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  • Hindawi  (16,227)
  • 2015-2019  (16,227)
  • 1945-1949
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-12-12
    Description: Arctic Amplification of climate warming is caused by various feedback processes in the atmosphere-ocean-ice system and yields the strongest temperature increase during winter in the Arctic North Atlantic region. In our study, we attempt to quantify the advective contribution to the observed atmospheric warming in the Svalbard area. Based on radiosonde measurements from Ny-Ålesund, a strong dependence of the tropospheric temperature on the synoptic flow direction is revealed. Using FLEXTRA backward trajectories, an increase of advection from the lower latitude Atlantic region towards Ny-Ålesund is found that is attributed to a change in atmospheric circulation patterns. We find that about one-quarter (0.45 K per decade) of the observed atmospheric winter near surface warming trend in the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (2 K per decade) is due to increased advection of warm and moist air from the lower latitude Atlantic region, affecting the entire troposphere.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW) RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for
    Print ISSN: 1687-725X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7268
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Rubber wood sawdust was carbonized into charcoal by chemical treatment which was used for removal of lead ion from aqueous solution. The work involves batch experiments to investigate the pH effect, initial concentration of adsorbate, contact time, and adsorbent dose. Experimental data confirmed that the adsorption capacities increased with increasing inlet concentration and bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. Adsorption results showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 37 mg/g at 308 K. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin model adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze the process where Temkin was found as a best fitted model for present study. Simultaneously kinetics of adsorption like pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were investigated. Thermodynamic parameters were used to analyze the adsorption experiment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the batch adsorption of lead ion onto chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust.
    Print ISSN: 2090-9063
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: We study a dynamic fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli partial differential equation having a constant elastic modulus and area moment of inertia, a variable lineal mass density , and the applied load denoted by , a function of transverse displacement . The complete Lie group classification is obtained for different forms of the variable lineal mass density and applied load . The equivalence transformations are constructed to simplify the determining equations for the symmetries. The principal algebra is one-dimensional and it extends to two- and three-dimensional algebras for an arbitrary applied load, general power-law, exponential, and log type of applied loads for different forms of . For the linear applied load case, we obtain an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra. We recover the Lie symmetry classification results discussed in the literature when is constant with variable applied load . For the general power-law and exponential case the group invariant solutions are derived. The similarity transformations reduce the fourth-order partial differential equation to a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. For the power-law applied load case a compatible initial-boundary value problem for the clamped and free end beam cases is formulated. We deduce the fourth-order ordinary differential equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: This paper considers a general Burgers’ equation with the nonlinear term coefficient being an arbitrary constant. Two identical solutions of the general Burgers’ equation are separately derived by a direct integration method and the simplest equation method with the Bernoulli equation being the simplest equation. The proposed exact solutions overcome the long existing problem of discontinuity and can be successfully reduced to linearity, while the nonlinear term coefficient approaches zero. In addition, a general Cole-Hopf transform is introduced. Finally, the proposed derived solution is compared with the perturbation solution and other existing exact solutions. A new phenomenon, which we named “kink sliding,” is observed.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: In Finsler geometry, each point of a base manifold can be endowed with coordinates describing its position as well as a set of one or more vectors describing directions, for example. The associated metric tensor may generally depend on direction as well as position, and a number of connections emerge associated with various covariant derivatives involving affine and nonlinear coefficients. Finsler geometry encompasses Riemannian, Euclidean, and Minkowskian geometries as special cases, and thus it affords great generality for describing a number of phenomena in physics. Here, descriptions of finite deformation of continuous media are of primary focus. After a review of necessary mathematical definitions and derivations, prior work involving application of Finsler geometry in continuum mechanics of solids is reviewed. A new theoretical description of continua with microstructure is then outlined, merging concepts from Finsler geometry and phase field theories of materials science.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the - relationship for computing rainfall using conventional and wavelet filters technique. Wavelet filter technique was applied to data filtration process. The proposed model was applied to determine the rainfall of five rain gauge meteorological stations in Thailand. The three-hourly rainfall and radar reflectivity data were used in this study. The results indicated that the accumulative rainfall of wavelet filters technique was close to the observed rainfall data more than the results of conventional practice for both calibration and validation processes. Consequently, we are confident that a wavelet filters technique is a useful tool for estimating the rainfall.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: We assume Bistatic Phase Multiple Input Multiple Output radar having passive Centrosymmetric Cross Shape Sensor Array (CSCA) on its receiver. Let the transmitter of this Bistatic radar send coherent signals using a subarray that gives a fairly wide beam with a large solid angle so as to cover up any potential relevant target in the near field. We developed Heuristic Computational Intelligence (HCI) based techniques to jointly estimate the range, amplitude, and elevation and azimuth angles of these multiple targets impinging on the CSCA. In this connection, first the global search optimizers, that is,are developed separately Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE) are developed separately, and, to enhance the performances further, both of them are hybridized with a local search optimizer called Active Set Algorithm (ASA). Initially, the performance of PSO, DE, PSO hybridized with ASA, and DE hybridized with ASA are compared with each other and then with some traditional techniques available in literature using root mean square error (RMSE) as figure of merit.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5869
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5877
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: A precipitation event that took place on 12 October 2008 in Madrid, Spain, is analyzed in detail. Three different devices were used to characterize the precipitation: a disdrometer, a rain gauge, and a Micro Rain Radar (MRR). These instruments determine precipitation intensity indirectly, based on measuring different parameters in different sampling points in the atmosphere. A comparative study was carried out based on the data provided by each of these devices, revealing that the disdrometer and the rain gauge measure similar precipitation intensity values, whereas the MRR measures different rain fall volumes. The distributions of drop sizes show that the mean diameter of the particles varied considerably depending on the altitude considered. The level at which saturation occurs in the atmosphere is decisive in the distribution of drop sizes between 2,700 m and 3,000 m. As time passes, the maximum precipitation intensities are registered at a lower height and are less intense. The maximum precipitation intensities occurred at altitudes above 1,000 m, while the maximum fall speeds are typically found at altitudes below 700 m.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Cyber physical systems collect plenty of information from physical world. This information must be transmitted to the base station immediately to support the making of controlling orders since the physical world keeps transforming rapidly. Such a fact needs the support of real-time transmitting in CPS. Real-time traffic often has some extra QoS requirements. For example, regulating the interservice time, which is the time between two consecutive transmissions of a link, is essential for the real-time traffic in wireless networks. A guarantee of the interservice time of a single user is a precondition to support the normal operating of a system. As far as we know, none of previous work can guarantee the performance on the interservice time. Motivated by this, we design a framework for interservice time guaranteed scheduling. We first define a new capacity region of networks with a strict interservice time guarantee. It is an extension of the well-accepted definition on basic capacity region. Then we propose a novel scheduling policy that is both throughput-optimal and interservice time guaranteed. Simulation results show the policy performs well in interservice time and throughput.
    Print ISSN: 1550-1329
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-1477
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: A lot of privacy protection technologies have been proposed, but most of them are independent and aim at protecting some specific privacy. There is hardly enough deep study into the attributes of privacy. To minimize the damage and influence of the privacy disclosure, the important and sensitive privacy should be a priori preserved if all privacy pieces cannot be preserved. This paper focuses on studying the attributes of the privacy and proposes privacy information security classification (PISC) model. The privacy is classified into four security classifications by PISC, and each classification has its security goal, respectively. Google search engine is taken as the research platform to collect the related data for study. Based on the data from the search engine, we got the security classifications of 53 pieces of privacy.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Genetic algorithm is easy to fall into local optimal solution. Simulated annealing algorithm may accept nonoptimal solution at a certain probability to jump out of local optimal solution. On the other hand, lack of communication among genes in MapReduce platform based genetic algorithm, the high-performance distributed computing technologies or platforms can further increase the execution efficiency of these traditional genetic algorithms. To this end, we propose a novel Phoenix++ based new genetic algorithm involving mechanism of simulated annealing. Simulated annealing genetic algorithm has two distinctive characteristics. First, it is the synthesis of the conventional genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm. This characteristic guarantees our proposed algorithm has a higher probability of getting the global optimal solution than traditional genetic algorithms. The other is that our algorithm is a parallel algorithm running on the high-performance parallel platform Phoenix++ instead of a conventional serial genetic algorithm. Phoenix++ implements the MapReduce programming model that processes and generates large data sets with our parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. The experiments indicate that the convergence speed of GA algorithm is significantly faster after adding the simulated annealing algorithm on Phoenix++ platform.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Context-aware recommender systems generate more relevant recommendations by adapting them to the specific contextual situation of the user and have become one of the most active research areas in the recommender systems. However, there remains a key issue as how contextual information can be used to create intelligent and useful recommender systems. To assist the development and use of context-aware recommendation capabilities, we propose a graph-based framework to model and incorporate contextual information into the recommendation process in an advantageous way. A contextual graph-based relevance measure (CGR) is specifically designed to assess the potential relevance between the target user and the items further used to make an item recommendation. We also propose a probabilistic-based postfiltering strategy to refine the recommendation results as contextual conditions are explicitly given in a query. Depending on the experimental results on the two datasets, the CGR-based method is much superior to the traditional collaborative filtering methods, and the proposed postfiltering method is much effective in context-aware recommendation scenario.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Acute hypotensive episodes (AHEs) are one of the hemodynamic instabilities with high mortality rate that is frequent among many groups of patients. This study presents a methodology to predict AHE for ICU patients based on big data time series. The experimental data we used is mean arterial pressure (MAP), which is transformed from arterial blood pressure (ABP) data. Then, the Hilbert-Huang transform method was used to calculate patient’s MAP time series and some features, which are the bandwidth of the amplitude modulation, the frequency modulation, and the power of intrinsic mode function (IMF), were extracted. Finally, the multiple genetic programming (Multi-GP) is used to build the classification models for detection of AHE. The methodology is applied in the datasets of the 10th PhysioNet and Computers Cardiology Challenge in 2009 and Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care (MIMIC-II). We achieve the accuracy of 83.33% in the training set and 91.89% in the testing set of the 2009 challenge’s dataset and the 84.13% in the training set and 82.41% in the testing set of the MIMIC-II dataset.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: The behavior of iron, iron-boron (FeB) pairs, and iron-boron-phosphorus (FeB-P) complexes has been studied in B-doped Czochralski silicon with phosphorus (P) compensation and compared with that in uncompensated material. The interstitial iron concentration has been measured at temperatures from 50 to 270°C. The apparent binding energy () of FeB in compensated silicon is (0.25 ± 0.03) eV, significantly lower than the (0.53 ± 0.02) eV in uncompensated silicon. Possible reasons for this reduction in binding energy are discussed by experimental and calculation methods. The results are important for understanding and controlling the behavior of Fe in compensated silicon.
    Print ISSN: 1110-662X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-529X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: A multimodel based range query processing algorithm is proposed to solve the information collection task for the CPSs, which utilizes multiple probability models to depict the data distribution of a sensor node. The execution of the multimodel based algorithm consists of two phases, which are the preprocessing phase and the query processing phase. During the preprocessing phase, multiple models are constructed for each node according to their historical data. During the query processing phase, a suitable model is selected from the multiple models with the help of a sampling based algorithm, which is used to process the query. As the multimodel based algorithm needs to sample data from the network, it can waste energy more than that of the single model based algorithm in some cases, which does not sample data from the network. The cost of the multimodel based and single model based algorithm is analyzed. A cost model based algorithm is proposed to select a better algorithm to process a query from the two algorithms. Experimental results show that the cost model based algorithm can save 13.3% energy consumption more than that of the single model based algorithm.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: Big data processing is becoming a reality in numerous real-world applications. With the emergence of new data intensive technologies and increasing amounts of data, new computing concepts are needed. The integration of big data producing technologies, such as wireless sensor networks, Internet of Things, and cloud computing, into cyber-physical systems is reducing the available time to find the appropriate solutions. This paper presents one possible solution for the coming exascale big data processing: a data flow computing concept. The performance of data flow systems that are processing big data should not be measured with the measures defined for the prevailing control flow systems. A new benchmarking methodology is proposed, which integrates the performance issues of speed, area, and power needed to execute the task. The computer ranking would look different if the new benchmarking methodologies were used; data flow systems would outperform control flow systems. This statement is backed by the recent results gained from implementations of specialized algorithms and applications in data flow systems. They show considerable factors of speedup, space savings, and power reductions regarding the implementations of the same in control flow computers. In our view, the next step of data flow computing development should be a move from specialized to more general algorithms and applications.
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
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    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: A robust topology optimization (RTO) approach with consideration of loading uncertainties is developed in this paper. The stochastic collocation method combined with full tensor product grid and Smolyak sparse grid transforms the robust formulation into a weighted multiple loading deterministic problem at the collocation points. The proposed approach is amenable to implementation in existing commercial topology optimization software package and thus feasible to practical engineering problems. Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional topology optimization problems are provided to demonstrate the proposed RTO approach and its applications. The optimal topologies obtained from deterministic and robust topology optimization designs under tensor product grid and sparse grid with different levels are compared with one another to investigate the pros and cons of optimization algorithm on final topologies, and an extensive Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to verify the proposed approach.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: There are various electrochemical approaches to save energy, mostly by means of equipment improvement coupled with other water treatment technologies. Replacement of DC power with pulse power, modified reactor coupled with photocatalysis can decrease cost. But more or less additional input is developed, or infrastructure has to be replaced. In this paper, an N-Step electrochemical reactor, based on stage reaction modeling, is put forward. On the basis of not changing equipment investment and by adjustment of the operating current density at different levels, power consumption decreases. This model develops a foundation of electrochemical water treatment technology for the engineering application.
    Print ISSN: 2090-9063
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: This paper employs the evolutionary game theory to analyze the cooperation between microgrid and conventional grid, with the discussion focusing on the factors that influence the game players’ selection of strategies, and additionally makes a numerical simulation analysis. The results of analysis based on the evolutionary game model suggest that the two parties’ undertaking of cooperative strategies and uncooperative strategies during the game is the stable point of their evolution and that the probability of their unanimous choice of cooperative strategies positively correlates with the direct benefits and indirect benefits of their cooperation as well as the government subsidies but negatively correlates with the cooperation costs and spending on cooperation risks. Based on the findings, the paper puts forward a series of policy suggestions aiming to deepen the cooperation between microgrid and conventional grid.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: Using the sensor nodes to achieve target tracking is a challenging problem in resource-limited wireless sensor networks. The tracking nodes are usually required to consume much energy to improve the tracking performance. In this paper, an energy-efficient node scheduling method is proposed to minimize energy consumption while ensuring the tracking accuracy. Firstly, the Kalman-consensus filter is constructed to improve the tracking accuracy and predict the target position. Based on the predicted position, an adaptive node scheduling mechanism is utilized to adjust the sample interval and the number of active nodes dynamically. Rather than using traditional search algorithm, the scheduling problem is decomposed to decouple the sample interval and number of nodes. And the node index is mapped into real domain to get closed-form solution to decide the active nodes. Thus, the NP-complete nature is avoided in the proposed method. The proposed scheduling method can keep the tracking accuracy while minimizing energy consumption. Simulation results validate its effective performance for target tracking in wireless sensor networks.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: This paper considers the adaptive synchronization of general complex dynamic networks via state predictor based on the fixed topology for nonlinear dynamical systems. Using Lyapunov stability properties, it is proved that the complex dynamical networks with state predictor are asymptotically stable. Moreover, it is also shown that the rate of convergence of complex dynamical networks with state predictor is faster than the complex dynamical networks without state predictor.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: During the exploitation of bottom water oil reservoir, bottom water coning influences the breakthrough of bottom water significantly. Because water cut rises quickly after the breakthrough of bottom water, measures should be taken before the breakthrough to postpone production period without water, thus improving oil recovery. So accurate prediction of water coning profile and breakthrough time is very essential. Through mathematical derivation, this paper proposed a prediction method of bottom water coning profile and bottom water breakthrough time in bottom water reservoir without barrier. Based on theory of fluids flow in porous media, this paper assumes that the flow models are plane radial flow in opened intervals and spherical radial flow in unopened intervals. Further, factors of fluid viscosity, irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation, and oil-water contact (OWC) movement are also taken into account. Compared with other prediction equations, this method achieves more precise bottom water breakthrough time, and the relative deviation is only 1.14 percent.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: Digital watermark technology is a very good method for protecting copyright. In this paper, in terms of requisition of imperceptibility and robustness of watermarking, the multidirectional, multiscale, and band-pass coefficient features of Curvelet transform are introduced and a novel image watermark scheme based on Curvelet and human visual system is proposed. Digital watermark information is embedded into the first 16 directions with larger energy in the fourth layer. Experimental results indicate that the proposed watermark scheme is feasible and simple. Simultaneously, the embedded watermark images just have tiny difference with the original images and the extracted watermark is accurate. Moreover, it is imperceptible and robust against various methods of signals processing such as cropping, noise adding, and rotating and altering.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: A robust fault detection scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with uncertainty is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes robust control theory and parameter optimization algorithm to design the gain matrix of fault tracking approximator (FTA) for fault detection. The gain matrix of FTA is designed to minimize the effects of system uncertainty on residual signals while maximizing the effects of system faults on residual signals. The design of the gain matrix of FTA takes into account the robustness of residual signals to system uncertainty and sensitivity of residual signals to system faults simultaneously, which leads to a multiobjective optimization problem. Then, the detectability of system faults is rigorously analyzed by investigating the threshold of residual signals. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the validity and applicability of the proposed approach.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The water retention time in the water distribution network is an important indicator for water quality. The water age fluctuates with the system demand. The residual chlorine concentration varies with the water age. In general, the concentration of residual chlorine is linearly dependent on the water demand. A novel statistical model using monitoring data of residual chlorine to estimate the nodal water age in water distribution networks is put forward in the present paper. A simplified two-step procedure is proposed to solve this statistical model. It is verified by two virtual systems and a practical application to analyze the water distribution system of Hangzhou city, China. The results agree well with that from EPANET. The model provides a low-cost and reliable solution to evaluate the water retention time.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The obstacle motion state estimation is an essential task in intelligent vehicle. The ASCL group has developed such a system that uses a radar and GPS/INS. When running on the road, the acceleration of the vehicle is always changing, so it is hard for constant velocity (CV) model and constant acceleration (CA) model to describe the motion state of the vehicle. This paper introduced Current Statistical (CS) model from military field, which uses the modified Rayleigh distribution to describe acceleration. The adaptive Kalman filter based on CS model was used to estimate the motion state of the target. We conducted simulation experiments and real vehicle tests, and the results showed that the estimation of position, velocity, and acceleration can be precise.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: This paper proposes a portable system for hand motion identification (HMI) using the features from data glove with bend sensors and multichannel surface electromyography (SEMG). SEMG could provide the information of muscle activities indirectly for HMI. However it is difficult to discriminate the finger motion like extension of thumb and little finger just using SEMG; the data glove with five bend sensors is designed to detect finger motions in the proposed system. Independent component analysis (ICA) and grey relational analysis (GRA) are used to data reduction and the core of identification, respectively. Six features are extracted from each SEMG channel, and three features are computed from five bend sensors in the data glove. To test the feasibility of the system, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of twenty hand motions collected from 10 subjects. Compared to the performance with a back-propagation neural network and only using GRA method, the proposed method provides equivalent accuracy (〉85%) with three training sets and faster processing time (20 ms). The results also demonstrate that ICA can effectively reduce the size of input features with GRA methods and, in turn, reduce the processing time with the low price of reduced identification rates.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: A method of detecting water vapor on boundary layer based on multiagent system is proposed in this paper. Multiagent system receives electromagnetic signals emitted by the telecommunication base station. Due to the analysis of the actual electromagnetic wave signal propagation path in the atmosphere, atmospheric refraction index and moisture inversion are discussed in this paper. And the feasibility of using electromagnetic detection method is also analyzed. A multiagent system is designed to receive the electromagnetic signals. The composition and function of the multiagent system are clearly described. The atmospheric refractivity is detected by the multiagent system in three weather conditions of sunny, foggy, and rainy days. The results demonstrate the feasibility of water vapor detection method of multiagent system boundary by comparing the result of experiment with traditional method.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: We propose a novel fault-tolerant cooperative control strategy for multiagent systems. A set of unknown input observers for each agent are constructed for fault detection. Then a real-time adaptive extremum seeking algorithm is utilized for adaptive approximation of fault parameter. We prove that the consensus can be still reached by regulating the interconnection weights and changing the connection topology of the fault agent. A numerical simulation example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The containment control problems of nonlinear multiagent systems with time-delay via impulsive algorithms under both fixed and switching topologies are studied. By using the Lyapunov methods, several conditions are derived to achieve the containment control. It is shown that the states of the followers can converge into the convex hull spanned by the states of the leaders if every leader has directed paths to all the followers and the impulsive period is short enough. Finally, some simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is a population-based optimization algorithm which is based on the effect of the influence of a teacher on the output of learners in a class. A variant of teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm with differential learning (DLTLBO) is proposed in the paper. In this method, DLTLBO utilizes a learning strategy based on neighborhood search of teacher phase in the standard TLBO to generate a new mutation vector, while utilizing a differential learning to generate another new mutation vector. Then DLTLBO employs the crossover operation to generate new solutions so as to increase the diversity of the population. By the integration of the local search and the global search, DLTLBO achieves a tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches, 24 benchmark functions are used for simulating and testing. Moreover, DLTLBO is used for parameter estimation of digital IIR filter and experimental results show that DLTLBO is superior or comparable to other given algorithms for the employed examples.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: To address the problem of deviation and registration of 3D radar and infrared sensor, this paper presents and improves a method based on the state value and space deviation of federated filtering of unscented Kalman filter and standard Kalman filter, which conduces to real time registering of system deviation of radar and IF sensors. In the method presented here, a covariance matching criteria-based approach was employed for judgment of filtering divergent trend, while self-adaptive attenuation factor was introduced for correction of the predicted error covariance so as to inhibit the divergent phenomenon. The experiment results indicated that the method presented here conduces to improvement of the precision and speed of space registration, showing practical value in deviation registration of 3D radars and infrared sensors.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: Network anomaly detection and localization are of great significance to network security. Compared with the traditional methods of host computer, single link and single path, the network-wide anomaly detection approaches have distinctive advantages with respect to detection precision and range. However, when facing the actual problems of noise interference or data loss, the network-wide anomaly detection approaches also suffer significant performance reduction or may even become unavailable. Besides, researches on anomaly localization are rare. In order to solve the mentioned problems, this paper presents a robust multivariate probabilistic calibration model for network-wide anomaly detection and localization. It applies the latent variable probability theory with multivariate t-distribution to establish the normal traffic model. Not only does the algorithm implement network anomaly detection by judging whether the sample’s Mahalanobis distance exceeds the threshold, but also it locates anomalies by contribution analysis. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and wider use. The algorithm is applicable when dealing with both data integrity and loss. It also has a stronger resistance over noise interference and lower sensitivity to the change of parameters, all of which indicate its performance stability.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: This paper applies the two-stage hierarchical non-full rank linear econometric model to make a deep analysis based on revenue generated from key Norwegian export items over the world’s continents. The model’s ability to analyse the variation of Norway’s export trade gives us the following interesting details: (1) for each continent intra- and intervariation of export items, (2) access to deep knowledge about the characteristics of the Norway’s export items revenue, (3) quantifying the economic importance and sustainability of export items within continents; and finally (4) comparing a given export item economic importance across continents. The results suggest the following important policy implications for Norway. First, Europe is the most important trade partner for Norway. In fact, 81.5% of Norwegian export items are transported to Europe. Second, there is a structural shift in Norwegian exports from North and Central America to Asia and Oceania. Third, the new importance of Asia and Oceania is also emphasized by the 85% increase in export revenues over the period 1988–2012. The trade pattern has changed and trade policy must change accordingly. The analysis has shown that in 2012 there are two important export continents for Norway: Europe and Asia and Oceania.
    Print ISSN: 2090-2123
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    Topics: Economics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: We investigate the relationship between focal surfaces and surfaces at a constant distance from the edge of regression on a surface. We show that focal surfaces F1 and F2 of the surface M can be obtained by means of some special surfaces at a constant distance from the edge of regression on the surface M.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: The Steiner area formula and the polar moment of inertia were expressed during one-parameter closed planar homothetic motions in complex plane. The Steiner point or Steiner normal concepts were described according to whether rotation number was different from zero or equal to zero, respectively. The moving pole point was given with its components and its relation between Steiner point or Steiner normal was specified. The sagittal motion of a winch was considered as an example. This motion was described by a double hinge consisting of the fixed control panel of winch and the moving arm of winch. The results obtained in the second section of this study were applied for this motion.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: The heat flow patterns profiles are required for heat transfer simulation in each type of the thermal insulation. The exothermic reaction models in porous medium can prescribe the problems in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. In this research, the driving force model due to the temperature gradients is considered. A governing equation of the model is restricted into an energy balance equation that provides the temperature profile in conduction state with constant heat source on the steady state. The proposed optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) is used to compute the solutions of the exothermic reactions equation.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: Well-designed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually provide vital support for collecting, processing, and forwarding the real-time information in mission-critical applications where medium access control (MAC) protocols determine the channel access control capabilities and the energy consumption properties of these networks. This paper models the MAC protocol of CSMA/CA using timed automata on the message communication and the energy harvesting and analyzes the protocol through model checking of the major CTL properties. The modeling and analysis of CSMA/CA protocol with the comparative experiments give some performance results and also reveal that timing error may cause deadlock, and the accessibility is satisfied if no deadlock exists.
    Print ISSN: 1550-1329
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-1477
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: The issue of node localization is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks. Recently, the localization problem for mobile sensor networks in hostile environment has received significant attention. Due to the mobility of the sensor nodes, it is more challenging to achieve node localization in attacked sensor networks than in static ones. To address these challenges, the paper presents a novel game-based secure localization algorithm. The nodes’ strategy level can be indicated through the results of trust evaluation and then by means of constructing reasonable strategy space and payoff function using game theory; all kinds of nodes within the network can achieve the optimal payoffs. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results show that the localization error of our proposed algorithm is lower than those of the existing ones in attacked environment.
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: Many time-sensitive applications impose high requirement on real-time response. There exist many algorithms and routing protocols for efficient data packet delivery. However, previous works set the same retransmission threshold for all the relay nodes along a delivery path. The method decreases the probability of a packet being transmitted through the delivery path within given deadline. In this paper, we focus on finding the optimal retransmission thresholds for the relay nodes, such that the summation of the probability of a packet being transmitted to the next relay node or destination node within the specified deadline is maximized. A distributed greedy algorithm that can be run on sensor node is proposed, which enables the sensor node to adaptively set the optimal retransmission threshold. To avoid dropping the packet forwarded to the destination within given deadline with high probability, we develop a packet dropped protocol based on probabilistic delay bound. Experimental results show that the proposed protocols have better performance.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: A novel fluorescent reagent for determination of ammonium, 4-methoxyphthalaldehyde (MOPA), was successfully synthesized in this study. Under alkaline conditions, MOPA could reacted with ammonium rapidly at room temperature, producing fluorescent substance which had maximum excitation at 370 nm and emission wavelength at 454 nm. Based on this, a novel fluorescence analysis method was established for the determination of trace ammonium in natural water. Experimental parameters including reagent concentration, pH, reaction equilibrium time, and metal ions masking agent were optimized. The results showed that the optimized MOPA concentration was 0.12 g/L, pH was in the range of 11.2–12.0, and sulfite concentration was 0.051 g/L, respectively. Metal ions masking agent had no obvious effect on the fluorescence signal. With the reaction time of 15 minutes, linear range of this method was between 0.025 and 0.300 μmol/L, and the method detecting limit was 0.0058 μmol/L. The matrix recovery of the proposed method was in the range of 93.6–108.1%. Compared with the OPA method, this method was much more sensitive and rapid without the interference of background peak and would be more suitable for developing a portable fluorescence detection system.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are one of the appealing MEMS devices. Most studies treat CMUTs as rigid plates vibrating in open air, ignoring the mechanical boundary conditions for simplification and resulting in cumulative errors in coupled fields. This paper presents a new analytical model for the pull-in characteristics of the flat circular CMUT cell featuring sealed cavity. Utilizing the plate theory coupled with Boyle’s law, the paper establishes a strong relation between the pressures inside the sealed cavity and the pull-in characteristics for the first time. Not only did we point out that the existence of the pressure inside the sealed cavity cannot be omitted, but we also quantified the direct effect of the pressure ratios on the pull-in phenomenon. The pull-in voltages increase while the pull-in ratios decrease with the pressure ratios of the pressure inside the sealed cavity to the ambient pressure. The proposed calculation process delivers a good approximation of the pull-in voltages and displacements, which are consistent with COMSOL simulation results. Particularly, the percentage error of our calculation process is 6.986% for the worst case. Therefore, our proposed analytical model accurately and efficiently predicts the pull-in characteristics and this paper offers new perspectives and reference value in designing and modeling the CMUTs.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: This paper presents the effect of cyclic loading on the lateral behavior of monopiles in terms of load-displacement curves, deflection curves, and - curves along the pile. A commercial software, Strain Wedge Model (SWM), was employed, simulating a 7.5 m in diameter and 60 m long steel monopile embedded into quartz sands. In order to account for the effect of cyclic loading, accumulated strains were calculated based on the results of drained cyclic triaxial compression tests, and the accumulated strains were combined with static strains representing input strains into the SWM. The input strains were estimated for different numbers of cycles ranging from 1 to 105 and 3 different cyclic lateral loads (25%, 50%, and 75% of static capacity). The lateral displacement at pile head was found to increase with increasing number of cycles and increasing cyclic lateral loads. In order to model these deformations resulting from cyclic loading, the initial stiffness of the - curves has to be significantly reduced.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: To reduce the computational complexity and rest on less prior knowledge, energy-based spectrum sensing under nonreconstruction framework is studied. Compressed measurements are adopted directly to eliminate the effect of reconstruction error and high computational complexity caused by reconstruction algorithm of compressive sensing. Firstly, we summarize the conventional energy-based spectrum sensing methods. Next, the major effort is placed on obtaining the statistical characteristics of compressed measurements and its corresponding squared form, such as mean, variance, and the probability density function. And then, energy-based spectrum sensing under nonreconstruction framework is addressed and its performance is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Simulations for the different parameters are performed to verify the performance of the presented algorithm. The theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that the performance drops slightly less than that of conventional energy-normalization method and reconstruction-based spectrum sensing algorithm, but its computational complexity decreases remarkably, which is the first thing one should think about for practical applications. Accordingly, the presented method is reasonable and effective for fast detection in most cognitive scenarios.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: Service-oriented manufacturing is the new development of manufacturing systems, and manufacturing supply chain service is also an important part of the service-oriented manufacturing systems; hence, the optimal selection of parts suppliers becomes one of key problems in the supply chain system. Complex network theories made a rapid progress in recent years, but the classical models such as BA model and WS model can not resolve the widespread problems of manufacturing supply chain, such as the repeated attachment of edge and fixed number of vertices, but edges increased with preferential connectivity, and flexible edges’ probability. A core model is proposed to resolve the problem in the paper: it maps the parts supply relationship as a repeatable core; a vertex’s probability distribution function integrating the edge’s rate and vertex’s degree is put forward; some simulations, such as the growth of core, the degree distribution characteristics, and the impacting of parameter, are carried out in our experiments, and the case study is set also. The paper proposed a novel model to analyze the manufacturing supply chain system from the insights of complex network.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: This paper considers the distributed robust attitude tracking problem of multiple spacecraft subject to disturbances and unmodelled dynamics. We designed a distributed robust attitude controller for each spacecraft using the relative attitudes and relative angular velocities of neighbors to ensure that the attitude tracking errors between the leader and the followers converge to zero under the condition that the communication graph among the followers is undirected and connected and at least one follower has the access to the leader. The control algorithm achieves robust attitude tracking under the existence of the disturbances and unmodelled dynamics by selecting the control gains according to the given condition.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: By using data from a voluntary contribution mechanism experiment with heterogeneous endowments and asymmetric information, we estimate a quantal response equilibrium (QRE) model to assess the relative importance of efficiency concerns versus noise in accounting for subjects overcontribution in public good games. In the benchmark specification, homogeneous agents, overcontribution is mainly explained by error and noise in behavior. Results change when we consider a more general QRE specification with cross-subject heterogeneity in concerns for (group) efficiency. In this case, we find that the majority of the subjects make contributions that are compatible with the hypothesis of preference for (group) efficiency. A likelihood-ratio test confirms the superiority of the more general specification of the QRE model over alternative specifications.
    Print ISSN: 1110-757X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0042
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: This paper presents a multiconstrained quality-of-service routing (QoSR) based on a differentially guided krill herd (DGKH) algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). QoSR is a NP-complete and significant problem with immense challenges in determining an optimum path that simultaneously satisfies various constraints in MANETs, where the topology varies constantly. Various heuristic algorithms are widely used to solve this problem with compromise on excessive computational complexities and/or low performance. This paper proposes a krill herd based algorithm called DGKH, where the krill individuals do not update the position in comparison with one-to-one (as usual), but instead it uses the information from various krill individuals and then searches to determine a feasible path. Experiment results on MANETs with different number nodes (routes) are considered with three constraints which are maximum allowed delay, maximum allowed jitter, and minimum requested bandwidth. It is demonstrated that the proposed DGKH algorithm is an effective approximation algorithm exhibiting satisfactory performance than the KHA and existing algorithms in the literature by determining an optimum path that satisfies more than one QoS constraint in MANETs.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: Based on echo state networks, the joints position control of NAO robot is studied in this paper. The process to control the robot position can be divided into two phases. The senor parameters are released during the first phase. Depending on the dynamic coupling effect between the angle acceleration of passive joint and the torque of active joint, passive joint can be controlled indirectly to the desired position along the desired trajectory. The ESN control rules during the first phase are described and ESN controller is designed to control the motion of passive joint. The brake is locked during the second phase; then active joint is controlled to the desired position. The experimental control system based on PMAC controller is designed and developed. Finally, the joint position control of the NAO robot is achieved successfully by experiments. Echo state networks utilized incremental updates driven by new sensor readings and massive short memory with history inputs; thus varying communication rates can help imitate human upper limb motion based on wearable sensors to obtain human joint angles.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: The optimal allocation problem for a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV) generation can be achieved by good compromise between system objective and constraint requirements. The Lagrange technique (LGT) is a traditional method to solve such constrained optimization problem. To consider the nonlinear features of reliability constraints evolving from the consideration of different scenarios, including variations of component cost, load profile and installation location, the implementation of SPV generation planning is time-consuming and conventionally implemented by a probability method. Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been successfully applied to many optimization problems. For the optimal allocation of photovoltaic and battery devices, the cost function minimization is implemented by GA to attain global optimum with relative computation simplicity. Analytical comparisons between the results from LGT and GA were investigated and the performance of simulation was discussed. Different planning scenarios show that GA performs better than the Lagrange optimization technique.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: The set related to the existence of Budaghyan-Carlet hexanomials is characterized. By investigating the component functions, it is also proved that none of Budaghyan-Carlet hexanomials cannot be turned into a permutation by adding any linearized polynomial. As a byproduct, a class of quadratic bent functions is obtained.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: As the parcel delivery service is booming in China, the competition among express companies intensifies. This paper employed multinomial logit model (MNL) and latent class model (LCM) to investigate customers’ express service choice behavior, using data from a SP survey. The attributes and attribute levels that matter most to express customers are identified. Meanwhile, the customers are divided into two segments (penny pincher segment and high-end segment) characterized by their taste heterogeneity. The results indicate that the LCM performs statistically better than MNL in our sample. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the taste heterogeneity, especially for further academic and policy research in freight choice behavior.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: This paper investigates the integral sliding mode control problem for Lur’e singularly perturbed systems with sector-constrained nonlinearities. First, we design a proper sliding manifold such that the motion of closed-loop systems with a state feedback controller along the manifold is absolutely stable. To achieve this, we give a matrix inequality-based absolute stability criterion; thus the above problem can be converted into a matrix inequality feasibility problem. In addition, the gain matrix can also be derived by solving the matrix inequality. Then, a discontinuous control law is synthesized to force the system state to reach the sliding manifold and stay there for all subsequent time. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: Hypoxia is an important and common characteristic of many human tumors. It is a challenge clinically due to the correlation with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Understanding the biochemical response to hypoxia would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here, we investigate alterations in gene expression in response to hypoxia by quantitative proteome analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LCMS/MS. Human HeLa cells were kept either in a hypoxic environment or under normoxic conditions. 125 proteins were found to be regulated, with maximum alteration of 18-fold. In particular, three clusters of differentially regulated proteins were identified, showing significant upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and translocases. This interaction is likely orchestrated by HIF-1. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cell cycle, which shows accumulation in G1 and a prolonged S phase under these conditions. Implications. This work not only improves our understanding of the response to hypoxia, but also reveals proteins important for malignant progression, which may be targeted in future therapies.
    Print ISSN: 2090-2166
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-2174
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-744X
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A () and F () were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 () and E () were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 () and D () were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: Environmental and economic factors increasingly encourage higher utility of industrial by-products. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source for good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to fast pace of construction activities in India. EAF oxidizing slag as a by-product obtained during the process in steel making industry provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available coarse aggregates. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly ash. This study presents the experimental investigations carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 with three mixes: (i) Mix A, conventional concrete mix with no material substitution, (ii) Mix B, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash, and (iii) Mix C, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF oxidizing slag. Tests were conducted to determine mechanical and durability properties up to the age of 90 days. The test results concluded that concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash (Mix C) had greater strength and durability characteristics when compared to Mix A and Mix B. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash could be effectively utilized as coarse aggregate replacement and cement replacement in all concrete applications.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: Assuming that two types of inspection errors are nonidentical and that only the items rejected by an inspector are reworked and sent to the next inspection cycle, we formulate a combinatorial optimization problem for simultaneously determining both the minimum frequency of inspection-rework cycles and the optimal sequence of inspectors selected from a set of available inspectors, in order to meet the constraints of the outgoing quality level. Based on the inherent properties from our mathematical model, we provide a nonpolynomial optimal algorithm with a time complexity of .
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: Present study focuses on exploitation of agricultural waste wheat bran (WB) as growth medium for degradation of textile azo dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 (RB 172) using a single bacterium P. rettgeri strain HSL1 (GenBank accession number JX853768.1). The bacterium was found to completely decolorize 50 mg L−1 of dye RB 172 within 20 h at 30 ± 0.2°C under microaerophilic incubation conditions. Additionally, significant reduction in COD (85%) and TOC (52%) contents of dye decolorized medium was observed which suggested its mineralization. Induction in the activities of azoreductase (159%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (88%) provided an evidence for reductive cleavage of dye RB 172. The HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis of decolorized products confirmed the degradation of dye into various metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathway for biodegradation of RB 172 has been elucidated which showed the formation of 2 intermediate metabolites, namely, 4-(ethenylsulfonyl) aniline and 1-amino-1-(4-aminophenyl) propan-2-one. The acute and phytotoxicity evaluation of degraded metabolites suggests that bacterial strain favors the detoxification of dye RB 172. Thus, WB could be utilized as a low-cost growth medium for the enrichment of bacteria and their further use for biodegradation of azo dyes and its derivatives containing wastes into nontoxic form.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: Wireless networks have been widely used in Cyber-Physical System (CPS) for data transmission. A CPS usually contains lots of sensors, and these sensors generate massive data. To make use of these data, we have to collect them through wireless communication. Sensors in a certain CPS do not always adopt same wireless technology, and these sensors formed heterogeneous wireless networks. Communication between different types of wireless networks can only be achieved by utilizing wireless gateways. In this paper, we address the problem of gateway placement for satisfying the bandwidth-requirement of each node by using minimum gateways. This problem can be formulated as a variant of Minimum Geometric Disk Cover problem which has been proved NP-complete. In order to solve our problem, one heuristic gateway placement algorithm and one grid-based heuristic algorithm are proposed. The result of simulation demonstrates that the heuristic algorithm can offer a good solution with big probability.
    Print ISSN: 1550-1329
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-1477
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: The photocatalytic ability of cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (BZN) pyrochlore for the decolorization of an acid orange 7 (AO7) azo dye in aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has been investigated for the first time. BZN catalyst powders prepared using low temperature sol-gel and higher temperature solid-state methods have been evaluated and their reaction rates have been compared. The experimental band gap energy has been estimated from the optical absorption edge and has been used as reference for theoretical calculations. The electronic band structure of BZN has been investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations for random, completely and partially ordered solid solutions of Zn cations in both the and sites of the pyrochlore structure. The nature of the orbitals in the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB) has been identified and the theoretical band gap energy has been discussed in terms of the DFT model approximations.
    Print ISSN: 1110-662X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-529X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: We suggest a conjugate gradient (CG) method for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations without computing Jacobian and gradient via the special structure of the underlying function. This derivative-free feature of the proposed method gives it advantage to solve relatively large-scale problems (500,000 variables) with lower storage requirement compared to some existing methods. Under appropriate conditions, the global convergence of our method is reported. Numerical results on some benchmark test problems show that the proposed method is practically effective.
    Print ISSN: 0161-1712
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0425
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2015-09-07
    Description: Spectrum of cosmic rays follows a broken power law over twelve orders of magnitude. Since ubiquitous power laws are manifestations of the principle of least action, we interpret the spectrum accordingly. Our analysis complies with understanding that low-energy particles originate mostly from rapidly receding sources throughout the cosmos. The flux peaks about proton rest energy whereafter it decreases because fewer and fewer receding sources are energetic enough to provide particles with high enough velocities to compensate for the recessional velocities. Above 1015.6 eV the flux from the expanding Universe diminishes below the flux from the nearby nonexpanding part of the Universe. In this spectral feature, known as the “knee,” we relate to a distance of about 1.3 Mpc where the gravitational potential tallies the energy density of free space. At higher energies particles decelerate in a dissipative manner to attain thermodynamic balance with the vacuum. At about 1017.2 eV a distinct dissipative mechanism opens up for protons to slow down by electron-positron pair production. At about 1019.6 eV a more effective mechanism opens up via pion production. All in all, the universal principle discloses that the broad spectrum of cosmic rays probes the structure of space from cosmic distances down to microscopic details.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: A novel ultra-wideband (UWB) TEM horn antenna fed by a microstrip-type transition is designed. The feeding structure is directly realized by a microstrip line with the merit of compact size and UWB. To broaden the low frequency band, an arc surface is added at the end of the flare plates. Numerical simulation is applied to discuss the effect of the geometry construction which contains the microstrip-type transition and the circular arc surface at the end of radiating arm. Return loss, radiation pattern, and gain of the fabricated antennas are measured. The measured results show that the antenna yields a wide bandwidth ranging from 1 GHZ to 10.3 GHz with return loss less than −10 dB. The antenna also achieves unidirectional radiation patterns with stable antenna gain. These characteristics imply that the compact antenna may be used for detecting buried objects in the wall or UWB communication systems of band like GSM, Wi-Fi, and so forth.
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    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: Chemical compounds were extracted with petroleum ether from the cuticular abdominal glands of grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.) and eleven compounds were characterised using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique in combination with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The compounds analysed were 2,7-dimethyloctane (3.21%), decane (5.33%), undecane (3.81%), tridecanoic acid methyl ester (4.76%), hexadecanoic acid (9.37%), 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (23.18%), pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-methyl ester (4.43%), (Z)-13-docosenoic acid (10.71%), dodecyl pentafluoropropionate (9.52%), 2-dodecyl-1,3-propanediol (6.38%), and 1,12-tridecadiene (19.30%). FT-IR analysis of the extract showed peaks at 1270.17 (C–O and C–F), 1641.48 (C=C), 2937.68 (C–H), and 3430.51 (O–H) cm−1 indicating the presence of ether, alkene, alkane, alcohol, carboxylic acid, and fluoric compounds. These compounds consisted of 32.37% ester, 31.65% hydrocarbons, 20.08% fatty acid, 9.52% halogenated ester, and 6.38% alcohol. The highest component was 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester followed by 1,12-tridecadiene. Since behavioural bioassays were not carried out, the consideration of these compounds to be pheromone semiochemicals remains a hypothesis.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9449
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9457
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: In some make-to-order supply chains, the manufacturer needs to process and deliver products for customers at different locations. To coordinate production and distribution operations at the detailed scheduling level, we study a parallel machine scheduling model with batch delivery to two customers by vehicle routing method. In this model, the supply chain consists of a processing facility with parallel machines and two customers. A set of jobs containing jobs from customer 1 and jobs from customer 2 are first processed in the processing facility and then delivered to the customers directly without intermediate inventory. The problem is to find a joint schedule of production and distribution such that the tradeoff between maximum arrival time of the jobs and total distribution cost is minimized. The distribution cost of a delivery shipment consists of a fixed charge and a variable cost proportional to the total distance of the route taken by the shipment. We provide polynomial time heuristics with worst-case performance analysis for the problem. If and , we propose a heuristic with worst-case ratio bound of 3/2, where is the capacity of the delivery shipment. Otherwise, the worst-case ratio bound of the heuristic we propose is .
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: Traffic guide signs are effective only when they are clearly recognized by drivers. Three experiments were conducted in this study. In the first, the influence factors of guide sign recognition were studied. This study investigated 11 main factors with a convenience sample of drivers from Nanjing city in China. Weights of different influence factors were obtained through analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the setting position, occlusion degree, and character size of guide sign had the most significant influence on the guide sign recognition, while other factors were less important. In the second stage, an evaluation model of guide sign recognition was developed based on weights of different factors. Four equations were presented to calculate the comprehensive score of guide sign, and the level of recognition was divided into five grades according to the comprehensive score. At last, a typical case in Nanjing was studied to verify the rationality and reliability of the evaluation model. Results from the real application indicate that the method had good applicability and can be used by traffic engineers.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: To evaluate the effects of campus speed bumps on drivers’ speed and fixation distribution, a quasinaturalistic driving test was conducted on a Chinese campus. Seven randomly selected drivers, wearing the Dikablis eye tracking devices, were required to drive an OPEL SUV passing the speed bumps. The area close to the bump was divided into ten subsegments (15 m for each one). The degree of fixation dispersion within each subsegment was defined as the distance from each subcenter to the whole fixation center. All traffic data were recorded using mounted camera, and the trajectories were extracted in Matlab. The speed and trajectory data was divided into two groups: the before group for bump-free case and the after group for a 5 cm bump case. The observational before-after analysis shows statistical significance between the two cases. The individual vehicular speed analysis reveals that bump reduces nearly 60% of vehicles’ speeds to a certain extent within the distance from 30 m upstream to 15 m downstream. The drivers’ fixation points begin to disperse 30–45 m before they see the bump, and it falls back to normal level 15–30 m downstream of the bump. These findings will help engineers install speed bumps at the most appropriate locations.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: International airports in China have become a complex hub between airport and multimodal transit stations. Dissimilar passenger departure demands in different transit mode cause wide gaps among departure times from airport to these modes. In this context, hub managers need to balance the distribution of air passengers to transit modes in order to reduce departure delays and alleviate the congestion in transit stations, even though they cannot change the operating plan of airport or transit stations. However, few research efforts have addressed this distribution. Therefore, we developed a distribution optimization model for passenger departure that minimizes the average departure time and is solved by Genetic Algorithm. To describe differences in passenger choices, without taking into consideration the metropolitan transportation network outside the airport, we introduced the concept of rigid and elastic departures. To reflect the tendency of elastic passengers to choose different transit modes, we assume that the passengers change to other modes in different proportions. A case revealed that the presence of rigid passengers allows managers to partly balance the distribution of passengers and improve the average departure time. When the volume of passengers approaches the peak volume, the optimized distribution significantly improves the departure time.
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    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2015-08-28
    Description: Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-744X
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2015-09-09
    Description: The semantic-based facial image-retrieval system is concerned with the process of retrieving facial images based on the semantic information of query images and database images. The image-retrieval systems discussed in the literature have some drawbacks that degrade the performance of facial image retrieval. To reduce the drawbacks in the existing techniques, we propose an efficient semantic-based facial image-retrieval (SFIR) system using APSO and squared Euclidian distance (SED). The proposed technique consists of three stages: feature extraction, optimization, and image retrieval. Initially, the features are extracted from the database images. Low-level features (shape, color, and texture) and high-level features (face, mouth, nose, left eye, and right eye) are the two features used in the feature-extraction process. In the second stage, a semantic gap between these features is reduced by a well-known adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) technique. Afterward, a squared Euclidian distance (SED) measure will be utilized to retrieve the face images that have less distance with the query image. The proposed semantic-based facial image-retrieval (SFIR) system with APSO-SED will be implemented in working platform of MATLAB, and the performance will be analyzed.
    Print ISSN: 1110-757X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0042
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: We focus attention upon the thermal statistics of the classical analogs of quasi-probabilities (QP) in phase space for the important case of quadratic Hamiltonians. We consider the three more important OPs: Wigner’s, -, and Husimi’s. We show that, for all of them, the ensuing semiclassical entropy is a function only of the fluctuation product . We ascertain that the semiclassical analog of -distribution seems to become unphysical at very low temperatures. The behavior of several other information quantifiers reconfirms such an assertion in manifold ways. We also examine the behavior of the statistical complexity and of thermal quantities like the specific heat.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: We evaluated Cervus elaphus herbivory and trampling impacts on plants and soils on Chaco Culture National Historical Park (Chaco), a desert grass/shrubland in northwestern New Mexico, USA, most (63%) of which has been protected from grazing by domestic livestock since 1948. We conducted grazing, browse, and water infiltration surveys in areas which received different amounts of C. elaphus use (use and control), 2004–2007. Browse utilization was
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9716
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: Wave propagation along a closely spaced folded cylindrical helix (FCH) array is investigated for the purpose of designing compact array for energy transport and antenna radiation. It is found that the height of this surface wave guiding structure can be decreased from 0.24 to 0.06 by replacing the monopole element with the FCH. Both the propagation constant and the mode distribution of the dominant wave mechanism are extracted by ESPRIT algorithm, which indicates that a backward propagating surface wave is supported by the array structure. A compact backfire FCH antenna array is designed and measured based on the identified dominant wave mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5869
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5877
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: Cyclosporine A (CSA) is an immunosuppressive agent that specifically targets T cells and also increases the percentage of pro-tolerogenic CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) through unknown mechanisms. We previously reported that CD44, a receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), promotes Treg stability in IL-2-low environments. Here, we asked whether CD44 signaling also promotes Treg resistance to CSA. We found that CD44 cross-linking promoted Foxp3 expression and Treg viability in the setting of CSA treatment. This effect was IL-2 independent but could be suppressed using sc-355979, an inhibitor of Stat5-phosphorylation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of HA synthesis impairs Treg homeostasis but that this effect could be overcome with exogenous IL-2 or CD44-cross-linking. Together, these data support a model whereby CD44 cross-linking by HA promotes IL-2-independent Foxp3 expression and Treg survival in the face of CSA.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8876
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8884
    Topics: Biology
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: Defects in vascular integrity are an initiating factor in several disease processes. We have previously reported that high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a major glycosaminoglycan in the body, promotes rapid signal transduction in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) leading to barrier enhancement. In contrast, low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), produced in disease states by hyaluronidases and reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces HPMVEC barrier disruption. However, the mechanism(s) of sustained barrier regulation by HA are poorly defined. Our results indicate that long-term (6–24 hours) exposure of HMW-HA induced release of a novel type of extracellular vesicle from HLMVEC called enlargeosomes (characterized by AHNAK expression) while LMW-HA long-term exposure promoted release of exosomes (characterized by CD9, CD63, and CD81 expression). These effects were blocked by inhibiting caveolin-enriched microdomain (CEM) formation. Further, inhibiting enlargeosome release by annexin II siRNA attenuated the sustained barrier enhancing effects of HMW-HA. Finally, exposure of isolated enlargeosomes to HPMVEC monolayers generated barrier enhancement while exosomes led to barrier disruption. Taken together, these results suggest that differential release of extracellular vesicles from CEM modulate the sustained HPMVEC barrier regulation by HMW-HA and LMW-HA. HMW-HA-induced specialized enlargeosomes can be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases involving impaired vascular integrity.
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    Topics: Biology
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: Hyaluronan signaling properties are unique among other biologically active molecules, that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the generation of hyaluronan fragments of different size and size-dependent differences in hyaluronan signaling as well as their downstream biological effects.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8884
    Topics: Biology
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: In normal airways, hyaluronan (HA) matrices are primarily located within the airway submucosa, pulmonary vasculature walls, and, to a lesser extent, the alveoli. Following pulmonary injury, elevated levels of HA matrices accumulate in these regions, and in respiratory secretions, correlating with the extent of injury. Animal models have provided important insight into the role of HA in the onset of pulmonary injury and repair, generally indicating that the induction of HA synthesis is an early event typically preceding fibrosis. The HA that accumulates in inflamed airways is of a high molecular weight (〉1600 kDa) but can be broken down into smaller fragments (
    Print ISSN: 1687-8876
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8884