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  • 1
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 2
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    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 4
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    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: Eine moderne öffentliche Infrastruktur ist die Grundlage einer leistungsfähigen Volkswirtschaft. Immer wieder ist in diesem Kontext von einer öffentlichen Investitionsschwäche die Rede. Mitunter wird angesichts negativer Nettoinvestitionen oder eines stagnierenden öffentlichen Nettoanlagevermögens sogar attestiert, Deutschland verzehre seinen staatlichen Kapitalstock. Zur Beurteilung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Produktionswirkung sind jedoch das Nettoanlagevermögen und die Nettoinvestitionen keine geeigneten Indikatoren. Auf Basis des Bruttoanlagevermögens kann das pauschale Urteil, Deutschland verzehre seinen staatlichen Kapitalstock, verworfen werden.
    Keywords: E22 ; E62 ; H54 ; ddc:330
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  • 10
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    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 11
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 12
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 13
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 14
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 15
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 16
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 17
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 20
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: Die Digitalisierung, die Energiewende und der Aufstieg Chinas zu einem wichtigen Konkurrenten stellen die Wirtschaftspolitik vor große Herausforderungen. Die Politik reagiert darauf mit Überlegungen, europäische Champions zu schaffen oder lenkend in die Wirtschaft einzugreifen. Eine horizontale Industriepolitik ohne spezifische Förderung einzelner Branchen halten viele Ökonomen für richtig. Direkte Interventionen können allerdings nicht nur in eine technologische Sackgasse führen, sondern auch dem Wettbewerb schaden. Aber sie sind in einer Wirtschaft, die von Netzwerkeffekten und Pfadabhängigkeiten dominiert wird, vor allem deshalb unabdingbar, weil Investitionen mit großer Unsicherheit über die Zukunft und hohen Risiken verbunden sind. Industriepolitik sollte letztlich das Ziel, mehr Wohlfahrt und Nachhaltigkeit für die gesamte Gesellschaft zu erreichen, in den Vordergrund stellen.
    Keywords: L50 ; O32 ; O40 ; Q55 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: Auf der UN-Klimakonferenz in Paris 2015 wurde beschloßsen, in der zweiten Hälfte des 21. Jahrhunderts das Stadium der Klimaneutralität zu erreichen. Dies ist aber nur dann möglich, wenn Maßnahmen für den Klimaschutz nicht auf einzelne Länder konzentriert bleiben. Um die nationale Ebene zu verlassen und sicherzustellen, dass die Emission von Treibhausgasen global reduziert wird, bietet sich der Emissionshandel als ein effizientes Instrument an. Allerdings müsste der CO2-Preis global vereinheitlicht werden, damit es nicht zu Wettbewerbsverzerrungen und die Verlagerung von CO2-Emissionen (Carbon Leakage) kommt. In diesem Zusammenhang wird die Einführung von CO2-Steuern gefordert. Deutschland wird seine klimapolitischen Ziele für 2020 verfehlen. Wenn es für die folgenden Jahrzehnte gelingen soll, die erforderlichen deutlichen Rückgänge bei den Treibhausgasemissionen zu erreichen, muss es hier zu einem politischen und gesellschaftliche Umdenken kommen. Wie hoch die Anforderungen sind, zeigt ein Vergleich zwischen den in der Vergangenheit erreichten und den zukünftig notwendigen Anstrengungen.
    Keywords: C63 ; C93 ; J22 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Erhebliche regionale Disparitäten werden in Deutschland von einer Abwanderung aus strukturschwachen Regionen begleitet. Theoretische Modelle liefern keine eindeutigen Aussagen über die Effekte der Wanderung. Empirische Befunde zeigen dagegen, dass die Mobilität zu einem Abbau der Unterschiede beitragen kann. Selektive Wanderungen können Disparitäten allerdings auch vertiefen. Die Persistenz der regionalen Unterschiede in Deutschland und mögliche negative Effekte einer Abwanderung hochqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte aus strukturschwachen Regionen sprechen für eine effektive regionalpolitische Unterstützung dieser Regionen. Zudem sollte eine Koordinierung der regionalpolitischen Förderung mit arbeitsmarktpolitischen Maßnahmen erfolgen.
    Description: The author observes significant regional disparities in labour market conditions in Germany accompanied by heavy outward migration from lagging regions. While theoretical models provide no clear cut implications for the effects of migration on regional disparities, empirical analysis indicates that migration tends to reduce disparities. Selective migration might, however, counteract the reduction of regional differences in labour market conditions. The persistence of regional disparities and the possibility of cumulative processes caused by outward migration of highly skilled workers from lagging regions make a case for an effective regional policy and coordination with labour market policy.
    Keywords: J61 ; R12 ; R23 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Daseinsvorsorge gilt in Deutschland als eine wesentliche Grundlage für gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse an jedem Ort. Der Blick auf die demografische Situation und die Gestaltbarkeit der Daseinsvorsorge in den Regionen zeigt jedoch Vielfalt, Uneindeutigkeit und Unübersichtlichkeit. Sicher scheint hingegen die besondere Verantwortung der Kommunen.
    Description: In Germany, services of general interest are regarded as an essential basis for equal living conditions everywhere. However, a look at the demographic situation and the design of services of general interest in the regions reveals diversity, ambiguity and confusion. What they all have in common, however, is the special responsibility of the municipalities.
    Keywords: R10 ; J60 ; J11 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Die Infrastrukturinvestitionen nehmen seit Jahren ab. Insbesondere die Gemeinden haben drastisch weniger investiert, nicht wegen eines geringeren Bedarfs, sondern wegen erheblicher Finanzprobleme in der Vergangenheit. Über den langen Zeitraum sind auch Planungs- und Genehmigungskapazitäten verloren gegangen. Entscheidend dafür, dass die Kommunen ihre Investitionstätigkeit wieder aufnehmen können, ist die Schaffung stabiler finanzieller Rahmenbedingungen. Ein Ansatzpunkt, die Finanzierungsspielräume für kommunale Investitionen nachhaltig zu verbessern, besteht im Rahmen einer Weiterentwicklung bestehender oder der Schaffung einer neuen Bund-Länder-Gemeinschaftsaufgabe.
    Description: Infrastructure investments have been declining in Germany for years. Not only are municipalities investing drastically less, planning and approval capacities are also being lost. Before municipalities can resume their investment activities, stable financial conditions must be created. This issue can be resolved through either enhancing existing partnerships between federal, state, and local governments or by establishing new joint task forces focused specifically on municipal investments.
    Keywords: R58 ; H54 ; H76 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Maßnahmen zugunsten von Regionen mit Entwicklungsrückstand sind oft nur dann erfolgreich, wenn eine Region bereits mit einigen notwendigen "Zutaten" für Wachstum ausgestattet ist - Geschichte zählt! Es wäre sinnvoller, ärmere Regionen und Kommunen in die Lage zu versetzen, eigene Strategien für den Aufholprozess zu entwickeln und umzusetzen, als dies zentral zu verordnen. Verschiedene Maßnahmen zur Unterstützung solcher dezentralen Prozesse werden aufgezeigt.
    Description: Although there are good reasons to support metropolitan areas with strong economies, this article focuses on measures that favour regions that lag behind. After a short description of a wide range of regional policy measures in Germany, the article focuses on traditional assistance to poorer regions. These measures are often only successful if a region is already equipped with some necessary "ingredients" for growth. It may be better to enable the poorer regions and local units to develop and implement their own strategies for catching up. The decentralization processes is discussed.
    Keywords: R11 ; R50 ; R58 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Das Ruhrgebiet ist seit den 1980er Jahren Zielregion regionaler Fördermaßnahmen von Land, Bund und EU. Bis heute hat die Regionalpolitik allerdings keine Trendwende bewirkt. Die multizentrische Region nahm nicht am Aufschwung der urbanen Räume seit der Jahrtausendwende teil; sie verlor Einwohner und fällt in der Wirtschaftskraft hinter den anderen großen Agglomerationen des Landes zurück. Mit 16 % industriellem Wertschöpfungsanteil liegt die ehemals führende Industrieregion erheblich unter dem deutschen Durchschnitt, ohne dass sich moderne Dienstleistungen bisher zu einem alternativen Wachstumstreiber entwickelt hätten.
    Description: The Ruhr Area is Germany's biggest agglomeration with more than five million inhabitants. Its ongoing structural problems with high unemployment and sluggish growth are therefore not only a burden on the state of North Rhine Westphalia, but for the country as a whole. The multicentre region did not participate in the boom of German urban regions, which started in 2000; instead it has continued to lose inhabitants until the immigration surge in 2015. The region's economy is not as strong as the German average, which holds also for its value added in manufacturing, despite being the former industrial powerhouse of Germany. While the Ruhr Area was still prosperous in the 1960s after the first coal mining crisis (and therefore was not entitled to regional subsidies), it became a target region for federal support in the 1980s. But even 30 years later, regional policy wasn't able to bring about more dynamic change.
    Keywords: R11 ; O18 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Die räumlichen Ungleichheiten in Deutschland und ihre politischen Auswirkungen haben die öffentliche Aufmerksamkeit wieder verstärkt auf die Gleichwertigkeit der Lebensverhältnisse gelenkt. Nachdem in den letzten Jahrzehnten der 'Aufbau Ost' ein zentraler Schwerpunkt war, öffnet sich nunmehr eine gesamtdeutsche Diskussion, die auch die Abkoppelung finanzschwacher Städte in Westdeutschland einschließt. Damit gewinnt die fiskalische Seite der Gleichwertigkeit an Bedeutung.
    Description: The spatial inequalities in Germany have once again drawn public attention to the equivalence of living conditions. While the 'reconstruction of the East' has been a central focus over the last few decades, a Germany-wide discussion is now evolving that also includes the decoupling of financially weak cities in West Germany. This means that the fiscal side of equivalence is gaining in importance. In addition to state aid for heavily indebted municipalities, the mix of tools used to address problems should also include financial relief in the social sector.
    Keywords: R51 ; R11 ; H63 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Regionalpolitik wurde lange Zeit wenig beachtet. Zurzeit weisen ihr jedoch viele eine hohe Bedeutung zu, weil regionale wirtschaftliche Unterschiede für gesellschaftliche Probleme verantwortlich gemacht werden. Daher hat die Bundesregierung im Herbst 2018 die Kommission "Gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse" einberufen. Die genauere Betrachtung der Regionalpolitik erweist sich als vielschichtig, wobei die Forderung nach der Regionalisierung der Regionalpolitik verbindend bleibt. Zentral ist die Ertüchtigung der Kommunalfinanzen.
    Description: For a long time regional policy has received little attention. At present, however, this has changed because regional economic differences are blamed for societal problems. For this reason, the Federal Government convened a joint political and expert commission, "Equivalent Living Conditions" in autumn 2018. A closer look at the multi-layered regional policy proves to be a disappointing historical experience in Germany. The traditional demand for regional policy remains binding. Upgrading municipal finances is central to the discussion.
    Keywords: H70 ; R11 ; R50 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: In Deutschland bestehen regional große Unterschiede. Neben dem Ost-West-Gefälle ist auch ein Nord-Süd-Gefälle zu beobachten. Das Grundgesetz fordert von der Politik, gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse herzustellen. Im Koalitionsvertrag für die 19. Legislaturperiode wird dieses Ziel sowie die Entwicklung eines gesamtdeutschen Fördersystems für strukturschwache Regionen explizit aufgenommen. Für die Erreichung dieses Zieles kommt der Bund-Länder-Gemeinschaftsaufgabe 'Verbesserung der regionalen Wirtschaftsstruktur' im Rahmen einer regelgebundenen Regionalpolitik eine zentrale Rolle zu.
    Description: There are large regional differences in Germany. In addition to the west-east gradient, a north-south gradient can also be observed. The German basic law (Grundgesetz) requires politicians to create equal living conditions. The coalition agreement for the 19th legislative period explicitly includes this goal as well as the development of a Germany-wide support system for structurally weak regions. In order to achieve these goals, the joint Federal (Länder) task of 'improving the regional economic structure' within the framework of a rule-based regional policy is of central importance.
    Keywords: R11 ; R12 ; H77 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Städte und Regionen entwickeln sich zurzeit ungleich und erzeugen gesellschaftlich und politisch Aufmerksamkeit. Die Sorge vor einem weiteren Aufreißen der Lücken zwischen Stadt und Land und zwischen Gewinner- und Verliererregionen des Strukturwandels sitzt tief und damit auch die Sorge vor sozialen und politischen Verwerfungen. Wie lässt sich die Entwicklung von Städten und Regionen erklären? Was sind zentrale Treiber der Regionalentwicklung? Was soll und was kann Regionalpolitik leisten?
    Description: The uneven development of cities and regions has moved to the forefront of the public and political debate not only in Germany, but many countries as well. Of great concern is possibility that the gaps between large and small cities and between winning and losing regions of structural change are widening and that this may result in negative political and social consequences. Against this backdrop, three issues are addressed in this paper: How can the evolution of cities and regions be explained? What are central drivers of this development? What are the roles and scope of regional policies?
    Keywords: R1 ; R5 ; J2 ; H2 ; ddc:330
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Innerhalb Deutschlands sind regionale Unterschiede vorhanden. Wann diese jedoch so gravierend sind, dass politischer Handlungsbedarf besteht, ist wissenschaftlich umstritten. Zwei Bereiche sind dabei zu unterscheiden, zum einen die regionalen Disparitäten im Bereich der öffentlichen Daseinsvorsorge und zum anderen die aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht. Es zeigt sich, dass die öffentlichen Daseinsvorsorgeleistungen relativ ausgewogen sind, die unterschiedliche regionale Wirtschaftskraft jedoch durchaus ein Problem in Deutschland darstellt.
    Description: Living conditions differ between Germany's regions. However, while the supply of public goods is more or less equal across the regions, differences in economic features are far more pronounced (e.g., in productivity and unemployment rates). One objective of German economic policy is the reduction of these disparities. This article shows that economic differences between regions are mostly the result of differing locational conditions (such as infrastructure, population density) and of historical path dependencies. This leads to the conclusion that regional policy cannot reduce these disparities, at least, not in the short run.
    Keywords: R12 ; R38 ; R58 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Die Gewährleistung gleichwertiger Lebensverhältnisse in den Teilräumen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist neben einer nachhaltigen Raumentwicklung die zentrale Leitvorstellung der Raumordnung. Durch die im September 2018 von der Bundesregierung eingesetzte Kommission 'Gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse' ist das Thema wieder aktuell. Zu diskutieren ist, welche Rolle der Raumordnung mit ihrem Instrumentarium zukommt und welchen Beitrag die Regionalpolitik leisten kann.
    Description: Ensuring equivalent living conditions across all (sub)regions of Germany is, in addition to sustainable spatial development, the central guiding principle of spatial planning. This article discusses the role of spatial planning with its regulatory instruments in relation to regional economic policy and argues for a differentiated description of the challenges in the (sub)regions. Above all, this means a stronger focus on outcomes (e. g. healthy living) than on inputs (e. g. the total number of doctors or hospitals).
    Keywords: C43 ; I18 ; O18 ; R58 ; ddc:330
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  • 36
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 38
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 39
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Die Installation von Manipulationssoftware in Diesel-Pkw von Volkswagen führt zu unterschiedlichen Konsequenzen in den USA und in Deutschland. Die deutschen Käufer werden weniger oder gar nicht entschädigt, weil weder die staatliche Regulierung noch die privatrechtliche Haftung wirksam gegriffen hat. Jetzt besteht die Gefahr der Verjährung ihrer Ansprüche zum Jahresende. Die von der Großen Koalition in Aussicht gestellte Musterfeststellungsklage könnte jedoch noch rechtzeitig Abhilfe schaffen.
    Description: The Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal is a case of market failure, because the harm from vehicle emissions to public health and to the environment was not internalised. This market failure has not been corrected by public regulation, nor by civil liability. There is also a regulatory failure, because the oversight of NOx emissions by the German automobile regulatory agency (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt) was overly lenient. There is also a corporate governance failure within Volkswagen which made the fraud of installing manipulative software possible. And fi nally, there is dysfunctional law in Germany, which does not allow for class actions or similar types of lawsuits. The new government has announced the introduction of a new procedure (Musterfeststellungsklage) which would avoid this outcome.
    Keywords: K13 ; L62 ; Q53 ; ddc:330
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    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Das Urteil des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts Leipzig von Ende Februar 2018 erlaubt Diesel- Fahrverbote. Damit hat sich die Aufmerksamkeit der Öffentlichkeit auf die Luftverschmutzung in Städten gerichtet. Die Durchsetzung eines Fahrverbots ist mit vielen Problemen behaftet. Nun werden Alternativen gesucht. Vorgeschlagen wurden ein Nulltarif im öffentlichen Nahverkehr oder eine City-Maut - auch dies problematische Instrumente. Langfristig gibt es viele Optionen für intelligente und moderne Mobilitätskonzepte, die verschiedene Technologien und Organisationsformen nutzen. Das Ziel ist aber grundsätzlicher, Verkehr zu vermeiden, zu verlagern und verträglicher abzuwickeln. Dabei muss stets auf die Wechselwirkung verschiedener Maßnahmen geachtet und die Finanzierung nicht vergessen werden.
    Description: The recent ruling of the federal administrative court legally paves the way for driving bans in German cities where air quality limit values are substantially exceeded. Rather than making use of bans however, local authorities can benefi t from this window of opportunity by implementing measures that make public transport more attractive. The legal framework in the European Union requires a redesign of the transportation system that will consider all types of emissions in reduction concepts. Future transportation services will combine new technologies with sustainable business and organizational models. In order to reduce congestion and air pollution from private car traffic, the focus is increasingly shifting to the potential of shared transport as a feeder service for public transit. Based on modern information and communication services technology (ICT), the potential of (shared) transport services is gaining importance worldwide. As early as 2012, Helsinki started the 'Kutsuplus' pilot project, the fi rst fully automated, bus-on-demand service in the world to offer virtual stops and fl exible traffi c routes. In the future, public transport will need to be more dynamic to accommodate more passengers. Because financing will be problematic, demands for free public transport are not feasible.
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    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Im Datenkapitalismus sind neue Kommunikationsunternehmen entstanden, deren Angebot als 'umsonst' erscheint. Ihr Geschäftsmodell basiert darauf, dass die Nutzer (Kunden) ihre Daten preisgeben und dafür entweder ein nachgefragtes Gut (Kommunikation, Medien, Waren und Dienstleistungen) ohne oder für geringere monetäre Zahlungen erhalten. Wie die Unternehmen die Daten verwenden, wissen die Nutzer in der Regel nicht, auch der pekuniäre Wert ihrer Daten lässt sich nicht einfach ermitteln. Ganz wichtig sind also mehr Transparenz und Kontrolle. Die neue Datenschutz-Grundverordnung macht zwar Datenportabilität möglich und unterstützt damit den Wettbewerb innerhalb der EU, sie lässt sich aber in der Praxis schwer wirksam umsetzen.
    Description: Companies aggregate, process and monetise data about consumers by leveraging actively shared information as well as the data they glean from tracking offl ine transactions. Data-driven business models come in two forms: Firms either use the personal data of users to tailor their own offerings to them, or they sell the data to others who use it for their own ends. These models have different implications for the protection of consumers. While they are typically reasonably well-informed about the data they transmit to a particular firm, they have less control about whom their data is sold on to. Consumers are regularly confronted with a lot of privacy-relevant information and choices, but they struggle to make decisions that are in line with their stated privacy preferences. Therefore, regulation should address privacy design concepts that actually foster control. The right to data portability is one of the fundamentally new elements of the General Data Protection Regulation. However, its economic implications are potentially very complex and, under certain circumstances, data portability may not even be in the interest of consumers. Nevertheless, the strengthening of consumer rights may likewise support competition. The monetary value of data is difficult to calculate. But if consumers are interested in a fair profit share of personal data markets, policy makers may disregard their claims. One article highlights the transformation in the academic publishing industry (STM) from a traditional focus on publishing services to a new emphasis on data analytics by reconstructing and illustrating the mechanisms of data capitalism. It offers an explanation for the growing profitability and concentration of the STM industry despite the growing open science movement.
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    Description: In Deutschland hat seit dem Jahr 2000 eine spürbare Konvergenz zwischen städtischen und ländlichen Regionen stattgefunden. Dieser Befund überrascht, da zuletzt vermeintlich abgehängte Regionen und scheinbar wachsende räumliche Disparitäten die öffentliche Diskussion bestimmten. Entgegen der verbreiteten Wahrnehmung wurde die räumliche Konzentration der Bevölkerung durch die Wanderung in die Städte bislang aber nicht von einer vergleichbaren Zentralisierung der Wirtschaftsaktivität begleitet. Der ländliche Raum konnte seinen Anteil am deutschen Bruttoinlandsprodukt vielmehr konstant halten, sodass sein Rückstand je Einwohner gegenüber den Wirtschaftszentren schrumpft. Die an sich erfreuliche Konvergenz begünstigt jedoch nicht alle ländlichen Regionen gleichermaßen - und die demografi sche Entwicklung spricht auch gegen eine langfristige Stärkung ländlicher Regionen.
    Description: Since 2000, there has been a convergence between urban and rural regions in Germany measured by GDP per capita. This is somewhat surprising, as the fate of 'left behind' areas and an ostensibly widening gap between rich and poor regions are dominating the public discourse. But contrary to public perception, the continuing migration of the German population into urban regions is not accompanied by a similar clustering of economic activities. Instead, rural regions hold their ground in terms of their share of total value added in Germany. As a result, GDP per capita is rising faster in rural regions, driving convergence. But this positive development doesn't apply to all rural regions - and the negative demographics in comparison to urban areas will become a growing burden.
    Keywords: R11 ; O18 ; ddc:330
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    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: The European Commission recently proposed a Roadmap for deepening EMU. Establishing a European Monetary Fund (EMF) and support mechanisms for structural reforms are reasonable suggestions. However, the integration of the EMF in the Union's framework must not endanger the conditionality principle. Moreover, creating a sizeable stabilisation function within the EU budget poses technical problems and would set questionable priorities. Furthermore, a European Finance Minister is simply not needed with the proposed design.
    Description: Die EU-Kommission hat am Nikolaustag 2017 ihre Vorschläge zur Weiterentwicklung der Europäischen Währungsunion vorgelegt. Sie baut dabei auf dem Fünf-Präsidentenbericht von Mitte 2016 und ihrem eigenen Refl exionspapier vom Frühjahr 2017 auf. Die Vorschläge umfassen im Wesentlichen die Schaffung eines Europäisch en Finanzministers, mehrerer Budgetlinien für die Zwecke der Europäischen Währungsunion im EU-Haushalt und eines Europäischen Währungsfonds. Die erkennbare Eile ist dem Drängen des französischen Präsidenten geschuldet, die europäische Integration voranzubringen. Tatsächlich schließt sich das politische Gestaltungsfenster angesichts der Europawahl 2019 schon bald. Doch die Vorschläge der EU- Kommission sind überwiegend kritisch zu beurteilen.
    Keywords: O52 ; H6 ; F34 ; ddc:330
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    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: In den Tarifverhandlungen der Metall- und Elektroindustrie forderte die Arbeitgeberseite eine Ausweitung der Tageshöchstarbeitszeit und die Arbeitnehmerseite eine flexible Arbeitszeitverkürzung mit partiellem Lohnausglei ch. Allerdings deuten die Arbeitsmarktdaten darauf hin, dass eine Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeiten in den letzten Jahren bereits stattgefunden hat und weitere Schritte hier nicht dringend geboten sind. Mögliche Ansatzpunkte wären jedoch eine Weiterentwicklung der Regelungen zu Arbeitszeitkonten und zur Heimarbeit.
    Description: In Germany, the employer's association is interested in abolishing the legal maximum of working hours per day. The unions want to i mprove work life balance through a temporary working time reduction combined with a partial wage adjustment. Analysis shows that the current requests are not so urgent. In both cases, one party opposes the requests of the other. A process of give and take is n ecessary from both employees and employers. We suggest an extension of working time with flexible arrangements and in combination with more home office possibilities. If one party requires other working time arrangements, this should be compensated by wage equivalents.
    Keywords: J22 ; J41 ; J52 ; ddc:330
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