanding of their basic ecology and connectivity. Larvae can have swimming behavior that influences their transport within the marine environment. Understanding the larval stage provides insight into population connectivity that can help strategically identify areas for restoration. Current techniques for understanding the larval stage include modeling that combines particle attributes (e.g., larval behavior) with physical processes of water movement to contribute to our understanding of connectivity trends. This study builds on those methods by using a previously developed retention clock matrix (RCM) to illustrate time dependent connectivity of two species of shellfish between areas and over a range of larval durations. The RCM was previously used on physical parameters but we expand the concept by applying it to biology. A new metric, difference RCM (DRCM), is introduced to quantify changes in connectivity under different scenarios. Broad spatial trends were similar for all behavior types with a general south to north progression of particles. The DRCMs illustrate differences between neutral particles and those with behavior in northern regions where stratification was higher, indicating that larval behavior influenced transport. Based on these findings, particle behavior led to small differences (north to south movement) in transport patterns in areas with higher salinity gradients (the northern part of the system) compared to neutral particles. Overall, the dominant direction for particle movement was from south to north, which at times was enhanced by winds from the south. Clam and oyster restoration in the southern portion of Barnegat Bay could serve as a larval supply for populations in the north. These model results show that coupled hydrodynamic and particle tracking models have implications for fisheries management and restoration activities.
    Description: This work is supported by the Barnegat Bay Partnership EPA grants CE98212311, CE98212312. We extend our deep thanks to anonymous reviewers and Lisa Lucas who provided thoughtful input that improved the manuscript. We thank Matthew Kozak and Ian Mitchell for technical advice and Elizabeth North for LTRANS guidance. Joe Caracapa and Jennifer Gius provided help running remote simulations. COAST model source code is available at https://code.usgs.gov/coawstmodel/COAWST [50]. The hydrodynamic model outoput is available at: http://geoport.whoi.edu/thredds/catalog/clay/usgs/users/zdefne/GRL/catalog.html [21] and particle tracking model outputs are available from the corresponding author upon request.
    Keywords: bivalve connectivity ; larval transport ; modeling ; retention clock ; RCM ; ROMS ; LTRANS ; Barnegat Bay ; hard clam ; eastern oyster
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-09-01
    Description: Coring sediments in subglacial aquatic environments offers unique opportunities for research on paleo-environments and paleo-climates because it can provide data from periods even earlier than ice cores, as well as the overlying ice histories, interactions between ice and the water system, life forms in extreme habitats, sedimentology, and stratigraphy. However, retrieving sediment cores from a subglacial environment faces more difficulties than sediment coring in oceans and lakes, resulting in low yields from the most current subglacial sediment coring methods. The coring tools should pass through a hot water-drilled access borehole, then the water column, to reach the sediment layers. The access boreholes are size-limited by the hot water drilling tools and techniques. These holes are drilled through ice up to 3000–4000 m thick, with diameters ranging from 10–60 cm, and with a refreezing closure rate of up to 6 mm/h after being drilled. Several purpose-built streamline corers have been developed to pass through access boreholes and collect the sediment core. The main coring objectives are as follows: (i) To obtain undisturbed water–sediment cores, either singly or as multi-cores and (ii) to obtain long cores with minimal stratigraphic deformation. Subglacial sediment coring methods use similar tools to those used in lake and ocean coring. These methods include the following: Gravity coring, push coring, piston coring, hammer or percussion coring, vibrocoring, and composite methods. Several core length records have been attained by different coring methods, including a 290 cm percussion core from the sub-ice-shelf seafloor, a 400 cm piston core from the sub-ice-stream, and a 170 cm gravity core from a subglacial lake. There are also several undisturbed water–sediment cores that have been obtained by gravity corers or hammer corers. Most current coring tools are deployed by winch and cable facilities on the ice surface. There are three main limitations for obtaining long sediment cores which determines coring tool development, as follows: Hot-water borehole radial size restriction, the sedimentary structure, and the coring techniques. In this paper, we provide a general view on current developments in coring tools, including the working principles, corer characteristics, operational methods, coring site locations, field conditions, coring results, and possible technical improvements. Future prospects in corer design and development are also discussed.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-09-02
    Description: We investigated the plankton community composition and abundance in the urban marine environment of Thessaloniki Bay. We collected water samples weekly from March 2017 to February 2018 at the coastal front of Thessaloniki city center and monthly samples from three other inshore sites along the urban front of the bay. During the study period, conspicuous and successive phytoplankton blooms, dominated by known mucilage-producing diatoms alternated with red tide events formed by the dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca, and an extensive mucilage aggregate phenomenon, which appeared in late June 2017. At least 11 known harmful algae were identified throughout the study, with the increase in the abundance of the known harmful dinoflagellate Dinophysis cf. acuminata occurring in October and November 2017. Finally, a red tide caused by the photosynthetic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum on December 2017 was conspicuous throughout the sampling sites. The above-mentioned harmful blooms and red tides were linked to high nutrient concentrations and eutrophication. This paper provides an overview of eutrophication impacts on the response of the unicellular eukaryotic plankton organisms and their impact on water quality and ecosystem services
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The glycogen-synthase-kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an important target in drug discovery. This enzyme is involved in the signaling pathways of type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of GSK-3 are promising drug candidates for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Here we report pannorin (1), alternariol (2), and alternariol-9-methylether (3) to be promising inhibitors of the isoform GSK-3β showing sub-μM IC50 values. The in vitro inhibition is in the range of the known highly active GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8. Compounds 1–3 have a highly oxygenated benzocoumarin core structure in common, which suggests that this may be a new structural feature for efficient GSK-3β inhibition
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth) in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In the frame of studies on secondary metabolites produced by fungi from deep-sea environments we have investigated inhibitors of enzymes playing key roles in signaling cascades of biochemical pathways relevant for the treatment of diseases. Here we report on a new inhibitor of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a target in the signaling pathway of insulin. A new asperentin analog is produced by an Aspergillus sydowii strain isolated from the sediment of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Asperentin B (1) contains an additional phenolic hydroxy function at C-6 and exhibits an IC50 value against PTP1B of 2 μM in vitro, which is six times stronger than the positive control, suramin. Interestingly, asperentin (2) did not show any inhibition of this enzymatic activity. Asperentin B (1) is discussed as possible therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes and sleeping sickness.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73