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  • Articles  (80)
  • J24  (53)
  • J31  (37)
  • Educación
  • Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)  (65)
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
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  • Articles  (80)
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  • 1
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We study labor-market returns to vocational versus general secondary education using a regression discontinuity design created by the centralized admissions process in Finland. Admission to the vocational track increases annual income by 7 percent at age 31, and the benefits show no signs of diminishing with time. Moreover, admission to the vocational track does not increase the likelihood of working in jobs at risk of replacement by automation or offshoring. Consistent with the notion of comparative advantage, we observe significantly larger returns for people who express a preference for vocational education in their applications to secondary school.
    Keywords: I26 ; J24 ; J31 ; C31 ; J23 ; I24 ; ddc:330 ; Returns to education ; Vocational education ; Technological change ; Application preferences ; Regression discontinuity ; Field of study
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We examine the growth of real value added, labour input and labour productivity of immigrant-owned firms in Finland in 2007–2016. In our analysis we use the so-called FLOWN (Finnish Longitudinal OWNer-Employer-Employee) data by Statistics Finland that allows linking register information on firms, their owners and employees. As immigrant-owned firms account for a few percent of all firms and about one percent of all labour in the business sector, their contribution to the growth of output and employment must be limited. However, the growth rate of their real value added is markedly stronger than in other firm groups. Their job creation rates are exceptionally high but their job destruction rates are, however, about the same magnitude as in the indigenous-owned firms. The immigrant-owned firms have created a relatively large amount of low productivity and low wage jobs. On an average, their wage growth has been somewhat higher than in other firms, but pro-cyclical variation of wages has been stronger.
    Keywords: J15 ; J21 ; J24 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Output growth ; Employment growth ; Productivity growth ; Creative destruction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Immigrant entrepreneurship is the subject of a prolific economic literature, as well as a source of wide public debate. This is because the participation of immigrants to the business community can provide a significant contribution to innovation and to market dynamics. This report touches multiple aspects of immigrant entrepreneurship in Finland, looking at the years from 2006 to 2014. I find that while the number of self-employed immigrants has increased dramatically, the entrepreneurial rate has been stable. Moreover, the immigrant self-employment rate is similar to the one of natives. I find that the median earnings of foreign entrepreneurs are lower than the ones of Finnish entrepreneurs, but this is driven by the different industry distribution. Finally, I find an overrepresentation of foreign workers and entrepreneurs in the Helsinki region, while the immigrants’ self-employment rate is higher in poorer areas. I gather multiple evidence pointing toward the fact that difficulties in the job market push foreign residents to self-employment. For example, I find a negative correlation between the employment rate and the foreign share of entrepreneurial inflows, and a strong negative relationship between the employment rate and the immigrant self-employment rate at the regional level.
    Keywords: J24 ; J61 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Self-employment ; Earnings differentials ; Migrantenunternehmen ; Selbstständige ; Einkommen ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: I study the effect of an education leave subsidy for the employed on labor-market outcomes and educational attainment using Finnish administrative linked employer-employee panel data and matching methods. The adult education allowance is available to employees with at least eight years of work experience and allows them to take a leave for 2–18 months to participate in an education program while being compensated for a substantial part of their forgone earnings. I find large positive treatment effects on educational attainment and changing occupation. The treatment effects on earnings and employment are negative during the lock-in period and close to zero afterward. Treatment effects on pseudo-outcomes are small and with one exception not statistically significant, which supports the credibility of the identification strategy. Sensitivity analyses show that unobserved variables should have a fairly large effect on treatment assignment to change the results.
    Keywords: I22 ; J24 ; H43 ; C21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; Adult education ; Education leave ; Linked employer-employee data ; Program evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This paper examines the relationship between globalization and innovation. To do so, it draws from data that match the full population of workers and private-sector firms in Finland tracking them from 1995 to 2009. To correct for endogeneity the paper considers variation in trade exposure from China during its entry to the world market using a fixed effects model. While the literature on trade and innovation has emphasized the role of firms in driving onshore innovation, the main conclusion of this research is that globalization increases the share of innovators within firms.
    Keywords: O33 ; F14 ; F16 ; J24 ; L60 ; L24 ; ddc:330 ; Trade ; Innovation ; China ; Employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This paper analyzes occupational polarization within and across firms using comprehensive matched employer-employee panel data from Finland. The occupational distribution in Finland has been polarizing over the last few decades, with mid-level production and clerical jobs eroding while low-skill service occupations and high-skill specialist occupations gain share. We find that the phenomenon is taking place within existing firms, as well as due to firm entry and exit. Service jobs are increasing through the entry-exit dynamics, but also via establishment level restructuring among continuing firms. Routine jobs, including mid-level plant operating jobs, are being destroyed both among continuing firms and at the entry-exit margin. The share of high-level occupations increases largely within continuing firms. Within the continuing firms the job polarization appears to be related to the trade of goods and services, as well as the outsourcing of tasks. Firms with high R&D expenditures and ICT use are more prone to lay off process and production workers.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Job polarization ; offshoring ; international trade ; firm ; establishment ; technology ; R&D ; ICT
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The novel Finnish Longitudinal OWNer-Employer-Employee (FLOWN) database was used to analyze how the characteristics of owners and employees relate to firm performance as determined by labor productivity, survival and employment growth. Focusing on the role of the owner’s formal education and previous experience as an employee, the results show that previous experience in a high-productivity firm strongly predicts high productivity and probability of survival for the entrepreneur’s new firm. This can be interpreted as evidence of knowledge spillover through labor mobility. Strikingly, firms established in times of intensive excess job reallocation were found to exhibit superior productivity performance in the later phases of their life cycles.
    Keywords: L25 ; L26 ; J24 ; J62 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; ownership ; firm performance ; human capital ; diffusion of knowledge
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Workers have different abilities in research, development and innovation (R&D&I) activities. Firms have different “prospects for innovation”. Innovation is facilitated by matching innovators, i.e. workers that are specialized in R&D&I to firms with good prospects for innovation. Aggregate productivity growth requires that firms with the best prospects for innovation are quickly matched to innovators. The mobility of innovators is also important for positive knowledge spillovers to materialize. We use Finnish and Danish linked employer-employee data to study labour mobility, focusing on innovators. For Finland, Denmark is an interesting benchmark country because its labour market is generally considered very flexible. We find that overall labour mobility is significantly lower in Finland than in Denmark. However, relative to other occupation groups, innovators are actually more mobile in Finland than in Denmark. In Finland, innovators tend to cluster in firms that are among the most productive in their industry.
    Keywords: J24 ; J62 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Research and development ; Innovation ; Occupational choice ; Labour mobility ; Innovator mobility ; Resource allocation ; Industrieforschung ; Humankapital ; Allokation ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Finnland ; Dänemark
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones del porqué no existe consenso entre las necesidades de capacitación está la gran diversidad de las MYPES y el distanciamiento entre la oferta de capacitación brindada por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales con la demanda de capacitación de las micro y pequeñas empresas. Por otro lado, también se realizó una recapitulación de los tipos de capacitación que se socializó con la FEDEMYPE con el fin de complementar estudio.
    Keywords: J24 ; J49 ; L29 ; ddc:330 ; MYPE ; microempresa ; capacitación ; pequeña empresa ; informalidad ; habilidades ; microempresarios ; emprendedores ; habilidades productivas ; habilidades administrativas ; habilidades gerenciales
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the potential of information technologies to improve public service delivery and empower citizens in the context of two unusual randomized natural experiments occurring within one particular bureaucratic process: the renewal of a national identification card by the Bolivian Police. The first experiment arises from the random assignment of both police officers and applicants to a manual or digital renewal process, which is identical in all aspects except that the digital renewal process makes use of information technologies as part of the renewal process. The second experiment arises by the existence of technical failures within the digital renewal process, which allows police officers to change from the digital to the manual renewal process randomly across renewal day. The efficiency of public service delivery is measured in terms of both renewal success rates (which average to a strikingly low rate of 72 percent in our sample) and time-it-takes to renew an identification card. The causal effect of information technologies on public service delivery is estimated using two different identification strategies. In the first one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to each one of these two renewal processes are compared after controlling for renewal day fixed effects. In the second one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to the digital process are compared to those randomly assigned to this same process but who experienced a technical failure within the process, which allows to directly control for unobserved heterogeneity at the police officer level. We find that information technologies significantly improve the quality of public service delivery. Applicants randomly assigned to the digital renewal process are on average 12 percentage points more likely to complete the renewal process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Further, successful applicants randomly assigned to the digital process take on average 31 percent less time to complete the process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Lastly, we find that information technologies significantly lower barriers in access to national identification cards by promoting a more equitable provision across the population. We discuss several channels through which technologies might be improving efficiency and promoting equity within this particular bureaucratic process. Overall, our findings suggest that information technologies might be achieving these goals by introducing efficiencies (such as reducing administrative shortcomings and transaction costs), and limiting the exercise of discretion by police officers within the renewal process.
    Keywords: C93 ; O38 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Information and communications technology, global value chains, and population ageing are changing the structures of the labour market. These three factors affect the tasks carried out in Finland in the future and the division of labour between humans and computers. The changes are taking place at the individual level and affect the ways of working and income inequality. This report surveys the economic literature on these topics.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J62 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; ICT ; Global value chains ; Population ageing ; Structural change ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Strukturwandel ; Bibliometrie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Industries go through different phases of evolution where old skills become obsolete and new skills arecrucial for the industrial renewal process. Industry evolution is usually addressed from the perspectives of production and exports, leaving one factor largely unexplored: human capital. Industry restructuring isa dynamic process where skills developed in one industry move to other industries as individuals change employers. We argue that the labor flows between industries reveal skill relatedness because individuals move to industries that value their existing skills. We also argue that the labor flows differ between highand low-skill labor. By examining these flows, we can identify spillover effects between industries during restructuring. To address this argument, we analyze all individual-level labor flows originating from the Finnish ICT sector for 1989-2010. This industry sector-level study focuses on three ICT industries (manufacturing, services and software), and we address the differences in labor mobility between the individuals with different professional skill levels. We find several differences in the labor market dynamics over time for each ICT industry and for the different skill levels.
    Keywords: J24 ; J21 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; labor mobility ; skill relatedness ; ICT sector ; knowledge spillovers
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This paper examines the causal link between foreign investment and firm performance in six small open economies in the European Union. Specifically, using micro data for manufacturing and services over the period 2001–2009, we analyse the effects of foreign mergers and acquisitions on labour productivity and employment growth up to five years after acquisition. Our results indicate that foreign investors tend to acquire larger firms in both manufacturing and services. Other characteristics of acquired firms differ across countries and between manufacturing and services. Taken together, our estimates suggest that foreign investment had stronger effects on firm performance in services in comparison to manufacturing.
    Keywords: F16 ; F23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Multinational firms ; Productivity ; Employment ; Propensity score matching ; Übernahme ; Auslandsinvestition ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Industrie ; Dienstleistungssektor ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this study, the patterns of occupational restructuring and their micro-level mechanisms are examined by applying standard measures of job and worker flows at the occupation and firm levels using longitudinal employeremployee data from the Finnish business sector for the years 2000-2006. Special attention is given to determining how global firms (i.e., multinational enterprises and offshoring firms) contribute to occupational restructuring and to establishing the role of occupational structures when explaining productivity and profitability gaps between global and local firms. The findings indicate that global firms have contributed to reshaping occupational structures, and although this contribution is clearly reflected in their productivity, it is not as clearly reflected in their profitability.The findings imply that employees have captured a dominant share of the productivity advantage of global firms.
    Keywords: J24 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; globalization ; offshoring ; occupational restructuring ; productivity ; profitability
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We assess Finland’s competitiveness in the light of various, mainly short-term indicators. It turns out that the weak export market performance over the last few years is linked to the deterioration of profitability of production in Finland. A better export and employment performance requires a decline of relative unit labour costs and an improvement of business profitability. Wage moderation is necessary for this to happen. On the other hand, the determinants of Finland’s long-term competitiveness are quite good and maintaining and developing them should remain a key element of economic policy also in the future.
    Keywords: F40 ; E25 ; E64 ; J31 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; Competitiveness ; Profitability ; Productivity ; Export performance ; Employment ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Rentabilität ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Lohnstückkosten ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This study focused on two primary areas: 1. To determine what can be learned from biotech and drug development companies that suffered from financial problems and ultimately failed at the beginning of the 21st century. 2. To determine how intellectual capital developed in accordance with such companies and its fate following business failure. We examined six failed Finnish biotechnology companies and two major venture capital companies that have invested in Finnish biotechnology companies. We strongly emphasize that this research is only a case-based and very limited feasibility study. Nevertheless, the results were surprising. We found that intellectual capital was indeed created in the companies and that various aspects of this capital could be identified. To a certain extent, we were also able to follow the post-company steps of intellectual capital and the continuity of its value-creation in novel companies. The study was designed to involve only failed companies, but in four cases we found ourselves interviewing leaders of companies that had been created based on the IC of failed companies. It appears that important knowledge has vested by learning from earlier mistakes, and this learning period has created important intellectual capital that has already been exploited by various companies. Research-intensive companies typically operate in fields where failure is an inherent risk. Governments typically support emerging industries based on high-technology because of their growth potential. The combination of high-intensity R&D and high risks creates a problem for all investors. The created value is primarily in the form of intangible assets, which are not captured in traditional accounting and for which no well-established alternative metrics exist. Consequently, in the case of a company failure, most of the created value added is considered lost. This loss not only complicates the justification of government support policies but typically leads to high initial expectations of the sector that are unfortunately often followed by subsequent disappointments. We think that the present concept of failure may be profoundly misleading.
    Keywords: G24 ; G33 ; J24 ; L65 ; M13 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Intellectual capital ; Biotechnology companies ; Life science ; Knowledge recycling ; Venture capital ; Failed companies ; Biotechnologie-Industrie ; Pharmaindustrie ; Immaterielle Werte ; Risikokapital ; Insolvenz ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Much of the empirical literature on PRP (Performance Related Pay) focuses on a question of whether the firm can increase firm performance in general and enterprise productivity in particular by introducing PRP and if so, how much. However, not all PRP programs are created equal and PRP programs vary significantly in a variety of attributes. This paper provides novel and rigorous evidence on the productivity effect of varying attributes of PRP and shows that the details of PRP indeed matter. In so doing we exploit the panel nature of our Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data on the details of PRP. We first establish that the omitted variable bias is serious, makes the cross-sectional estimates on the productivity effect of the details of PRP biased upward substantially. Relying on the fixed effect estimates that account for such bias, we find: (i) group incentive PRP is more potent in boosting enterprise productivity than individual incentive PRP; (ii) group incentive PRP with profitability as a performance measure is especially powerful in raising firm productivity; (iii) when a narrow measure (such as cost reduction) is already used, adding another narrow measure (such as quality improvement) yields no additional productivity gain; and (iv) PRP with greater Power of Incentive (the share of PRP in total compensation) results in greater productivity gains yet returns to Power of Incentive diminishes very slowly.
    Keywords: M52 ; J33 ; J24 ; J53 ; O53 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study the effects of compulsory military service in Finland on the conscripts' future labour market behaviour. This is measured in three ways: first, the time it takes to complete civil education and the level of education acquired; second, how the conscripts will find employment; and third, their wage level. In order to do this, the Finnish armed forces' information on the conscripts who performed their military service in 1998 is combined with the labour market data of Statistics Finland. According to the results, there is a statistically significant connection between military service and future labour market position. Especially, the grade given to conscripts upon completing their service has a very clear positive connection to the future labour market position. In this kind of evaluation it is vital to control for the selection bias emerging from the fact that the most able persons are selected by the military to get more advanced levels of military training. Thus we evaluate the effects both by means of instrumental variables and matching. The former method shows that a longer military training does not have a statistically significant effect on the future wage level, while the latter gives the result that platoon leader training will lead to a 20 per cent higher wage level within 10 years after the military service. We further find that longer military service does not prolong the attainment of civil education and does not cause a reduction in employment within this time span.
    Keywords: J31 ; C21 ; C26 ; ddc:330 ; Military service ; labour market ; selection ; education ; employment ; wage rate ; Wehrdienst ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 22
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We analyse foreign-owned companies operating in Finland and compare them with domestic non-multinational firms while controlling separately for domestic multinational firms. The statistical and micro-econometric analysis is done using Statistics Finland data that contain all firms with at least ten employees in 1998-2008, partly in 1995-2010. We also control for a number of exogenous factors. According to the results, foreign-owned firms have higher productivity than domestic non-multinational firms. There is no difference in the average growth rate of productivity if the difference in levels is not controlled. Accordingly, a shift to foreign ownership has, on average, not affected the growth rate of productivity. The results concerning the growth rate of employment depend upon the method and timespan used in the analysis. The personnel of foreign-owned firms have a longer and higher education than the personnel of domestic non-multinational firms. Foreign-owned firms pay more direct taxes in relation to the number of their employees, which is partly due to these firms' higher productivity. The probability of becoming a target of a foreign acquisition is higher for medium-sized and large Finnish firms with high productivity than other firms.
    Keywords: C23 ; F23 ; G34 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; multinational firms ; ownership change ; productivity ; employment ; education ; taxes
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 23
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: To examine the productivity, employment and wage effects of ICT, we apply novel occupation based measures of organisational change within firms. With these measures, we directly address the complementarities between ICT and organisational changes. Our results support the view that organisational change complements ICT investments in a productivity-enhancing manner. In particular, the ICT-driven productivity gains are associated with the destruction of routine and non-interactive tasks in an organisation. Furthermore, using longitudinal aspects of our linked employer-employee data, we find that whereas ICT does not affect the probability of an employee becoming unemployed, it has a positive impact on the wage growth of retained employees.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; L23 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; ICT ; innovation ; organisational change ; restructuring ; productivity ; performance ; wages
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study conducts an international comparison of productivity and profitability. First, the level and growth of productivity are compared in OECD countries for the period from 1975 to 2009. According to this comparison, productivity growth has been faster in the key Finnish sectors com-pared with Finland's competitors. One of the main engines of growth since 1995 has been the ICT revolution. Second, the profitability of industries is calculated for 2007. Profitability is divided into productivity, prices and labour compensation. The results show that profitability in Finnish manu-facturing is competitive because of the high productivity level in 2007. However, the measurement of profitability and the quality of price components require further research.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; productivity ; profitability ; prices ; labour compensation ; Produktivität ; Rentabilität ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Vergleich ; Finnland ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study examines structures and challenges in the Finnish well-being sector from the innovation activity perspective. Firstly, it compares the quality and productivity based on international statistics and research reports, and R&D&I activities in the well-being sector. It investigates also shortly co-operation and interplay between public and private actors, and the role of ICT for improving sector's productivity. In the end, the study explores well-being and quality of labour markets, and innovation activities in Finland.
    Keywords: H51 ; H53 ; I11 ; J24 ; J81 ; ddc:330 ; well-being ; health ; working life ; productivity ; innovation activity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The paper compares the gender wage differentials of two occupation groups - innovation and non-innovation workers - separately for manufacturing and services using Finnish private-sector data. We apply a decomposition method based on unconditional quantile regression techniques to identify key factors underlying the gender wage gaps observed along the whole wage distribution, as well as changes in these wage gaps between 2002 and 2009. This more nuanced approach provides important new insights. We find conspicuous differences in average gender wage gaps, in gender wage-gap profiles across the wage distribution and also in the evolution of gender wage differentials over time between sectors and occupation groups. Our results imply that sector-specific factors are a more important driving force behind these differences in patterns and trends of gender wage gaps, although occupation-specific factors cannot be totally dismissed. Hence, comparisons of gender wage gaps, including their underlying sources, of innovation and non-innovation workers for too broadly defined segments of the labour market may result in misleading conclusions concerning the factual role of intangible capital.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; decomposition ; human capital ; intangible capital ; quantile regression ; wage formation ; services ; manufacturing ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Betriebliche Forschung ; Immaterielle Güter ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper compares the effects of intangible capital on wage formation among white-collar manufacturing workers using comparative data from three European countries: the Czech Republic, Finland and Norway. The analysis is undertaken in two steps. First, we explore the wage differentials and the underlying sources for two occupation groups: innovation and non-innovation workers. In a second step, this analysis is broken down by gender. We apply a decomposition method based on unconditional quantile regression techniques to examine the factors underlying the wage gaps observed along the whole wage distribution. The use of comparative cross-country data and a more elaborated wage decomposition method provides important new insights. We find, for example, that although innovation workers earn more than non-innovation workers in all three countries under scrutiny, there is considerable variation across the countries both in the levels and profiles of these wage differentials. Also the sources underlying these wage differentials vary between the countries. The levels and profiles of the gender wage gaps prevailing among innovation and non-innovation workers also reveal conspicuous cross-country differences. However, when it comes to the major sources contributing to these gender wage gaps, the results are strikingly similar across countries: what matters is marked gender differences in the rewards to similar basic human capital characteristics, not gender differences in these endowments.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; decomposition ; human capital ; intangible capital ; manufacturing ; quantile regression ; wage formation ; cross-country comparison ; Immaterielle Werte ; Humankapital ; Fraueneinkommen ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Lohnbildung ; Dekompositionsverfahren ; Finnland ; Norwegen ; Tschechische Republik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Labour-market polarization is characterized by increased employment in occupations at the top but also at the bottom of the skills and wage distributions, followed by a relative decline in 'middling' occupations. This paper documents a polarization trend also in the Nordic labour markets and contrasts it to comparative findings for the USA. Employment growth in the top-paying occupations is found to have been dominated by a large increase in the category of 'Engineering professionals and other professionals', whereas the growth at the bottom end stems mainly from increased employment in 'Personal and protective services'. The drop in the middle has been driven by a marked relative decline in the category 'Office clerks'. Analysis of the extent to which differences in wage development across skill groups have enhanced or attenuated this process of polarization in employment patterns suggests that the U-shaped pattern of employment change prevails also after controlling for concomitant changes in relative occupational wages. Hence, it seems that also the Nordic countries have experienced a shift from skill-biased technological change to non-routine-biased technological change - or, more likely, a combination of the two - and that this process has not been particularly dampened by compressed wage structures or relatively more rigid wages.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Labour market ; polarization ; occupation ; relative wages ; Lohnstruktur ; Berufsstruktur ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Finnland ; Norwegen ; Schweden
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We examine gender differences in careers using a large linked employer-employee dataset on Finnish white-collar manufacturing workers over the period of 1981-2006. Our focus is on labour market entrants whom we follow over time. We find that men start their careers from higher ranks of the hierarchy than women do, although gender differences in education explain much of this gap. Men are also more likely to be promoted than women, especially during the first years in the labour market, amplifying the gender differences in hierarchical positions already apparent at labour market entry. Men earn higher starting wages than women, while the results concerning gender differences in the returns to career progression are not clearcut, but depend on the type of career event and on the career phase. Overall, our results helps to understand the factors behind the large increase in the gender wage gap during the early career observed in the earlier literature.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; careers ; internal labour markets ; promotions ; mobility ; wage growth ; gender wage gap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyses those country characteristics, which lead those regions to become as productive operation and innovation environments for firms and research centres. This study shows that those countries who invest wisely to develop their innovation environment will be successful in high technology export markets. In recent years, Finnish high technology exports have declined because of difficulties in telecommunication sector. Productivity analysis shows that high country-level R&D expenditures - as in Finland and the United States - have positive correlation with labour productivity in manufacturing. Moreover, labour productivity in manufacturing in OECD countries relates positively with FDI and R&D expenditure growth. Also the level of education and firm-level sophistication increase labour productivity. China's role as global production factory and exporter has increased during 2000s. For example, Japanese and the US companies are leading actors, which are offshored their operations to China. However, deepening European integration has liberated and expanded intra-EU27 trade.
    Keywords: F12 ; F15 ; F23 ; F43 ; J24 ; L23 ; O31 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; productivity ; global production sharing ; innovation activities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: E22 ; E24 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 33
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 34
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Both academia and policymakers express a strong belief in higher average education levels exerting a narrowing impact on wage inequality in general and gender wage gaps in particular. The present paper scrutinizes whether or not this effect extends to R&D- and export-intensive branches such as the technology industry. The answer seems to be a cautious 'no'. Indeed, while changes in standard human capital endowments can explain little, if anything, of the growth in real wages or the widening of wage dispersion among the Finnish technology industry's white-collar workers, a new job task evaluation scheme introduced in 2002 seems to have succeeded, at least in part, to make the wage-setting process more transparent by re-allocating especially the industry's female white-collar workers in a way that better reflects their skills, efforts and responsibilities. One crucial implication of this finding is that improving the standard human capital of women closer to that of men will not suffice to narrow the gender wage gap in the advanced parts of the economy and, hence, not also the overall gender wage gap. The reason is obvious: concomitant with rising average education levels, other skill aspects have received increasing attention in working life. Consequently, a conscious combination of formal and informal competencies as laid down in well-designed job task evaluation schemes may, in many instances, offer a more powerful path to tackling the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; decomposition ; gender wage gap ; human capital ; job task evaluation ; technology industry ; wage formation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper explores the sources underlying the marked increase in the dispersion of private-sector wages in Finland since the mid-90s by use of a recently proposed method to decompose changes along the whole wage distribution over a period of time into several factors contributing to those changes. The results suggest that changes in the way individual and workplace attributes are valued in the labour market have been the driving force behind both real wage growth and increasing wage dispersion. This finding holds true most strongly for white-collar manufacturing workers, who dominate the higherpaid segment of the Finnish private sector. This phenomenon is less pronounced for services sector workers and, eventually, disappears when moving towards the lower end of the sector's wage distribution. Taken together, these findings are well in line with international evidence stating that changes in the way attributes are rewarded in the labour market tend to drive the growth in wage dispersion in the upper tail of the distribution while changes in the workforce composition are likely to be a notably stronger force behind widening wage differentials in the lower tail of the distribution.
    Keywords: J31 ; ddc:330 ; decomposition ; composition effect ; price effect ; wage dispersion ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Privatwirtschaft ; Dekompositionsverfahren ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In this study we focus on differences in careers and wage development between white-collar workers. We are interested in the questions of which factors contribute to these differences and at what stage of the career they occur. Furthermore, we investigate the wage effects of the different types of observed mobility. In the theoretical part of the study, models of job mobility and theories of wage and promotion dynamics inside firms are combined with the human capital theory. The descriptive analysis, on the other hand, examines the frequencies and the importance of different job transitions. In the econometric part of the study, we estimate the probability of a change of employer as well as the probability of being promoted using linear probability and multinomial logit models. Finally we examine the wage effects of job transitions. The data comes from the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK) and covers the period 1981 to 2006. The results indicate that educational choices are of considerable importance for the future career development of manufacturing white-collar workers. The higher educated not only start their careers from more demanding jobs than the less educated, but they also experience promotions more quickly. The field of education matters as well. White-collar workers with a degree in technology are more likely to ascend to more demanding jobs than those with a business education. We also find that the early career is very important for later career development. The promotion probability is highest during the first three years of tenure and for less than 30-year-olds. The transition rates differ also by gender. Women are less often promoted than men, and they are also less likely to change employers. Furthermore, white-collar males experience larger wage increases when promoted. Finally, besides mobility within firms, also employer changes have typically positive effects on wages. Employer changes are more likely among highly educated white-collar workers who are well paid at their current job and who perform demanding tasks. Mobility across firms typically takes place early in the whitecollar's career, when the corresponding wage gains are also largest.
    Keywords: J24 ; J30 ; J62 ; M51 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; career development ; internal labor markets ; job mobility ; human capital ; wage formation ; Karriereplanung ; Interner Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Humankapital ; Lohnbildung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: By using new panel data for Finnish banks we study the impact of training on wages and performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first paper to compare explicitly the effects of general and firm-specific workplace training on outcomes for both employees and firms. Unlike much existing literature, we find stronger evidence that training improves worker outcomes rather than organizational performance. Depending upon specification, the estimated wage elasticity with respect to training is in the range of 3-7%, whereas the performance effects vary widely depending on the measures of training intensity. The other key finding is that general training is associated with higher wage and performance effects than is firm-specific training.
    Keywords: M53 ; J24 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Betriebliche Weiterbildung ; Weiterbildung ; Humankapital ; Lohn ; Unternehmensentwicklung ; Bank ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We examine the sources and micro-level mechanisms of the changes in the labor share of value added. We link the micro-level dynamics of the labor share change with that of productivity and wage growth. Using a useful variant of the decomposition method we make a distinction between the change in the average plant and the micro-level restructuring. With Finnish plant-level data covering three decades we show that micro-level restructuring is the link between the declining labor share and increasing productivity in 12 manufacturing industries of four regions, and that increased international trade is a factor underlying those shifts.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Globalization ; international trade ; foreign ownership ; micro-level restructuring ; labor share ; Lohnquote ; Globalisierung ; Außenwirtschaft ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Wirtschaftliche Anpassung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: J31 ; J38 ; J50 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Lohnstruktur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 40
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The 1990's was a turbulent period for Finnish postgraduate education. The education system was reformed and the number of postgraduate students who graduated every year increased at a fast pace. In this thesis doctorate and licentiate degree holders as a group, as well as how their labour market situation has changed in the period of 1990-2004, is studied. The aim of the thesis is to describe the changes in the period rather than to try to explain them, since this is very complicated. The thesis uses the Finnish Longitudinal Employer- Employee Data (FLEED) that is maintained by Statistics Finland. The data cover a randomly chosen third of the Finnish population aged 16-69 in the years 1990-2004. The descriptive analysis shows that the composition of the group changed. Women's share of the postgraduate degree holders increased, as did the mean age among recently graduated, mostly because the share aged over 50 increased. The labour market situation of the postgraduate degree holders weakened during the period but was still good, all in all. There were remarkable differences between the different fields of study. Those with education in social and health care and in engineering enjoyed the most favourable conditions, while those with education in humanistic fields faced the least favourable labour market situation. The number of private sector employers with employees with postgraduate degrees doubled during the period. There were some differences between the firms employing postgraduate degree holders and the average firm in Finland. Moreover, the return to postgraduate education was estimated using regression analysis. Throughout the period, it seems that the return to postgraduate education remained unchanged. The marginal return to postgraduate education somewhat decreased during 1990- 1996, but thereafter the direction of the development is less clear. In 2004 a person with a postgraduate degree earned 101 percent more than a person with upper secondary education only and 16 percent more than a holder of a Master's degree. There were also obvious differences in earnings between postgraduate degree holders in different fields of study. Persons with a degree in social and health care earned 52 percent more than those with a humanistic degree in 2004. In the same year female postgraduate degree holders earned about 20 percent less than their male colleagues, but the wage differential across gender decreased during the period.
    Keywords: J24 ; J44 ; ddc:330 ; PhD ; higher education ; Finland ; employment ; wages ; returns to education ; Wissenschaftler ; Studium ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Bildungsertrag ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Swedish
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  • 41
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on job market signalling and on education as a job market signal. Possible economic implications of educational job market signalling to an individual and the society are represented based on existing theories. The paper also reviews central methods in empirical testing of the signalling/screening hypothesis. The empirical section of the paper carries out two alternative methods for testing the signalling/sorting hypothesis. The first method is a so-called natural experiment where the Finnish comprehensive school reform (implemented in the 1970's) is used as an exogenous shock variable in an econometric model explaining educational attainment. Besides qualitative changes to the old comprehensive school system, the reform increased minimum school leaving age from 12 to 15 years. Enforcing the idea of Lang and Kropp (1986), I argue that under the human capital hypothesis the reform should only have affected schooling choices of those individuals whose behaviour was directly constrained by the reform, whereas under the sorting hypothesis it should also have affected those who were not directly constrained. I find no evidence of such an indirect effect on post-comprehensive educational attainment as predicted by the sorting hypothesis. However, my results indicate that the reform may have had an effect on non-constrained individuals' tertiary educational attainment. I regard this result as tentative, because it clearly contradicts with the 'ripple effect' observed by Lang and Kropp. The second method studies the importance of relative education as an explanatory variable in a Mincerian- style wage equation. I find the conclusions of this method to be dependent on the reference group used in defining relative education. Consequently also the second method yields somewhat inconclusive results on the importance of education as a job market signal. The sorting hypothesis gains most support when I use jointly the regional distribution of education and the age distribution of education to define an individual's education relative to his reference group. The overall impression from the empirical section suggests that the signalling effect of education on wages is minor compared to the human capital effect. I conclude that even though the comprehensive school reform had a positive effect on average productivity, one should not make any hasty generalizations from this result regarding the whole educational system. The sample used in the empirical analysis consists of over 120 000 men, born in Finland between 1962 and 1966. It is a cross-section of the Finnish Longitudinal Census Data File generated by Statistics Finland.
    Keywords: I21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; education ; job market signalling ; sorting ; screening ; Finnish comprehensive school reform ; human capital ; Bildungsniveau ; Signalling ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Humankapital ; Bildungsertrag ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 42
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We use the concept of marginal intra-industry trade (MIIT) to analyse the effect of trade expansion on labour productivity growth across 23 EU countries and 94 manufacturing sectors in 1995-2005. The highest MIIT index values are found in sectors producing differentiated goods as well as in science and scale-intensive sectors, while the lowest are found in resource and labour-intensive sectors. Thus specialisation in sectors characterised by tradi-tional comparative advantage has been associated with slower productivity growth. The results indicate that a trade-flow expansion characterised by intra-industry trade (high MIIT) is associated with faster productivity growth also after we control for the size in trade flow changes. Especially the increase in imports seems important. The analysis is mostly done using random-effects linear model specifications but further evidence is presented using several other estimation methods.
    Keywords: J24 ; F1 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; productivity ; growth ; marginal intra-industry trade ; Intraindustrieller Handel ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: An employer-employee panel is used to study whether the movement of workers across firms is a channel of unintended diffusion of R&D-generated knowledge. Somewhat surprisingly, hiring workers from others’ R&D labs to one’s own does not seem to be a significant spillover channel. Hiring workers previously in R&D to one’s non-R&D activities, however, boosts both productivity and profitability. This is interpreted as evidence that these workers transmit knowledge that can be readily copied and implemented without much additional R&D effort.
    Keywords: D62 ; J24 ; J62 ; L25 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; Labor mobility, R&D spillovers, Profitability, Linked employer‐employee data ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Betriebliche Forschung ; Wissenstransfer ; Theorie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This review maps out the labour market situation of PhDs employed in the private sector. To begin with, the theoretical motives for employing PhDs and the supporting empirical evidence are examined. The potential benefits of companies from employing PhDs can be divided into productivity and innovation effects as well as knowledge contributions from networking, and external effects. Next, the international empirical literature on PhDs in the private sector is surveyed. The mostly US based research focuses primarily on PhDs in the fields of science and engineering. It provides no synoptic picture of the employment situation of the PhDs in the private sector and leaves a need for further research. A more detailed review of the Finnish literature shows that the private sector employs only about 15% of all PhDs in the Finnish labour market. There is, however, large variation between different fields of study, genders and age groups. The rapid increase in graduating PhDs in recent years indicate that the employment patterns of PhDs might be changing. Further research is needed to answer questions like: How has the increased supply changed the labour market situation of PhDs? Has the role of the private sector as an employer of PhDs changed? And is the allocation of PhDs between fields of study efficient? Another issue that has earned only very little attention is the mobility of PhDs in the labour market. Mobility within and between sectors is very important for both the diffusion of knowledge in the economy and the development of the career and wage profiles of PhDs. Because of the recent development, the existing knowledge gaps and the rapidly ageing research conducted up to this day, there is, thus, an urgent need for further research in this field.
    Keywords: J24 ; J44 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; PhDs ; private sector ; career ; wages ; employment ; Akademische Berufe ; Privatwirtschaft ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Gehalt ; Finnland ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The primary findings of our study suggest that software firms that adopt the OSS-based business model are notably less productive than companies that merely offer proprietary software solutions. Our estimation results further show that the OSS business model adopters have not become notably less productive after beginning to supply OSS. Therefore, its seems that not the use of the OSS business model as such has reduced the OSS firms' labour productivity but the firms that employed the OSS business model during the sampled years were, on average, of lower labour productivity type. Though the OSS business model use has not substantially improved the performance of software firms, we find that the OSS business model adopters strategically using the source code made available by the OSS community as part of their new software products, have performed better in terms of labour productivity than other adopters of the OSS business model.
    Keywords: D24 ; J24 ; L17 ; L86 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; open source software ; business strategies ; open innovation ; labor productivity ; IT-Industrie ; Softwareindustrie ; Open Source ; Produktivität ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan naisten ja miesten välisiä ammatillisia eroja Suomen yksityisellä sektorilla vuosina 1995–2004 käyttäen Tilastokeskuksen palkkarakennetilastoa. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että sukupuolten ammatilliset erot ovat Suomessa suuret. Segregaation aste on tosin pienentynyt tutkimusperiodin aikana, mutta muutokset ovat olleet verrattain pieniä. Segregaation suuruus vaihtelee huomattavasti taustatekijöiden mukaan. Segregaatio on esimerkiksi selvästi suurempaa vanhemmissa ikäryhmissä nuoriin työntekijöihin verrattuna. Segregaatio näyttää myös pienenevän koulutustason mukaan: korkeakoulututkinnon suorittaneiden kohdalla sukupuolten väliset ammatilliset erot ovat selvästi pienemmät verrattuna alempiin koulutustasoihin. Myös toimialojen välillä on vaihtelua segregaation suuruudessa. Jaettaessa toimialat sukupuolirakenteen mukaan mies- ja naisvaltaisiin sekä tasapainoisiin toimialoihin havaitaan segregaation olevan huomattavasti suurempaa miesvaltaisilla toimialoilla naisvaltaisiin tai tasapainoisiin toimialoihin verrattuna. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan lisäksi segregaation kehittymistä työkokemuksen mukaan. Pitkittäisanalyysin tulokset viittaavat siihen, että segregaation tasossa tapahtuu vain pieniä muutoksia työuran aikana.
    Description: This paper investigates occupational segregation by gender in the Finnish private sector during the period 1995-2004 using Statistics Finland’s Structure of Earnings data. The results show that although the occupational differences between genders have decreased during the investigation period occupational segregation by gender is still high in the Finnish labour market. The level of segregation is also found to vary by background characteristics. For example, segregation is higher among older workers. Moreover, segregation seems to decrease with the level of education: segregation is clearly lower among university graduates compared to workers with lower education. There is variation in the level of segregation also by the type of industry. Segregation is much higher in the male-dominated industries than in the female-dominated or in the gender-balanced industries. The paper also utilizes the panel structure of the data to investigate the question of how occupational differences between men and women evolve with work experience. The results suggest that there are only small changes in the level of occupational segregation along the working career.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; sukupuoli ; ammattisegregaatio ; gender ; occupational segregation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We examine how those re-entering paid-employment after a brief self-employment spell fare upon return using data from the European Community Household Panel. Unconditionally, those re-entering paid-employment appear to have considerably lower wages than those staying in the wage sector. This difference appears to be larger in Europe than in the US. Conditional analysis suggests, however, that the difference is more apparent than real : It seems that Europeans select negatively into (and possibly out-of) self-employment, i.e., the likelihood of entering (and exiting) entrepreneurship correlates negatively with unobserved ability and/or in-paid-employment productivity. Our analysis of non-wage outcomes indicates that the selection is mostly involuntary and that for highly educated men, the brief self-employment spells are unemployment in disguise.
    Keywords: J23 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; self-employment ; job mobility ; earnings ; wage differentials ; selection ; Selbstständige ; Lohnniveau ; Arbeitskräfte ; Lohnstruktur ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We examine the determinants of labour market status after the initial vocational basic education (ISCED 3) by use of unique linked register data on students, their parents, teachers, educational organisations and business companies in Finland. We distinguish between four outcomes: 1) employment 2) further studies 3) non-employment and 4) drop-out. The explanatory factors are classified into three main groups: the characteristics of 1) the educational organisation and their institutions, 2) the students and 3) the local business conditions. Teaching expenditures do not matter but teachers’ skills do. Parental background plays a central role. Local business development matters for boys.
    Keywords: H52 ; I21 ; J23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Education production, vocational education, employability, further studies, egional development, drop-out ; Berufsausbildung ; Berufsvorbereitung ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Humankapital ; Beschäftigungsfähigkeit ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In Finnish manufacturing, the gender wage gap more than doubles during the first ten years in the labor market. This paper studies the factors contributing to the gender gap in early-career wage growth. The analysis shows that the size of the gender gap in wage growth varies with mobility status the gap being much higher when changing employers compared to within-firm wage growth. Several explanations for the gender gap in wage growth based on human capital theory and theory of compensating wage differentials are considered. However, most of the gap in wage growth remains unexplained. Further analysis documents that the female penalty in wage growth increases significantly as we move along the conditional wage growth distribution with a sharp acceleration in the gap at the top of the distribution.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; J6 ; J7 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Wage Gap, Wage Growth, Mobility ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Berufseinstieg ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Geschlecht ; Humankapital ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study whether older workers are costly to firms. Our estimation equations are derived from a variant of the decomposition methods frequently used for measuring micro-level sources of industry productivity growth. By using comprehensive linked employeremployee data from the Finnish business sector, we study the productivity and wage effects, and hence the profitability effects, of hiring and separation of younger and older workers. The evidence shows that separations of older workers are profitable to firms, especially in the manufacturing ICT-industries. Robustness checks include the use of regional labor supply and other variables as instruments for the potential endogeneity of the labor flows.
    Keywords: C43 ; J23 ; J24 ; J63 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; aging, productivity, wage, profits, hiring, separation, employer-employee data ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte ; Industrie ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Lohnniveau ; Personalplanung ; Rentabilität ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study how upgrading the skills of the personnel affects a firm’s performance. Two different strategies are examined: 1) providing formal training and 2) strategic recruitment and separation policy. The use of register-based longitudinal employeremployee data supplemented with a survey on vocational training provides an opportunity to shed fresh light on the issue and allows us to address the usual econometric problems. We find that internally (but not externally) organized training stimulates subsequent growth of performance but only when combined with the implementation of new process or product technology. Hiring highly skilled workers is initially costly to firms but is productivityenhancing in the long run.
    Keywords: J24 ; M5 ; O3 ; D2 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity, profitability, training, education, hiring ; Produktivität ; Humankapital ; Bildungsniveau ; Berufsbegleitende Ausbildung ; Personalbeschaffung ; Personalauswahl ; Schätzung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Using data from the Finnish private sector, this paper shows that giving birth to a child has negative effects on the mother’s wage. Analysis of the reasons for the wage penalty associated with motherhood suggests that the loss of human capital during the child-related career break is an important factor behind the motherhood wage penalty. The paper also finds some evidence that mothers’ selection into different types of firms than childless women may contribute to the wage penalty. Instead differences in unobserved time-invariant individual characteristics between mothers and childless women seem to be unimportant in explaining the motherhood wage penalty. Finally, there seems to be variation in the child-penalty across worker and firm characteristics. For example, the penalties are lower in the female-dominated industries than in the male-dominated industries. There is also variation in the motherhood wage penalty across the conditional wage distribution. Most notably, the large average wage penalties for mothers who spend longer periods at home taking care of their children appear to be driven by heavy penalties at the upper tail of the conditional wage distribution.
    Keywords: J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Wages, Mothers, Human Capital ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Frauenerwerbstätigkeit ; Mütter ; Privatwirtschaft ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The urban labor market in Bolivia can be divided into 4 main sectors: 1) the public sector, 2) the formal private sector, 3) self-employed informals, and 4) informal workers. Although incomes are generally higher in the public sector and in the formal private sector, there is a strong preference in Bolivia for being informally self-employed. Two thirds of both men and women in urban areas respond that they would prefer to be self-employed rather than a salaried employee, and few see any advantage of becoming formal under the current institutional set-up. Currently, half of all economically active women in urban areas are informally self-employed, while this is the case for only one third of men. This implies that women are actually closer to the desired state than men, according to their own preferences. The real problem for women is not that they are informally self-employed, but rather that the profitability of their informal enterprises is low. On average, monthly profits of female micro-entrepreneurs is about 40% lower than those of male micro-entrepreneurs. This report uses quantitative information from about 600 micro and small enterprises to break down and understand this gender gap in profitability, and the results show that almost the whole gap is due to the fact that women operate their businesses on a much smaller scale (with less productive capital and fewer employees) than men. Why do female entrepreneurs operate on a smaller scale? One partial explanation is that they do not want to grow, because the business then would loose some of the features that make a micro-business particularly attractive for women (not to depend on others, to be able to care for children simultaneously, flexible working hours, and daily revenues). More important, however, is the lack of access to capital. Micro and small businesses operated by women have only a third of the operating capital of male operated businesses. There are two main reasons for this. First, women generally have fewer opportunities to accumulate capital, both because their household and reproductive work takes time away from paid work, and because they tend to earn less than men when they do work for money. Second, they do not have access to credit on reasonable terms. Access by itself is not the problem, as there is a very active micro-credit industry in Bolivia, but the terms are so unattractive that women try to avoid it if at all possible. The interest rates are high (20-40% per year); the group-lending practices increases the risk for the borrower, as they may end up paying other group members debt also; and they are typically required to assist at compulsory training courses twice a month, which is demanding for busy women running both a business and a household. Banks offer loans at more reasonable terms, but the requirements are difficult for micro-entrepreneurs to comply with (especially proof of a monthly pay check) and the risk is large as an entire house is often put up as collateral for even a small loan. Capital and credit is not a binding constraint in all sectors, however. On average, returns to additional capital investments are estimated to be relatively high (internal rates of return of over 20%) in the food sales sector, the textile clothing sector, and the camelid clothing sector. In contrast, they are estimated to be negative for grocery stores and the transport sector, which have experienced overinvestment to the extent that the returns to both capital and labor in these two sectors have been severely depressed. Even in the sectors where returns to capital are relatively high, a doubling of productive capital would not lead to a doubling of monthly profits. In fact, estimation results show strongly diminishing returns to scale, which means that micro-enterprises have little incentive to grow. Under the current institutional setup in Bolivia, it makes more economic sense to have several identical micro-enterprises in the family rather than one larger enterprise, and this is indeed often observed in practice. This is partly due to the characteristics of the sectors (for example, several small stores can capture a larger market due to the geographical dispersion), but it is mostly due to the tax-system, which becomes very demanding, both in terms of bureaucratic procedures and in terms of tax burden, as soon as an enterprise grows past a certain threshold. Under the current institutional set up, micro-entrepreneurs perceive no benefits from becoming formal, and indeed estimation results confirm that formality would lower the monthly profits of micro-enterprises (less than 3 workers and less than $1000 in operating capital) by 30-40%. Slightly bigger firms (3-5 workers), however, may benefit from getting a NIT and thus be able to offer facturas to the clients.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; J42 ; J48 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Productivity ;