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  • Institute of Physics (IOP)  (40,845)
  • 2015-2019  (40,845)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The addition of Nano Particles into conventional cutting fluids enhances its cooling capabilities; in the present paper an attempt is made by adding nano sized particles into conventional cutting fluids. Taguchi Robust Design Methodology is employed in order to study the performance characteristics of different turning parameters i.e. cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and type of tool under different machining environments i.e. dry machining, machining with lubricant - SAE 40 and machining with mixture of nano sized particles of Boric acid and base fluid SAE 40. A series of turning operations were performed using L 27 (3) 13 orthogonal array, considering high cutting speeds and the other machining parameters to measure hardness. The results are compared among the different machining environments, and it is concluded that there is considerable improvement in the machining performance using lubricant SAE 40 and mixture of SAE 40 + boric acid compared with ...
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Concrete is the most commonly used material in the construction industry in which cement is its vital ingredient. Although the advantages of concrete are many, there are side effects leading to environmental issues. The manufacturing process of cement emits considerable amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore is an urgent need to reduce the usage of cement. Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) is a by-product from steel industry. It has good structural and durable properties with less environmental effects. This paper critically reviews the literatures available on GGBS used in cement concrete. In this paper, the literature available on GGBS are grouped into engineering properties of GGBS concrete, hydraulic action of GGBS in concrete, durability properties of GGBS concrete, self- compacting GGBS concrete and ultrafine GGBS are highlighted. From the review of literature, it was found that the use of GGBS in concrete construction will be eco-friendly and economical. The ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: ZnO is well known as photocatalyst material therefore potentially to applied in many purposes. The particle size of photocatalyst material influenced the catalytic activities. In this research, ZnO was synthesized using the simple sonication method to obtain the the smaller particle with sonication time variation respectively: 30, 60, 160, 360 minute. X-ray diffraction data showed that the synthesized material have wurtzite structure with space group P 6 3 mc . The synthesized ZnO with 30 minutes sonication time produced the smallest particle size and have the lowest band gap energy (2.79 eV). The photocatalytic test at methylene blue also showed that the optimum activity was gained from ZnO which synthesized at 30 minute sonication time (degradation percentage of metylene blue is 77.93%).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: TiO 2 has been widely investigated due to its superior photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet irradiation among the photocatalyst materials. In this research, vanadium (V 3+ ) was doped into TiO 2 to enhance its light response under visible irradiation for wider application. Vanadium was introduced into TiO 2 lattice at various concentration respectively 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9% using simple and fast sonochemical method. X-Ray Diffraction data show that vanadium doped TiO 2 crystallized in anatase phase with I 4 1 amd space group. X-Ray Diffraction pattern shifted to lower value of 2 θ due to vanadium dopant. It indicated that V 3+ was incorporated into anatase lattice. UV-Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra was revealed that the doped TiO 2 has lowered reflectance and enhanced absorption coefficient in visible region than undoped TiO 2 and commercial anatase TiO 2 . Band ga...
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This research are to find out the influence of adsorbent composition between rice husk and water hyacinth in decreasing of Pb 2+ ion in simulation liquid waste; the optimumcomposition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on Pb 2+ ion adsorption; and theeffectivenessof SPS as a method to determine the decreasing level of Pb 2+ ion in simulation liquid waste by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal in µg/L level. Rice husk and water hyacinth carbonization using muffle furnace at 350°C for 1 hour. Rice husk charcoal activation in a 2 N NaOH solution and water hyacinth charcoal activated in a 5 M HCl solution. Contacting the combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal with a Pb 2+ solution with variation of mass composition, 1:0 ; 0:1 ; 1:1 ; 1:2 and 2:1. Analysis of the Pb 2+ ion level using SPS method. Characterization of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal ...
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Er 3+ -doped tellurite glasses with various compositions (in mole%): 54TeO 2 -(41-x)ZnO-xBi 2 O 3 -2Na 2 O-3Er 2 O 3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) were prepared with melt quenching method. Studies was aimed at investigating the effect of Bi 3+ ion content on the physical and optical properties of the glasses. The density, refractive index, optical absorption, and optical energy band gap measurements were carried out at room temperature using pycnometer, Brewster angle method, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, respectively. From the experiment, it was shown that the density and refractive index of the glasses increased with the increase of Bi 3+ ions concentration. The absorption band intensity of electronic transition from 4 I 15/2 to 4 H 11/2 exhibited an increase as the Bi 3+ ions concentration increase suggesting that incorporating Bi 3+ io...
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The cement plant impacts on the lives of people around the factory site, one of them on the air quality, especially dust. Cement plant has made various efforts to mitigate dust generated, but the reality on the ground is still a lot of dust flying around either of the cement factory chimneys and transportation. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum condition of nozle diameter from the cement dust catcher, for mitigation the dust spread to around the cement plant. This study uses research methods such as collecting secondary data which includes data intensity rainfall, the average long rains, wind speed and direction as well as data quality monitoring dust around PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. Tuban plant. To determine the wind direction propensity models, use a soft Windrose file. To determine the impact on the spread of dust into the environment using secondary data monitoring air quality. Results of the study is that the mitigation of dust around the cement plant ...
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll as...
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The magnetic mineral content in the fine sediment of Bengawan Solo River is discussed. The fine sediment is obtained on the upper part of the tributary of Bengawan Solo River. Magnetic minerals are separated using permanent magnets. Furthermore the magnetic minerals are overnight dried using oven at 100°C. FTIR characterization indicate that the magnetic minerals in the fine sediment of Bengawan Solo River have the same characteristics as minerals in Cilacap and Purwokerto areas. Magnetic minerals are estimated to form at wave number k = 569.03 cm -1 . This hematite content increase to 70.67% after anealling treatment at 600°C for 4 hours in atmosphere condition. This result is interesting because the heating process increases the hematite content. Within results, the magnetic properties of the sample will change.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The Effect of pH treatment in the CoMo/USY catalysts prepared by precipitation was investigated. The pH of the precursor solution was controlled at pH 2, 7, and 8. Catalysts were characterized by XRF, XRD, N 2 adsorption, and IR spectroscopy. It was established that pH treatment in the catalysts significantly influences on the metal loading. Catalysts at pH 7 had maximal of amount total metals with particles type of CoO, MoO 3 , Co, and Mo. Metal loading affects the decreasing of surface area, pore volume, and average pore radius. In addition, the number of hydroxyl group in the catalyst was less than USY followed by shifting of its wavenumber.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Modification of cassava starch with soaking in the whey (by product on cheese production) resulted in changes of the flour characteristics. Adjustments of processing condition are important to be studied in the making of bread from modified cassava starch and wheat composite flour (30:70). This research aims to determine the effect of water volume and mixing time on the physical properties of the bread. The experimental design of this research was Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors which were water volume and mixing time. The variation of water volume significantly affected on bread height, dough volume, dough specific volume, and crust thickness. The variation of mixing time had a significant effect on the increase of dough volume and dough specific volume. The combination of water volume and mixing time had a significant effect on dough height, bread volume, bread specific volume, baking expansion, and weight loss.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The bes...
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Drug release from a montmorillonite (MMT) matrix is a complex mechanism controlled by swelling mechanism of MMT and an interaction of drug and MMT. The aim of this research was to explain a suitable model of the drug release mechanism from MMT and its binary mixture with a hydrophilic polymer in the controlled release formulation based on a compartmental modelling approach. Theophylline was used as a drug model and incorporated into MMT and a binary mixture with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as a hydrophilic polymer, by a kneading method. The dissolution test was performed and the modelling of drug release was assisted by a WinSAAM software. A 2 model was purposed based on the swelling capability and basal spacing of MMT compartments. The model evaluation was carried out to goodness of fit and statistical parameters and models were validated by a cross-validation technique. The drug release from MMT matrix regulated by a burst release mechanism of unloaded drug, swelli...
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The application of biosurfactants which have been produced by Pseudomonas putida in nutrient broth medium supplemented with NaCl and crude palm oil (CPO) for oil recovery has been evaluated. The crude and purified biosurfactants have been examined for oil recovery from a laboratory oil-contaminated sand in agitated flask (batch method). Two synthetic surfactants and water as control was also performed for oil recovery as comparisons. Using batch method, the results showed that removing ability of crude oil from the oil-contaminated sand by purified and crude biosurfactants were 79.40±3.10 and 46.84±2.23 %, respectively. On other hand, the recoveries obtained with the SDS, Triton X-100 and water were 94.33±0.47, 74.84±7.39 and 34.42±1.21%respectively.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Nifedipin (NIF) is a photo-labile drug that easily degrades when it exposures a sunlight. This research aimed to develop of an analytical method using a high-performance liquid chromatography and implemented a quality by design approach to obtain effective, efficient, and validated analytical methods of NIF and its degradants. A 2 2 full factorial design approach with a curvature as a center point was applied to optimize of the analytical condition of NIF and its degradants. Mobile phase composition (MPC) and flow rate (FR) as factors determined on the system suitability parameters. The selected condition was validated by cross-validation using a leave one out technique. Alteration of MPC affected on time retention significantly. Furthermore, an increase of FR reduced the tailing factor. In addition, the interaction of both factors affected on an increase of the theoretical plates and resolution of NIF and its degradants. The selected analytical condition of NIF and it...
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Oleoresin of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue still contains some active compounds such as Citronellal , β-Citronellol, and Linalool which potential to incorporated on the active paper packaging. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin concentration on the physical characteristics, sensory characteristics, and antimicrobial activity of the active paper packaging incorporated with kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin and to determine the functional groups of active paper packaging. The concentration of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin were varied at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%. The result showed that the addition of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin increased the thickness and moisture content of the paper and decreased the tensile strengths and folding endurances of active paper packaging. The microbial inhibition tends to increase along with the hi...
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Due to its good physical and chemical properties, porous silicon (PSi) is very attractive to study. In this research, PSi has been fabricated on n-type Si (100) by the electrochemical anodization method. The electrolyte solution used was a mixture of HF (40%), ethanol (99%) and aquadest with volume ratio of 1:1:2, respectively. It was anodized on Si(100) surface at different current densities of 10 mA/cm 2 and 20 mA/cm 2 with the anodization time at each current density for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that the PSi surfaces have inhomogeneous sized pores in the range of 95.00 nm–1.46 μm. The PSi layers with current density and anodization time of 10 mA/cm 2 (10 min), 10mA/cm 2 (20 min), and 20mA/cm 2 (10 min) have spherical shaped pores while the others have some uncommon (cross sectional) shaped pores on surfaces. It is considered that the cross sectional shaped maybe caused by...
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Black rice is a type of pigmented rice with black bran covering the endosperm of the rice kernel. The main objective of the present study was to provide details information on the proximate composition of third generation of gamma irradiated black rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Cempo ireng ). In respect to the control, generally speaking, there were no significant changes of moisture, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and fibers contents have been observed for the both gamma irradiated black rice. However, the 200-BR has slightly better nutritional value than that of 300-BR and the control. The mineral contents of 200-BR increased significantly of about 35% than the non-gamma irradiated black rice.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) type II is a degenerative disease that is a major killer in many countries. It is characterized by an increase of the blood glucose level above normal. It is important to choose an appropriate food sources using glycemic index (GI) concept in order to prevent blood glucose increase. One of Indonesian traditional carbohydrate source is cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott.) tuber. The tuber is assumed having a higher carbohydrate content with lower GI. The research aims to measure GI of cocoyam tuber (CT) and determine glucose and glycogen level in animal model after CT fed. Experimental research was carried out by using completely randomized design. We used twenty four male rats as animal models. They were grouped in to 4 different treatments. Group I was treated with standard feed, group II was treated with standard feed and glucose, group III was treated with steamed CT, and group IV was treated hypoglicemic agent standard, glibencamide. ...
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: One of the methods which was applied in the assessment of flexible pavement performance was mechanistic method assuming structures of road pavement to become multi-layer structure for flexible pavement, that the vehicle load working on the pavement layer under repetition with power failure worth 1 (one) unit which was assumed as evenly distributed static load, and therefore the pavement material would provide response in the form of stress, strain, and deflection. This is closely related in order to assess the structure of flexible pavement and to predict the remaining service life on the roads of Pulau Indah sta 0 + 000 to sta. 0 + 845 in Kota Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The performance appraisal indicator which was used was fatigue cracking happening bottom of the asphalt layer and permanent deformation (rutting) on the surface of subgrade. The strain estimate on the flexible pavement layer structure needs carefulness and high accuracy and therefore a software like KENPAVE wh...
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This study was motivated by the need for the development of eco-friendly concrete, and the use of large quantities of steel slag as an industrial waste which is generated from the steel manufacturers. This eco-friendly concrete was developed with steel slag as a substitute for natural sand. Properties of concrete which used waste slag as the fine aggregate with the 1 cement: 2 sand : 3 coarse aggregate ratio mixing method were examined. That ratio was in volume. Then a part of natural sand replaced with steel slag sand in six variations percentages that were 0 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete specimens were determined after curing for 28 days. The research results demonstrate that waste steel slag can increase the performance of concrete. The optimal percentage substitution natural sand by steel slag sand reached of slag on the percentage of 20 % which reached strength ratios of steel slag concrete...
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The synthesis of TiO 2 together with the TiO 2 -NiO composite using various annealing temperatures has been studied. The synthesis of TiO 2 was performed by sol gel method using Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, whereas the synthesis of TiO 2 -NiO composite was done by wet impregnation method using NiNO 3 .6H 2 O precursor. This study aims to determine the influence of NiO addition in its structure and photoactivity. The diffraction of synthesized TiO 2 at 400 °C temperature shows anatase TiO 2 peak at 2θ = 25.35 °. The addition of NiO dopant to the synthesis of TiO 2 process is carried out by annealing at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The TiO 2 -NiO composite has been prepared and shows the diffraction peak of NiO at 2θ=43° about 33.08 to 36.68%. The optimum result of Rhodamine B photodegradation with TiO 2 was 43.15%, while the optimu...
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: There are two methods of building communication using wireless media. The first method is building a base infrastructure as an intermediary between users. Problems that arise on this type of network infrastructure is limited space to build any network physical infrastructure and also the cost factor. The second method is to build an ad hoc network between users who will communicate. On ad hoc network, each user must be willing to send data from source to destination for the occurrence of a communication. One of network protocol in Ad Hoc, Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector (AODV), has the smallest overhead value, easier to adapt to dynamic network and has small control message. One AODV protocol’s drawback is route finding process’ security for sending the data. In this research, AODV protocol is optimized by determining Expanding Ring Search (ERS) best value. Random topology is used with variation in the number of nodes: 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 with node’s speed of 10m/s in ...
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The number of drug abuse was increase among the younger generation, it caused younger generation fall into drug abuse, and it will lead to physical and mental damage. The lack of knowledge of drugs danger is one of the most potential problems, so in this study we made an application about the types, dangers, and how to avoid its abusement. The application built using PHP programming language with codeiniter framework on admin part, while the parsing data between mobile application server using Javascript Object Notation (JSON). This application has been tested and 85% respondents stated that this application provides positive benefits especially for the socialization of drug abuse.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Major problem that often occurs in waste transportation in each region is the route of garbage transportation. Determination of this route should become a major concern because it affects fuel consumption and also the working time from the employee. Therefore, in this research we will develop an application to optimize with pigeonhole and dijsktra algorithm. Pigeonhole algorithm is used to determine which garbage trucks should be taken in a particular TPS. Time optimization is done by determining the shortest path that can be skipped for each garbage truck. Data generated from Pigeonhole then used to determine the shortest path by using Dijkstra algorithm.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The synthesis of chitosan-p-t-butylcalix[4]arene acid was done with DIC (N, N’-diisopropylcarbodiimide) as the coupling agent. The structural analysis of the chitosan-p-t-butylcalix[4]arene acid was conducted by spectrophotometer Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, the surface area was investigated by Surface Area Analysis, the Scanning Electrone Microscope (SEM) analysed the surface morphology, and also the melting point temperature was determined. FTIR analysis on Chitosan-p-t-butylcalix[4]arene provides an overlapped absorption of -OH and -NH groups at 3438.26 cm-1. Meanwhile, a C = C aromatic bond present at 1480.43 cm-1. XRD analysis shows some broaden peaks due to the amorphous phase of the prepared material. The prepared material is a brownish yellow solid, odorless and porous. The melting point, surface area, and the average pore radius are above 300 °C, 9.42 m 2 / g, and 52.5938 Å, respectively.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Universitas Sebelas Maret has a teaching staff more than 1500 people, and one of its tasks is to carry out research. In the other side, the funding support for research and service is limited, so there is need to be evaluated to determine the Research proposal submission and devotion on society (P2M). At the selection stage, research proposal documents are collected as unstructured data and the data stored is very large. To extract information contained in the documents therein required text mining technology. This technology applied to gain knowledge to the documents by automating the information extraction. In this articles we use Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to the documents as a model in feature extraction process, to get terms that represent its documents. Hereafter we use k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN) algorithm to classify the documents based on its terms.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The influence of Fe 2 O 3 addition on the TiO 2 structure and photoactivity properties have been studied. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 on the TiO 2 done by TiO 2 -Fe 2 O 3 synthesized with variation of annealing temperature. The result showed that peak of anatase TiO 2 at 2 θ = 25.35° and Fe 2 O 3 at 2 θ = 54.20°. The XRD of TiO 2 show annealing temperature at 400°C is anatase phase and the composite with annealing at temperature 150°C, 300°C, 400°C and 500°C is crystalline anatase phase, due to the addition of Fe 2 O 3 . Photodegradation of Rhodamin B with TiO 2 at 400°C annealing temperature showed optimum degradation 36.2 %, and the composite with annealing at 400°C showed optimum degradation 44.3% for 300 minutes irradiation.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is mostly presented as an empirical equation and the (fractal) Langmuir adsorption isotherm is derived from kinetics. However, their constants are determined by thermodynamic approach. As yet, both are used as an independent tool for determining the type of adsorption, just physical or chemical adsorption. This study aims to introduce an alternative way of driving Freundlich adsorption isotherm from kinetics, to elaborate its relation with the (fractal) Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and to determine their constants simultaneously by kinetics approach. An alternative way of determining the constants in both isotherm equations by kinetics approach was introduced. The results were then compared with that obtained by the conventional method. The study is theoretical but the validity of determination technique is based on the statistical tests on data adapted from literature. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is introduced; the isotherm is the (fra...
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Ilmenite mineral is a naturally occurring iron titanate (FeTiO 3 ) and is abundant in nature. The separation of components into TiO 2 and Fe 2 O 3 must be expand. The purpose of this research is to synthesis TiO 2 nanoparticles from the filtrate of Bangka ilmenite leaching process. Leaching of ilmenite was done with H 2 SO 4 and HCl at various concentrations. The formation of TiO 2 crystal determined by hydrolysis conditions and condensation reaction. TiO 2 synthesized from the filtrate of sulfuric acid leaching that produced from TiO 2 anatase phase when hydrolyzed in an aquaregia solvent and low concentrations of HCl (0.1M). Hydrolysis conditions at higher concentrations of HCl (1M) was produced TiO 2 anatase-rutile phase. The synthesis of TiO 2 from the filtrate of hydrochloric acid leaching was produced anatase phase. While the condition under the alcoholic so...
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This research aimed to know the usage of sawdust of teak wood and rice husk waste as Pb (II) ion adsorbents in simulated liquid waste, the combined optimum mass required adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) ion, the sensitivity of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) method in determining the decrease of Pb (II) metal ion levels in the μg/L level. This research was conducted by experimental method in laboratory. Adsorbents used in this study were charcoal of sawdust sawdust activated using 15% ZnCl 2 solution and activated rice husk using 2 N NaOH solution. The adsorption processes of sawdust and rice husk with Pb(II) solution was done by variation of mass combination with a ratio of 1: 0; 0: 1; 1: 1; 1: 2; and 2: 1. Analysis of Pb(II) ion concentration using SPS and characterization of sawdust and rice husk adsorbent ads using FTIR. The results showed that activated charcoal from sawdust of teak wood and rice husks can be used as Pb (II) metal ion adsorbents with adsorption ...
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI ( combination index ). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubic...
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The present study was aimed to study the acute and subchronic toxicity of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) from chloroform bay leaf extract with Palm Kernel Oil as carrier. In acute toxicity test, five groups of rat (n=5/groups) were orally treated with Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) from chloroform bay leaf extract with doses at 48, 240, 1200 and 6000 mg/kg/day respectively, then the median lethal dose LD 50 , advers effect and mortality were recorded up to 14 days. Meanwhile, in subchronic toxicity study, 4 groups of rats (n=6/group) received by orally treatment of SNEDDS from chloroform bay leaf extract with doses at 91.75; 183.5; 367 mg/kg/day respectively for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological and histopatological change in tissue such as liver, kidney, and pancreatic were determined. The result show that LD 50 is 1045.44 mg/kg. Although histopathological examination of most of the organs exhibited no structura...
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the alternative energy that can convert light energy into electrical energy. The component of DSSC consists of FTO substrates, TiO 2 , electrolyte, dye sensitizer, and counter electrode. This study aim was to determine the effect of optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The dye sensitizer used can be extracted from anthocyanin pigments such as dragon fruit, black rice, and red cabbage. The red cabbage sensitizer shows lower absorbance value in the visible range (450-580 nm), than dragon fruit and black rice. The chemical structure of each dye molecules has an R group (carbonyl and hydroxyl) that forms a bond with the oxide layer. Red cabbage dye cell has the highest efficiency, 0.06% then dragon fruit and black rice, 0.02% and 0.03%.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha) is widely used as an alternative therapy for diabetic and hypercholesterol. However, the administration of the extract has a low oral bioavailability, therefore it is prepared by Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf. Therefore, acute and subchronic toxicity test is required. The toxicity test performed was an experimental study, including acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Animal experiments were used using Wistar strain rats. Acute toxicity test using 5 groups (n=5) consisted of 1 control group and 4 groups of SNEDDS dose with 48 mg/kgBW 240 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg, and 6000 mg/kg, while for subchronic toxicity test with 1 group control and 3 groups of doses of SNEDDS with dose group variation 91.75 mg/kgBW, 183.5 mg/kg, and 367 mg/kg. Duration of observation at acute toxicity test for 14 days while for subcronic toxicity test for 28 days with continuous SNEDDS dosage. The results of the acute toxicity te...
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Adsorption of chromium hexavalent (Cr(VI)) ion in aqueous solution was investigated. This research was purposed to study the influence of the composition of ACZ, temperature activation, and contact time against adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solution. Determination of adsorption effectivity using several parameter such as composition variation of ACZ, contact time, pH, activation temperature, and concentration. In this research, andisol clay and zeolite has been activated with NaOH 3 M and 1 M, respectively. Temperature variation used 100, 200, and 400°C. While composition variation ACZ used 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. The pH variation was used 2 – 6 and concentration variation using 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 ppm. Characterization in this research used such as UV-Vis, Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) and Acidity Analysis. Result of this research is known that optimum composition of ACZ was 50:50 with calcination temperature 100°C. Optimum adsorption of Cr(VI) at pH ...
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This study has been conducted on bioplastic synthesis of chitosan and yellow pumpkin starch ( Cucurbita moschata ) with castor oil as plasticizer. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the effect of chitosan and starch composition of pumpkins against solvent absorption, tensile strength and biodegradable. The first stage of the research is the making of bioplastic by blending yellow pumpkin starch, chitosan and castor oil. Further, it tested the absorption capacity of the solvent, tensile strength test, and biodegradable analysis. The optimum absorption capacity of the solvent is obtained on the composition of Pumpkin/Chitosan was 50/50 in H 2 O and C 2 H 5 OH solvent. Meanwhile the optimum absorbency in HCl and NaOH solvents is obtained by 60/40 composition. The characterization of the optimum tensile strength test was obtained on the 40/60 composition of 6.787 ± 0.274 Mpa and the fastest biodegradation test process wit...
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Anemia is one of the greatest nutrition problem in the world that is commonly found in children, pregnant women and reproductive women. This disorder is predominantly caused by iron deficiency. Hepcidin, a hepatic hormone, regulates iron metabolism and high serum levels of this hormone are detected in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Anticalin is a sintetic compound which is able to interacts with hepcidin leading to inhibition of ferroportin-hepcidin binding complexes but its therapeutic effects are still under investigation. Indonesia has various herbal plants which are potentially developed to treat some human diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify phytochemicals derived from Indonesian plants that is able to inhibit hepcidin-ferroportin interaction. A bioinformatics study with molecular docking method was used in this study. Three-dimensional structures of human hepcidin and anticalin were obtained from the Protein Data Bank (ID: 1M4F and 4...
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Chemical modifications of Bentonite (BNT) clay have been carried out by using 3-aminoprophyltrimethoxysilane (APS) in various solvent media. The degradation properties of products (BNTAPS) were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Samples were heated at 30 to 700°C with a heating rate 10 deg/min, and the total silane-grafted amount was determined by calculating the weight loss at 200 – 600°C. The thermogram of TGA showed that there were three main decomposition regions which are attributed to the elimination of physically adsorbed water, decomposition of silane and dehydroxylation of Bentonite. High weight loss attributed to the thermal decomposition of silane was observed between 200 to 550°C. Quantitative analysis of grafted silane results high silane loaded using a solvent with high surface energy, which indicates the type of solvent affected interaction and adsorption of APS in BNT platelets.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii . It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in ...
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Fabrication of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 /BT) doped strontium (Sr) using co-precipitation method has been successfully conducted. The research aim is to get the best of mole variation of Sr doping to ferroelectric material properties. Doping Sr was varied at 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% in BaTiO 3 . Each sample was sintered at temperature of 1100°C with holding time for 6 h and temperature rate at 10°C/min. They were then characterized by XRD instrument to investigate the crystal structure, LCR meter to measure the dielectric constant, and Sawyer Tower circuit to reveal the hysteresis curve. The peaks of XRD shift towards larger angle when mole doping Sr increase. The crystallinity of all samples is above 90% and the crystallite size is in the range of 27 nm to 34 nm. Hysteresis curve from Sawyer Tower testing confirms that all samples are ferroelectric material. The RLC measurement results reveal that the less frequency leads to the higher dielectric constant while th...
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: As an important transportation infrastructure, pavement is subjected to repeated vehicle loads that may cause fatigue, which often leads to cracking. The point when this cracking initiates can be determined from the energy dissipated during the loading. This research investigates fatigue in Adi Soemarmo Airport mix-design using bitumen Pen 60/70 + EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) polymer. An Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test (ITFT) was conducted using stress-controlled loading mode to determine its fatigue life. The stress levels were 500, 600, and 700 kPa, while the loading frequency and the temperature were 10 Hz and 20°C, respectively. The test exhibits strain levels for each loading cycle, which were used to determine the dissipated energy (DE). The result indicates that the DE increases when the number of loading cycles increases, due to progress of the strain levels. The values of DE are 7122.8, 8614.3, and 2654.9 J/m 3 for loading levels of 500, 600, and 700 kPa, respectiv...
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This research use of lime filler Sukaraja expected add durability layers of concrete pavement is asphalt damage caused by the weather and load traffic. This study attempts to know how much value characteristic Marshall on a mixture of concrete asphalt using lime filler. This research uses experimental methods that is with a pilot to get results, thus will look filler utilization lime on construction concrete asphalt variation in filler levels 2 %, 3 %, 4 %.The results showed that the use of lime filler will affect characteristic a mixture of concrete asphalt. The more filler chalk used to increase the value of stability. On the cretaceous filler 2 % value of stability is 1067,04 kg. When lime filler levels added to the levels of filler 4 %, the value of stability increased to 1213,92 kg. The flexibility increased the number of filler as levels lime 2 % to 4 % suggests that are conducted more stiff mix.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The modification structures of cinnamaldehyde, which was isolated from cinnamon oil, has been carried out. The synthesized compounds were tested their antioxidant activity by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the IC 50 was done by spectrophotometric assay method compared with standard vitamin E. The cinnamaldehyde derivatives, e.g. cinnamic acid 2 , methyl cinnamate 3 and cinnamyl alcohol 5 had significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of their starting materials, cinnamaldehyde. However, although cinnamic amine 5 had a hydroxyl group, it gave no antioxidant activity possibly due to its bulky structure.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O with diphenylamine formed a complex compound in 1:4 mole ratio of metal to the ligand in methanol. The forming of the complex was indicated by shifting of UV-Vis spectra of CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and the complex from 819 nm to 593 nm. The result of analysis Cu(II) in the complex showed the copper content in the complex was 6.43 % therefore the empirical formula of the complex was Cu(diphenylamine) 4 SO 4 (H 2 O) 6 . The electrical conductivity of complex showed the charge ratio of cation and anion = 1:1. Therefore, the proposed formula of the complex was [Cu(diphenylamine) 4 ]SO 4 ·6H 2 O. Based on infrared spectra, it was determined that the functional group of N-H of diphenylamine was coordinated to the center ion Cu 2+ . The electronic spectral study of the complex showed a transition peak on λ = 593 nm (υ = 16863 cm -1 ) corresponding to the 2
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been conducted by varying the composition of natural dye from moss chlorophyll (Bryophyte) and synthesis dye from ruthenium complex N719. The sandwich structure of DSSC consists of the working electrode using TiO 2 , dye, electrolyte, and counter electrode using carbon. The composition of chlorophyll and synthesis dyes mixture were 100% and 0%, 80% and 20%, 60% and 40%, 40% and 60%, and 20% and 80%. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of moss chlorophyll showed the first peak in the wavelength range of 450-500 nm and the second peak at wavelength of 650-700 nm. The peak value of absorbance at wavelengths of 450-500 nm was 6.1004 and at wavelengths of 650-700 nm was 3.5835. The IPCE characteristic curves showed the absorption peak of photon for DSSCs occurred at wavelength of 550-650 nm. It considered that photon in this wavelength can contribute dominantly to produce the optimum electrons. The I-V characteristics ...
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Ginger ( Zingiber officinale var Amarum ) is widely used as raw material for essential oil production in Indonesia and contain high functional compounds. After producing essential oil, distillation leave less valuable spent ginger. This research was conducted to determine the bioactive compounds remained in aqueous extract of the spent ginger. The extracts were produced at various combination of temperature (55, 75, 95°C) and duration (15, 30, 45 minutes). The extract composition was observed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry analysis. The temperature and time of maceration extraction affected the content of compounds in spent ginger aqueous extracts. The extracts contained four largest components of α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene. The aqueous extracts from spent ginger contained the compounds which may contribute to distinctive flavor of ginger and also bioactive function.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Recently, plasma technology has gained attention since it overcomes the shortcomings of water treatment. This research studies the effect of electrode diameter of plasma discharge reactors on the concentration reduction of methylene blue as an organic solution. The plasma discharge reactor was built from a pair of stainless needle electrodes connected with high-AC voltage. The electrodes were placed approximately 2 mm above the solution and stirred at 5.5 rpm. The diameters of the electrodes were 2, 3.2 and 4 mm. The times for plasma treatment were set at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min. Absorbance, temperature and pH of the solution were measured to know the effects of electrode diameter of the plasma reactor. Absorbance and pH significantly decreased after plasma treatment. The best of the absorbance reduction were obtained when the sample was treated under plasma discharge using the smallest diameter electrodes for 8-10 min.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This article represents a precipitation method assisted with ultrasonic process to synthesize precipitated calcium carbonate nano particles from natural limestone. The synthesis of nanoparticles material of precipitated calcium carbonate from commercial calcium carbonate was done for comparison. The process was performed using ultrasonic waves at optimum condition, that is, at temperature of 80oC for 10 minutes with various amplitudes. Synthesized precipitated calcium carbonate nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The result of PSA measurements showed that precipitated calcium carbonate nano particles was obtained with the average size of 109 nm.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The mechanical properties and microstructure of ADC12/nano Al 2 O 3 matrix composites have been studied in this work. The composites were produced by stir casting method. ADC 12 as matrix composites was combined by Mg and Ti. The addition of Ti was varied from 0.02 to 0.08 wt-% as grain refinement wetting to improve mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance, while Mg addition was to promote wetting between ADC 12 and nano Al 2 O 3. The optimum tensile strength was found at 0.04 wt-% addition of Ti with value of 132.5 MPa, further adding more Ti cause a poisoning mechanism that will hindered the grain refining process and reduce the tensile strength. The hardness and wear resistance of composites would also increase because of the refinement process. and the added Magnesium in the material that will form Mg 2 Si primary phases who have a high hardness value.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This research aims to prepare, characterize, and study the catalytic activity of Molybdenum (Mo) and Cobalt (Co) metal with supporting material Ultra Stable Y-Zeolite (USY), to produce catalysts with activity in hydrotreatment reaction and in order to eliminate impurities compounds that containing unwanted groups heteroatoms. The bimetallic catalysts MoCo/USY were prepared by wet impregnation method with weight variation of Co metal 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and Mo metal 8% (w/w), respectively. Activation method of the catalyst included calcination, oxidation, reduction and the crystallinity was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the acidity of the catalyst was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gravimetry method, minerals present in the catalyst was analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and surface of the catalyst was analyzed using Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Catalytic activity test (benzene yield product) of MoCo/USY on hydrodeoxigenati...
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are often used in electronic equipment that requires small quantities of power. The waste from these batteries contains valuable metals, such as zinc and manganese, that are needed in many industries and can pollute the environment if not treated properly. This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method and using organic acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, were used as leaching reagents and compared with sulfuric acid as non-organic acid reagents that often used for leaching. The presence of hydrogen peroxide as manganese reducers was investigated for both organic and non-organic leaching reagents. The result showed that citric acid can recover 64.37% Zinc and 51.32% Manganese, while malic acid and aspartic acid could recover less than these. Hydrogen peroxide gave the...
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The utilization and modification of silica from rice straw as the main ingredient of adsorbent has been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum composition of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol): silica to produce adsorbents with excellent pore characteristics, optimum adsorption efficiency and optimum pH for methyl yellow adsorptions. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis results showed that straw ash contains 82.12 % of silica (SiO 2 ). SAA (Surface Area Analyzer) analysis showed optimum composition ratio 5:5 of PVA: silica with surface area of 1.503 m 2 /g. Besides, based on the pore size distribution of PVA: silica (5:5) showed the narrow pore size distribution with the largest pore cumulative volume of 2.8 x 10 -3 cc/g. The optimum pH for Methanyl Yellow adsorption is pH 2 with adsorption capacity = 72.1346%.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Zn-Carbon and Alkaline spent batteries contains heavy metals, such as zinc and manganese, which can causes environmental problem if not handled properly. Usually the recovery of these metals were done by leaching method using strong acid, but the use of strong acids as leaching reagents can be harmful to the environment. This paper concerns the recovery of Zn and Mn metals from Zn-C and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method using citric acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. The leaching conditions using citric acid were optimized and the leaching kinetics of Zn and Mn in citric acid solution was investigated. The leaching of 89.62% Zn and 63.26% Mn was achieved with 1.5 M citric acid, 90°C temperature, and 90 minutes stirring time. Kinetics data for the dissolution of Zn showed the best fit to chemical control shrinking core model, while the diffusion controlled model was suitable for the dissolution of Mn kinetics data. The activation energy of 6.12 and 1...
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Rare Earth Metal is a rare element that its availability in nature is very small. In Indonesia, the potential of rare earth metals is generally found as the associated mineral in major commodities, especially gold and alluvial tin. These associated minerals can be processed using a particular technology so that the result is a by-product that can increase the added value of the mineral. This purpose of this research was to investigate the dissolution of Cerium (Ce), Neodymium (Nd), Yttrium (Y) and Lanthanum (La) from mineral cassiterite by leaching process using dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfate acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Firstly, cassiterite was grinded to -100 mesh of particle size and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. Secondly, 10 gram of cassiterite was leached in 100 ml solution of 3.26 N HCl, H 2 SO 4 and NaOH at variation leaching time of 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours ...
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Performance is a measure of infrastructure success in delivering the benefits corresponding it’s design implementation. Debit efficiency is a comparison between outflow debit and inflow debit. Irrigation canal performance is part of the overall performance aspects of an irrigation area. The greater of the canal performance will be concluded that the canal is increasingly able to meet the planned benefits, need to be seen its comparison between the performance and debit efficiency of the canal. The existing problems in the field that the value of the performance of irrigation canals are not always comparable to the debit efficiency. This study was conducted to describe the relationship between the performance of the canal to the canal debit efficiency. The study was conducted at Candi Limo Irrigation Area in Mojokerto Disctrict under the authority of Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Timur. The primary canal and secondary canal are surveyed to obtain data. The physical condition of the ...
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Optode ( Optical sensors ) is one of the modern chemical sensors in the field of analytical chemistry that has utilized of inorganic polymers. The optode based on MLCT ( Metal to Ligand Charge Transfer ) (or MMLL’CT, Mixing Metal-Ligand to Ligand Charge Transfer ) or LMCT ( Ligand to Metal Charge Transfer ) phenomenons have beed generated from oktyltrietxysilane, aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and 4-(2-pyrydilazo) resorcinol (abbreviated as OTES-APTS-PAR) for Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions target. The syntheses of thin layer optode were performed by sol gel method followed by evaporation in glass substrat. The formation of 4-(2-pyrydilazo) resorcinol complexes with ions target have gained strong absorption spectras in visible region because of charge transfer phenomenons. The optical sensor of OTES-APTS-PAR was analysed thermal properties using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). DTA thermogram showed a glass transition peaks at a te...
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The pavement condition will decrease due to the influence of traffic and environment, so that the maintenance effort is needed to maintain the road condition during the service period. In order to carry out road maintenance activities right on target, there needs to be a plan based on accurate pavement condition data. Road roughness is the most commonly used condition parameter in evaluating pavement conditions objectively because road roughness data is relatively easy to obtain, well correlated with vehicle operating costs and the most relevant parameter in road functional performance measurement. The Roadroid is an Android-based application that measures road roughness by using vibration sensors on a smartphone so it is possible to get an International Roughness Index (IRI) value as an indicator of pavement conditions more easily and efficiently. Besides based on road roughness, pavement condition evaluation can also be done visually by using Surface Distress Index (SDI) metho...
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Biodiesel production was carried out from Thespesia populnea seed oil through rapid insitu transesterification. Influence of reaction parameters such as catalyst type and concentration, methanol to biomass ratio, co-solvent volume, temperature and agitation speed on conversion of oil into methyl esters was investigated. The effect of different co-solvents on conversion was evaluated. Optimum methyl ester conversion of 97.80% was achieved at 1.5wt% of KOH catalyst, 5.5:1 (v/w) methanol to biomass ratio, 25vol%tetrahydrofuranco-solvent, 60°C and 500 rpm within 120min of reaction time. Fuel properties of produced methyl esters were well fitted within the limits of ASTMD 6751 standards. Considering the properties of produced biodiesel, Thespesia populnea seed derived biodiesel can be used as potential alternate to fossil diesel fuel.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The S 15 Se 85-x Cu x (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) chalcogenide glasses are synthesized using melt quenching technique and the effect of Copper on thermal, mechanical and optical properties of chalcogenide glasses are investigated. The glassy natures of the prepared samples were verified by X-ray diffraction and DSC studies. The optical band gap of the samples is estimated and it is observed that optical band gap is decreased with increasing of the copper content and is discussed in terms of cohesive energy and coordination number. The basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, Volume (Vh) and formation energy (Eh) of micro voids in the glassy network and the modulus of Elasticity (E) are calculated in present glasses. The composition dependence of micro hardness is discussed in terms of heat of atomization energy.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of high nitrogen stainless steel shielded metal arc (SMA) welds made with Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microstructures of the welds were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) mainly to determine the morphology, phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Hardness, tensile and ductility bend tests were carried out to determine mechanical properties. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance using a G ill AC basic electrochemical system. Constant load type testing was carried out to study stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of welds. The investigation results shown that the selected...
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential component of futuristic civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. It detects the damages in system or give warning about the degradation of structure by evaluating performance parameters. This is achieved by the integration of sensors and actuators into the structure. Study of damage detection process in piezoelectric sensor and actuator integrated sandwich cantilever beam is carried out in this paper. Possible skin-core debond at the root of the cantilever beam is simulated and compared with undamaged case. The beam is actuated using piezoelectric actuators and performance differences are evaluated using Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors. The methodology utilized is the voltage/strain response of the damaged versus undamaged beam against transient actuation. Finite element model of piezo-beam is simulated in ANSYS TM using 8 noded coupled field element, with nodal degrees of freedoms are translations in the x, ...
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Railways form the backbone of all economies, transporting goods, and passengers alike. Sleepers play a pivotal role in track performance and safety in rail transport. This paper discusses in brief about the materials that have been used in making sleepers in the early stages of railways. Extensive studies have been carried out on the static, dynamic and impact analysis of prestressed sleepers all around the globe. It has been shown that majority of the sleepers do not last till their expected design life resulting in massive replacement and repair cost. The primary reasons leading to the failure of sleepers have been summarised. This article also highlights the use of new materials developed recently for the construction of prestressed concrete sleepers to improve the performance and life of railway sleepers. Use of geopolymer concrete and steel fibre reinforced concrete, assist in the reduction of flexural cracking, whereas rubber concrete enhances the impact resistance of conc...
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The flexible pavements with a design period of 50 years without requiring major structural rehabilitation and reconstructions are called as perpetual pavements. The present study aims at designing a high modulus Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) mixture for perpetual pavements using Industrial Grade (IG) bitumen in combination with Viscosity Grade (VG30) bitumen. Various blending combinations were tried and the ratio of 70:30 for IG: VG30 was found to fulfill the requirements. The modified Marshall hammer was used for the preparation of specimens, as the nominal size of aggregate was 25 mm. A comparative study on DBM mixture with VG30 alone and with IG: VG30 (70:30) was done and the Optimum Binder Contents obtained were 5.0 % and 5.3 % respectively at 4 % air voids. The water sensitivity tests were carried out on the bituminous specimens in accordance with AASHTO T 283 and the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) ratio obtained were 80.0 % and 98.3 % respectively for specimens with VG30...
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the best practices to overcome the scarcity of water. Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater locally through different technologies, for future use. It is also useful for livestock, groundwater recharge and for irrigation practices. Potential of rainwater harvesting refers to the capacity of an individual catchment that harnesses the water falling on the catchment during a particular year considering all rainy days. The present study deals with the identification of the study area boundary and marking it as a Polygon in Google Earth Pro Later, Rooftops of various house entities and roads were digitized using the Polygon command in Google Earth Pro. GIS technique is employed for locating boundaries of the study area and for calculating the areas of various types of rooftops and roads. With the application of GIS, it is possible to assess the total potential of water that can be harvested. The present study will enabl...
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Transfer girders and pier caps, which are in fact deep beams, are critical structural elements present in high-rise buildings and bridges respectively. During an earthquake, failure of lifeline structures like bridges and critical structural members like transfer girders will result in severe catastrophes. Ductility is the key factor that influences the resistance of any structural member against seismic action. Structural members cast using materials having higher ductility will possess higher seismic resistance. Previous research shows that concrete having rubber particles (rubcrete) possess better ductility and low density in comparison to ordinary concrete. The main hindrance to the use of rubcrete is the reduction in compressive and tensile strength of concrete due to the presence of rubber. If these undesirable properties of rubcrete can be controlled, a new cementitious composite with better ductility, seismic performance and economy can be developed. A combination of rub...
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Natural disasters like earthquakes are causing catastrophic failure for various structures in and around the world because of its unpredictable nature. Even in India, almost 80% of, India’s capital, Delhi’s buildings are not earthquake resistant. If at all there is a moderate earthquake in Delhi, millions of lives and huge of property will be lost. There are many places in India including four metropolitan cities, in which majority of high rise buildings are not earthquake resistant. It is important to account for damage caused by earthquakes, incorporating suitable resistant techniques for the safeguard of the people. The present study deals with highlighting the novel techniques adopted in the recent past to make the structures earthquake resistant. Performance based design is one such approach where in performance of structure is given the utmost importance unlike the existing standards. Lateral load resisting systems like chevron braces, knee braces in combination with alumi...
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: This work is related to develop a methodology to model and simulate the TEHD using the sequential application of CFD and CSD. The FSI analyses are carried out using ANSYS Workbench. In this analysis steady state, 3D Navier-Stoke equations along with energy equation are solved. Liquid properties are introduced where the viscosity and density are the function of pressure and temperature. The cavitation phenomenon is adopted in the analysis. Numerical analysis has been carried at different speeds and surfaces temperatures. During the analysis, it was found that as speed increases, hydrodynamic pressures will also increases. The pressure profile obtained from the Roelands equation is more sensitive to the temperature as compared to the Barus equation. The stress distributions specify the significant positions in the bearing structure. The developed method is capable of giving latest approaching into the physics of elasto hydrodynamic lubrication.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Kota Super Thermal Power Station of 1240 MW is located at Kota in Rajasthan, India. The quantity of fly ash generated by it is about 1.64 to 2.03 million tonnes per year. This fly ash is being utilized for making bricks, tiles, portland pozzolana cement, construction of highways, and other purposes. 1.79 million tonnes of fly ash was utilized for different applications in one year duration from April 01st, 2015 to March 31st, 2016. Out of this total utilization, 0.6439 million tonnes (36.06 %) of fly ash was used for making bricks, blocks, and tiles. In this paper, a case study of two fly ash brick manufacturing units using fly ash produced from Kota Super Thermal Power Station is described. These units produce about 15,000 and 20,000 bricks respectively by employing 10 and 16 workers each and are making a profit of about Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 8,000 per day in one shift.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the recent construction scenario, diagrid structures are becoming a popular high-rise building structural system. Diagrid structures consist of diagonals in the perimeter and an interior core. The corner and interior vertical columns are not required due to the structural efficiency of diagrid structural systems. Steel and concrete are commonly used material for diagrid. An alternate material for diagrid is concrete-filled steel tube (CFST). CFST incorporates the advantages of both steel and concrete. In CFST, the inward buckling of the steel tube is effectively prevented by the filled concrete. The compressive strength of concrete increases due to the tri-axial state of stress in concrete induced by the steel tube. The longitudinal as well as lateral reinforcement to the concrete core is also provided by the steel tube. This paper compares the performance of CFST and steel diagrid buildings using linear static analysis. For this purpose, a 12 storey and 36 storey building ar...
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Composite deck slabs are in demand because of its faster, lighter and economical construction work. Composite slab consists of cold formed deck profiled sheet and concrete either lightweight or normal. Investigation of shear behaviour of the composite slab is very complex. Shear bond strength depends on the various parameter such as a shape of sheeting, a thickness of the sheet, type of embossment and its frequency of use, shear stiffener or intermediate stiffener, type of load, an arrangement of load, length of shear span, the thickness of concrete and support friction etc. In present study finite element analysis is carried out with ABAQUS 6.13, a simply supported composite slab is considered for the investigation of the shear bond behaviour of the composite slab by considering variation in three different parameters, the shape of a sheet, thickness of sheet and shear span. Different shear spans of two different shape of cold formed deck profiled sheet i.e. with intermediate s...
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Wheel-soil Interaction studies are gaining momentum in the field of Terramechanics, but the basis is Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation. For the current study, on a lunar soil simulant TRI – 1, two plain rigid wheels are considered, i.e., small wheel (dia. of 210 mm and width of 50 mm) and large wheel (dia. 160 mm and width 32 mm). Also, different number of lugs (N = 8, 12, 16) with various lug heights (h = 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm) are used. In this paper, the variation of wheel sinkages from experiments obtained for various wheel weights are examined and presented. The parameter, Coefficient of rolling resistance (CRR) is determined for various cases. Hence, rolling resistance was determined and examined from the obtained CRR for all cases. Among the cases examined, the large wheel with weight 67.44 N for plain wheels and weight 67.85 N for lugged wheel (no. of lugs = 16, and height of lugs = 5 mm) registered better mobility. Similarly, for small wheel with weight 52.189 N for pla...
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In this work effect of the impact location and the type of hammer tip on the frequency response function (FRF) is studied. Experimental modal analysis of rectangular plates is carried out for this purpose by using impact hammer, accelerometer and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. It is observed that the impulse hammer hit location has, no effect on the eigenfrequency, yet a difference in amplitude of the eigenfrequencies is obtained. The effect of the hammer tip on the pulse and the force spectrum is studied for three types of tips metal, plastic and rubber. A solid rectangular plate was excited by using these tips one by one in three different tests. It is observed that for present experimental set up plastic tip excites the useful frequency range.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Palm biodiesel is blended to diesel in different volume percentages to improve certain properties. This would help in having a good understanding of the dependence of the diesel properties on the biodiesel proportion. The properties of interest in the present work are density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and fire point of the blends which are determined and compared to petrodiesel. It is observed that the kinematic viscosity and density of the diesel increase with the palm biodiesel proportion and it is not preferable. Blends with higher palm content possess higher flash point and fire point. Apparently, blending worsens the conditions and hence might be of no use when compared to diesel, but when compared to neat palm biodiesel, blending helped in pulling down the density, viscosity, fire point and flash point of the latter. Using regression analysis and the properties data of respective blends, correlations are developed to predict the properties of diesel and biodiesel b...
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The overheating of an industrial component sometimes may leads to system failure. The convection heat transfer from a heated surface can be effectively enhanced by employing fins on that surface. This Paper emphasizes on the experimental investigation of temperature distribution along the length of pin shaped fin. The analysis is performed on a 100 mm long fin made up of brass with 19.6 mm diameter having thermal conductivity as 111 W/m.K. Temperature at different section of the fin along its length is evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The influence of convection mode viz natural & forced convection and variable heat input on the temperature distribution is evaluated. The result outcomes are then compared with the widely accepted analytical relations. A comparison of convective heat transfer coefficient for uniform and non-uniform area fin is also presented. The results by experimental and analytical method are found to be in good agreement for free convection phen...
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Resource Allocation is procedure of doling out or allocating the accessible assets in a monetary way and productive way. Resource allocation is the scheduling of the accessible assets and accessible exercises or activities required while thinking about both the asset accessibility and the total project completion time. Asset provisioning and allocation takes care of that issue by permitting the specialist co-ops to deal with the assets for every individual demand of asset. A probabilistic selection procedure has been developed in order to ensure various selections of chromosomes
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Robot TIG welding is a modern technique used for joining two work pieces with high precision. Design of Experiments is used to conduct experiments by varying weld parameters like current, wire feed and travelling speed. The welding parameters play important role in joining of dissimilar stainless steel SS 304L and SS430. In this work, influences of welding parameter on Robot TIG Welded specimens are investigated using Response Surface Methodology. The Micro Vickers hardness tests of the weldments are measured. The process parameters are optimized to maximize the hardness of the weldments.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Dry electric discharge machining (Dry EDM) is one of the novel EDM technology in which gases namely helium, argon, oxygen, nitrogen etc. are used as a dielectric medium at high pressure instead of oil based liquid dielectric. The present study investigates dry electric discharge machining (with rotary tool) of EN-31 steel to achieve lower tool wear rate (TWR) and better surface roughness (Ra) by performing a set of exploratory experiments with oxygen gas as dielectric. The effect of polarity, discharge current, gas flow pressure, pulse-on time, R.P.M. and gap voltage on the MRR, TWR and surface roughness (Ra) in dry EDM was studied with copper as rotary tool. The significant factors affecting MRR are discharge current and pulse on time. The significant factors affecting TWR are gas flow pressure, pulse on time and R.P.M. TWR was found close to zero in most of the experiments. The significant factors affecting Ra are pulse on time, gas flow pressure and R.P.M. It was found that p...
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The magnetic abrasive machining (MAM) process is a highly developed unconventional machining process. It is frequently used in manufacturing industries for nanometer range surface finishing of workpiece with the help of Magnetic abrasive particles (MAPs) and magnetic force applied in the machining zone. It is precise and faster than conventional methods and able to produce defect free finished components. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent advancement of MAM process carried out by different researcher till date. The effect of different input parameters such as rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage, magnetic flux density, abrasive particles size and working gap on the performances of Material Removal Rate (MRR) and surface roughness (R a ) have been discussed. On the basis of review, it is observed that the rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage and mesh size of abrasive particles have significant impact on MAM process.
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: To study the effect of room temperature rolling on mechanical properties of 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel, the as received 304 ASS was rolled at room temperature for different percentage of plastic deformation (i.e. 30, 50, 70 and 90 %). Microstructural study, tensile and hardness tests were performed in accordance with ASTM standards to study the effect of rolling. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of a rolled specimen have enhanced with rolling. The UTS has increased from 693 MPa (as received) to 1700 MPa (after 90% deformation). The improvement in UTS of processed samples is due to combined effect of grain refinement and stress induced martensitic phase transformation. The hardness values also increases from 206 VHN (as received) to 499 VHN (after 90% deformation). Magnetic measurements were also conducted to confirm the formation of martensitic phase.
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: An attempt has been made to weld 2205 Duplex stainless steel of 6mm thick plate using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and activated gas tungsten arc welding (A- GTAW) process using silica powder as activated flux. Present work is aimed at studying the effect of welding process on depth of penetration, width of weld zone of 2205 duplex stainless steel. It also aims to observe the microstructural changes and its effect on mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel welds. Metallography is done to observe the microstructural changes of the welds using image analyzer attached to the optical microscopy. Hardness studies, tensile and ductility bend tests were evaluated for mechanical properties. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were carried out using a basic GillAC electro-chemical system in 3.5% NaCl solution to observe the pitting corrosion behaviour. Results of the present investigation established that increased de...
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  • 83