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  • 1
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Advertisement for myCS.
    Print ISSN: 0272-1716
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  • 2
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Optical full-vectorial modes have closely attracted much attention because of their unique optical features and thus may develop the fundamental researches and new functionalities of light. Beyond the conventional linear polarization modal coupling, we thoroughly investigate the inherent polarization-dependence and polarization-isolation features for full-vectorial mode coupling in optical fibers, as well as the coupling crosstalk in view of the modal degeneracy. We present the general full-vectorial coupling mechanism and numerically simulate the full-vectorial mode coupling for both fiber directional and grating-assisted coupling cases. Furthermore, we give the detailed analyses of coupling crosstalk based on the unified three-mode coupling model. Apart from lifting the modal degeneracy, significantly, the crosstalk can also be reduced by weakening the coupling coefficient and meanwhile increasing the coupling length. This extended full-vectorial mode coupling mechanism may provide theoretical guidance on exploiting new all-fiber-based polarization-sensitive passive elements to control full-vectorial fields and modal polarization states.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9197
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  • 3
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
    Print ISSN: 1939-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This paper introduces two very fast and competitive hyperspectral image (HSI) restoration algorithms: fast hyperspectral denoising (FastHyDe), a denoising algorithm able to cope with Gaussian and Poissonian noise, and fast hyperspectral inpainting (FastHyIn), an inpainting algorithm to restore HSIs where some observations from known pixels in some known bands are missing. FastHyDe and FastHyIn fully exploit extremely compact and sparse HSI representations linked with their low-rank and self-similarity characteristics. In a series of experiments with simulated and real data, the newly introduced FastHyDe and FastHyIn compete with the state-of-the-art methods, with much lower computational complexity.
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  • 6
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: IEEE Computer Society Membership Ad
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  • 7
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
    Print ISSN: 1089-7801
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Computer Science
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  • 8
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
    Print ISSN: 1089-7801
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  • 9
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: When a photonic crystal fiber has more than one core, the switching capacity loss among the cores as of a given power, called critical power, becomes a relevant effect for switching applications. In this paper, we study the critical power obtained when ultrashort pulses are propagated in a nonlinear directional coupler. Here, we consider the specific example of a three-core photonic crystal fiber in two possible arrangements: one-dimensional and triangular array. In each core, the pulses propagate in the anomalous dispersion regime, in which an input pulse in the form of a hyperbolic secant is injected into one of the cores, considering different input peak powers. By relating the group velocity dispersion and the coupling coefficient with the temporal width of the input pulse, we can observe some relations between the fiber parameters and the critical power. In addition, we show that when self-phase modulation is combined with other effects, the critical power can be increased or decreased depending on the combination of these effects.
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  • 11
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Unlike linearly polarized modes in fiber, modes exploiting orbital angular momentum (OAM) are circularly polarized when propagating in fiber. The use of OAM modes for spatial multiplexing requires efficient, low cost mode generators and multiplexers. We propose such a device based on the standard 220-nm silicon-on-insulator platform, taking multiple single-mode data-modulated signals, and imprinting these signals on right- and left-circularly polarized OAM channels on a single, multiplexed output. The device is designed to easily couple to an OAM fiber with a ring-shaped core. This approach treating circular polarization within the multiplexer allows us to avoid the losses associated with filtering out unwanted polarization to create a single polarization. Designing the device to have an output matched to the OAM fiber mode profile also avoids mode size conversion. We describe our design methodology and optimization techniques using a transfer-matrix model and the finite-difference time-domain method. A candidate design is simulated and modal crosstalk is examined, showing that low-crosstalk OAM multiplexing can be achieved through direct fiber-to-chip coupling.
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  • 12
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Hyperspectral images (HSIs) are usually contaminated by various kinds of noise, such as stripes, deadlines, impulse noise, Gaussian noise, and so on, which significantly limits their subsequent application. In this paper, we model the stripes, deadlines, and impulse noise as sparse noise, and propose a unified mixed Gaussian noise and sparse noise removal framework named spatial–spectral total variation regularized local low-rank matrix recovery (LLRSSTV). The HSI is first divided into local overlapping patches, and rank-constrained low-rank matrix recovery is adopted to effectively separate the low-rank clean HSI patches from the sparse noise. Differing from the previous low-rank-based HSI denoising approaches, which process all the patches individually, a global spatial–spectral total variation regularized image reconstruction strategy is utilized to ensure the global spatial–spectral smoothness of the reconstructed image from the low-rank patches. In return, the globally reconstructed HSI further promotes the separation of the local low-rank components from the sparse noise. An augmented Lagrange multiplier method is adopted to solve the proposed LLRSSTV model, which simultaneously explores both the local low-rank property and the global spatial–spectral smoothness of the HSI. Both simulated and real HSI experiments were conducted to illustrate the advantage of the proposed method in HSI denoising, from visual/quantitative evaluations and time cost.
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 14
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: In a single-helix helical long-period fiber grating (SHLPG), due to the inherent one-fold azimuthal symmetric structure of the fiber core, it is very hard to obtain an efficient high-order azimuthal mode coupling. In this letter, we have proposed and demonstrated theoretically a phase-sampling approach to overcome this obstacle, which is realized by periodically inserting phase shifts in the azimuthal direction of the SHLPG. As results of the proposed method, high-efficient couplings between the fundamental mode and the second- and third-order azimuthal modes in a SHLPG have been successfully demonstrated. The proposed method can be applied to generate and convert high-order orbital angular momentum modes even with the SHLPG.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 15
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This paper presents a behavioral modeling technique for CMOS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microresonators that enables simulation of an MEMS resonator model in Analog Hardware Description Language format within a system-level circuit simulation. A 100-kHz CMOS-MEMS resonant pressure sensor has been modeled into Verilog-A code and successfully simulated within Cadence framework. Analysis has shown that simulation results of the reported model are in agreement with the device characterization results. As an application of the proposed methodology, simulation and results of the model together with an integrated monolithic low-noise amplifier is exemplified for detecting the position change of the resonator.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
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  • 16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Various puzzles, games, humorous definitions, or mathematical that should engage the interest of readers.
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  • 17
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The production of low cost sensors to monitor environment in some industrial sectors is a current need. In aviculture centers, for example, the concentration of ammonia gas is related to humidity, and it is necessary to control it to avoid contamination. With this need in mind, this paper presents the preparation and characterization of a low cost humidity sensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) and polyaniline fully printed onto paper by a commercial HP printer. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, an equivalent circuit containing resistive and capacitive parameters was proposed. The resistive parameter R1 is related to values of ambient humidity. The R1 values showed a sensitive response of 200% when relative humidity changes 80%, taking 10 min to reach saturation point. Moreover, the device showed good stability when humidity remained constant. These results indicate that the proposed device is suitable for applying as a humidity sensor that costs less than 1 Euro cent.
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  • 18
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Rose-like ZnO microcube/MoO 3 micrograss-based composite was synthesized via hydrothermal process followed by solution-based synthesis approach. The crystal structure, chemical state, morphology, and elemental analysis of the obtained rose-like composite were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, respectively. The results indicated that rose-like ZnO microcube/MoO 3 micrograss composite was obtained where ZnO microcube pistil and MoO 3 micrograss petal were formed. Furthermore, volatile organic compounds sensing performance of the rose-like composite was examined, where sensors presented outstanding sensing performance toward methanol including high selectivity and sensitivity, low-optimal operating temperature as well as very stable response-recovery characteristics, and long-term stability. Such sensing performance can be ascribed to a combined effect of the unique rose-like structures and band formation between ZnO/MoO 3 n–n heterojunction.
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  • 19
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Resonant cavity is an important component of Overhauser magnetometer sensor. Its function is to make the working substance generate dynamic nuclear polarization effect in the sensor. An alternative design of resonant cavity based on the birdcage coil structure is proposed to make the resonant frequency in accordance with the polarization frequency of the working substance. The structure and equivalent circuit of resonant cavity are analyzed. The model of resonant cavity is established, and S-parameter is calculated. The simulating results show that resonant frequency of the resonant cavity is about 60 MHz, which is consistent with the polarization frequency of the working substance in the sensor, and Q-factor of the resonant cavity is about 90. A dual-coil structure for pick-up coil and series resonant circuit are designed for reducing interference. In addition, output signal experiment and simultaneous comparison testing of sensor prototype are conducted. Overall, this design has the advantages of high performance and strong anti-interference. The resolution, uncertainty, and range of the sensor reach to 0.005 nT, 0.2 nT, and 20 000–100 000 nT, respectively.
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  • 20
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: In this paper, a $120,times , 45$ global shutter high speed time delay integration (TDI) CMOS image sensor with pipelined charge transfer pixel (PCT-pixel) is presented. Offset free and low noise pipelined signal accumulation are achieved by the PCT-pixel, and a novel layout is also proposed to increase the equivalent photosensitive area’s fill factor of the proposed pixel. Due to the parallelism of the proposed PCT-pixel, global shutter exposure method is applied in this sensor, which can eliminate nonsynchronous signal capturing problem. The proposed TDI sensor is implemented in a 0.11- $mu text{m}$ one-poly three-metal CMOS image sensor technology with a line rate of 100 KHz, a PCT-pixel size of $30,times , 15 ,,mu text{m}^{2}$ , and a fill factor of 43.5%. Measurement results show that the sensor can achieve a maximum sensitivity of 95 V/lux $,times , $ sec and an energy consumption of 0.12 nJ/pixel. Measured signal-to-noise ratio boost value follows theoretical value well. The proposed sensor has the potential to achieve high scanning speed and high TDI stage while costing less power and silicon area.
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  • 21
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Here we experimentally demonstrate a polarimetric polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) vibration sensor with the shortest sensor head, which shows an enhanced frequency response. The fabricated vibration sensor consists of a polarization beam splitter for forming a polarization-diversified loop (i.e., a kind of Sagnac loop), PM-PCF, and two polarization controllers. For high-speed vibration sensing, intensity-based measurement was carried out using a laser diode and a photodetector. Three PM-PCF segments with lengths of 3.0, 6.5, and 11.6 cm were utilized to investigate the effect of the PM-PCF length on the frequency response of the sensor. In this investigation, single-frequency vibration from 1 – 3000 Hz was applied to the sensor head using a piezoelectric transducer. For three measured frequency responses, the same resonance frequency was observed at ~400 Hz, and cut-off frequencies were measured as ~2750, ~2100, and ~1630 Hz for 3.0-, 6.5-, and 11.6-cm-long PM-PCF, respectively. That is, the cut-off frequency increases with decreasing sensor head length, allowing the frequency response to be broadened. It is concluded that a short sensor head can provide an improved frequency response and offer a smaller variation of the frequency-dependent amplitude in the sensor output signal within a 3-dB bandwidth, in addition to the convenience of installation and the reduced sensitivity to external perturbations.
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  • 22
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of Polyaniline (PANI) as a dopant in the fabrication of a polymer microfiber for sensing methanol. A simple direct drawing technique was employed in the preparation of a Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) doped with PANI microfiber. The changes of the power spectrum were measured through an optical spectrum analyzer over a range of 100–500 ppm methanol solution concentrations. It was observed that the sensor utilizing a PANI-doped microfiber had a higher response toward the changes in the methanol solution concentrations compared with its undoped counterpart with an improvement of 41.01% and more than 5 times for the sensitivity and resolution, respectively. A sensitivity of 0.047 dBm/ppm was attained with the use of a PMMA microfiber with a taper diameter and length of $3~mu text{m}$ and 3 mm, respectively. The field emission scanning electron microscopy proved the successful doping of PANI into the PMMA microfiber, which contributed to the increase in the performance of the sensor.
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  • 23
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: In this paper, a fiber-optic sensing interrogation system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and transversal loading based on a modified fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) has been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. In our experiment, the modified FMZI is taken as the sensing element as well as the spectrum slicer for a dual-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF). One arm of the FMZI is used as the temperature sensing fiber, and portion of the fiber in the second loop of the FMZI is utilized for measuring the transversal loading variation. As the temperature increases, the central frequencies of the passbands of the MPF move to the higher frequency. The peak amplitude of the lower passband decreases while the higher one increases with the increment of transversal loading. Thus, simultaneous measurement of temperature and transversal loading can be implemented by tracking the central frequencies and the peak amplitude of the passbands.
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  • 24
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is proposed utilizing two-dimensional blue phosphorene/molybdenum disulfide (i.e., BlueP/MoS 2 ) heterostructure as an interacting layer with analyte. The analysis indicates that the proposed sensor design provides significantly higher sensitivity in comparison to conventional and graphene-based SPR sensors. The combined effect of number of heterostructure layers and light wavelength on sensitivity is also analyzed. The results will open a new way to BlueP/MoS 2 heterostructure based SPR sensor for bio- and gas-sensing applications in visible and near infrared spectral regions.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 25
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We demonstrate amorphous Ge 0.92 Sn 0.08 surface illuminated metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors on flexible substrates for visible wavelength. Photodetection at 633 nm is achieved with an I–V response up to 10 –4 A for a 2 V bias voltage. Different evaporation rate effects on the amorphous GeSn MSM photodetector are examined. Bending/strain effects on device performance were studied by evaluating the current density versus voltage characteristics. Amorphous GeSn thin film deposition on polyethylene terephthalate flexible substrate and Ni/Au–GeSn–Ni/Au MSM photodetector finger pattern deposition were performed via thermal evaporation. Photocurrent and dark current densities of amorphous GeSn MSM photodetectors were obtained at 1.36 A/cm 2 and 0.24 A/cm 2 , respectively, where the photocurrent to dark current contrast ratio was found to be equal to 5.6. We also examined the evaporation rate, strain, and bending effect.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 26
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: In this letter, we consider a multi-user multiple-input single-output visible light communication system. A power-efficient linear precoding for zero-forcing (ZF) detection is developed with channel uncertainty, i.e., noisy channel state information (CSI) and outdated CSI. With the constraint of a dynamic current range of light-emitting diodes, the proposed method is capable of minimizing total optical power and guaranteeing user performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed precoding can achieve a lower power consumption than the pseudo-inverse ZF precoding with the same user performance.
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  • 27
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We propose a simple thermo-optic mode-selective switch based on an asymmetric directional coupler formed with a two-mode waveguide and a single-mode waveguide, where two electrodes heaters are deposited, respectively, on the two waveguides. Depending on which heater is turned on, either one of the two modes in the two-mode waveguide can be selectively switched to the single-mode waveguide or vice versa. Our typical experimental device fabricated with polymer material, which has a total length of 16.5 mm, shows extinction ratios higher than ~10 dB in the C-band for both modes. The switching powers for the two modes are 52 and 109 mW, respectively, and the corresponding switching times are 300 and 400 $mu text{s}$ . This device could be used in reconfigurable mode-division-multiplexing systems.
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  • 28
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Single molecule detection using nanopores has proven to be a powerful way of identifying biomolecules. Therefore, a variety of materials and methods have been developed by the nanopore community to generate credible outcomes. Here we report as the first time a novel polyimide nanopore platform for single DNA sensing. Novelty of the platform arises both from the ultra-thin structure of the polyimide membrane and also the technique used in the nanopore fabrication on a polymer membrane. Furthermore, the ultra-thin nature of the membrane eliminates the involvement of highly demanding fabrication steps often employed in the solid-state nanopore membrane production. Herein we present the fabrication of nanopores in such an ultra-thin polymer membrane and its successful application in sensing DNA molecules at single molecule level, holding a promise as a potential single-molecule analytical device unlike its common use in research.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based temperature sensor that can measure temperatures from 0 °C to 120 °C. The principle of operation of the proposed sensor depends on the variation of the capacitance as the IDC sensor becomes warmer. Graphene oxide, a well-known conductive polymer, was mixed with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer to prepare a temperature-sensitive dielectric sensing solution. This sensing solution was then deposited on the interdigitated electrode by a spin coater to prepare the IDC temperature sensor. The designed sensor has good sensing ability and offers stable sensing responses over a broad temperature range. The sensitivity and linearity (correlation coefficient R 2 ) of the designed IDC temperature sensor were approximately 80.86 pF/°C and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor also has excellent reproducibility characteristics, with a relative standard deviation of approximately 0.024. We also proposed four IDC remote wireless temperature-sensing units to observe temperature variations in remote locations. The signal processing unit in both the local and remote wireless IDC sensing systems was designed to use a microcontroller. Finally, the response of the developed IDC temperature sensor was compared with those of temperature sensors, which were based on resistivity, the piezotronic effect, a graphene-assisted microfiber, optical fiber wavelength shifting, a Sagnac loop using a long grating optical fiber, and an optical fiber probe, in terms of the temperature measurement range and linearity. We found that the designed IDC temperature sensor exhibits excellent sensing performance compared with the other sensors.
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  • 30
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The performance of spiral micro-structured fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and standard FBG hydrogen sensor with different morphologies of Pt-WO 3 has been presented. Femtosecond laser was employed to fabricate spiral micro-sturctured on fiber cladding of FBG. WO 3 nanorods, nanowires, and nanolamellae were synthesized by hydrothermal process and decorated with Pt nanoparticles by decomposing Pt(acca) 2 precursor (molar ratio of Pt:W = 1:5). FBG hydrogen sensors with Pt-WO 3 nanolamellae have the highest sensitivity (spiral micro-structured FBG sensor ~208 pm/%H, standard FBG sensor ~110 pm/%H), followed by nanorod and nanowire sensors. Moreover, the sensitivity of the spiral micro-structured FBG sensors are about 1.8 ~ 2.5 times than that of standard FBG sensors. The results show that the sensors with WO 3 nanowires have the fastest response time.
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  • 31
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Force-distance curve-based atomic force microscopy (FD-based AFM) has been extensively used to study the interactive phenomena and mechanical properties of various materials at the nanoscale. Unlike the commonly used piezodrive FD-based AFM that uses two sensors (cantilever and piezoactuator), the magnetic-drive FD-based AFM uses only one sensor of an off-resonant oscillating cantilever to measure the FD curve. However, due to inconsistent probe sensitivities induced by the force and magnetic torque, locations of the laser spot and magnetic bead need to be specified for broad modulus range nanomechanical mapping. Here, a calibration method is presented to obtain a uniform probe sensitivity induced by the force and magnetic torque. In this method, the torque-induced deflection sensitivity is accurately determined by the deflection tracking approach. Impacts of the laser spot and magnetic bead location on deflection sensitivity are investigated, and a straight protocol is developed to locate the laser spot for unifying two deflection sensitivities. The proposed calibration methods are applied in mapping nanomechanical properties of polystyrene, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces at driving frequencies of 5 kHz in air, and polydimethylsiloxane surface at 0.5 kHz in liquid environment.
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  • 32
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This paper aims to develop a selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer combined with quartz crystal microbalance sensor for the detection of 3-Carene, a significant aroma compound of mango. The proposed sensor is prepared from the co-polymer of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene, and it is imprinted with 3-Carene. The MIP template was synthesized and deposited onto the quartz crystal microbalance platform by proper functionalizing the gold electrode using 2-propene 1- thiol. The developed MIP material is characterized by fourier transform infra-red, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope techniques. The sensor offers very good selectivity and sensitivity (1–1000 ppm) of 0.11 Hz/ppm to 3-Carene from its structural analogies. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation of the sensor are found to be 0.8 and 1.4 ppm, respectively. The performance of the sensor offers satisfactory reproducibility and repeatability to 3-Carene. Moreover, the response of the sensor has been correlated to the standard gas- chromatography-mass spectrometry data to detect 3-Carene in Langda and Chausa mango.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Utilizing the principles of intracavity absorption spectroscopy, a biomedical sensor has been developed. The unique feature is the deployment of dual-mode competition which renders characteristics of feasibility, cost, and investigation in various domains. Insight of the high sensitivity of this sensor, relative intensity noise (RIN) is being explored as one of the detection parameters. Cavity length and mode spacing effects of the sensor on average RIN have been investigated to optimize these parameters for improvement in RIN response of the sensor. It has been found that operating the sensor for increased mode spacing improves its RIN response by 24%. In this mode of operation, change in cavity length has almost negligible effect on RIN response of the sensor. This fact in the proposed sensor system can be used to detect various trace gases with minute concentration levels thereby revealing important information about specific diseases in human body.
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  • 34
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: A novel open-ended half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide (HMSIW) sensor with dielectric flange for measuring complex permittivity of liquids, semisolids, and granular and particulate materials is presented. The open-ended HMSIW is designed and fabricated on FR4 substrate. The sensor model is described by using the aperture admittance model of open-ended waveguide. The complex permittivity of a given material is determined from measurement of the one-port reflection coefficient. For accurate measurement of the complex permittivity, the well-known three-material (air, distilled water, and 25% ethanol aqueous solution) calibration method was used. Complex permittivity of ethanol and 50% and 76% ethanol aqueous solutions measured with the HMSIW were in good agreement with those obtained by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe. In addition, results of measurements on saline solutions, gelatin samples, and canola seed samples of different moisture contents are shown.
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  • 35
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: An ultrasensitive optical nanofiber coupler (NFC) for thermal and refractive index sensing with nanoscale dimension is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The NFC operating near the cut-off region of the higher order modes is fabricated by fusing and pulling two standard telecom fibers using the modified flame brushing technique. Due to the sub-micron diameter, the NFC exhibits an anomalous behavior in close proximity to the odd supermode cut-off wavelength, where the high extinction ratio spectral oscillations exhibit very slow oscillations. The sensitivity of this region is exploited for thermal sensing over a broad range of temperatures (84 °C–661 °C). An average temperature sensitivity of 55 pm/°C and a maximum sensitivity of 60 pm/°C at the highest temperature were demonstrated. Owing to its small size, the thermal sensor exhibits a fast response time of ~7.2 ms. The sensor capability for detecting refractive index changes is also examined with different ethanol concentrations. A record sensitivity of $4.80times 10^{5}$ nm/RIU was achieved, which is the highest reported value in all optical fiber refractometers.
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  • 36
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: To overcome the low sensitivity of power transformer partial discharge (PD) detection by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor, we propose a novel PD detection system based on phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (PS-FBG). Compared with the conventional method, the proposed sensor can be installed inside the power transformer, which takes the advantage of the optical fiber status as an insulator. Distributed PD detection is achieved using wavelength and time-division multiplexing. Frequency response experiments indicate that the sensitivity of the PS-FBG is 8.46 dB higher than that of the conventional ultrasonic sensor. Moreover, a PD detection experiment shows that the PD sensitivity of the PS-FBG immersed in oil is 17.5 times higher than that of the PZT sensor. Furthermore, the multiplexing and the feasibility of defect localization of the proposed distributed PD detection system are demonstrated.
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  • 37
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Owing to the large surface area, 2-D materials are being used for sensing gas molecules, which are important for environmental protection and human health. Using first principle calculations, adsorption of CO and NO gas molecules on Cu-substituted monolayer MoS 2 is studied in terms of energy, charge transfer, and density of states. Further, the behavior of CO and NO on Cu-substituted monolayer MoS 2 -based single electron transistor (SET) is explored. Strong interaction between Cu metal and MoS 2 sheet suggests the stability of the Cu-doped MoS 2 system at ambient conditions. It is further found that on doping Cu into MoS 2 sheet, the adsorption strength of CO and NO molecules got enhanced as compared with the pristine MoS 2 sheet and, hence, possesses better sensing capability. The sensing response of the Cu-doped MoS 2 sheet in the SET environment toward these molecules is studied from the calculated charge stability diagram that serves as a unique fingerprint of each adsorbed molecule. The charging energy is reduced when Cu impurity is added to MoS 2 for CO/NO adsorption, which makes such system more suitable in low-powered SET devices. The results show that SET based on Cu-doped MoS 2 can essentially detect hazardous molecules and is proved to have potential application in gas sensors.
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  • 38
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: A three-channel conductance probe has been proposed to measure the water holdup in oil-in-water flows with low-flow rate and high-water cut. The probe consists of three pairs of arc shape electrodes with center body. The geometry of the electrodes in each channel has been optimized using the finite-element method. An oil-in-water flow test has been conducted in the pipe with 20-mm inner diameter, the values of total flow rate are in the range 0.5–7 m 3 /day and the values of water cut are in the range 50%–99%. Normalized conductivity of fluid mixture has been calculated to a chart of water holdup according to the probe responses. The experimental results show that the three-channel conductance probe has high resolution of water holdup measurement in oil-in-water flows. In particular, the flow rate influence to the water holdup measurement was significantly reduced.
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  • 39
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We present a multi-sensor camera tracking method for a real-time 3-D reconstruction on mobile devices. Our approach combines the iterative closest point (ICP) pose estimation using the low-resolution range maps delivered by a PMD pico-flexx time-of-flight camera with the 6-DOF pose estimates given by inertial tracking. In contrast to prior approaches, we do not rely on additional sensors, such as 2-D visual odometry. We fuse the results of the inertial tracking with the extrapolated ICP pose estimates using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). Subsequently, the output of the EKF is used as initial guess for the next ICP-based pose estimation. This approach yields an efficient and robust pose tracking for the spatially and temporally low-resolution range data given in mobile applications, and, at the same time, it results in a consistent geometric reconstruction, as the final pose minimizes the error with respect to the scene geometry.
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  • 40
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an advanced seismic processing method for high-resolution subsurface geophysical property reconstruction through a data-fitting procedure. When low-frequency seismic data are not available, conventional FWI often suffers from the cycle-skipping issue caused by the severe nonlinearity nature of the standard L2 norm objective function, inducing strong artifacts in the reconstructed geophysical property models.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This article describes the basic principles of ultrasound thermography (UST) and its real-time implementation using graphics processing unit (GPU)-enabled software architecture. In medicine, the term thermography is mostly associated with heat-sensing infrared cameras for recording surface temperature changes. In this article, we use this term to describe the qualitative noninvasive imaging of tissue temperature change using any imaging modality. Examples of these modalities include microwave radiometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), US imaging, and photoacoustic tomography. Of these imaging methods, US and MR are the most widely investigated. Table S1 in "Real-Time Thermography in Medicine" lists some US- and MRbased methods for tissue thermography reported in recent literature.
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  • 42
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Various puzzles, games, humorous definitions, or mathematical that should engage the interest of readers.
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  • 43
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Print ISSN: 0740-7459
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  • 44
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This article lists the people who reviewed submissions to IEEE Software in 2017. The articles in IEEE Software are the result of hard work by many people. We deeply appreciate the efforts of everyone who reviewed the many articles submitted to Software last year. The peer review process helps maintain the magazine’s revered quality. All of us in the software development community owe gratitude to the people who participate in this crucial service.
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  • 45
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Release-engineering teams are responsible for building and delivering software to the customer and for enabling its development on an industrial scale. This has always been a tall order. In modern software development, a number of factors make release engineering even more challenging. Thankfully, following a handful of established practices lets us address these challenges and deliver software reliably, dependably, and efficiently.
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  • 46
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Specialization, and the resulting tool diversity, is a fundamental aspect of the modern DevOps toolchain. How does this affect the value stream architecture?
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  • 47
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Build systems are used in every nontrivial software project. They contain knowledge of how software is built and provide tools to get it built as fast as possible. While being central to day-to-day productivity, they sometimes fail to deliver their promise of being correct, efficient, and tailored. This situation gets aggravated with huge code bases and fast-paced continuous-integration pipelines. This article surveys state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms that relegate the occasional inconsistent build, slow execution times, and boilerplate makefiles to another age. This article is part of a special issue on release engineering.
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  • 48
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Along with the growing number of robotic devices introduced by automation and the Internet of Things has come the growth of interest in methods and tools for deploying code updates to active sensor arrays and swarms of robots. This article presents a toolset that can perform an over-the-air code update of the robots in a swarm while the swarm is active, without interrupting the swarm’s mission. Each update is generated as a patch of the currently deployed code. A consensus mechanism borrowed from swarm intelligence ensures that, at any given time, all robots in the swarm run the same code version. Simulations were conducted with thousands of units to study the scalability and bandwidth consumption of the update process. Real deployment experiments were then performed on a small swarm of commercial quadcopters. This article is part of a theme issue on release engineering.
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  • 49
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: AngularJS is a popular JavaScript framework based on the model–view–controller pattern to construct single-page web apps. Researchers surveyed 95 professional developers regarding the performance problems of AngularJS applications. They determined the common practices the developers followed to avoid the problems (for example, using third-party or custom components), the problems’ general causes (for example, inadequate application architectures), and the problems’ technical causes (for example, unnecessary processing in the digest cycle, which is the internal computation that automatically updates the view with changes detected in the model).
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This article provides an overview of current database-management-system technologies and suppliers, along with a case study of an Internet application. The Web Extra at https://extras.computer.org/extra/mso2018020080s1.pdf consists of a table describing various database management systems.
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  • 51
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Software Engineering Radio host Bryan Reinero talks with Harsh Sinha about product management, particularly for software engineers. http://www.se-radio.net/2017/10/se-radio-episode-307-harsh-sinha-on-product-management/ is an audio recording of this episode of Software Engineering Radio.
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  • 52
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This issue’s column reports on the 33rd International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution and 32nd International Conference on Automated Software Engineering. Topics include flaky tests, technical debt, QA bots, and regular expressions.
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  • 53
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This paper proposes a microarchitectural mechanism to minimize the latency of thread migration for a tightly-coupled heterogeneous core, which has two execution backends (e.g., in-order and out-of-order execution pipelines). The proposed mechanism examines the dependencies between all in-flight instructions that reside in one of the backend pipelines, and allows both pipelines to simultaneously perform the instruction execution. At the microarchitectural level, instruction dispatching and instruction execution are seamlessly performed across thread migration, and therefore, this simultaneous backend execution can accelerate the program execution, which cannot be achieved with an existing migration mechanism. Accelerating thread migration will increase the overall performance with low power overhead, providing high energy efficiency. As compared to a baseline heterogeneous core with an existing migration mechanism, the simultaneous backend execution reduces 8.2 percent of the total execution cycle and consumes 2.9 percent lower total energy on average across SPEC CPU2006 benchmarks, which results in an improved energy efficiency of 10.9 percent in terms of the energy-delay product.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9340
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Using Redundant Multithreading (RMT) for error detection and recovery is a prominent technique to mitigate soft-error effects in multi-core systems. Simultaneous Redundant Threading (SRT) on the same core or Chip-level Redundant Multithreading (CRT) on different cores can be adopted to implement RMT. However, only a few previously proposed approaches use adaptive CRT managements on the system level and none of them considers both SRT and CRT on the task level. In this paper, we propose to use a combination of SRT and CRT, called Mixed Redundant Threading (MRT), as an additional option on the task level. In our coarse-grained approach, we consider SRT, CRT, and MRT on the system level simultaneously, while the existing results only apply either SRT or CRT on the system level, but not simultaneously. In addition, we consider further fine-grained task level optimizations to improve the system reliability under hard real-time constraints. To optimize the system reliability, we develop several dynamic programming approaches to select the redundancy levels under Federated Scheduling. The simulation results illustrate that our approaches can significantly improve the system reliability compared to the state-of-the-art techniques.
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  • 55
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Rapid progress in technology scaling makes transistors smaller and faster over successive generations, and consequently core count in a system gets increased. However, transistor power consumption no longer scales commensurately. Increased power density calls for better thermal safety of the multi-core systems, in which a flexible and scalable packet-switched architecture — Network-on-Chip (NoC) — is commonly used for communication among the cores. This paper proposes a strategy to increase the thermal safety of NoC-based systems by a graceful decrease in communication cost and an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation to deal with the problem. To overcome huge computational overhead of ILP, another solution strategy, based on meta-heuristic technique, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is also proposed. Several innovative augmentations have been introduced into the basic PSO to generate better quality solutions. A thermal-aware mapping heuristic is proposed to generate some intelligent solutions, which become a part of the initial population in the PSO. A trade-off has been established between communication cost and peak temperature of the die. Experiments on Big data and Graph analytical workloads are reported. The results obtained are better than those of many contemporary approaches, reported in the literature.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Fast network quality analysis in the telecom industry is an important method used to provide quality service. SK Telecom, based in South Korea, built a Hadoop-based analytical system consisting of a hundred nodes, each of which only contains hard disk drives (HDDs). Because the analysis process is a set of parallel I/O intensive jobs, adding solid state drives (SSDs) with appropriate settings is the most cost-efficient way to improve the performance, as shown in previous studies. Therefore, we decided to configure SSDs as a write-through cache instead of increasing the number of HDDs. To improve the cost-per-performance of the SSD cache, we introduced a selective I/O bypass (SIB) method, redirecting the automatically calculated number of read I/O requests from the SSD cache to idle HDDs when the SSDs are I/O over-saturated, which means the disk utilization is greater than 100 percent. To precisely calculate the disk utilization, we also introduced a combinational approach for SSDs because the current method used for HDDs cannot be applied to SSDs because of their internal parallelism. In our experiments, the proposed approach achieved a maximum 2x faster performance than other approaches.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Presents SPS society upcoming meetings and events.
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  • 59
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The theme articles in this issue address release engineering. Other topics in the issue include cloud computing, agile development, software security, DevOps, software maintenance, software evolution, software architecture, software analytics, requirements engineering, continuous deployment, database management systems, and product development.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: To reduce cybersecurity risk in software, the security community has widely adopted an approach involving a collage of techniques, tools, and methods, each addressing some aspect of the threat implications of bad code. This article briefly surveys recent progress in each element of this combined approach, including the pros and cons for reducing cybersecurity risk.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Transform-domain downward conversion (TDDC) for image coding is usually implemented by discarding some high-frequency components from each transformed block. As a result, a block of fewer coefficients is formed, and a lower compression cost is achieved due to the coding of only a few low-frequency coefficients. In this paper, we focus on the design of a new TDDC-based coding method by using our proposed interpolation-compression directed filtering (ICDF) and error-compensated scalar quantization (ECSQ), leading to the compression-dependent TDDC (CDTDDC)-based coding. More specifically, ICDF is first used to convert each $16times 16$ macro-block into an $8times 8$ coefficient block. Then, this coefficient block is compressed with ECSQ, resulting in a smaller compression distortion for those pixels that locate at some specific positions of a macro-block. We select these positions according to the 4:1 uniform sub-sampling lattice and use the pixels locating at them to reconstruct the whole macro-block through an interpolation. The proposed CDTDDC-based coding can be applied to compress both grayscale and color images. More importantly, when it is used in the color image compression, it offers not only a new solution to reduce the data-size of chrominance components but also a higher compression efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that applying our proposed CDTDDC-based coding to compress still images can achieve a significant quality gain over the existing compression methods.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We present a new approach to ensemble learning. Our approach differs from previous approaches in that it constructs and applies different predictive models to different subsets of the feature space. It does this by constructing a tree of subsets of the feature space and associating a predictor (predictive model) to each node of the tree; we call the resulting object a tree of predictors . The (locally) optimal tree of predictors is derived recursively; each step involves jointly optimizing the split of the terminal nodes of the previous tree and the choice of learner (from among a given set of base learners) and training set—hence predictor—for each set in the split. The features of a new instance determine a unique path through the optimal tree of predictors; the final prediction aggregates the predictions of the predictors along this path. Thus, our approach uses base learners to create complex learners that are matched to the characteristics of the data set while avoiding overfitting. We establish loss bounds for the final predictor in terms of the Rademacher complexity of the base learners. We report the results of a number of experiments on a variety of datasets, showing that our approach provides statistically significant improvements over a wide variety of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms, including various ensemble learning methods.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: This paper reports on the sensitivity improvement of palladium (Pd)-based fiber optic hydrogen sensors. The expansion of Pd undergoing hydrogen absorption transduces strain in a suitable sensing element. The sensors reported here are based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors with a Pd foil hydrogen sensing element. The hydrogen sensitivity is dependent upon; strain sensor sensitivity, the Pd body geometry, the volumetric expansion of Pd, and the strain transfer between Pd and the sensor element. We have investigated three options to improve the sensitivity: First, improve the strain transfer by decreasing the bond line thickness with new manufacturing methods. Second, increasing the volumetric expansion by using a Pd silver (Ag) alloy (Pd75/Ag25) foil with increased hydrogen solubility. Third, concentrating the strain of the expanding Pd on an FBG by using a new sensor concept. All sensors were tested in hydrogen concentrations of 2,500, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm at 90 °C and 1060 mbar. Using new manufacturing methods, the strain transfer is improved by up to 72% compared to previously reported sensors and the sensitivity is 0.062 pm/ppm. With the PdAg alloy foil, the sensitivity is amplified by a factor of 17 compared to pure palladium foil sensor and the sensitivity is 0.77 pm/ppm. With the new sensor concept with strain concentration, the signal is amplified by a factor 2.5 compared to sensors without strain concentration and the sensitivity is 0.18 pm/ppm.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: It was shown in previous work that a vector $mathbf{x} in mathbb {R}^n$ with at most $k 〈 n$ nonzeros can be recovered from an expander sketch $mathbf{A}mathbf{x}$ in $mathcal{O}(text{nnz}(mathbf{A})log k)$ operations via the parallel- $ell _0$ decoding algorithm, where $text{nnz}(mathbf{A})$ denotes the number of nonzero entries in $mathbf{A} in mathbb {R}^{m times n}$ . In this paper, we present the robust- $ell _0$ decoding algorithm, which robustifies parallel- $ell _0$ when the sketch $mathbf{A}mathbf{x}$ is corrupted by additive noise. This robustness is achieved by approximating the asymptotic posterior distribution of values in the sketch given its corrupted measurements. We provide analytic expressions that approximate these posteriors under the assumptions that the nonzero entries in the signal and the noise are drawn from continuous distributions. Numerical experiments presented show that robust- $ell _0$ is superior to existing greedy and combinatorial compressed sensing algorithms in the presence of small to moderate signal-to-noise ratios in the setting of Gaussian signals and Gaussian additive noise.
    Print ISSN: 1053-587X
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0476
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: We investigate the effect of polarization cross-coupling at polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber connectors on the accuracy of an interferometric fiber-optic current sensor. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in a fiber coil operated in reflection mode and an interrogator based on nonreciprocal phase modulation. PM connectors in the fiber link between the sensor's opto-electronic module and the fiber coil give rise to signal instability due to a limited and insufficiently stable polarization extinction ratio (typically 〈25–30 dB). As a result the accuracy of the sensor can be well outside the allowed tolerances of applications in the electric power industry which often demands accuracy to within ±0.2%. We demonstrate that by means of a modified optical circuit the disturbing effects of polarization cross-coupling can be largely eliminated. The modified circuit introduces group delays for the cross-coupled light waves relative to the undisturbed waves much larger than the coherence length of the broadband light source. We theoretically and experimentally show that connector extinction ratios well below 20 dB are still uncritical. Furthermore, we verify the superiority of the modified circuit at changing connector temperature (and hence changing temperature-induced stress in the connector ferrules) and at repeated connector open-close operations.
    Print ISSN: 0733-8724
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-2213
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: A scheme to perform high-quality (high-Q) W-band (75–110 GHz) microwave photonic filters (MPFs) with tunability and reconfigurability is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The analysis reveals an inverse proportional relationship between the operating frequency of the MPF and the compensatory ability of the optical spectrum processor (OSP) when mitigating the third-order dispersion (TOD). To extend the operating frequency of the MPF to W-band, we present a TOD precompensation technology implemented by a quadratic phase provider (QPP) device. Providing the OSP with an additional quadratic phase shift, the QPP can shift and extend the systematic TOD compensation range, thus resolving the operating frequency limit imposed by the conventional OSP-based technique. Combined with an automatic in-line TOD compensation procedure, the systematic TOD can be precisely compensated. With an almost complete cancelation of TOD in the filter, a tunable and reconfigurable single-passband W-band filter with a 3-dB bandwidth of around 15.5 MHz and a record-setting Q-factor of 6459 is obtained.
    Print ISSN: 0733-8724
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Print ISSN: 1521-9615
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-366X
    Topics: Computer Science , Natural Sciences in General , Technology
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: We deeply appreciate the efforts of everyone who reviewed the many articles submitted to CiSE last year-the peer review process helps maintain the magazines revered quality. All of us in the computational science community owe gratitude to people who participate in this crucial service. Readers who would like to contribute as reviewers can visit www.computer.org/web/peer-review/magazines to find out how they can get involved.
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  • 69
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: The reliability of services offered by intelligent transportation systems is attributed to the accuracy and timely availability of road-network traffic information. However, in the present era of big data, compliance with anticipated service quality requirements mandates consistent real-time processing of big spatiotemporal traffic data. Thus, development of low-dimensional models is a crucial challenge in traffic data processing. The authors developed such representations using data graph framework and graph Fourier transform (GFT) approaches. Experimental results on California daily network traffic data showed that, even with a 15:1 compression ratio, GFT-based models offered less than 6 percent reconstruction error (RE), instigating a less than 2 percent increase in mean absolute percentage error of corresponding predictions. The authors also proposed a 3D graph framework, which reduced RE by almost 2 percent compared to its 2D counterpart.
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  • 70
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Interval sets and hesitant fuzzy sets capture two types of hesitant situations and provide novel expression formats for decision makers. The authors propose a new hesitant fuzzy interval set and explore its information aggregation for multicriteria decision-making. An example is presented to elaborate on the performance of the approach.
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  • 71
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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  • 72
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Use of the Python language in scientific computing has always been characterized by the coexistence of interpreted Python code and compiled native code, written in languages like C or Fortran. This column takes a fresh look at the problem and introduces Pythran, a new optimization tool designed to efficiently handle unmodified Python code.
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  • 73
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Clay Shirkys influential book Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations explored the potential for Internet-based social networking to change society by making it easier for people to come together. This column evaluates that claim, concluding that Shirky might have overestimated how much people, campaigning aside, really do want to come together.
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  • 74
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Print ISSN: 0163-6804
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1896
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  • 75
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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  • 77
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Turbo codes, prevalent in most modern cellular devices, are set to be replaced by LDPC codes as the code for forward error correction. This transition was ushered in mainly because of the high throughput demands for 5G New Radio (NR). The new channel coding solution also needs to support incremental-redundancy hybrid ARQ, and a wide range of blocklengths and coding rates, with stringent performance guarantees and minimal description complexity. In this article, we first briefly review the requirements of the new channel code for 5G NR. We then describe the LDPC code design philosophy and how the broad requirements of 5G NR channel coding led to the introduction of novel structural features in the code design, culminating in an LDPC code that satisfies all the demands of 5G NR.
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  • 78
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: This article provides an overview of key features pertaining to CSI reporting and beam management for the 5G New Radio (NR) currently being standardized in 3GPP. For CSI reporting, the modular design framework and high-resolution spatial information feedback offer not only flexibility in a host of use cases and deployment scenarios, but also improved average user throughput over state-of-the-art 4G LTE. To accommodate cellular communications in the milimeter-wave regime where a combination of analog and digital beamforming is typically used at both a base station and user equipment, beam management procedures such as measurement, reporting, and recovery are introduced. The utility and joint usage of these two features are demonstrated along with some potential upgrades for the next phase of 5G NR. Introduction
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Future 5G systems will include a point-to-multipoint (P2MP) transmission mode to achieve high capacity and high spectrum efficiency for multiple use cases, such as IoT, lifeline communications, and broadcast-type services. Layered-division-multiplexing (LDM) is a novel non-orthogonal multiplexing technology recently adopted by the next generation digital TV broadcast system, ATSC 3.0, which is capable of providing significant capacity improvement when delivering multiple broadcast services simultaneously. This article explores the application of LDM as an enabling technology for 5G to achieve high-efficiency P2MP transmission and to deliver more diversified broadcast-type services using the mobile broadband infrastructure. The potential advantages that can be offered by LDM are demonstrated by capacity analysis and computer simulations. Coverage studies show that a 5G P2MP subsystem with LDM can deliver high-quality broadcast services using the broadband infrastructure. Finally, some general guidelines on the receiver implementation are presented to minimize the hardware complexity of consumer devices.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: As the traffic of local content sharing grows rapidly, device-to-device multicast (D2MD) is introduced into 5G cellular networks, enabling traffic offloading from base stations to device direct transmissions and improved energy and spectrum efficiency. In the content sharing context, the social attributes of mobile users have special concerns to generate effective D2MD groups and D2MD links, and due to reuse of licensed cellular spectrum, the interference between D2MD groups and cellular users should be carefully mitigated. This article presents a D2MD scheme for content sharing in cellular networks by taking into account social and physical attributes in D2MD cluster formation, and jointly optimizing power and channel allocation among D2MD clusters. Simulation results validate the significant throughput gain for D2MD-based content sharing in 5G cellular networks.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)