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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: German social security records involve an indicator for part-time or full-time work. In 2011, the reporting procedure was changed suggesting that a fraction of worker recorded to be working full-time before the change were in fact part-time workers. This study develops a correction based on estimating the probability of being a part-time worker before and after the break. Using the correction, the paper confirms that the rise in wage inequality among full-time workers in West Germany until 2010 is not a spurious consequence of the misreporting of working time.
    Keywords: C80 ; J31 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; Germany ; Part-time indicator ; SIAB7514 ; Wage inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-04-30
    Description: Durch eine rasant wachsende Rechenleistung können immer mehr Tätigkeiten, die bislang dem Menschen vorbehalten schienen, mittels Maschinen und Algorithmen automatisiert werden. Dieser technologische Wandel hat eine öffentliche Debatte über mögliche Arbeitsplatzverluste und eine drohende Massenarbeitslosigkeit entfacht. Solche Hiobsbotschaften sind aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht aus vier Gründen deutlich überzogen: Erstens werden die technologischen Potenziale zur Automatisierung von Jobs vielfach deutlich überschätzt. Zweitens wird noch lange nicht jedes Automatisierungspotenzial tatsächlich in der betrieblichen Praxis genutzt. Drittens verhindert eine sich immer wieder flexibel anpassende Arbeitsteilung zwischen Mensch und Maschine vielfach Arbeitsplatzverluste. Und viertens setzt Automatisierung Kompensationsmechanismen frei, die dem ursprünglichen Verdrängungseffekt entgegenwirken. Ein Ende der Arbeit ist daher trotz stetig wachsender technischer Möglichkeiten nicht in Sicht, auch wenn dieser tiefgreifende Strukturwandel Arbeitskräfte vor neue Herausforderungen stellt.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Wirtschaftsleistung und Produktivität sind in Deutschland regional sehr unterschiedlich verteilt. Insgesamt ist das Effi zienzniveau in Ballungszentren höher als in ländlichen Gebieten. Das gilt für Ostdeutschland wie für Westdeutschland. Ostdeutschland ist aber deutlich stärker ländlich geprägt als Westdeutschland. Dies ist ein wesentlicher Grund für die anhaltenden regionalen Produktivitätsunterschiede zwischen Ost und West. Es sind besondere Maßnahmen erforderlich, die ländliche und alte Industriegebiete im Westen und Osten dabei unterstützen, ihre Wirtschaftsleistung zu verbessern.
    Keywords: J24 ; O47 ; R11 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Donald Trump gewann 2016 die Präsidentschaftswahlen, nachdem schon seit der Regierungszeit Ronald Reagans die oberen Einkommensschichten begünstigt worden waren. Der technische Fortschritt und die Globalisierung führten zu einem Wandel der Wirtschaftsstruktur zulasten der Mittel- und die Unterschicht. Diese litten am stärksten unter sinkenden Löhnen, einer steigenden Verschuldung und der geringen sozialen Mobilität und wendeten sich gegen die sogenannte Elite, die sie für verantwortlich hielten.
    Description: Donald Trump won in 2016 because of the building despair that began under Ronald Reagan's presidency. Economic dislocations played a crucial role in convincing voters in the Rust Belt to vote for an anti-establishment candidate. The dislocation was born out of the development of a dual economy characterised by falling wages, increasing debt and downward social mobility.
    Keywords: D63 ; E65 ; H22 ; I31 ; J31 ; N62 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Vielfach wird in der öffentlichen Diskussion ein zumindest annähernd existenzsichernder Mindestlohn von 12 Euro gefordert. 2017 haben etwa 11 Mio. Beschäftigte zu einem Stundenlohn von weniger als 12 Euro gearbeitet. Das betrifft insbesondere geringfügig Beschäftigte, aber auch Teilzeitkräfte. Dieser Beitrag analysiert das Verhältnis von Mindestlohn und Tarifvertragssystem sowie die Auswirkungen einer stärkeren Mindestlohnanpassung.
    Keywords: J30 ; J31 ; J52 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Seit der Einführung des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns erhalten Berichte zu dessen Umsetzung und Einhaltung eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit. Bisher erschienene Studien zeigten dabei kein eindeutiges Bild über den Umfang der Mindestlohn-Umgehungen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Gründe für die teilweise sehr unterschiedlichen Ergebnisse herausgearbeitet. Neue Daten der Verdiensterhebung und zusätzliche Auswertungen mit dem SOEP-Datensatz zeigen, dass die Umgehungen nach der ersten Erhöhung des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns Anfang 2017 wieder zugenommen haben. Das Beispiel Großbritannien macht deutlich, dass es Möglichkeiten gibt, den Mindestlohn besser einzuhalten.
    Keywords: J30 ; J31 ; J52 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Die Soloselbstständigkeit wird häufig mit einer prekären Wirtschaftslage der „marginalen“ Alleinunternehmer assoziiert. Eine Auswertung der Daten des Mikrozensus 2014 zeichnet jedoch ein differenziertes Bild. Es befinden sich zwar unter den Soloselbstständigen im Handwerk viele auffällige Untergruppen: EU-Ausländer, Erwerbstätige im Rentenbezugsalter, Frauen und Teilzeittätige. Gleichzeitig zeichnet sich jedoch ab, dass die überwiegende Mehrheit persönliche Nettoeinkommen erreicht, die oberhalb der Armutsgefährdungsschwelle für einen Ein-Personen-Haushalt liegen. Als problematisch ist daher weniger die aktuelle Einkommenslage der Soloselbstständigen einzuschätzen, als vielmehr die Ungleichstellung unterschiedlicher Erwerbsformen in Hinblick auf die Pflichten zur sozialen Absicherung.
    Keywords: J26 ; J31 ; L26 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Die Produktivität wächst in vielen Industriestaaten mit abnehmender Rate. Gleichzeitig entwickelt sich die Produktivität zwischen einzelnen Unternehmen auch in eng begrenzten Wirtschaftsbereichen unterschiedlich. Gibt es zwischen diesen beiden Entwicklungen Zusammenhänge? Es zeigt sich, dass insbesondere die Akkumulation von Wissenskapital durch Forschung und Entwicklung und die Wissensdiffusion bedeutende Faktoren sind, auch wenn die Ursachen je nach Wirtschaftssektor variieren. Die Bedeutung zunehmender Marktmacht für die Produktivitätsunterschiede muss noch genauer untersucht werden.
    Keywords: D24 ; J24 ; O47 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: Since the beginning of the recession period in Europe, unemployment has greatly affected the young adult population. In this context, Spain is regarded as an extreme case, due to its exceptionally high youth unemployment rates. This article seeks to identify the determinants that have led certain groups of Spanish young people to suffer labour market trajectories with higher levels of unemployment and instability during the Great Recession than others. To do this, retrospective data from the 2012 Catalan Youth Survey are used. With these data and using cluster analysis, a typology of labour market trajectories is constructed. Next, multinomial logistic regressions are used to identify what individual socio-demographic characteristics and pre-crisis employment experiences are connected to these different typological career paths. Results show that the highly differentiated career paths are associated with different social profiles and differences in the presence of unemployment. Moreover, interesting differences among the most unstable career paths appear. For the most vulnerable social profiles the employment trajectory prior to the crisis seems to point towards the existence of an entrapment in low-skilled jobs that alternate with situations of unemployment. For those with a slightly better position their employment situation after the initiation of the crisis seems to have been impacted by their brief labour market trajectory before the crisis and their resulting work experience gap.
    Keywords: J24 ; J64 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Employment trajectories ; Great Recession ; Labour markets ; Spain ; Unemployment ; Youth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: Data on tool use from O*Net's Tools and Technologies Supplement can, in conjunction with task-based measures, provide a new proxy for measuring and distinguishing general and specific skills at the occupational level. The tools and types of tools used in an occupation generate reasonable proxies for skill that vary across occupations and appear to capture features of occupations that differ from and complement task-based proxies for skill. Wage regressions indicate that job-specific tools, which correspond to particular occupations, are associated with higher pay. Non-specific tools correlate to lower-paying sales, service and administrative occupations.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Job skills ; Occupation-specific skills ; Tool use
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: This study analyses the selection of a sample of 203 young male asylum seekers from Middle Eastern and African countries that recently arrived in Germany. The findings suggest that, on average, asylum seekers in our sample have 22% more years of schooling-the indicator used for human capital-when compared to same-aged males from their country of origin. In addition, the analysis suggests that asylum seekers in the sample often accumulated rather low or relatively high levels of schooling compared to same-aged males in their countries of origin. This phenomenon is even more pronounced for parental education. It is demonstrated that individual human capital influences short-run integration outcomes in Germany. The paper discusses potential economic explanations for the findings on immigrant selection and integration outcomes.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrant selection ; Asylum seekers ; Human capital ; Family background ; Integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: Germany did not establish a statutory minimum wage until 2015. The new wage floor was set at an initial level of €8.50 per hour. When it was introduced, about 11 percent of German employees earned less than that amount. Based on descriptive figures, qualitative research and difference-in-differences analyses, we provide an overview of the available evidence regarding some of the topics that have attracted the most attention in international research and policy debates: the effects on wages and the wage distribution including issues of compliance in relation to the implementation of the new minimum wage, on the risk of poverty, on employment and the impact on businesses for instance with respect to productivity, prices or profits. The evidence shows that the minimum wage has increased hourly wages significantly, while the effect on monthly salaries has been far less substantial, as companies have partly reduced contractually agreed-upon working hours. Besides reductions in working hours or increases in work intensity, companies highly affected by the introduction of the minimum wage have used price increases and have had to accept profit reductions as a response to the new wage floor. If studies found any employment effects, they were-whether positive or negative-rather small in relation to the overall number of jobs. As in other countries, the minimum wage has not helped to reduce welfare dependency and the risk of poverty. Non-compliance remains a challenge for the implementation of the new statutory minimum wage.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; J38 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Germany ; Minimum wage ; Evaluation ; Survey ; Wages ; Employment ; Business
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Gender differences in the frequency of employer changes and their financial return were examined in a sample of Bavarian university graduates. The search and matching theories were used to develop hypotheses which were then tested against each other. The results show that in the first few years after graduation women change employer more frequently than men. In large part this can be explained by gender differences in labor market structures, in particular the fact that a woman's first job is less likely to be in a large company, in an executive position or on a permanent contract and women tend to be less satisfied with their first job. After controlling for variance in these factors the coefficient changes sign, indicating that under similar circumstances men change employer more often. Furthermore, both men and women benefit financially from changing employer. The absolute return is higher for men, but as men tend to have a higher starting salary there is no gender difference in the relative return and hence no effect on the gender gap. The results are also discussed in the light of the specifics of the structure of the German labor market.
    Description: Diese Studie nutzt eine Stichprobe bayerischer Hochschulabsolventen, um Geschlechtsunterschiede sowohl in der Häufigkeit als auch in den finanziellen Erträgen von Arbeitgeberwechseln zu untersuchen. Die Such- und Matchingtheorien werden genutzt, um Hypothesen zu entwickeln, die anschließend gegeneinander getestet werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Frauen ihren Arbeitgeber in den ersten Jahren nach dem Abschluss häufiger wechseln als Männer. Das kann zu einem großen Teil durch unterschiedliche Arbeitsmarktstrukturen erklärt werden, vor allem durch die Tatsache, dass Frauen in ihrer ersten Beschäftigung seltener in Großbetrieben, in Führungspositionen und mit unbefristeten Verträgen arbeiten und weniger zufrieden mit ihrer Arbeit sind. Sobald auf all diese Faktoren kontrolliert wird, ändert der Koeffizient sein Vorzeichen, d. h. unter gleichen Umständen wechseln Männer den Arbeitgeber häufiger. Weiterhin profitieren sowohl Männer als auch Frauen finanziell von Arbeitgeberwechseln. Männer erhalten höhere absolute Erträge, aber aufgrund ihrer höheren Einstiegseinkommen existiert bei den relativen Erträgen kein Unterschied zwischen Männern und Frauen und somit auch kein Einfluss auf die Gender Pay Gap. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund der Besonderheiten des deutschen
    Keywords: J31 ; ddc:330 ; Employer change ; Occupational mobility ; Gender wage gap ; University graduates ; Income development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-04-19
    Description: This paper presents new evidence on the evolution of job polarisation in Spain between 1994 and 2014. After showing the U-shaped relationship between employment share growth and job's percentile in the wage distribution, I use the task approach to investigate the main determinants behind job polarisation. Using the European Working Condition Survey I analyse in detail the task content of the jobs which display the most significant employment changes. I show that changes in employment shares are negatively related to the initial level of routine. I then explore the impact of computerisation on routine task inputs and I find that the routine measure is negatively related to computerisation. Finally, by using information on past jobs, I provide evidence on the displacement of middle-paid workers. Results suggest that they did not predominantly relocate their labour supply to bottom-paid occupations: while non-graduate middle workers move towards bottom occupations, graduate middle employees shift towards top occupations. This fact suggests that supply-side changes are important factors in explaining the expansion at the lower and upper tail of the employment distribution.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; R23 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Job polarisation ; Structural change ; Routine employment ; Occupational mobility
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: The incidence of employment interruptions and temporary part-time work has grown strongly among full-time workers, yet little is known about the impact on wage inequality. This is the first study showing that such episodes play a substantial role for the rise in inequality of full-time wages, considering the case of Germany. While there are also strong composition effects of education for males and of age and experience for females, changes in industry and occupation explain fairly little of the inequality rise. Extending the analysis to total employment reveals substantial negative selection into part-time work.
    Keywords: J31 ; J20 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; Wage inequality ; Part-time employment ; Employment interruptions ; Composition effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Description: Die Globalisierung schreitet voran und nimmt Einfluss auf die Einkommensverteilung zwischen Ländern und innerhalb von Ländern. Die Erforschung dieses Zusammenhangs hat sich weiterentwickelt und bietet verbesserte und nuanciertere Erklärungen als die frühen Ansätze von Adam Smith und David Ricardo, doch deren grundlegenden Einsichten in die Vorteile der globalen Arbeitsteilung bleiben unverändert relevant. Mit der Globalisierung 2.0 werden nicht mehr nur Endprodukte gehandelt. Die moderne Weltwirtschaft tauscht Komponenten, Zwischenprodukte und Dienstleistungen. Deren Produktionsstufen siedeln sich zumeist in qualifikationsärmeren Ländern an, was zu einer erhöhten Lohnungleichheit innerhalb der Länder führt. Jüngste Fortschritte in der internationalen Handelstheorie liefern ein weitergehendes Verständnis der Einflüsse auf die Einkommensverteilung.
    Description: As globalisation progresses, it moves the income dispersion between and within countries. Research into the nexus between globalisation and inequality has evolved and provides improved and more nuanced explanations beyond Adam Smith and David Ricardo's earlier explanations. Nonetheless, their principal insights into the benefits from the global division of labour remain as relevant as ever. With globalisation 2.0, it is no longer just final products that are being exchanged. The modern world economy trades components, intermediates and services. Their manufacturing stages are often located in less skilled countries, leading to heightened wage inequality within countries. Recent advances in international trade theory provide further detailed understanding of the income dispersion brought about by wage differentials between more and less globalised firms, on the one hand, and caused, on the other hand, by the globalisation-induced division of labour between occupations within firms and the accompanying wage dispersion.
    Keywords: D31 ; F61 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Description: Der gesetzliche Mindestlohn wurde zum 1. Januar 2015 eingeführt, nachdem zuvor die möglichen Auswirkungen kontrovers diskutiert wurden.1 Der Beitrag zieht auf Basis der inzwischen verfügbaren Daten und einer Vielzahl von Forschungsergebnissen Bilanz. In der Diskussion standen vor allem mögliche negative Beschäftigungseffekte im Vordergrund. Es hat sich aber gezeigt, dass auch andere Anpassungskanäle eine wichtige Rolle spielen.
    Description: Germany did not establish a statutory minimum wage until 2015. Its introduction affected around 11 % of the workforce. Based on the German Minimum Wage Commission's second report, we provide a broad review of the measurable effects so far. The examined effects range from wage development, employment, unemployment and vacancies to welfare dependency and the risk of poverty to labour costs, productivity, prices, profi ts and the competitive environment. We also discuss issues of compliance in relation to the implementation of the new wage fl oor. JEL Classifi cation: J21, J31, J38,
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; J38 ; K31 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median wage (i.e., the Kaitz index). We complement these data with variables on the employment, labor force participation, and unemployment rates of 5-year age interval categories-all derived from the official OECD database. We distinguish between countries without minimum wages, countries with uniform minimum wages for all age groups, and countries with separate youth and adult minimum wages. Our results indicate that the relative employment rates of young individuals below the age of 25-as compared to the older workers-in countries with youth minimum wages are close to those in countries without minimum wages at all. Turning to the smaller sample of countries with minimum wages, increases in the level of (youth) minimum wages exert a substantial negative impact on the employment rate for young individuals.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Youth minimum wages ; Employment ; Labor supply ; Cross-national studies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: This paper provides a comprehensive portrait of the level and compliance with sectoral minimum wages in Italy between 2008 and 2015. The results show that wage floors in Italy are relatively high both in absolute terms and relative to the median wage. However, non-compliance rates are not negligible: on average, around 10% of workers are paid 20% less than the minimum wage established in their reference collective agreement. Non-compliance is particularly high in the South and in micro and small firms, and it affects especially women and temporary workers. Overall, wages in the bottom of the distribution appear to be largely unaffected by minimum wage increases. More effective enforcement practices are therefore needed to safeguard a level playing field for firms and ensure that minimum wage increases are effectively reflected in pay increases for workers at the bottom of the distribution.
    Keywords: J08 ; J31 ; J52 ; J83 ; ddc:330 ; Minimum wages ; Collective bargaining ; Compliance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: We estimate the impact of education on productivity, wage costs and productivity-wage gaps (i.e. profits) using Belgian linked panel data. Findings highlight that educational credentials have a stronger impact on productivity than on wage costs. Firms' profitability is found to rise when lower educated workers are substituted by higher educated ones. This effect is found to be more pronounced among younger workers and women. Findings thus suggest that the productivity to wage cost ratio of low-educated workers is detrimental to their employability, especially when young or female. They also support the existence of a glass ceiling on women's career development.
    Keywords: C33 ; I21 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Labour costs ; Productivity ; Gender ; Age Linked panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-04-19
    Description: This paper analyses the level of inequality in Spain and how it evolved over the course of the past crisis and the early stages of the current recovery. To this end, it first introduces the various dimensions of wage, income, consumption and wealth inequality, and studies how they have developed. The analysis shows less wage dispersion in Spain than in other comparable economies, even after the crisis years, while the surge in unemployment during the period resulted in a high level of inequality in per capita income. The level of inequality in Spain is more moderate when total gross household income is analysed, decreasing during the crisis as a result of pensions developing more favourably than other sources of income, in conjunction with young people delaying setting up home. Inequality in per capita consumption rose during the crisis, particularly as a result of a decrease in expenditure on consumer durables by low-income households. Wealth inequality exceeds income inequality and increased during the downturn as a result of financial assets outperforming real assets. Nevertheless, Spain's wealth inequality is moderate by international standards, as ownership of real assets is more widespread than in other countries. The way inequality has evolved during the early stages of the current economic recovery shows that falling unemployment has enabled a reduction in wage income inequality, as well as in per capita income inequality, albeit to a lesser extent.
    Keywords: D31 ; J31 ; D14 ; E21 ; ddc:330 ; Inequality ; Wage ; Labour supply ; Personal income ; Household saving ; Household consumption ; Wealth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-06-04
    Description: Child maltreatment is a prevalent public health problem in both developed and developing countries. While many studies have investigated the relationship between violence against children and health of the victims, little is known about the long term economic consequences of child maltreatment, especially in developing countries. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Study, this paper applies Heckman selection models to investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and young adults' wages in South Africa. The results show that, on average, any experience of physical or emotional abuse during childhood is associated with a later 12% loss of young adults' wages. In addition, the correlation between physical abuse and economic consequence (14%) is more significant than the relationship between emotional abuse and wages (8%) of young adults; and the higher the frequency of maltreatment, the greater the associations with wages. With respect to gender differences, wage loss due to the experience of childhood maltreatment is larger for females than males. Specifically, males' wages are more sensitive to childhood emotional abuse, while females' wages are more likely to be affected by childhood physical abuse. These results emphasize the importance of prioritizing investments in prevention and intervention programs to reduce the prevalence of child maltreatment and to help victims better overcome the long-term negative effect.
    Keywords: I18 ; J30 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Child maltreatment ; Physical abuse ; Emotional abuse ; Wages ; Heckman selection model ; South Africa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-06-04
    Description: Managers and administrators in charge of social protection and health financing, service purchasing and provision play a crucial role in harnessing the potential advantage of prudent organization, management and purchasing of health services, thereby supporting the attainment of Universal Health Coverage. However, very little is known about the needed quantity and quality of such staff, in particular when it comes to those institutions managing mandatory health insurance schemes and purchasing services. As many health care systems in low- and middle-income countries move towards independent institutions (both purchasers and providers) there is a clear need to have good data on staff and administrative cost in different social health protection schemes as a basis for investing in the development of a cadre of health managers and administrators for such schemes. We report on a systematic literature review of human resources in health management and administration in social protection schemes and suggest some aspects in moving research, practical applications and the policy debate forward.
    Keywords: I11 ; I13 ; J24 ; J45 ; ddc:330 ; Human resources ; Health financing ; Health administration ; Health care purchasing ; Management ; UHC
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: Migration policies can have a strong impact on the selection of immigrants, who in turn can affect the host country's innovation development. This paper examines the effects of the liberalization of migration on the skill composition of immigrants from the EU-15 to Sweden after the inception of the European Economic Area (EEA) in 1994. We examine its effect on immigrants' education levels and probability of becoming an inventor, comparing immigrants from the EU-15 with those from other developed regions in difference-in-differences regressions. The results show that the liberalization of migration had a negative effect on the educational profile of new EU-15 immigrants in the short run, but there is no such effect in the long run. Moreover, the liberalization of migration has no systematic effect on the EU-15 immigrants' probability of becoming an inventor in neither the short nor the long run. These patterns are consistent with the theoretical implication that reduction in migration costs associated with the EEA mainly stimulated migration from the lower end of the education distribution.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; N30 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; Immigration ; Innovation ; Selection ; Skill level
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: In recent decades, the USA has admitted a large number of foreign-born students into its educational system, raising concerns that the presence of foreign-born students would adversely impact the educational achievement of US-born students and incentivize them to move to private schools where there are fewer immigrant students. In this article, I attempt to extend our understanding of how stricter immigration policy, such as the Legal Arizona Workers Act (LAWA), may affect college enrollment and the public-private school choice of US-born individuals. The analysis shows that the share of immigrant students across Arizona's educational system declined significantly by the passage of LAWA: the share of foreign-born students in elementary and secondary schools in Arizona would be higher by approximately 1.1 and 1.7 percentage points, respectively, in the absence of LAWA. Similarly, the share of foreign-born college students in Arizona declined significantly by 1.5 percentage points due to LAWA. Despite this decline, there is no evidence that LAWA has statistically significantly affected natives' college enrollment rates. However, there is evidence that LAWA reduces the proportion of US-born white non-Hispanic student in higher education attending private colleges.
    Keywords: J24 ; J61 ; I20 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Native college enrollment ; Public school ; Education
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This paper documents the changing structure of wages in India over the post-reform era, the roughly two-decade period since 1993. To investigate the factors underlying these changes, a supply-demand framework is applied at the level of the Indian state. While real wages have risen across India over the past two decades, the increase has been greater in rural areas and, especially, for unskilled workers. The analysis finds that, in rural areas, the changing wage structure has been driven largely by relative supply factors, such as increased overall education levels and falling female labor force participation. Relative wage changes between rural and urban areas have been driven largely by shifts in employment, notably into unskilled-intensive sectors like construction.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Labor supply ; Labor demand ; Rural wages in India
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: I examine the incidence and determinants of the gender income gap in Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Serbia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine using recent household data based on an identical survey instrument across countries. Four main results are established, using a range of estimators, including OLS, interval regression, and quantile regression: (1) the presence of a substantively large gender income gap (favoring males) in all six countries; (2) some evidence of a gender-related glass ceiling in some of these countries; (3) some evidence that endowments diminish the income gaps, while the returns to characteristics increase the gaps; and (4) while observed individual characteristics explain a part of the gaps, a substantial part of the income gap is left unexplained. In sum, these results are consistent with the presence of income discrimination towards females but at the same time also point towards the importance of continued attention towards institutions and economic policy for decreasing the gender income gap in these former formally gender neutral economies-notably through attention towards the maternity and paternity leave system, as well as public provision of child care.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J7 ; ddc:330 ; Gender ; Income gap ; Oaxaca-blinder decomposition ; Detailed decomposition ; Maternity/paternity leave policies ; Eastern Europe and Central Asia
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: In this paper, we study on a comparative basis the school-to-work transition of young women and young men in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and we examine how this has evolved over recent years, based on the data collected by Demographic and Health Surveys. We examine educational attainments and the nature of early jobs young people are able to obtain, as well as considering their relationship to marriage and fertility outcomes, factors which are likely to be particularly relevant for young women. A pooled regression analysis shows that educational levels have increased substantially and gender gaps have narrowed in most countries. Access to better jobs has improved much more slowly with unchanging gender gaps in most countries, so that agriculture is still the dominant sector of employment for most young men and women. We model correlates of key educational outcomes and access to different types of jobs those controlling for individual- and household-level characteristics, including marital status, presence of children and wealth. Attaining a high level of education is unsurprisingly critical for access to the best jobs and is also associated with young women delaying marriage and childbearing.
    Keywords: I21 ; J21 ; J24 ; O55 ; ddc:330 ; First job ; Education ; School-to-work transition ; Sub-Saharan Africa
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Drei Jahre nach der Einführung des Mindestlohns lässt sich zeigen, dass die Löhne im Niedriglohnsektor wieder gestiegen sind. Nichtsdestotrotz gibt es weiter zahlreiche Umgehungen des Mindestlohns in Deutschland. Eine Schätzung zeigt, dass es dadurch zu jährlichen Lohnausfällen und entgangenen Sozialbeiträgen in Milliardenhöhe kommt.
    Description: Three years after the introduction of the minimum wage in 2015, the assessment of its labour market impact is positive. Contrary to early warnings, there has been no apparent decline in employment in most affected parts of the labour market. The share of the working poor who were eligible for drawing in-work benefits declined by 2.7 percentage points. Nevertheless, there still is a pressing problem of 2.2 million minimum wage violations. Those occur more often in establishments that do not have worker representation and are not covered by collective bargaining. Women and East Germans are also more often affected. Lost wages and social insurance contributions in 2016 were as high as €10 billion.
    Keywords: J31 ; J51 ; J83 ; ddc:330
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    Language: German
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: This paper looks at the effect of technological and organisational changes on the probability for workers in the second part of their careers of transmitting their knowledge to other colleagues in their employing firm. We use matched employer-employee data to link changes occurred at the firm level with knowledge transmission behaviours measured at the individual-level. To control for selection bias based on differences in observable characteristics between workers employed in changing work environments and those employed in non-changing ones, we apply propensity score matching techniques. We find that ICT and management changes reduce significantly the probability for workers over 45 of transmitting their knowledge to their colleagues. Then, we analyse the role of training in mitigating this negative impact. To address issues of self-selection into training, we use propensity score matching methods and a proxy for unobservable productivity. We show that participation in a training program regarding ICT tools may help older workers restore their role of knowledge transmitters.
    Keywords: J14 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Older workers ; Knowledge transmission ; Skill obsolescence
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  • 31
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: This paper studies the contribution of different skill groups to the polarisation of the UK labour market. We show that the large increase in graduate numbers contributed to the substantial reallocation of employment from middling to top occupations which is the main feature of the polarisation process in the UK over the past three decades. The increase in the number of immigrants, on the other hand, does not account for any particular aspect of the polarisation in the UK. Changes in the skill mix of the workforce account for most of the decline in routine employment across the occupational distribution, but within-group changes account for most of the decline in routine occupations in middling occupations. In addition, there is no clear indication of polarisation within all skill groups-a fact that previous literature has cited as evidence that technology drives the decline of middling occupations. These findings differ substantially from previous evidence on the US and cast doubts on the role of technology as the main driver of polarisation in the UK.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Job polarisation ; Occupational mobility
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: This paper seeks to provide a continuous measure to represent the distance between skills acquired in tertiary education and those required in an individual's occupation. This distance measure, which is computed by combining data from the 2010 Brazilian census with information from the 2010 Brazilian classification of occupations, suggests that workers usually classified in most of the literature into a single group of mismatches are in fact quite heterogeneous in the way their occupations are associated with areas of study. Evidence also shows that, even among mismatched workers, hourly labor earnings tend to decrease as the distance measure increases. This indicates the labor earnings penalty is not the same for all mismatched workers, seemingly changing substantially depending on the level of similarity between occupation and field of study.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; I26 ; ddc:330 ; Occupations ; Fields of study ; Skill requirements
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: After childbirth, women often interrupt their careers. These interruptions are associated with negative consequences for later employment, which are greatly influenced by the duration of the interruption. We analyse the influence of occupational characteristics on this duration, as occupations are crucially important for career trajectories in Germany. Specifically focusing on occupational sex segregation, the occupational wage level and the share of part-time workers in occupations, we test two competing hypotheses: on the one hand, lower wages in female-dominated occupations should lead to longer employment interruptions due to lower opportunity costs. On the other hand, a higher ratio of part-time workers should lead to shorter interruptions due to better reconciliation between family and work. In addition, we analyse whether the proportion of women in a given occupation influences the duration of employment interruptions. We test these hypotheses using data from the National Educational Panel Study (starting cohort 6), combined with occupational information from the Sample of Integrated Labour Market Biographies and the German Microcensus. We focus on family-related employment interruptions after the birth of the first child between 1992 and 2010. The results of our discrete event history models indicate that higher wages lead to shorter breaks, while the part-time rate and the proportion of women in an occupation have no significant effects.
    Description: Nach der Geburt eines Kindes unterbrechen viele Frauen ihre Erwerbstätigkeit. Diese familienbedingten Erwerbspausen führen zu Karrierenachteilen, deren Ausmaß entscheidend von der Dauer der Unterbrechung abhängt. Aufgrund der nachhaltigen Bedeutung des Berufs für den gesamten Erwerbsverlauf in Deutschland untersuchen wir, inwieweit berufliche Merkmale diese Dauer beeinflussen. Dabei konzentrieren wir uns auf den Effekt beruflicher Geschlechtersegregation und die damit einhergehenden Berufsmerkmale Lohnniveau und Teilzeitquote und testen gegenläufige Hypothesen: Einerseits sollte das geringere Lohnniveau in frauendominierten Berufen durch niedrigere Opportunitätskosten zu längeren Erwerbsunterbrechungen führen. Andererseits sollten sich hohe Teilzeitquoten in frauendominierten Berufen aufgrund der besseren Vereinbarkeitsmöglichkeiten verkürzend auf Erwerbsunterbrechungen auswirken. Zudem wird untersucht, ob der Frauenanteil selbst darüber hinaus einen eigenständigen Effekt auf die Unterbrechungsdauer aufweist. Wir testen diese Hypothesen anhand von Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (Startkohorte 6), die um berufliche Merkmale beruhend auf der Stichprobe der Integrierten Arbeitsmarktbiographien und des Mikrozensus erweitert werden. Wir betrachten dazu Erwerbsunterbrechungen nach der Geburt des ersten Kindes in den Jahren 1992 bis 2010. Anhand von diskreten Ereignisdatenmodellen zeigt sich, dass ein hohes berufliches Lohnniveau die Rückkehr von Müttern auf den Arbeitsmarkt beschleunigt, während der Teilzeitanteil und der Frauenanteil selbst keinen signifikanten Einfluss aufweisen.
    Keywords: J13 ; J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Female employment ; Family related employment interruptions ; Occupational sex segregation ; Event history analysis ; West Germany
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: This study analyses data collected among a group of young male refugees who participated in a randomised experiment. Refugees were randomly assigned to a soccer project aimed at facilitating social and labour market integration or to a control group. We evaluate the randomisation process, discuss the design and implementation of the survey and summarize the main findings of the survey by focusing on labour market activity, pre-migration characteristics, and the monetary costs of the escape. In addition, we provide a preliminary outlook on the effectiveness of the programme.
    Keywords: C93 ; F22 ; J15 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Refugees ; Randomised experiment ; Labour market integration
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: This article reports the results of a replication of Bobbitt-Zeher's 2007 article 'The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education'. Models that emulate the original specifications (by and large) reproduce the original results. However, models that adhere to Bobbitt-Zeher's theory concerning the gendered effect of family formation call into question her finding that 'values appear to matter only modestly, while family formation has virtually no effect on the income gap'.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag berichtet die Ergebnisse einer Replikation von Bobbitt-Zehers 2007 erschienenem Aufsatz 'The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education'. Modelle, welche die ursprünglichen Spezifikationen nachbilden, replizieren (im Großen und Ganzen) die ursprünglichen Ergebnisse. Modelle, die hingegen Bobbitt-Zehers theoretischen Ausführungen bezüglich dem geschlechtsspezifischen Effekt der Familiengründung folgen, ziehen jedoch ihren Befund in Zweifel, wonach 'Werten nur eine bescheidene Bedeutung zukommt, während die Familiengründung praktisch keinen Effekt auf die Einkommensungleichheit hat'.
    Keywords: C00 ; J12 ; J16 ; J24 ; J29 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Gender gap ; Motherhood penalty ; Horizontal sex segregation ; Replication ; Decomposition methods
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Long-term labour market projections are a popular tool for assessing future skill needs and the possibility of skill shortages. It is often noted that reallocation processes in the German labour market are hindered due to its strong standardization and occupational segmentation. However, it is possible that persons leave the occupation for which they have been trained for. Disregarding such reallocations and their dynamics in the projection model is likely to distort the results and lead to inaccurate practical advice. In this article, we describe for the first time, how reallocations in the labour market can be modelled using occupational flexibility matrices and wage dynamics. Here, it is shown that employers react to labour scarcity by increasing wages to attract workers who to some extent can adjust their mobility behaviour accordingly. We analyse the aggregate impact of this implementation of a reallocation process of labour supply on the projection results by the means of scenario comparisons. Our results suggest that considering reallocations but also additionally their dynamics has substantial effects on the projection outcomes. They help draw an insightful picture of the future labour market and prevent over- or understating the potential for labour shortages in several occupations. We conclude that the assumptions about how reallocations differ by occupation and to what extent they can be realized by wage impulses is essential for projection results and their interpretation. Furthermore, we find that in the German labour market, wage adjustments cannot balance the labour demand and supply for occupations completely.
    Description: Wir entwickeln eine neue Methode zur Identifizierung verheirateter Paare in administrativen Daten. Mittels Adressdaten und Nachnamen der Gesamtheit der Beschäftigungsmeldungen in Deutschland, identifizieren wir ca. 3,3 Millionen Paare von Personen die an der gleichen Adresse wohnen, deren Nachnamen übereinstimmen, und einen Altersabstand von weniger als 15 Jahren haben. Wir zeigen mittels verschiedener Konsistenzchecks, dass ca. 89 bis 94 Prozent dieser Paare tatsächlich verheiratete Paare sind. Anhand von Informationen des Mikrozensus, zeigen wir, dass unsere Methode etwa 17 Prozent aller verheirateten Paar in Deutschland identifiziert und ca. 35 Prozent aller Paare bei denen beide Partner in sozialversicherungspflichtiger Beschäftigung oder arbeitslos sind. Der Paarindikator wird der Forschungsgemeinschaft und Nutzern der IAB Daten zur Verfügung gestellt. Unsere Methode eröffnet damit neue Forschungsmöglichkeiten für Haushaltsanalysen die von der Präzision und großen Beobachtungszahlen von administrativen Daten profitieren.
    Keywords: I25 ; J20 ; J21 ; J22 ; J23 ; J24 ; O11 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Labour market ; Projections ; Germany ; Occupational mobility ; Education ; Wage development
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Recent papers in the economic literature emphasise that the use of temporary contracts (TE) could have a detrimental effect on productivity. However, there are different reasons to believe that the impact of TE might not be homogeneous across sectors. In this article, we study the impact of TE on productivity growth and, in particular, we wonder if it differs according to sectors' skill intensity. Our data set is an industry-level panel of European countries that allows to divide sectors according to the skill intensity. Our main result is that TE has a negative impact on productivity growth, but it is more damaging in skilled sectors. While an increase of 10 percentage points of the share of TE in skilled sectors would decrease labour productivity growth of about 1-1.5%, in unskilled sectors the decrease would be of 0.5-0.8%. This result is robust to different skill intensity indexes and productivity measures, as well as to the sample composition. We also discuss policy implications of this result for labour market regulation.
    Description: Jüngste wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen betonen, dass die Nutzung befristeter Arbeitsverträge einen negativen Einfluss auf die Produktivität haben könnte. Es sprechen jedoch verschiedene Gründe dafür, dass die Auswirkungen befristeter Arbeitsverträge nicht in allen Branchen gleich sind. In diesem Artikel untersuchen wir den Einfluss von befristeten Arbeitsverträgen auf das Produktivitätswachstum und fragen insbesondere, ob es je nach der Qualifikationsintensität der Branchen Unterschiede gibt. Unser Datensatz ist ein Panel europäischer Länder auf Wirtschaftszweigebene, das es uns gestattet, die Branchen nach Qualifikationsintensität zu unterscheiden. Unser wichtigstes Ergebnis ist, dass befristete Beschäftigung einen negativen Einfluss auf das Produktivitätswachstum hat, dies aber in Branchen mit hoher Qualifikationsintensität stärkere negative Auswirkungen hat. Während ein Anstieg des Anteils an befristeter Beschäftigung in qualifikationsintensiven Branchen um 10 Prozentpunkte das Produktivitätswachstum um rund 1-1,5 % senken würde, betrüge dieser Wert in weniger qualifikationsintensiven Branchen nur rund 0,5-0,8 %. Dieses Ergebnis ist stabil für verschiedene Intensitätsindices und Produktivitätsmaßnahmen sowie für die Stichprobenzusammensetzung. Des Weiteren behandeln wir politische Auswirkungen dieses Ergebnisses für die Arbeitsmarktregulierung.
    Keywords: J41 ; J24 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity ; Temporary employment ; Skill intensity ; Differential effect
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Concurrently with a steady increase of the supply of college educated workers, recent evidence for the U.S. indicated a decline in the demand for and the real wages of this group after 2000. We investigate empirically, whether there has been a similar trend in Germany. Based on comprehensive, long-run administrative data for the years 1975 to 2010, we use a set of employment indicators to analyze labor market patterns of job market entrants. Besides consideration of the developments of education attainment and wages over time, we put a particular focus on changes of the task composition, the chances of entering top-paying jobs, entry wages and wage growth, and skill premia over time. To allow for a detailed analysis, we distinguish four education groups. The empirical picture shows that since the year 2000 job entrants with higher education have experienced decreasing employment shares in top-paying positions. Moreover, starting wages and wage growth have both decreased until the end of the observation period, too. A reason for this has been the substitution of jobs that were formerly executed by lower qualifications. Our findings reveal similarities between Germany and the U.S. in terms of some declining fortunes of the young. However, whereas in the U.S. college educated workers have been affected, the results indicate that in Germany the medium-skilled and low-skilled have been particularly impaired.
    Description: Jüngere empirische Evidenz für den US-amerikanischen Arbeitsmarkt zeigt, dass gleichzeitig mit dem stetigen Anstieg des Arbeitsangebots von Hochschulabsolventen die Nachfrage und die Reallöhne für diese Gruppe seit dem Jahr 2000 gesunken sind. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob es einen vergleichbaren Trend auch in Deutschland gab. Auf der Grundlage umfangreicher administrativer Daten für die Jahre 1975 bis 2010 berechnen wir eine Reihe von Arbeitsmarktindikatoren, um die Beschäftigungsmuster von Berufseinsteigern zu untersuchen. Neben der Berücksichtigung der Entwicklungen in der Bildungsbeteiligung sowie den Löhnen gehen wir hierzu auf die Änderungen in den beruflichen Tätigkeiten, den Chancen auf eine höherbezahlte Tätigkeit, die Eintrittslöhne sowie das Lohnwachstum und die Bildungsprämien ein. Darüber hinaus betrachten wir vier unterschiedliche Qualifikationsgruppen. Die empirischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich der Anteil von hochqualifizierten Berufseinsteigern in höherbezahlten Tätigkeiten seit dem Jahr 2000 verringert hat. Deutlich wird überdies, dass bis zum Jahr 2010 die Einstiegsgehälter gesunken sind und sich das individuelle Lohnwachstum in den ersten fünf Berufsjahren verringert hat. Ein Grund dafür liegt in der Beschäftigung von Absolventen in Tätigkeiten, die früher von Personen mit geringeren Bildungsabschlüssen ausgeführt wurden. Unsere Ergebnisse bestätigen daher einige Ähnlichkeiten zwischen dem deutschen und dem US-amerikanischen Arbeitsmarkt bezüglich verschlechterter Arbeitsmarktchancen für Berufseinsteiger. Ein wesentlicher Unterschied liegt aber in den Bildungsniveaus: während im US-amerikanischen Arbeitsmarkt vor allem College-Absolventen von diesen Änderungen betroffen sind, sind in Deutschland vor allem die mittel- und geringqualifizierten Berufseinsteiger hinsichtlich ihrer Arbeitsmarktchancen beeinträchtigt.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Labor demand ; Labor supply ; Occupational sorting ; Wages ; Education groups
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: The long run prosperity of nations is directly related to the skills of their population. The relevant cognitive skills - the 'knowledge capital' of a nation - can be measured well by international math and science tests. The consideration of knowledge capital can completely account for the Latin American growth puzzle and the East Asian growth miracle. Several analyses suggest that the relationship depicts a causal effect of skills. According to the evidence, an understanding of long run growth ultimately has to rest on the knowledge capital of nations. To further long run prosperity, policies should focus on education. Effective education systems align incentives with achievement through better educational practices such as external exams, school autonomy, choice and competition.
    Keywords: O47 ; I25 ; J24 ; ddc:330
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Demographic change will lead to a shrinking and ageing population in Germany, resulting in a decrease in the labour force. The fundamental trend can be counteracted through net immigration and behavioural effects such as increasing labour market participation of females in the short and medium run, but is unlikely to be reversed in the long run. This paper shows that the average age of the labour force follows a linear trend since the late 1990s. Moreover, there has been a convergence of average age between male and female workers. In a long run perspective the age distribution has become less heterogeneous, as measured by the coeffi cient of variation. At the same time, the average length of schooling and training has increased signifi cantly over the last 40 years, but at a slower pace in recent years. We discuss the consequences of these changes for economic growth.
    Keywords: J11 ; J21 ; J24 ; ddc:330
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2017-10-03
    Description: We use a unique longitudinal dataset from Peru to investigate the relationship between psychosocial competencies related to the concepts of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and aspirations, and a number of risky behaviours at a crucial transition period between adolescence and early adulthood. First of all, we document a high prevalence of risky behaviours with 1 out of 2 individuals engaging in at least one risky activity by the age 19 with a dramatic increase between age 15 and 19. Second, we find a pronounced pro-male bias and some differences by area of residence particularly in drinking habits which are more prevalent in urban areas. Third, we find a negative correlation between early self-esteem and later risky behaviours which is robust to a number of specifications. Further, aspiring to higher education at the age of 15 is correlated to a lower probability of engaging in criminal behaviours at the age of 19. Similarly, aspirations protect girls from risky sexual behaviours.
    Keywords: J24 ; J13 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage pregnancy ; Risky behaviours ; Psychosocial ; Aspirations ; Peru
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2017-10-03
    Description: Recent changes to immigration selection policies favor skilled workers with prior work experience in the immigrant host country. Using unique administrative tax data for Canada, we estimate earnings equations to quantify the difference in earnings of immigrants with prior Canadian experience (prefilers) and those without prior experience (non-prefilers). We find that, relative to non-prefilers, entry earnings are higher for prefilers and, for male immigrants, this earnings advantage persists for at least 20 years after arrival. We show that the primary source of the higher entry earnings of prefilers is a higher return to foreign experience. In addition, the prefiler earnings advantage is largest for university graduates and the return to foreign experience is higher for prefilers from Western countries than those from the rest of the world. Our findings suggest that a move towards an immigrant selection system which uses previous host-country work experience as a criterion will improve the labor market performance of immigrants.
    Keywords: J61 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrant selection ; Earnings ; Foreign experience returns ; Canada
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2017-10-03
    Description: There is a perception among native born parents in the USA that the increasing number of immigrant students in schools creates negative peer effects on their children. In North Carolina, there has been a significant increase in immigrants, especially those with limited English language skills. Recent data suggests that North Carolina has the eighth largest English-language learner (ELL) student population and over 60 % of immigrants are from Latin America and the Caribbean. While past research suggests negative though negligible peer effects of Limited English (LE) students and black students on the achievement of other students, potential peer effects of students from Latin America in general have not been considered. In this paper, we attempt to identify both LE student and Latin American (LA) student peer effects by separately utilizing fixed effects methods that allow us to deal with the potential selectivity across time and schools. On average, we find no evidence of negative peer effects of LE students on females and white students but note small negative effects on average on males and black students. We also find that, holding constant other factors, an increase in the share of LA students does not create negative peer effects on native students' achievement. Rather, it is the limited English language skills of some of these students that lead to small, negative peer effects on natives.
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; J15 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Student achievement ; Peer effects ; Education ; Race ; Gender ; Limited English students ; Latino peer effects ; Hispanic peer effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, the productivity gap between these two groups is considerably larger than the wage gap. In small firms, employee absenteeism results in lower productivity and wages, and the marginal productivity loss due to team worker absenteeism is significantly higher than the wage loss. No similar wage-productivity gap exists for large firms. Our findings suggest that productivity loss or gain is most likely to be underestimated when valued according to wages for team workers. The findings help to value the burden of illness-related absenteeism. This is important for economic evaluations that seek to measure the productivity gain or loss of a health care technology or intervention, which in turn can impact policy makers' funding decisions.
    Keywords: J31 ; D24 ; I12 ; I15 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity loss ; Absenteeism ; Marginal productivity ; Wage ; Teamwork ; Valuation
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  • 45
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: This paper analyzes the participation path of workers in the formal and informal sectors throughout their lives and their pension eligibilities, as well as how the social security scheme can change the aforementioned participation path. High levels of informality have impacts on the benefits that workers receive, especially their pension benefits. I use Argentinean panel data from 1995 to 2008 to construct a structural discrete choice model which estimates the population's labor path and their pension eligibilities. I find evidence that low-educated workers have difficulties to obtain a pension by the age of 65 and even by age 70. Policy experiments show that if the parameters are fixed as in the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) model, there is a slight reduction in the years worked in the formal sector and the percentage of workers who obtain a Full pension. If the pension requirements (minimum age and years contributing) are stricter, there is an increase in the years spent in the formal sector but it is not sufficient to achieve the benchmark level of pension coverage. If the requirements are looser, there is a reduction in the amount of time spent in formality to contribute up to the new threshold.
    Keywords: E26 ; J24 ; J26 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Pension ; Latin America
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: Firm shutdown creates a turbulent situation for workers as it leads directly to layoffs for its workers. An additional consideration is whether a firm's shutdown within an industry creates turbulence for workers at other continuing firms. Using data drawn from the Longitudinal Worker File, a Canadian firm-worker matched employment database, we investigate the impact of industry shutdown rates on workers at continuing firm. This paper exploits variation in shutdown rates across industries and within an industry over time to explain the rate of permanent layoffs and the growth of workers' earnings. We find an increase in industry shutdown rates increases the probability of permanent layoffs and decreases earnings growth for workers at continuing firms.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; J63 ; C35 ; ddc:330 ; Worker separation ; Firm survival ; Selection
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: In this paper we analyze career dynamics for US workers who have more schooling than their peers in the same occupation. We use data from the NLSY79 combined with the CPS to analyze transitions into and out of overeducated employment, together with the corresponding effects on wages. Overeducation is a fairly persistent phenomenon at the aggregate and individual levels, with 66% of workers remaining overeducated after 1 year. Overeducation is not just more common but also more persistent among blacks and low-AFQT individuals. Further, the hazard rate out of overeducation drops by about 60% during the first 5 years spent overeducated. However, the estimation of a mixed proportional hazard model suggests that this is attributable to selection on unobservables rather than true duration dependence. Lastly, overeducation is associated with lower current as well as future wages, consistent with scarring effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; Earnings dynamics ; Overeducation
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-04-19
    Description: Using micro data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), we first document how having a temporary contract in Spain is associated to lower levels of on-the-job training (OJT). Next, we find that this OJT gap is positively correlated with gaps in the literacy and numeracy scores achieved by these two types of workers in the PIAAC study. Although we choose Spain as a case study of a dual labor market, we also provide cross-country evidence showing that OJT gaps are lower in those European labor markets where dualism is less entrenched than in those where it is more extended.
    Keywords: C14 ; C52 ; D24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Dual labor market ; On-the-job training ; Cognitive skills ; Severance pay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: Field-of-study mismatch occurs when a worker, trained in a particular field, works in another field. This study draws on the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) to explore how skill supply and labour market demand dynamics influence mismatch. It updates cross-national estimates on mismatch and estimates the mismatch wage penalty. Findings suggest that around 40% of workers are mismatched by field at their qualification level, 11% overqualified in their field and 13% overqualified and working outside their field. The saturation of the field in the labour market and the transferability of the fields' skills predict the incidence of field-of-study mismatch and overqualification. Workers who are mismatched by field only suffer a wage penalty if they are overqualified.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Qualifikation ; Verteilungswirkung ; Lohnstruktur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-04-18
    Description: This paper presents evidence on a rise and fall in income inequality in Chile during the past two decades. We show that income inequality rises from 1990 to 2000 and then falls from 2000 to 2011. We perform simple but informative decompositions to figure out the contributing factors behind that dissimilarity in the behavior of inequality across those two subperiods. Our results are consistent with a story in which economic growth increases the demand for more educated workers, initially increasing inequality. However, those higher returns to education encourage agents to invest in higher education, producing a subsequent human capital deepening that reduces inequality at later stages of the development process.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Inequality ; Labor markets ; Skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: We uncover the short- and long-run structural determinants of the existing cross-country heterogeneity in public-private pay differentials for a broad set of OECD countries. We explore micro data (EU-SILC, 2004-2012) and macro data (1970-2014). Three results stand out. First, when looking at pay gaps based on individual data, more than half of the cross-sectional variation of the sample can be accounted for by the degree of exposure to international competition, as well as by the size of the public sector labor force and its composition (i.e., the intensity in the provision of pure public goods), while labor market institutions play a very limited role. Second, we find that in some countries, pay gaps have narrowed down significantly during the recent financial crisis, this decrease being explained by the widespread process of fiscal consolidation rather than by changes in the previous factors. Third, we show that in the log run, openness to international trade and improvements in the institutional quality of governments are associated with decreases in the public-private wage gap. Our findings can be rationalized by a body of research stressing noncompetitive wage settlements in the public sector.
    Keywords: J31 ; J45 ; H50 ; ddc:330 ; Public sector pay gap ; Government monopolistic power ; Wage-setting institutions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.
    Keywords: C23 ; I26 ; J24 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Minimum wage ; Training ; Difference-in-differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: In this paper, I use a unique dataset linking administrative school data with birth records to quantify the importance of time-varying family factors for child achievement and time use. Specifically, I take a model of academic achievement commonly used in the test score literature, and I augment it to include a family-year effect. Identification comes from the large number of sibling pairs observed in the same year. While prior literature has focused on specific shocks, such as job loss, I capture the full set of innovations that are shared across siblings in a given year. The distributions of fixed effects reveal that annual family innovations, relative to what was expected based on the previous year, are more important than teacher assignment for student achievement and also play a substantial role in the time students spend on homework, free reading, and television.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; Educational achievement ; Time use ; Family inputs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: This paper proposes a new measure of skill mismatch to be applied to the recent OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The measure is derived from a formal theory and combines information about skill proficiency, self-reported mismatch and skill use. The theoretical foundations underling this measure allow identifying minimum and maximum skill requirements for each occupation and to classify workers into three groups: the well-matched, the under-skilled and the over-skilled. The availability of skill use data further permits the computation of the degree of under- and over-usage of skills in the economy. The empirical analysis is carried out using the first round of the PIAAC data, allowing comparisons across skill domains, labour market statuses and countries.
    Keywords: J0 ; J20 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Mismatch ; Skills
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: While destination-country education provides many potential advantages for immigrants, empirical studies in Australia, Canada and the USA have produced mixed results on the labour outcomes of immigrants who are former international students. This study uses large national longitudinal datasets to examine cross-cohort trends and within-cohort changes in earnings among three groups of young university graduates: immigrants who are former international students in Canada (Canadian-educated immigrants), foreign-educated immigrants who had a university degree before immigrating to Canada and the Canadian-born population. The results show that Canadian-educated immigrants on average had much lower earnings than the Canadian-born population but higher earnings than foreign-educated immigrants both in the short run and in the long run. However, Canadian-educated immigrants are a highly heterogeneous group, and the key factor differentiating their post-immigration earnings from the earnings of the Canadian-born population and foreign-educated immigrants is whether they held a well-paid job in Canada before becoming permanent residents. Furthermore, an extra year of Canadian work experience or an extra year of Canadian education experience before immigration added only a small or no earnings gain after immigration for Canadian-educated immigrants.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; International students ; Immigration ; Canadian education ; Earnings
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: The recent emergence and expansion of non-contributory pension programmes across low- and middle-income countries responds and contributes to a larger attention towards the population of elderly individuals in developing countries. These programmes are intended to reduce poverty in old age by providing monetary transfers in mean-tested schemes. However, little is known about the most salient characteristics of this population, particularly health outcomes and their relationship with socioeconomic demographics. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence about this relationship in the specific case of cognitive functioning. We exploit the baseline sample of the Peru's non-contributory pension programme Pension 65 and find significant relationships between cognitive functioning and retirement, education, nutrition, ethnicity and sex.
    Keywords: J14 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Cognitive functioning ; Old-age poverty ; Peru
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This paper explores the impact of Spanish language proficiency on immigrant earnings in Spain using an instrumental variable quantile regression approach. The impact is on average roughly 17.2% but varies substantially across the earning distribution. The return to destination language proficiency actually ranges from zero at the bottom quantiles to 30% at the top quantile of the earning distribution. These findings suggest that the benefits derived from host language knowledge are particularly important among individuals with stronger unobserved abilities and marketable skills and that language training policies targeted at specific immigrant population categories may be ineffective from a labor market earning perspective.
    Keywords: F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Spanish language proficiency ; Earnings ; Instrumental variable quantile regression (IVQR)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This paper focuses on gender differences in job mobility and earnings for workers in Brazil. Monopsony theory suggests a link between the wage elasticity of labor supply and wage penalties. Should one group of workers be less elastic in their supply choices, that group is predicted to earn less than others. To measure wage elasticity, I estimate a hazard model on voluntary job separations using the RAIS, a linked employer-employee dataset that captures formal-sector workers' job durations over time. Four models are specified and point to significant gender differences. Across the models, male elasticity ranges from 1.638 to 2.175 while female elasticity ranges from 1.22 to 1.502. The female wage penalty predicted by these elasticity differences ranges from 11.4 to 20.5%, compared to an actual gender wage difference of 16.4%. Results of higher male elasticity are robust to the use of a more parsimonious specification, a discrete-time approach, the use of job spell data for a single year, and disaggregation by region. I extend the model through decomposition methods to help clarify the association between earnings, job separations, and elasticity.
    Keywords: J31 ; J42 ; J64 ; C12 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Gender wage gap ; Labor supply ; Monopsony ; Separation elasticity ; Brazil
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  • 59
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This study investigates intergenerational earnings mobility in Korea for sons born between 1958 and 1973 and compares Korea's mobility to that of other nations. It uses data from the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study and the Household Income and Expenditure Survey conducted by the Korean National Statistics Bureau. Since no single Korean dataset includes information on both sons' and their fathers' adult earnings, this study follows the two-sample approach previously applied in Korea by Ueda (J Asian Econ 1-22, 2013), whose estimated intergenerational earnings elasticity is 0.22, and extends the analysis by using fathers' earnings from a more approximal cohort. The estimate of around 0.4 is similar to estimates for some already developed countries and smaller than typical estimates for recently developing countries.
    Keywords: J6 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational earnings mobility ; Generated regressor ; Two-sample estimation
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  • 60
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-11-12
    Description: Über das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen wird schon seit langem diskutiert. Zwar gibt es Modellversuche, aber in einer gesamten Volkswirtschaft wurde es bisher noch nicht eingeführt. Interessant ist, wie sich dieses Konzept auf die wichtigen gesamtwirtschaftlichen Faktoren wie den Lohn, den Arbeits- und Kapitaleinsatz, die Produktivität, die Inflation, das Wachstum und die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Landes auswirkt. Der Autor stellt Überlegungen zu den möglichen Zusammenhängen und Wirkungen an. Er kommt aber angesichts der Unsicherheiten und Gefahren zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Einführung eines bedingungslosen Grundeinkommens ein großes ökonomisches Wagnis wäre.
    Description: The introduction of an unconditional universal basic income would change the entire system of income distribution and have far-reaching implications for aggregate labour supply, labour demand and wages. Changes in the labour market would subsequently lead to adjustments in the markets for goods and services, as well as in capital markets. This would impact productivity, prices, income distribution, international competitiveness and economic growth. Furthermore, financing such a policy would affect public finances. This article outlines possible macroeconomic consequences of a universal basic income.