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  • Other Sources  (744)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (744)
  • American Meteorological Society  (348)
  • Springer Nature  (199)
  • IFM-GEOMAR  (176)
  • ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography)
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  • Other Sources  (744)
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  • Articles (OceanRep)  (744)
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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (11). pp. 2373-2391.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean circulation model is used to explore the problem of the remnant generation of trapped waves about a tall, circular, isolated seamount by an incident oscillatory barotropic current. The numerical solutions are used to extend prior studies into the fully nonlinear regime, and in particular to quantify and interpret the occurrence of residual circulation. Specific attention is also devoted to the dependence of the resonance and rectification mechanisms on stratification, forcing frequency, and choice of subgrid-scale viscous closure. Resonantly generated trapped waves of significant amplitude are found to occur broadly in parameter space; a precise match between the frequency of the imposed incident current and the frequency of the trapped free wave is not necessary to produce substantial excitation of the trapped wave. The maximum amplification factors produced in these numerical solutions, O(100) times the strength of the incident current, are consistent with previous studies. In the presence of nonlinear advection, strong residual currents are produced. The time-mean circulation about the seamount is dominated by a strong bottom-intensified, anticyclonic circulation closely trapped to the seamount. Maximum local time-mean current amplitudes are found to be as large as 37% of the magnitude of the propagating waves. In addition to the strong anticyclonic residual flow, there is a weaker secondary circulation in the vertical-radial plane characterized by downwelling over the top of the seamount at all depths. Maximum vertical downwelling rates of several tens of meters per day occur at the summit of the seamount. The vertical mass flux implied by this systematic downwelling is balanced by a slow radial flux of mass directed outward along the flanks of the seamount. Time-mean budgets for the radial and azimuthal components of momentum show that horizontal eddy fluxes of momentum are responsible for transporting net radial and azimuthal momentum from the far field to the upper flanks of the seamount. There, Coriolis and pressure gradient forces provide the dominant balances in the radial direction. However, the Coriolis force and viscous effects provide the primary balance for the azimuthal component.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux calculations. These measurements are difficult to make over the ocean, and are subject to large errors when sensors are exposed to marine air containing spray droplets. All currently available commercial measurement devices for atmospheric humidity require frequent maintenance. Included in the objectives of the Humidity Exchange over the Sea program were testing and comparison of sensors used for measuring both the fluctuating and mean humidity in the marine atmosphere at high wind speeds and development of techniques for the protection of these sensors against contamination by oceanic aerosols. These sensors and droplet removal techniques are described and comparisons between measurements from several different systems are discussed in this paper. To accomplish these goals, participating groups devised and tested three methods of removing sea spray from the sample airstream. The best performance was given by a rotating semen device, the “spray Ringer.” Several high-frequency temperature and humidity instruments, based on different physical principles, were used in the collaborative field experiment. Temperature and humidity fluctuations were measured with sufficient accuracy inside the spray removal devices using Lyman-α hygrometers and a fast thermocouple psychrometer. Comparison of several types of psychrometers (using electric thermometers) and a Rotronic MP-100 humidity sensor for measuring the mean humidity illustrated the hysteresis of the Rotronic MP-100 device after periods of high relative humidity. Confidence in the readings of the electronic psychrometer was established by in situ calibration with repeated and careful readings of ordinary hand-held Assman psychrometers (based on mercury thermometers). Electronic psychrometer employing platinum resistance thermometers perform very well.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Springer Nature
    In:  In: Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems. , ed. by Breitkreuz, C. and Rocchi, S. Advances in Volcanology . Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 119-130.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Subvolcanic systems are characterized by complex combinations of intrusive units (dykes, sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets, etc.) for which genetic relationships are unclear. This chapter explains how whole-rock geochemistry may be used to resolve the genetic relationships of such subvolcanic (and volcanic) systems. We start with a short introduction of the geochemical fingerprinting method with particular emphasis on the statistical refinement method called Forward Stepwise-Discriminant Function Analysis (FS-DFA). Combined with field mapping and structural analysis, geochemical fingerprinting based on major and trace elements and isotope ratios, is a very powerful tool to distinguish between igneous units (lavas, sills, dykes) with subtle (or not so subtle) geochemical differences. Different geochemical fingerprinting or signatures indicate derivation from distinct magma batches. The results from FS-DFA analyses may be used to reveal genetic relationships between geological units, or lack of such, which again may be used to throw light on subvolcanic plumbing systems, the feeding system in sill-dyke complexes, as well as other problems. The method is illustrated by studies of the Golden Valley Sill Complex in the Karoo Basin (South Africa).
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    IFM-GEOMAR
    In:  In: IFM-GEOMAR [Annual] Report 2002-2004 From the Seafloor to the Atmosphere - Marine Sciences at IFM-GEOMAR Kiel -. , ed. by Villwock, A. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, pp. 21-24.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    IFM-GEOMAR
    In:  In: IFM-GEOMAR [Annual] Report 2002-2004 From the Seafloor to the Atmosphere - Marine Sciences at IFM-GEOMAR Kiel -. , ed. by Villwock, A. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, pp. 55-58.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    IFM-GEOMAR
    In:  In: IFM-GEOMAR [Annual] Report 2002-2004 From the Seafloor to the Atmosphere - Marine Sciences at IFM-GEOMAR Kiel -. , ed. by Villwock, A. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, pp. 44-46.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    IFM-GEOMAR
    In:  In: IFM-GEOMAR [Annual] Report 2002-2004 From the Seafloor to the Atmosphere - Marine Sciences at IFM-GEOMAR Kiel -. , ed. by Villwock, A. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, pp. 35-38.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    IFM-GEOMAR
    In:  In: IFM-GEOMAR Report: From the Seafloor to the Atmosphere - Marine Sciences at IFM-GEOMAR Kiel -. , ed. by Villwock, A. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, pp. 13-14.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-05-03
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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