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  • La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)  (98)
  • Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía  (50)
  • La Habana  (22)
  • Spanish  (170)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The national statistical institutes face permanently the need to reform and update the statistical criteria and instruments for labor market analysis, as well as to adapt international recommendations for measurement. These processes pose important challenges regarding the comparability of information, necessary to analyze the labor market dynamics. This study presents a consistent methodological approach for the splicing of labor market aggregates based on microeconomic information from household surveys. We analyze the case of the national unemployment rate for Ecuador; assess the potential alternatives for simulation and define a consistent selection criterion for the prognosis and splicing of the series.
    Keywords: C25 ; J21 ; J24 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Unemployment ; splicing of labor indicators ; labor market ; labor surveys
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the innovation promotion programs carried by the National Research and Innovation Agency (ANII). A combination of non-experimental methods was used to quantify the effects of public support to innovation in three dimensions of the firms' behavior: innova - tion investment, innovation results and economic performance. The results show evidence of crowding-in of public support to innovation. Also, beneficiaries of the programs show larger probability of successfully introducing new products and processes. We do not find impact in the economic performance indicators of the firms.
    Keywords: D22 ; O38 ; C21 ; H43 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Impact evaluation ; innovation ; ANII ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper documents the level and trends of monetary inequality in developing countries based on Povcalnet data up to the year 2015. On average, during the first half of the current decade, inequality declined in developing economies, although at a rate substantially lower than that experienced during the 2000s. The current average level of the Gini coefficient is above the value of the early 1980s, which shows the difficulties in moving towards societies with significantly lower levels of economic inequality.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: There is a strong gap in school enrollment rates between young girls with and without children in Uruguay. This paper aims to explain if this gap responds to a cause-effect relationship, identifying the impact of becoming a teen mother on the educational outcomes of young girls. Our identification strategy takes advantage of a reform in Uruguay allowing voluntary termination of pregnancy since December 2012. This reform made Uruguay the only Latin-American country - except from Cuba, Guyana and Mexico City - where abortion on demand is legal. However, the supply of legal abortion services faced several drawbacks in some geographical areas where a high share of gynecologists refused to induce abortions, since the law protects the right to exercise 'conscientious objection' with respect to abortion. Thus, the supply of abortion services varied substantially across departments. Differences in the timing and degree of implementation provide a source of identification for estimating the causal effect of teenage fertility on education using an Instrumental Variables approach. Local abortion rates - carried out under the new legal framework - are used to instrument teenage fertility rates. This is the first study to have official information on the number of legally terminated pregnancies in Uruguay since abortion reform in 2012. Results suggest that access to legal abortion reduced teenage fertility. We provide an exogenous instrument for teenage fertility - legal abortion rates - and this is one of the main contributions of the paper. Second-stage results indicate the causal effect of teenage fertility on educational attainment is null for the group of compliers. This suggests that poor educational performance of teenage mothers cannot be attributed to early motherhood per se, but to pre-existing disadvantages.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage fertility ; Abortion ; Education ; Instrumental Variables ; Latin America ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: In this paper, we discuss the management of monetary policy of the Latin American central banks that have fully established inflation targeting. An optimal monetary rule is estimated for these economies using the Generalized Method of Moments. This analysis allows us to conclude that these central banks have taken into account the economic growth, in addition to price stability. However, only Chile has taken into account the evolution of the exchange rate. Furthermore, Chile, Brazil and Peru have followed an asymmetric behavior, while Colombia and Mexico have adopted a linear monetary policy rule.
    Keywords: E52 ; E43 ; E51 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; Central Bank ; inflation ; monetary rules ; asymmetries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: We analyze the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations, as well as episodes of financial instability and inflation, on inequality indicators in Chile for the period 1960-2014. The relationship between episodes of crisis and fluctuations on levels of inequality are estimated from an event study, finding that they are related to fluctuations in inequality. In addition, we perform econometric estimates where inequality indicators relate to different macroeconomic variables and educational performance. The main conclusions are that banking and inflation crises, as well as periods of severe cyclical contractions, tend to increase the levels of inequality in Chile.
    Keywords: E30 ; I30 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Economic crisis ; inequality ; income distribution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper looks for empirical evidence to show if a very interventionist government stimulates or not private investment in Latin America. Using the same model as Caballero-Urdiales y López-Gallardo (2012), we extend their analysis from five Latin-American countries to all Latin America. The results from our estimated elasticities show evidence in support of three hypothesis: (1) that tax burden (taxes on income and consumption) has significant effects on privateinvestment; (2) that public investment has a crowding out effect with private investment; (3) and that in order to stimulate private investment, the government should have very little intervention.
    Keywords: F21 ; H24 ; H25 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Private investment ; gross domestic produc ; public investment ; income tax ; value added tax
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper develops a methodology using business intelligence (data warehouse) and OLAP tools (Online Analytical Processing) to match individuals from a household survey data to a census one. In order to geo-reference the household data, the method takes advantage of the geographical information of the census. Using the 2003 Household Survey and the 2002 Chilean Census of Population and Housing, the average household income is projected to intra-municipality levels and the results are compared to Elbers et al. (2003) methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology allows for taking into account and display the impact of intra-municipality heterogeneity and the spatial interaction among the spatial units.
    Keywords: C5, C63, C81 ; ddc:330 ; Spatial Matching ; Small Areas Estimation ; Household Surveys ; Household Income ; Business Intelligence
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: Taking as a reference a simple oligopoly model with differentiated products, in which there are three firms, the purpose of this paper is to complement the existing literature on mergers by proving that the traditional merger paradox can be avoided by assuming that, after the merger, the merging firms increase the existing bilateral product differentiation. In this context, it is proved that a merger could be welfare enhancing by increasing both consumers surplus and merging and non merging firms profits.
    Keywords: L00 ; L13 ; L20 ; ddc:330 ; Horizontal mergers ; product differentiation ; welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In the present article we develop a discrete-time methodology to compare frontend load and balance fees in the accumulation phase of a defined-contribution pension fund under the system of individual accounts. Additionally, using various methods, we study the effect of considering risk and density of contributions in the performance and suitability of the aforementioned types of fees. Finally, we perform a practical application of the methodology to the Peruvian Private Pension System.
    Keywords: G23 ; ddc:330 ; pension funds ; individual account ; front-end load fee ; balance fee
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper analyses the Spanish residential demand of a bundle of goods conforming the basic services of the households (i.e. electricity, natural gas and drinking water) in 2012. The analysis is made using a QUAIDS model modified in order to consider the censoring in the consumption of natural gas following the approach of Tauchmann (2010), one of the latest advances in this field. The results show that the demand for electricity and drinking water is less sensitive to the variations in prices and household's income than that of natural gas.
    Keywords: C3 ; Q2 ; Q3 ; Q4 ; ddc:330 ; electricity ; natural gas ; drinking water ; censored QUAIDS model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Description: The main objective of this research is to estimate and analyze the temporal changes in income mobility between generations in Argentina. For this, the concept of equality of opportunity is considered which offers a natural approach to evaluate the processes of intergenerational mobility (IM). In this context, the importance of the existence of intergenerational income mobility is not that the movements of income between parents and children are intrinsically valuable but is expected to help to reduce the negative effects of disparities in initial endowments or future expected earnings. Since there are no surveys covering long-term information on both children and their fathers' income in Argentina, the empirical strategy implemented is to use two separate samples with information to predict the income of the parents in the past. The main sources of information used are the Social Development Survey 1997 (DHS), the Perception of Social Plans Survey (PSPS) 2007 and the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2009. The three surveys contain retrospective information on some socioeconomic characteristics of parents of adult surveyed. The results show a significant increase in the average intergenerational mobility between 1997 and 2007 but not between the first year and 2010. But these temporary changes in average levels of income persistence between parents and children are not appreciated at all quantile of the income distribution. Furthermore, the observed increase in the average level of MII from 1997 to 2007 does not appear to have involved an improvement in terms of equality of opportunity in Argentina.
    Keywords: J62 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; income ; Argentina ; equality of opportunity ; movilidad intergeneracional ; ingreso ; Argentina ; igualdad de oportunidades
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper offers a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of eight popular forecasting methods: univariate, linear, discriminate and logit regression; recursive partitioning, rough sets, artificial neural networks, and DEA. Our goals are: clarify the complexity-effectiveness balance of each methodology; identify a reduced set of independent variables that are significant predictors whatever the methodology is; and discuss and relate these findings to the financial theory, to help consolidate the foundations of a theory of financial failure. Our results indicate that, whatever the methodology is, reliable predictions can be made using four variables; these ratios convey information about profitability, financial structure, rotation, and operating cash flows.
    Keywords: G33 ; C19 ; M4 ; ddc:330 ; Financial failure forecast ; multivariate methods ; artificial intelligence ; machine learning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This research analyzes the potential effects that a redistributive fishing quota policy could have on the profits and employment of the artisanal fisher organizations. We use a multi-objective programming model and apply it to the common sardine and anchovies fisheries in the Biobío Region for year 2011. The results indicate the presence of trade-offs between the equity -profits and equity- employment objectives. Moreover, the results suggest the existence of widespread inefficiencies in the effort allocation within the organizations, independently of the weight given to the different objectives.
    Keywords: Q22 ; Q28 ; C61 ; ddc:330 ; collective rights ; trade-off ; multi-objective ; distribution ; artisanal fisheries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The role of the agricultural sector during the ISI period and the debate about the agricultural wage and the living conditions of the farm workers have a long historiography. But until today there is little information about workers' income in the long run. In this paper we want to reflect about the wage level reached during this period and for that we will present a new wage series for 1934-1973. We seek to analyze their behavior considering the sector labour productivity, its relation with industrial wages and the institutional frame in this period.
    Keywords: N36 ; N46 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural real wages ; agricultural workers ; ISI ; institutions ; payment in kind
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este artículo provee evidencia para Argentina acerca del impacto de extender la escolaridad obligatoria sobre la fecundidad adolescente. En el año 1993, el gobierno implementó una reforma educativa (Ley Federal de Educación) que, entre otras cosas, extendió los años de educación obligatorios de 7 a 10. La adopción de la Ley no se realizó de manera simultánea por parte de las provincias, brindando una fuente para identificar su efecto causal sobre la fecundidad adolescente. Los resultados sugieren una reducción en la tasa de fecundidad adolescente, especialmente en las jóvenes de entre 15 y 19 años de edad.
    Description: This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of increasing compulsory schooling on teenage fertility in Argentina. In 1993 the government implemented an education reform (Ley Federal de Educación) that among several features increased the years of compulsory schooling from 7 to 10 years. The timing in the implementation substantially varied across provinces, providing a source of identification for unraveling the causal effect on teenage fertility. Results suggest a reduction in teenage fertility rate, stronger for the group of teenagers aged 15 to 19.
    Keywords: I28 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage fertility ; Education ; Differences-in-differences ; Educational reform ; Compulsory schooling laws
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Se conoce como skill premium a la brecha salarial promedio existente entre los trabajadores calificados y los no calificados. A partir de la segunda globalización financiera, en los países desarrollados se ha visto un ensanchamiento de este diferencial mientras que en los países en desarrollo el comportamiento ha sido más volátil. Específicamente para el caso de los países de América Latina hubo un incremento del skill premium en la década de 1990 y una reducción a partir del comienzo del nuevo siglo. Explicaciones basadas en el comercio internacional, el cambio técnico sesgado, vaivenes en el marco institucional y choques macroeconómicos han sido propuestas para comprender el origen de los movimientos en la desigualdad en el mercado laboral. En este trabajo se repasan cada una de ellas y se las relaciona con el efecto particular que el tipo de cambio real puede generar en economías subdesarrolladas. Los vínculos entre ambas variables son diversos y se mueven en distintas direcciones. A priori, un incremento en el tipo de cambio real implica una mayor demanda de trabajadores calificados en el sector dinámico exportador, pero al mismo tiempo funciona como una protección natural para la industria manufacturera doméstica intensiva en mano de obra no calificada. A su vez, encarece la importación de capital que resulta más complementario con el trabajo calificado. La predominancia de un efecto sobre otro está históricamente determinada por lo que su estudio tiene un fuerte componente empírico. Con el objetivo de indagar sobre los distintos canales sobre los que el tipo de cambio real puede afectar al skill premium se construyó un panel con datos de 13 países latinoamericanos para el periodo 1993-2011. Del análisis cuantitativo emergen dos conclusiones. Mientras que una moneda nacional débil medida en niveles parece estar asociada a una elevada brecha salarial, una depreciación induciría una reducción del skill premium. En esta aparente contradicción se esconde la posibilidad de que la relación mute a través del tiempo. En los primeros años posteriores a una devaluación el efecto ingreso asociado a un encarecimiento de las importaciones produce un incremento en la demanda de trabajadores no calificados gracias a la expansión de la industria sustitutiva. A medida que el tipo de cambio real se establece en un nivel competitivo se alienta el desarrollo del sector exportador, intensivo en mano de obra calificada y toma fuerza la demanda de trabajadores calificados. Por otra parte la estructura productiva es relevante en materia distributiva. No sólo afecta por sí misma a la brecha salarial sino que influye significativamente reforzando o mitigando los efectos que el tipo de cambio real tiene sobre el skill premium. El resultado es consistente aún si se consideran potenciales problemas de endogeneidad.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fachkräfte ; Einkommensverteilung ; Kaufkraftparität ; Arbeitsmarktforschung ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo realiza un análisis de incidencia distributiva de los subsidios a los servicios públicos en Argentina. En particular, se trabaja con los subsidios a la energía residencial (gas de red, gas envasado y electricidad), al agua y al transporte público de pasajeros (colectivo, tren y avión). Se utilizan los datos de la Asociación Argentina de Presupuesto y Administración Financiera Pública (ASAP) para el año 2013 y la Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares para los años 2012-2013 (ENGHo). Los resultados que se obtienen indican que la mayoría de los subsidios analizados son pro-ricos (es decir, se concentran en términos absolutos en los deciles de ingresos más altos),y progresivos (teniendo en cuenta la proporción de los subsidios sobre su ingreso, los estratos más bajos reciben relativamente más). Si bien es deseable la característica de progresividad asociada a estas políticas, no es deseable que sean pro-ricos. El hecho de que la mayoría de los montos destinados a subsidiar los servicios públicos caigan en manos de los sectores más pudientes de la población sugiere que existen espacios para una mejor focalización de estas políticas. A su vez se plantea un interrogante puntual sobre el subsidio al transporte aéreo el cual no sólo es pro-rico si no que a su vez es regresivo, aspecto que pone en jaque su justificación al menos desde el punto de vista distributivo.
    Keywords: H22 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Dienstleistung ; Subvention ; Verteilungswirkung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo aporta evidencia sobre el empleo público en América Latina durante el período 1992-2012, explotando una base de datos estandarizados de las encuestas de hogares de todos los países de la región. Estas encuestas constituyen una buena herramienta por su representatividad nacional, su frecuencia y su amplia cobertura sobre cuestiones de empleo y salarios, tanto en el sector público como en el privado, formal e informal. El trabajo documenta y analiza los cambios en los niveles de empleo y salarios de los empleados públicos latinoamericanos vis-a-vis el resto de los trabajadores.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Description: The household income is composed of several not mutually exclusive items affecting inequality of household per capita income. Therefore, this work makes a decomposition of the Gini coefficient by income sources for Argentina during the period 2003-2013 and uses the methodology of Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985). It is found that the primary labor income represents 75% of total revenue and it contributes 75.42% to the total inequality. Meanwhile, the secondary labor income contributes 6.13%; retirement and pensions, 12.54%; transfers, -1.10%; and capital income, 2.88%.
    Keywords: D3 ; D6 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Keywords: D31 ; J31 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Distribución del ingreso ; Desigualdad ; Salario mínimo ; Argentina
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Description: This paper presents new evidence of the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio (how much potential inequality becomes real inequality) using a dataset from 18 countries of Latin America (LA) in the period 1990-2013. Comparing inequality in the world and within the region, we found that with this new measure LA is not as unequal as with traditional indicators. Finally, we link this new measure to social conflict. Countries with high rates of extraction ratio are more likely to have high levels of social conflict.
    Keywords: D31 ; D6 ; ddc:330 ; desigualdad ; frontera de posibilidades de desigualdad ; tasa de extracción ; América Latina
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Keywords: C13 ; D63 ; I30 ; ddc:330 ; Servicios p ublicos ; desigualdad en el acceso ; satisfacci on
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper offers an exhaustive analysis of the effectiveness of several models and methodologies that are commonly used to forecast financial failure: Linear, MDA, Logit, and artificial neural network. Our main aim is to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses, in terms of technical reliability and error cost; to do so, models are estimated and validated, and then used to perform an artificial simulation to evaluate which of them causes the lower cost of errors. Reliability is examined in four forecast horizons, to collect evidences about temporal (in) stability. We also check the relative advantages of financial ratios-based models, versus audit-based forecast models. Our results suggest that all models attain a high performance rate; however, artificial neural networks' forecasts seem to be more stable, both in temporal and cross-sectional perspectives.
    Keywords: G33 ; C45 ; C89 ; ddc:330 ; financial failure ; financial difficulties ; forecast insolvency ; audit report
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In this paper we analyze the mediating role of governance quality in the relationship between fiscal decentralization and regional disparities. Previous work has argued that fiscal decentralization has the potential to reduce income differences across regions but that this potential may not be realized because of governance problems associated with sub-national authorities. Our empirical evidence based on a sample of departments (regions) of Uruguay over the period 1990 - 2010 lends support to this idea. The empirical results show that fiscal decentralization promotes regional convergence, and this effect is boosted in high governance quality settings.
    Keywords: D73 ; H71 ; H73 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal decentralization ; regional disparities ; governance quality ; panel data ; Uruguay
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    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper focuses on the effect of educational and skill mismatches of workers on overall job satisfaction, and on certain job domains such as salary, number of working hours, promotion opportunities and type of activity performed. An ordered probit model is estimated by using a data set from the Survey of Quality of Working Life (ECVT). In addition to the variables related to these mismatches, other variables related to the characteristics of both the individual and the type of work are included. The results show that overeducated individuals show higher levels of dissatisfaction than those in which the fit is adequate. However, it also shows how individuals with a lower level of education than what would be required for the post do not reflect significant dissatisfaction levels. It is also evidence observed that individuals with less than the required skills are more dissatisfied than those with a proper matching. The results support the need to study both educational and skill mismatches separately.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; satisfaction ; educational match ; skill match
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo se documenta y analiza la segregación escolar entre alumnos de distintos estratos socioeconómicos que asisten a escuelas públicas y privadas en América Latina. El trabajo contribuye con evidencia empírica a la medición de este fenómeno desde principios de los noventa hasta la actualidad. Los resultados sugieren que en promedio el grado de segregación escolar público-privado en América Latina habría aumentado en las últimas dos décadas.
    Keywords: D63 ; I21 ; Z13 ; ddc:330
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo estudia las disparidades salariales por raza en Brasil durante el período 1980-2010. Utilizando microdatos de censos brasileros, se encuentra que la mayor parte de la brecha observada entre el ingreso de un blanco y un afrodescendiente se debe a diferencias en características productivas, siendo el nivel educativo el mayor determinante. A pesar de ello, entre 20 y 30 por ciento de la diferencia de ingresos promedio observada no es explicada por ningún atributo determinante de la productividad, y esta porción es creciente en el tiempo. Asimismo, el análisis de la brecha salarial para distintos cuantiles de la distribución del ingreso, revela que el componente no explicado tiende a desaparecer en la cola inferior de la distribución de ingresos, y se acrecienta en la cola superior, evidenciando un posible techo de cristal para los afrodescendientes.
    Keywords: J15 ; J31 ; J71 ; ddc:330
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo estudia la evolución de los indicadores de pobreza intertemporal en Argentina durante los últimos 15 años. Aprovechando el esquema de rotación de la EPH, se construyen paneles sucesivos durante el período 1997-2012 que permiten descomponer la pobreza en sus componentes crónico y transitorio. Los resultados muestran que el factor transitorio está asociado principalmente con las características laborales, mientras que las cualidades estructurales y demográficas del hogar, y la educación del jefe y cónyuge del mismo, poseen incidencia fundamentalmente sobre el componente crónico. Sin embargo, en periodos con trayectorias divergentes de pobreza surgen diferencias considerables en los determinantes principales de cada uno de los componentes. Durante la última década, se evidencia, en particular, una caída generalizada en la incidencia relativa de las características de los hogares sobre la pobreza crónica, aun de aquellas cualidades tradicionalmente vinculadas con dicho componente.
    Description: This paper studies the evolution of intertemporal poverty indicators in Argentina for the past 15 years. We exploit the rotation scheme of the EPH survey to construct successive panels covering the period 1997-2012. This allows decomposing poverty into its chronic and transient components. The results show that the transient factor is associated primarily with employment characteristics, while chronic poverty is particularly explained by structural characteristics, head and spouse education and household demographic composition. However, in periods with divergent poverty paths, differences in the main determinants of each component arise. In particular, during the last decade there is a general fall in the relative incidence of household characteristics on chronic poverty, even those traditionally associated with that component in Argentina.
    Keywords: I32 ; P36 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Haushaltsstatistik ; Sozialstatistik ; Sozialer Indikator
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Las iniciativas de empleo juvenil han adquirido protagonismo en el espacio de políticas al mostrarse adversos y persistentes los resultados obtenidos por los jóvenes en el mercado de trabajo. Los principales objetivos del documento son identificar los patrones de las iniciativas recientes en la región e identificar qué lecciones pueden ser aprendidas de ellas. Para lograr estos propósitos, el documento actualiza y sistematiza 65 iniciativas desarrolladas en 18 países de América Latina desde 2008 a la actualidad, y realiza una revisión de los hallazgos emergentes de las evaluaciones de impacto de 12 iniciativas, publicados en este período de referencia. Las políticas e instituciones sobre regulaciones laborales para trabajadores jóvenes han sido impulsadas con mayor frecuencia para superar las barreras de la demanda laboral para jóvenes, más allá de que los programas de políticas activas de mercado de trabajo han sido la respuesta más recurrente en el conjunto de iniciativas analizadas. Las iniciativas orientadas a la oferta laboral son las que tienen una mayor participación en el total de intervenciones, y la mayoría de los países ha desarrollado alguna iniciativa para la promoción de la iniciativa empresarial entre los jóvenes. En muchos países, los programas actualmente en funcionamiento son el resultado de nuevas ediciones y revisiones de programas preexistentes. Aunque la evidencia rigurosa sobre el desempeño de los programas es aún escasa, reside un potencial de aprendizaje en los puntos comunes resaltados en las nuevas evaluaciones y revisiones de políticas en el mundo. La efectividad de los programas sobre los resultados del mercado de trabajo parecen encontrarse más correlacionada a la focalización y cómo la intervención fue implementada que al tipo de intervención. Las iniciativas integrales, que combinan diferentes intervenciones también muestran un mejor desempeño que los programas que desarrollan un único componente. Sin embargo, debido a que la principal lección aprendida en la experiencia internacional es que los efectos de las intervenciones dependen mayormente de variables específicas a cada país, se necesitan mayores esfuerzos de investigación para evaluar las intervenciones en sus específicos contextos de país. (Youth employment initiatives have become protagonists in the policy space, as the adverse outcomes faced by youth in the labour market remain persistent. The main aims of this document are to identify the recent patterns associated to these youth initiatives in the region and to identify lessons that can be learnt from them. In order to achieve these purposes, it updates and systematizes 65 initiatives that have been implemented in 18 Latin American countries from 2008 up to date, and reviews the findings of 12 initiatives with impact evaluations that have been published during this period. Despite the active labour market programmes have appeared as the more recurrent response in the set of initiatives to handle the youth employment problems, labour market regulations have been more frequent to address labour demand barriers for youth recently. Supply-oriented initiatives account for the highest share of interventions, and most countries have developed initiatives to fostering youth entrepreneurship. The programmes in place in many countries are the result of combining earlier with newer initiatives. Although rigorous evidence is still scarce, some learning potential lies on the common features between the impact evaluations that took place during 2008-13 in the region and the worldwide reviews. The programmes effectiveness on labour market outcomes seem to be more correlated to targeting and how the intervention is delivered than to the type of intervention. Comprehensive initiatives that combine different interventions also work better than programmes that rely on a single component. However, the main lesson learned in international experience is that interventions effects depend mostly on country-specific variables and therefore further research efforts are needed in assessing the interventions in their own specific country contexts.)
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Keywords: C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; J16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Arbeitszeitgestaltung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Uruguay
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En las ultimas décadas, los paises de America Latina experimentaron una reduccion en el numero de hijos promedio por hogar, lo cual no se dio en forma uniforme a lo largo de la distribucion del ingreso. Este trabajo busca cuantificar el impacto distributivo de los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad en cinco paises de America Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, El Salvador y Uruguay. Utilizando encuestas de hogares, y mediante metodologias de microdes- composicion, se desarrollan escenarios contrafacticos de la distribucion del ingreso de forma de descomponer el efecto asociado de los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad. Los resultados muestran que los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad tuvieron un efecto igualador sobre la distribucion del ingreso, junto con un efecto reductor de la pobreza.
    Keywords: C25 ; D31 ; I31 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Fertilität ; Einkommensverteilung ; Mikrodaten ; Lateinamerika
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El Plan Nacer es un programa del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación Argentina que invierte recursos con el objetivo de mejorar la cobertura y calidad de los servicios de salud en niños menores de seis años, mujeres embarazadas y puérperas que no poseen obra social. La novedad del mismo radica en la generación de un seguro público de salud para la población materno-infantil sin cobertura social y en la aplicación de un modelo de financiamiento basado en resultados. Este trabajo investiga los efectos del Plan Nacer sobre la mortalidad infantil en la Argentina siguiendo un enfoque no-experimental, basándose particularmente en la metodología de diferencias en diferencias, que consiste en la comparación de condiciones sanitarias entre poblaciones inscriptas y no inscriptas al programa, antes y después de su implementación. La fuente principal de variación es la participación en el programa a nivel departamental. El análisis de impacto realizado considera el caso de un tratamiento en donde las unidades bajo programa están sujetas a distintos grados de exposición al mismo. Los resultados encontrados indican que el Plan Nacer genera una reducción de la tasa de mortalidad infantil. El resultado es ambiguo si se divide a la tasa de mortalidad infantil entre la tasa de mortalidad neonatal, y la tasa de mortalidad post-neonatal: mientras que el Plan tiene un impacto negativo sobre la segunda, no ocurre lo mismo con la primera. Además no parecería existir un efecto del programa sobre la tasa de mortalidad materna.
    Keywords: C33 ; I12 ; I38 ; ddc:330
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: La pobreza y la desigualdad son problemas sociales centrales en América Latina. Este libro desarrolla las principales discusiones conceptuales sobre estos temas, provee un amplio conjunto de herramientas analíticas, las aplica a datos concretos de encuestas de hogares y ofrece evidencia para todos los países de América Latina. El documento de trabajo ofrece el capítulo introductorio, y dos capítulos adicionales del libro, publicado por Editorial Temas.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The present paper estimates the effect over participation outcomes of the new reform to the pension system made in Chile in 2008, using a difference in difference matching estimation. The main results found that the treated group shows a higher withdrawal from the labor market and that they worked an average of 8 percentage points (pp) fewer months than the control group in 2009. The treated group also contributed 18 pp fewer months than the control group, and they have, on average, 6 pp more months in inactive status. Looking at the difference in per capita income, the treated group has an average of US$34 more per month than the control group in 2009.
    Keywords: J38 ; I21 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; scholarships ; upper secondary education ; propensity score matching ; Differential impacts ; EU-SILC-06
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper evaluates the impact caused by attaching a personalized pension projection (PPP), to the annually report of pension savings. This PPP shows the revenues obtained by the workers when postponing their retirement three years after the legal age for retirement in the Chilean pension system. The method to correct the endogenous treatment which was used it was a quasi-experimental method using instruments such as geographical and demographical information and the number of post offices by Region. The results show that the PPP's reception once has not significant effect on the retirement decision. However, when the treatment is intensified it begins to be taken into consideration. The PPP's reception during two consecutive years, 2005 and 2006, significantly reduced the probability of retirement decision during the year 2011. Finally, the results show that the treatment has much more effects in individuals with higher pension savings.
    Keywords: J14 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; personal pension projection ; retirement decision ; unobserved heterogenety ; treatments parameters
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The importance of Long Distance Commuting (LDC) has increased as a result of the continuous reduction of transport costs. This paper formalizes the relationship between LDC and wage through a job search model where a commuting time variable is included. The paper proposes that LDC be compensated in wage and be increasing in distance, and that the regions which receive more commuters pay a higher premium wage. The results suggest an average premium of 19% for LDC. However, the applicable rate depends on the workplace location of each commuter, and thus it might be as high as 40%.
    Keywords: J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; long distance commuting ; Coarsened Exact Matching ; spatial wage differentials
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: We study the effect of a household subsidy to induce the adoption of more efficient and less polluting wood combustion technologies. We compare, through numerical simulations, several subsidy designs with respect to the impact on aggregate emissions, costs, and cost-effectiveness indicators. Two variables that turn out to be important for the performance of a subsidy program are the remaining time that an existing equipment can be used and the access of the households to credit to fund the co-payment of the equipment. We observe that for different regulatory designs and/or different cost analysis, the performance of a subsidy program based on the cost-effectiveness analysis differs.
    Keywords: Q48 ; H23 ; Q53 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; environmental policy ; cost-effectiveness ; economic incentives ; urban pollution
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Estimating the specific effects of a complete reform of the public transit system of a large city is a difficult task due to the confounding effects that will usually mask the impact of interest. In this study we estimate the impact of the complete reform of the public transport system in Santiago, Chile, named Transantiago, on a specific aspect of interest: particulate matter air pollution levels in the city. Using a regression model with daily panel data from air quality monitoring stations, we conclude that Transantiago reduced the daily average MP10 concentration levels in at least 3.9 μg/m3. This generates health benefits estimated to be close to US$ 200 million a year in our medium scenario, 12% of which correspond to lower public sector health expenditure. If the data for the first year of operation of the system (when it was not yet in steady-state) are excluded the estimated reduction in MP10 levels is even higher. Other effects of Transantiago, positive as well as negative, would need to be estimated in order to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the reform.
    Keywords: H51 ; L92 ; Q53 ; R41 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; atmospheric pollution ; public transportation ; public health ; Chile
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: In Latin America the inequality of income has declined in the 2000s. This study applies a variant of the noparametric decomposition methodology proposed by Barros et al. (2006, 2007) to assess the relevance of the households’ sources of income, focusing on the importance of public transfers, on changes in inequality of the Southern Cone countries in the 2000s: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. The results suggest that the non-labor income of the households had a significant contribution to the inequality changes in the 2000s in those countries, which was mainly explained by the equalizing effect of the public source of income. The changes in that source and their impact on inequality were closely associated with the implementation or expansion of non-contributive cash transfer programs during the last decade.
    Keywords: C15 ; D31 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Cono Sur
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El presente documento analiza las encuestas de hogares y las metodologías de las estimaciones oficiales de pobreza de la región; en particular, en primer lugar busca analizar la forma en que se miden los ingresos de las personas y los hogares en las encuestas de hogares de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). El segundo objetivo consiste en reseñar las características principales de las metodologías de identificación de hogares e individuos pobres que se realizan en la región utilizando el enfoque de los ingresos, lo cual permitirá indagar acerca del grado de comparabilidad de las estimaciones resultantes. Finalmente, y en base a la evidencia que permita alcanzar la búsqueda de los dos objetivos anteriores, se efectuarán algunas sugerencias sobre ciertas modificaciones que algunos países podrían considerar, tanto en la medición de los ingresos como en las metodologías de estimación de pobreza.
    Keywords: F16 ; D58 ; J2 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Messung ; Haushaltsstatistik ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo obtuvo el Premio Fundación Vidanta 2012 “Contribuciones a la reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad en América Latina y el Caribe”. El material utilizado para este documento fue producido en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Mercados de Trabajo para el Crecimiento Inclusivo en América Latina”, desarrollado en el CEDLAS con el apoyo del Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC-Canadá).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Colombia tuvo la más alta tasa de desempleo de Latinoamérica en el año 2011, 10.8% en promedio. Al interior del mercado laboral, la tasa de desempleo de las mujeres fue 1.7 veces más alta que la de los hombres para el periodo 2007 – 2011, se evidencia que los indicadores empeoran cuando se trata de las mujeres mayores a 40 años. Este documento presenta una evaluación de la ley 1429 dirigida entre otras metas, a mejorar los indicadores laborales de las mujeres mayores a 40 años. Se encuentra que los ingresos laborales y la probabilidad de estar empleadas para las mujeres mayores a 40 años no han mejorado para los años 2011 y 2012.
    Keywords: C13 ; C14 ; J01 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Kolumbien
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: La “paradoja del crecimiento infeliz” que encuentran tanto Lora y Chaparro (2008) como Deaton (2008) en la Encuesta Mundial Gallup (EMG) de 2006 es inconsistente con la literatura en términos del impacto del ingreso sobre el bienestar en el corto plazo. Este trabajo incorpora alternativamente indicadores de desigualdad y el cambio en el bienestar subjetivo al análisis internacional de corte transversal. Del primer ejercicio se observa que la desigualdad no permite explicar la paradoja. Del segundo se concluye que los resultados de la EMG 2006 se vuelven compatibles con la literatura en el corto plazo al especificar correctamente la relación.
    Description: The "unhappy growth paradox" found by Deaton (2008) and Lora and Chaparro (2008) on the Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2006 is inconsistent with the literature in terms of the impact of income on wellbeing in the short term. This paper incorporates alternatively inequality indicators and the change in subjective well-being in the cross-country analysis. The first exercise shows that inequality cannot explain the paradox. The second exercise shows that the results in the GWP 2006 return to be consistent with the literature in the short term when the correct specification of the relationship is set.
    Keywords: I31 ; O49 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; Subjective Well-being ; subjective welfare ; Growth ; Inequality ; Gallup
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis empírico del nivel y evolución de la segregación escolar socioeconómica entre escuelas públicas y privadas en Argentina entre 1992 y 2010. Con ese fin se proponen dos nuevas metodologías: las curvas de segregación percentílicas y la utilización de micro descomposiciones. Los resultados obtenidos son alarmantes: la segregación se incrementó entre 30% y 100% dependiendo del índice y el nivel educativo analizado. Este aumento guarda una estrecha relación con los cambios en las características de las familias de los alumnos que asisten al nivel primario, no así en el nivel secundario.
    Keywords: D63 ; I21 ; Z13 ; ddc:330
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper presents a model of political competition to explore the effect that the ideological distance between two political parties has over the provision of public goods. The main result argues that the ideological distance between parties and citizens has a negative relationship with the provision of public goods. In contrast with other models, the result is explained, neither by cooperation problems nor conflict between polarized groups, but because of the political profitability of clientelistic employment.
    Keywords: D72 ; D73 ; H11 ; H41 ; ddc:330 ; polarization ; political competition ; government efficiency ; government employment ; clientelism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Taking as a reference a model in which there are a public firm, a national private firm and a foreign private one, it is analyzed both mergers sustainability and their relative effects on welfare. It is proved that the merger between the public firm and either the national or the international private firm is preferred, from a welfare point of view, to the merger between the two private firms if the degree of privatization is relatively low and the foreign ownership of the merged firm is relatively high.
    Keywords: L00 ; L13 ; L33 ; ddc:330 ; mixed oligopoly ; mergers ; Oligopol ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Fusion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In this paper we study the presence of calendar anomalies in the main Latin- American stock markets, for the 1993 to 2007 period. The literature has shown that the detection of those effects may depend on error distribution assumptions (Baker et al., 2008), and that their existence could be due to a problem of data snooping (Sullivan et al., 2001). In response to these problems, Cho et al. (2007) introduced a robust non-parametric test, which was adopted in this paper. Results show that calendar anomalies: Monday and Weekend Effects are present in the main Latin-American stock markets, and they are statistically significant.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; G1 ; ddc:330 ; Day of the Week Effect ; stochastic dominance ; emerging markets ; Aktienmarkt ; Kalendereffekt ; Schwellenländer ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar y brindar evidencia sobre el impacto distributivo del gasto público social en educación y cultura en la Provincia de Buenos Aires para el año 2010, utilizando para ello la Encuesta Anual de Hogares Urbanas (EAHU) realizada durante el tercer trimestre de ese año por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC). La utilización de esta encuesta constituye el aporte más novedoso del trabajo, puesto que la misma tiene la particularidad de contar con información para localidades de más de 2000 habitantes permitiendo contar con información a nivel del total de la población urbana discriminada por provincia. Utilizando la metodología tradicional (análisis de incidencia-beneficio) para desarrollar este tipo de análisis se obtienen resultados concluyentes. El gasto en educación ejecutado a través del sector público es progresivo y pro-pobre, para los niveles inicial, primario y secundario. Para los mismos niveles, pero dentro de la órbita privada, las erogaciones son consideradas también progresivas, aunque ya no pro-pobre. El resultado agregado de la provisión de educación en estos tres niveles, es claramente progresiva y pro-pobre.
    Keywords: H52 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsfinanzierung ; Verteilungswirkung ; Buenos Aires (Provinz)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este trabajo es reseñar brevemente los métodos tradicionales de evaluación del impacto distributivo de las políticas públicas y discutir algunos de los avances más relevantes en los últimos veinte años. El trabajo se concentra en la evaluación de programas sociales, dejando de lado otras intervenciones públicas y su financiamiento. El trabajo resume los progresos a nivel internacional con algunas referencias a la experiencia argentina.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Verteilungswirkung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 54
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo realiza un estudio sobre la relación de Kuznets para América Latina con el objetivo de caracterizar el cambio de la tendencia en la evolución reciente de sus indicadores de desigualdad de ingresos. Utilizando encuestas de hogares se construye un panel de regiones latinoamericanas con datos de desigualdad y desarrollo de una calidad superior a los anteriormente utilizados en la literatura empírica sobre la hipótesis de Kuznets. Los cambios en la desigualdad están asociados a múltiples factores observables vinculados al desarrollo tales como el crecimiento económico, el nivel de capital humano, el grado de apertura y urbanización, la estabilidad económica, entre otros; junto a una multiplicidad de determinantes que no son de fácil medición por los trabajos empíricos. La incorporación al análisis de los cuantiles condicionales puede ayudar a estudiar si este conjunto de factores que no son mensurables pueden generar senderos de desarrollo y equidad heterogéneos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la relevancia práctica de la relación de Kuznets depende la interacción con el resto de las variables de desarrollo. Una vez que se incorpora al análisis todos los factores vinculados al desarrollo, es poco factible que el cambio en la tendencia de la desigualdad de América Latina esté relacionado al crecimiento económico.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; desigualdad ; América Latina ; datos en panel ; regresión por cuantiles ; Kuznets-Kurve ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo hace uso de datos suministrados por el Programa Internacional de Evaluación de Alumnos (PISA) con el objetivo de proveer una cuantificación de los niveles y la evolución de la segregación escolar por nivel socioeconómico en el mundo y contribuir a la discusión de sus determinantes. Los resultados sugieren un ranking de países que muestra a América Latina como una región de alta segregación escolar en términos relativos y donde la segregación entre escuelas públicas y privadas es relevante. Se encuentra además que la segregación escolar por nivel socioeconómico es mayor en aquellos países y períodos de tiempo en los que la desigualdad y la participación del sector privado en la matrícula es mayor, en tanto ciertos patrones de localización geográfica pueden también jugar un rol importante.
    Keywords: D63 ; I24 ; ddc:330 ; segregación ; educación ; PISA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: This paper provides original empirical evidence on the evolution of education inequality for all Latin American countries over the decades of 1990 and 2000. The analysis covers a wide range of issues on differences in educational outcomes and opportunities across the population, including inequality in years of education, gaps in school enrollment, wage skill differentials and public social expenditure. The evidence indicates a significant difference between the 1990s and the 2000s in terms of both the assessment of the equity of the education expansion and its impact on the income distribution. In particular, the changes in the 2000s seem to have had a full equalizing impact on earnings given the more pro-poor pattern of the education upgrading and a more stable or even increasing relative demand for low skill labor.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestition ; Liquiditätsbeschränkung ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Los países de América Latina han experimentado fuertes transformaciones en sus mercados laborales, las cuales han tenido consecuencias en términos sociales y productivos. Analizar al mercado laboral, y en particular a las decisiones de trabajo, es importante para una mejor comprensión de los cambios en la pobreza, la desigualdad, la productividad y el crecimiento en la región. Este trabajo, utilizando microdatos de encuestas de hogares y laborales de todos los países de América Latina (AL), contribuye a ese objetivo, caracterizando la condición ocupacional y documentando diferencias entre los países de la región y su evolución en el tiempo. En particular, el trabajo se focaliza en la condición laboral de patrón o empresario, con el objetivo de contribuir a entender las decisiones hacia la actividad emprendedora en la región. Toda acción emprendedora tiene origen en una decisión ocupacional afectada por las condiciones de mercado y las características idiosincráticas (observables o no) del individuo. En consecuencia, entender el emprendedurismo requiere caracterizar la condición ocupacional a lo largo de múltiples dimensiones. Este trabajo ofrece esta amplia caracterización en diferentes países de América Latina, con el fin de dar luces sobre algunas propiedades de la decisión ocupacional.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El programa de Asignación Universal por Hijo en Argentina extiende a los desocupados y trabajadores informales un beneficio antes limitado a los empleados formales. Esta extensión podría modificar los incentivos laborales, estimulando una menor participación en el sector formal respecto de la que hubiese surgido en ausencia del programa. En este trabajo estimamos ese efecto comparando en el tiempo al grupo de hogares elegibles (informales, con hijos), con un grupo semejante pero no elegible (sin hijos). Los resultados sugieren un significativo desincentivo hacia la formalización de los beneficiarios, pero no hay evidencia de un incentivo hacia la informalidad de los trabajadores registrados.
    Keywords: H55 ; I38 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Informalidad ; protección social ; AUH ; Argentina
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This study measures the impact of changes in the income determinants on inequality in the 1990 to 2003 period, in order to answer the question of why income distribution as a whole has not changed. The methodology utilized are micro-simulations of income distribution, which is the most appropriate technique for analyzing the relationship between changes in determinant factors and changes in income inequality. It is analyzed the role of returns, participation rates, occupational choices, schooling endowments, subsidies, pensions and household size. The inertia shown by inequality reflects the interplay of factors that cancel each other out, others that operate slowly over time, and the emergence of new developments that affect distribution. Furthermore, there are no clear indications that this situation will change over the next few years. Progress in this area will require a more active public policy than in the past.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution ; inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Using a gravity model, this article presents an analysis of aggregate trade flows aimed at identifying China's impact on Latin America's trade. The results obtained indicate that: i) China's growth in the last years implied a growing supply of exports to this market from most countries in the World, including that of Latin American countries; ii) at the aggregate level, there was no indication that Chinese exports to third markets were crowding out LAC exports to those countries; and iii) a positive relationship between imports from China and exports to third markets was only found for the Southern Cone countries.
    Keywords: F10 ; F12 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral trade ; gravity model ; poisson regression ; China ; Latin America ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Gravitationsmodell ; China ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Within the area of Behavioral game theory, we focus on a specific context, namely, on a game we called the Alternative traveler's dilemma. In this context, we observe that participants tend to choose strictly dominated strategies. In order to explain similar tendencies in other games, researchers in the area have postulated either cognitive biases or motivational factors. We postulate a psychological factor called 'goal accessibility bias' to explain the tendencies at stake. This factor involves both cognitive and motivational aspects. We survey a series of experimental results that favor such an explanation over more frugal alternatives.
    Keywords: C7 ; C91 ; ddc:330 ; game theory ; experiments ; maximization ; alternative traveler's dilemma ; goals ; Spieltheorie ; Verhaltensökonomik ; Urlaubsverhalten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este estudio es explorar, desde una perspectiva dinámica, el impacto del fenómeno de la informalidad, analizado en términos de déficit de trabajo decente, en la estructura del mercado laboral argentino. Con este fin, se estiman matrices de transición, brechas salariales y modelos mixtos finitos, que permiten estimar el número de posibles segmentos existentes en ese sector. El resultado más relevante es la evidencia encontrada a favor de la segmentación del sector formal. La importancia de este hallazgo radica en sus implicaciones respecto de un grupo de trabajadores —los asalariados no registrados— que permanecen bajo condiciones laborales desfavorables.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Informelle Wirtschaft ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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