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  • Other Sources  (556)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (556)
  • Inter Research  (292)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-09-18
    Description: The nekton community was sampled by a Rectangular Midwater Trawl (RMT 25) over the upper 1000 m of the Scotia Sea dunng January 1991. A total of 81 nekton and micronekton species were collected from 2 sites, one in the oceanlc western Scotia Sea (Stn 1) and the other on the northwestern slope of the South Georgia shelf (Stn 2). Species composition, abundance, biomass and day/night vertical distribution were investigated. Crustaceans were the most important group in terms of species numbers (28 species) followed by mesopelagic fish (24), molluscs (15) and coelenterates (11). Species diversity increased with depth and was higher at Stn 2 (76 species) than at Stn 1 (62 specles). Biomass in the upper 1000 m was considerably higher at Stn 1 (94.6 g wet wt m-2 during daytime, 87 g wet wt m-2 during night) than at Stn 2 (10.2 and 23.7 g wet wt m-2, respectively), mostly due to dense concentrations of the tunicate Salpa thompsoni (41.6 g wet wt m-2 during night). The other main contributors to the high biomass at Stn 1 were coelenterates (28.3 g wet wt m-2 during night) and mesopelagic fish (4.9 g wet wt m-2 during night). Euphausiids (Euphausia triacantha and E. superba) accounted for 1.5 g wet wt m-2 at Stn 2 during night, with E. triacantha the more important of the two (1.4 g wet wt m-2). Except for Bathylagus antarcticus all common mesopelagic fishes showed a marked diurnal vertical migration (i.e. Electrona antarctica, Gymnoscopelus brauen, Krefftichthys anderssoni, Protomyctophum bolini). During daylight they stayed in the core of the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, 400 to 800 m) and at night they were mainly distnbuted in the Antarctic Surface Water (ASW, 0 to 400 m). Other species with pronounced vertical migration were the hydromedusa Calycopsis borchgrevinki, the squid Brachioteuthis ?picta, and the euphausiid Euphausia triacantha. The scyphomedusae Atolla wyvillei and Periphylla periphylla and the crustaceans Cyphocaris richardi, Gigantocypris mulleri and Pasiphaea scotiae did not appear to migrate and remained concentrated in the CDW. Spatial variability was analysed by multivariate data analyses (clustering techniques) and related to hydrography. Four main groups, characterised by different nekton communities, were derived: (1) a lower mesopelagic nekton community from the deeper layers of the CDW, apparent at both stations, (2) an upper mesopelagic nekton community from the core of the CDW, apparent at both stations, (3) an epipelagic nekton community from the ASW over the South Georgia slope (Stn 2) and finally (4) an epipelagic nekton community from the ASW of the oceanic Scotia Sea (Stn 1). The performance of the midwater trawl is discussed as it has a substantial impact on the catchability of the nekton. The presented data provide new information on the structure and spatial variability of Antarchc nekton communities and emphasise the geographical and vertical discontinuities between communities.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: We fertilised 12 mesocosms with NE Atlantic phytoplankton with different Si:N ratios (0:1 to 1:1). After 1 wk, we added mesozooplankton, mainly calanoid copepods at natural densities to 10 of the mesocosms; the remaining 2 mesocosms served as controls. A trend of increasing diatom dominance with increasing Si:N ratios and species-specific correlations of diatoms to Si:N ratios were not changed by the addition of mesozooplankton. Large unicellular and chain-forming diatoms, thin-walled dinoflagellates (Gymnodiniales) and ciliates were reduced by copepod grazing while armoured dinoflagellates remained unaffected. Nanoplanktonic flagellates and diatoms profited from the addition of copepods, probably through release from ciliate grazing.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We investigated the nutritional condition of larval fishes caught in daily ichthyoplankton hauls in the ‘Helgoland Roads’ (54°11.18’N and 07°54.00’E) from February to June 2004. We concentrated on larvae of dab Limanda limanda and lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus in order to compare early life stages of iteroparous and nearly semelparous fish. We analysed length, weight and RNA:DNA ratios as a proxy for condition of the larvae. The relationship between larval nutritional condition and larval size provided an indication of condition-selective mortality due to a loss of larvae in poor condition from the larger size-classes. For the sandeel, larvae in good condition were present in all size-classes, whereas for the dab maximum larval condition increased with increasing size. Variability in both standard length and condition was high in the 2 species during their planktonic stage. Both species showed good nutritional condition in the early to mid portion of the recruitment period and declines in condition in late April. This was more pronounced in larval dab, which showed a higher dependency on feeding conditions than larval sandeel. Together, these findings indicate a more conservative strategy of early life stages of the nearly semelparous sandeel compared with the iteroparous dab.
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  • 4
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 88 . pp. 293-296.
    Publication Date: 2019-06-26
    Description: An association of Argonauta argo Linnaeus 1758 with Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld 1884 was observed in situ and collected north of Bohol Island in the Philippine archipelago. The argonaut held the exumbrella of the live lellyfish with its lateral and ventral arms. About half of the medusa bell surface was damaged and large pieces of mesogloea were lacking. The affected exumbrella area was charactenzed by the presence of masses of rod-like bacteria which did not occur on the undamaged ciliated surface. The center of the bell showed 2 holes interpretated as bite marks from the cephalopod. Five channels led from the holes to the medusa's gastric cavity. This connection possibly enabled the argonaut to feed on the tissue and to access particles caught by the secondary mouth papillae of the oral arms of P. punctata. Furthermore, the association could serve A. argo as protection or camouflage against predators because of the stinging capability of the scyphomedusa.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: An unusually large number of replicated macrofaunal samples (70) was taken from the Western Baltic in May 1995 for a ringtest in an ICES/HELCOM intercalibration exercise. This data set was employed in this study in order to investigate the performance of numerical methods used for predicting species richness and to assess the accuracy of the estimates of abundance and diversity currently used in benthic ecology. The results of this study indicate that: (1) more than 10 replicates are required in order to include in the data set more than two-thirds of the species found in 70 replicates, and more than 53 replicates are required in order to include 95% of the species; (2) estimates of average abundance and of average Shannon-Wiener diversity index using 5 replicates could result in less than 40% error; this could be less than 30% for 10 replicates and less than 5% for 70 replicates; (3) both types of species-richness predictions (jackknife estimate and S 0) increased with increasing number of samples used in the calculations, indicating that their ability to assess overall species richness in the community is rather limited; in particular, it is shown that jackknife overestimates and S0 slightly underestimates species richness. Different configurations of the S0 method were tested in order to optimize its performance, and it was found that both truncation and increasing sampling lag result in increased and stabilized estimates of species richness.
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  • 6
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 190 . pp. 125-132.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: The multivariate patterns resulting from analyses of macrobenthic abundance data at different taxonomic levels are compared to the pattern derived from various measurements obtained through sediment profiling imagery (SPI). A time-series data set from 1 station in Kiel Bay (Western Baltic) at 22 m depth including macrobenthic and SPI replicates covering 8 yr (1989 to 1996) was analyzed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination. The macrobenthos data showed similar patterns, and there was little information loss, with decreasing taxonomic resolution from species to phylum level. The multivariate pattern in the SPI data was not significantly correlated to any of the macrofaunal patterns. However, macrofaunal and SPI patterns seemed to be complementary since they emphasized different aspects of the long-term succession in the Southern Baltic Sea. While macrofaunal patterns were sensitive to anoxia events, changes of SPI-recorded seabed characteristics were primarily related to physical disturbances possibly due to variations in fishing intensity.
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  • 7
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 324 . pp. 105-112.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: In a mesocosm experiment in Kiel Fjord, the plankton community 〈250 µm was exposed to a mesozooplankton density gradient (5 to 80 individuals l–1) dominated by the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi. Over the experimental period (9 d), the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena increased exponentially, irrespective of mesozooplankton densities, attaining maximum concentrations of 1200 cells ml–1 (3700 filaments l–1). At the end of the experiment, the δ15N of particulate organic matter was negatively correlated with N. spumigena concentrations, indicating the fixation of isotopically ‘light’, diazotrophic nitrogen. In all treatments, final copepod δ15N were lower (–0.7 to –2.7‰) than initial copepod δ15N, indicating the transfer of diazotrophic nitrogen to mesozooplankton. Based on a simple isotopic mixing model, diazotrophic nitrogen was calculated to contribute 45 to 6% to final copepod δ15N along the mesozooplankton gradient. This translates to a transfer of 2 to 24% of net nitrogen fixation to the mesozooplankton standing stock. The absence of any mesozooplankton impact on N. spumigena, and the negative impact found for other microplankton, including diatoms and ciliates, suggest that diazotrophically fixed nitrogen reached mesozooplankton indirectly through trophic vectors. This is consistent with the fact that copepod δ15N decreased with decreasing mesozooplankton densities, since only a quantitatively limited dietary source may be expected to result in density-dependent changes in copepod δ15N. Considering that natural mesozooplankton densities in the Baltic Sea rarely exceed 10 ind. l–1, the contribution of diazotrophically fixed nitrogen to mesozooplankton may be substantial (23 to 45%) during summer blooms of diazotrophic cyanobacteria.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: Cod larvae from laboratory rearing experiments aged from 1 to 12 d after hatching, both fed and deprived of food, were analysed. The number of increments on the otolith and the width of these increments were determined together with the RNA/DNA ratios on the same individual larva. Alizarin marking of the otoliths was performed to confirm the formation of daily increments. Cod larvae reared at 6*C formed the first ring right after hatching and deposited increments on a daily basis. A comparison of the measurements between the right and the left lapillus showed that these can differ, if the radius is taken. The lapillae core showed especially high individual variability, whereas the sum of the increments did not differ between both lapilli. Until Day 10 after hatching, while the larvae were still feeding on their yolk, the external food situation did not affect the increment width of the lapilli or the RNA/DNA ratios. In larvae older than 10 d the width of the daily increments was dependent on the nutritional situation and RNA/DNA ratios decreased in starving larvae in comparison to feeding larvae. RNA/DNA ratios and increment widths were correlated.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-28
    Description: Filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and geochemical parameters of sediments at the Makran accretionary wedge in the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan were studied. The upper continental slope between 350 and 850 m water depth, which is in the center of the oxygen-minimum zone, is characterized by numerous sites of small-scale seeps of methane- and sulfide-charged porewater. White bacterial mats with diameters 〈1 m were discovered at the surface of these sites using a photo-TV sled. Seep sediments, as well as non-seep sediments, in the vicinity were characterized by the occurrence of the bacterium Thioploca in near-surface layers between 0 and 13 cm depth. Thioploca bundles were up to 20 mm in length and contained up to 20 filaments of varying diameters, between 3 and 75 µm. Up to 169 ind. cm-2 were counted. Maximum numbers occurred in the top 9 cm of sediment, which contained very low concentrations of soluble sulfide (〈0.2 µM) and high amounts of elemental sulfur (up to 10 µmol cm-3). Moderate sulfate reduction activity (between 20 and 190 nmol cm-3 d-1) was detected in the top 10 cm of these sediments, resulting in a gradual downcore decrease of sulfate concentrations. CO2 fixation rates had distinct maxima at the sediment surface and declined to background values below 5 cm depth. The nutritional implications of the distinct morphology of Thioploca and of the geochemical setting are discussed and compared to other sites containing Thioploca communities.
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  • 10
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38 . pp. 137-149.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Time-course measurements of 15N tracer kinetics in particulate organic and in N+4 pools from tropical and temperate regions were used to test several compartmental models describing the exchange of I5N tracer in microplankton communities. Several lines of evidence suggested the involvement of a third, dissolved pool, arbitrarily labelled dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Although the kinetic patterns of tracer movement were different between the tropical statlons and the temperate one, the same 3-compartmental model in which PON and DON can exchange material only through the intermediate of NH: gave the best fit. Only the transfer coefficients were modified. Results show that compartmental analysis is useful for the estimation of compartmental transfer rates and for testing the assumptions implicit in any given model.
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